Article

History and Future of Starch

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Abstract

The practical use of starch products, and of starch itself, developed when Egyptians, in the predynastic period, cemented strips of papyrus together with starch adhesive made from wheat. Starchy foods are derived from seeds, roots, and tubers. Cato gave a procedure for starch production in some detail in a Roman treatise. In the Middle Ages the manufacture of wheat starch became an important industry in Holland, and Dutch starch was considered to be of high quality. An early form of starch modification practiced in this period involved the starch being slightly hydrolyzed by vinegar. The nineteenth century witnessed an enormous expansion of the starch industry, due largely to demands of the textile, color printing, and paper industries, and to the discovery that starch can be readily converted into a gum-like product known as dextrin. In 1900, the United Starch Company and the National Starch Manufacturing Company joined forces to form the National Starch Company of New Jersey. Starch in its native form is a versatile product, and the raw material for production of many modifications, sweeteners, and ethanol. Starting in the 1930s, carbohydrate chemists have developed numerous products that have greatly expanded starch use and utility. Waxy corn starch, high-amylose corn starch, chemically modified starches, and naturally modified corn starches have been discussed in this chapter with other products derived out of starch such as sweeteners, ethanol, polyols, organic acids, and amino acids. Banana starch and Amaranth starch are the two new starches for the industry.

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... Cereal grains are among the most important of the foods we grow. A large proportion of cereal grains is milled and marketed as flour: this is then used to produce bread, cakes, biscuits and many other commodities (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties such as amylose, water uptake, amylopectin, viscosity; will have an effect on its end use properties (e.g. ...
... Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties such as amylose, water uptake, amylopectin, viscosity; will have an effect on its end use properties (e.g. bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
... bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
Chapter
Cereal grains are the basis for our most important foods; a large proportion of cultivated grains are milled and marketed as flour in order to produce breads, cakes, biscuits, and many other commodities. Both near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis (MVA) have been extensively used to measure chemical composition (eg, protein, moisture, and oil) in a wide number of grains including cereals and oilseeds, however, few reports can be found on the use of these methods and techniques for varietal discrimination and traceability. In this chapter an overview on applications of both NIR and MIR spectroscopy combined with MVA methods such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and linear discriminant analysis to aid the authentication and traceability of cereals are presented and discussed.
... Cereal grains are among the most important of the foods we grow. A large proportion of cereal grains is milled and marketed as flour: this is then used to produce bread, cakes, biscuits and many other commodities (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties such as amylose, water uptake, amylopectin, viscosity; will have an effect on its end use properties (e.g. ...
... Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties such as amylose, water uptake, amylopectin, viscosity; will have an effect on its end use properties (e.g. bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
... bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Xie et al., 2005). The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
Article
Although both near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis (MVA) have been extensively used to measure chemical composition (e.g. protein, moisture, oil) in a wide number of grains few reports can be found on the use of this methods for varietal discrimination and traceability of cereals. In this overview applications of NIR spectroscopy and MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to aid on the authentication and traceability of cereals are discussed.
... Long chains of amylose as well as linear longer sections of amylopectin constitute the amorphous regions of the polymer. Branch-chains of amylopectin form inter-chain double helices, which further crystallize into superhelical crystalline lamellae [3,4]. Amorphous and crystalline segments are distinctively arranged in concentric circles in starch granules, termed as growth rings [4]. ...
... Such distinctive lamellar arrangements have been termed as the starch polymorphs [5]. Polymorphisms in native starches have been categorized to A, B and C (A + B) types [2,3]. Rice starch has an A-type polymorphism with major XRD peaks positioned at 2θ values near 15, 17, 18 and 23 [3]. ...
... Polymorphisms in native starches have been categorized to A, B and C (A + B) types [2,3]. Rice starch has an A-type polymorphism with major XRD peaks positioned at 2θ values near 15, 17, 18 and 23 [3]. ...
... The world-wide market for industrial starches is expanding and current demand is met by limited range of crops, the most important of which are potato, maize, wheat and tapioca. Availability of novel processing techniques and current demand for biodegradable and renewable resources undoubtedly make starch to command more versatile markets (Ellis et al., 1998;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). Approximately, 60 million tons of starch is extracted annually worldwide from various cereal, tuber and root crops, of which roughly 60% is used in foods and 40% in pharmaceuticals and for non-edible purposes (Copeland et al., 2009). ...
... The chemical composition and the physical characteristics are essentially typical to the biological origin of the starch, i.e. they are unique to each type of starch. Therefore, what has been discovered about the structural features of one type of starch does not necessarily apply to other types of starch (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). ...
... The knowledge of the internal organization helps the to understand the functionalities and the transformation behavior of starch, and improve the properties and stability of starch products (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). In addition to fine structure, amylose and amylopectin differ in many respects as shown in Table 1.1 below (Senanayake, 1995). ...
... Industrial products in the United States that utilize starch have grown from 13 million metric tons (MMT) in 1975 to over 160 MMT today (USDA, 2010). Starch is inexpensive, widely available, and one of the most abundant biomass products in nature (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Whistler, 1984). It is produced in many different plant organs including roots, leaves, seeds, and stems. ...
... A considerable volume of literature has been published on the properties and chemistry of starches from various sources (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009;Whistler, Bemiller, & Paschall, 1984). Starch is the principal carbohydrate for energy storage in plants and one of the most abundant plant polymers (Whistler, 1984). ...
... Starch can be easily extracted from a variety of starch-rich crops and dried to form a white powder. Its commercial production dates back to the middle ages and has advanced to become the efficient global industry it is today (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
Article
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Paper constitutes the most important material in the United States for packaging and containers largely because of its low cost and wide availability (WPO, 2008). It is also perceived as a sustainable material because it is derived from plants and is recycled at a very high percentage (62%) (EPA, 2010). Plastic ranks as the second most used packaging material in the United States. Plastics can provide transparency, greater moisture protection, and various mechanical properties that are superior to paper packaging. Consequently, some types of plastic packaging continue to grow faster than other packaging materials (WPO, 2008). In contrast to paper, only 7% of plastic generated as waste is recycled. This explains why more plastics ultimately end up in landfills than paper or any other packaging material (EPA, 2010). Plastic processors worldwide are becoming increasingly aware that environmentally sustainable packaging has become mainstream. It can no longer be considered only a niche market that can be ignored or given token attention. Informed consumers are demanding sustainable packaging; state and local governments are mandating it; and now, even the largest retailers are building it into the foundation of their marketing strategies (Deligio, 2009; Wood, 2010).
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet [1][2][3][4]. Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties are related with the amount and ratio of amylose and amylopectin, that influence and affect properties such as viscosity, gelatinization, that will determine its end use properties (e.g., bread, malt, beer, polymers) [1,[4][5][6][7]. ...
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provides the main source of energy in the human diet [1][2][3][4]. Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties are related with the amount and ratio of amylose and amylopectin, that influence and affect properties such as viscosity, gelatinization, that will determine its end use properties (e.g., bread, malt, beer, polymers) [1,[4][5][6][7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Starch is the major component of cereal grains and starchy foods, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties (e.g., amylose, amylopectin, pasting, gelatinization, viscosity) will have a direct effect on its end use properties (e.g., bread, malt, polymers). The use of rapid and non-destructive methods to study and monitor starch properties, such as gelatinization, retrogradation, water absorption in cereals and starchy foods, is of great interest in order to improve and assess their quality. In recent years, near infrared reflectance (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy have been explored to predict several quality parameters, such as those generated by instrumental methods commonly used in routine analysis like the rapid visco analyser (RVA) or viscometers. In this review, applications of both NIR and MIR spectroscopy to measure and monitor starch biochemical (amylose, amylopectin, starch) and biophysical properties (e.g., pasting properties) will be presented and discussed.
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops (maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava) provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Evers et al., 1999; Perez and Bertoft, 2010; Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). Starch is the major component in both cereal grains and starchy foods, and changes in its biochemical characteristics related to the proportions and structures of amylose (AMY) and amylopectin (AMP) will influence the viscosity and gelatinization properties of the starch, determining its end use in products such as bread, beer, or biopolymers (Evers et al., 1999; Xie et al., 2005; Schwartz and Whistler, 2009; Keeling and Myers, 2010; Willet, 2009; Garimella-Purna et al., 2015). ...
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops (maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava) provides the main source of energy in the human diet (Evers et al., 1999; Perez and Bertoft, 2010; Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). Starch is the major component in both cereal grains and starchy foods, and changes in its biochemical characteristics related to the proportions and structures of amylose (AMY) and amylopectin (AMP) will influence the viscosity and gelatinization properties of the starch, determining its end use in products such as bread, beer, or biopolymers (Evers et al., 1999; Xie et al., 2005; Schwartz and Whistler, 2009; Keeling and Myers, 2010; Willet, 2009; Garimella-Purna et al., 2015). Overall, research on the pasting properties of a given sample can be used to improve starch content and composition as well as provide useful information for the selection or screening of new genotypes and lines in breeding programs (Bao, 2008; Keeling and Myers, 2010; Concepcion et al., 2015; Garimella-Purna et al., 2015). ...
Article
Methods currently in use to determine the biophysical properties of starch include instrumental techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the rapid visco analyser (RVA). The main application of RVA in the cereal industry has been for the analysis of the effects of rain damage on grain quality (sprouting) at the delivery point. In recent years, this method has been also extended to other fields such as simulate the commercial processing conditions in the brewhouse, to evaluate the effects of pH and temperature on starch gelatinization and to detect major changes in viscosity related to proteolytic and saccharification activity. In the last two decades, the use of RVA has been extended as a tool in breeding and varietal selection in cereals. This article reviews the use of RVA to measure pasting properties in cereals in order to extend the application in breeding and selection.
... Currently, in the literature there are two different theoretical approaches which attempt to clarify why some individuals are more inclined toward an entrepreneurial career when compared to others: the first analyzes personality traits (Zhao and Seibert, 2006;Rauch and Frese, 2007;Leutner et al., 2014;DeNisi, 2015), the second focuses on environmental and behavioral factors (Peterson, 1980;Aldrich, 1990;Baum et al., 2001). Specifically, researchers study the importance of some individual traits as factors predetermining to perform entrepreneurial activities such as high levels of self-efficacy (Krueger et al., 2000;Zhao et al., 2005;Lee et al., 2011;Rasul et al., 2017), risk propensity (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Tumasjan and Braun, 2012;Yurtkoru et al., 2014), tolerance to ambiguity, and uncertainty (Hmieleski and Corbett, 2006;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Arrighetti et al., 2012), metacognitive abilities and individual abilities (Kor et al., 2007;Dickson et al., 2008;Liñán et al., 2011), locus of control (Battistelli, 2001;Gordini, 2013), as well as creativity (Hamidi et al., 2008;Smith et al., 2016;Biraglia and Kadile, 2017); the environmental and behavioral focuses refers to the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986), according to which, individuals learn certain skills from other people, which act as models. Specifically, the term "role model" emphasizes the individual's tendency to identify with other people occupying important social and the consequent cognitive interdependence of skills and behavior patterns (Gibson, 2004). ...
... Currently, in the literature there are two different theoretical approaches which attempt to clarify why some individuals are more inclined toward an entrepreneurial career when compared to others: the first analyzes personality traits (Zhao and Seibert, 2006;Rauch and Frese, 2007;Leutner et al., 2014;DeNisi, 2015), the second focuses on environmental and behavioral factors (Peterson, 1980;Aldrich, 1990;Baum et al., 2001). Specifically, researchers study the importance of some individual traits as factors predetermining to perform entrepreneurial activities such as high levels of self-efficacy (Krueger et al., 2000;Zhao et al., 2005;Lee et al., 2011;Rasul et al., 2017), risk propensity (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Tumasjan and Braun, 2012;Yurtkoru et al., 2014), tolerance to ambiguity, and uncertainty (Hmieleski and Corbett, 2006;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Arrighetti et al., 2012), metacognitive abilities and individual abilities (Kor et al., 2007;Dickson et al., 2008;Liñán et al., 2011), locus of control (Battistelli, 2001;Gordini, 2013), as well as creativity (Hamidi et al., 2008;Smith et al., 2016;Biraglia and Kadile, 2017); the environmental and behavioral focuses refers to the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986), according to which, individuals learn certain skills from other people, which act as models. Specifically, the term "role model" emphasizes the individual's tendency to identify with other people occupying important social and the consequent cognitive interdependence of skills and behavior patterns (Gibson, 2004). ...
Article
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In recent years, research on the family role and entrepreneurship has increased noticeably, consolidating itself as a valid and current subject of study. This paper presents a systematic analysis of academic research, applying bibliometric indicators, and cluster analysis, which define the state of research about the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship. For this purpose, using three well-accepted databases among the research community: Scopus, Web of Science, Business Source, a total of 92 articles were selected and analyzed, published between 1989 and 2019 (until March). A cluster analysis shows five main areas of literature development: (1) cultural dimension and geneder issue; (2) family business and succession; (3) parental role models and entrepreneurial intentions; (4) entrepreneurship and self-employment; (5) family support and women entrepreneurs. Findings also show how this is a relatively recent field of study, with a multidisciplinary character.
... The use of starch developed when Egyptians in the pre-dynastic period cemented strips of papyrus together with starch as adhesive made from wheat. The adhesive was made from fine ground wheat flour boiled with diluted vinegar [6]. A procedure for starch production was described in detail in a Roman treatise by Cato in 184 BC [6]. ...
... The adhesive was made from fine ground wheat flour boiled with diluted vinegar [6]. A procedure for starch production was described in detail in a Roman treatise by Cato in 184 BC [6]. Starch grain is steeped in water for ten days and then pressed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is aimed at extracting and characterizing a tablet excipient from a local source, kaffir potato which is used locally as a source of food because of its high carbohydrate content. Maize starch BP was used as a reference standard. Starch identification tests, were the characteristics evaluated. The result showed that kaffir potato starch has good yield and has similar characteristics with maize starch BP in all parameters evaluated as specified by BP and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Therefore the starch can be used as an alternative to maize starch BP in pharmaceutical formulations especially solid dosage forms.
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provide the main sources of energy in the human diet (Evers et al., 1999;Perez et al., 2009;Bretoft 2010, Schwartz andWhistler, 2009). Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties are related to the amount and ratio of amylose and amylopectin, which influences and affect properties such as viscosity, gelatinization, that will determine its end use properties (such as, bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Evers et al.,1999;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Willett, 2009). ...
... The starch stored in the seeds and tubers of various agricultural crops including maize, wheat, rice, barley, potato and cassava provide the main sources of energy in the human diet (Evers et al., 1999;Perez et al., 2009;Bretoft 2010, Schwartz andWhistler, 2009). Starch is the major component of cereal grains, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties are related to the amount and ratio of amylose and amylopectin, which influences and affect properties such as viscosity, gelatinization, that will determine its end use properties (such as, bread, malt, beer, polymers) (Evers et al.,1999;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Willett, 2009). ...
... Waxy maize on the cob is popular in China and Southeast Asia, and may be found in frozen or precooked forms in Chinatowns. Waxy maize is the most popular corn in China for fresh consumption (Eckhoff & Watson, 2009;Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). Normal maize starch is widely used in the food industry to adjust the viscosity and texture properties of food products. ...
... Normal maize starch occupies an important place in the preparation of pies, puddings, salad dressings and confections. It is incorporated into cakes, cookies, icings and fillings to increase moisture retention, retard crystal growth of other sugars and to improve tenderness and keeping quality (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). Normal maize starch is widely utilized to prepare corn syrups which are applied as sweeteners in the preparation of bakery products, cookies, candies, chewing gums, alcohol beverages, soft drinks, and also as a humectant (Belitz, Grosch, & Schieberle, 2009). ...
... Starch functional properties are determined by factors such as the granule size, chemical composition, amylose and amylopectin content ratios of starch and the pasting properties of potatoes, which vary with the cultivar (Yusuph et al., 2003;Li et al., 2006;Alvani et al., 2010). Guilbot and Mercier (1985) and Schwartz and Whistler (2009) also reported that the granular structure of the starch is essentially determined by genetic factors that govern starch biosynthesis. Furthermore, these starch characteristics are influenced by growing location (Kuar et al., 2007), plant growth stage (Liu et al., 2003) and growing year (Svegmark et al., 2002) among others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Potato starches isolated from 25 different varieties grown at three different locations in the Amhara region of Ethiopia in 2011 were studied to determine their variation based on amylose content (AMC) and amylopectin content (APC), and pasting properties by iodine colorimetry and Rapid Visco Analyzer procedures, respectively. The results revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) differences between cultivar and location. The mean values for the AMC and APC ranged from 20.86% (Jalene) to 30.58% (Ater Abeba), and 69.42% (Ater Abeba) to 79.14% (Jalene), respectively. The mean AMC index of locations ranged from 24.50% to 26.24% for the Adet and Debretabor sites. The peak viscosity (PV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), cool paste viscosity (CV) and setback viscosity (SBV) ranged from 225.10 to 426.72, 135.01 to 191.83, 56.47 to 259.32, 173.68 to 247.51 and 27.17 to 68.15 Rapid Visco units (RVU), respectively, while the pasting time (PT) and pasting temperature (Ptemp) ranged between 3.35 to 4.91 minutes and 68.16 to 70.89 °C, respectively. Correlation among starch properties showed significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) associations except for PV with CPV and HPV with BDV and SBV. The highest PV (538 RVU), HPV (207 RVU), BDV (363 RVU), and CV (265 RVU) values were recorded at the cool Debretabor site. Thus, the study revealed the significant genetic variation present among varieties with regard to the starch chemical composition and pasting properties and the effects of growing location on these properties.
... Native starch is a relatively inexpensive and versatile product and the raw material for production of many modifications, sweeteners and ethanol (Madigan, 2003;Brown and Poon, 2005;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). Since the early 1930s, carbohydrate chemists have developed numerous products that have greatly expanded starch use and utility (Shannon et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Starch was extracted from seeds of Christ Thorn by hot water extraction method. The composition and physicochemical properties of the extracted starch were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the analyses revealed that the % yield of starch was 43.2%, while moisture content, ash content, starch protein and starch lipid were 7.8%, 0.01%, 0.12% and 0.32% respectively. The results also showed amylose content of 24.6%; swelling power of 37.5g/g, solubility of 2.1%, amylose leaching of 3.7% and gelatinization temperature of 68oC. From the results, the paper concludes that with minor modifications, the seeds can be used as alternative sources of starch for industrial products.
... Unfortunately, due to the hydrophilic nature of starch, its applications are limited. As a consequence, native starches are often modified through physical or chemical methods to improve their properties and consequently to enhance their application range (Schwartz and Whistler 2009). The main motivations for developing starch-based materials include several advantages (Scott and Gilead 1995) such as flexibility in adjusting the properties to the needs of the specific application by appropriately modifying the composition, low-cost blending as opposed to innovative synthetic material development, and biodegradability. ...
... Amylopectin is responsible for the swelling power and viscosity of gelatinized starch, while amylose interlaces with amylopectin limiting the granules swelling (Zeng et al. 1997). Starch can be classified according to its amylose content as waxy (0-8%), normal (20-30%) or high-amylose (>40%) (Schwartz and Whistler 2009). The composition of starch, and its crystallization level, varies with botanic source. ...
Article
Full-text available
Starch has great importance in human diet, since it is a heteropolymer of plants, mainly found in roots, as potato, cassava and arrowroots. This carbohydrate is composed by a highly-branched chain: amylopectin; and a linear chain: amylose. The proportion between the chains varies according to the botanical source. Starch hydrolysis is catalyzed by enzymes of the amilolytic system, named amylases. Among the various enzymes of this system, the glucoamylases (EC 3.2.1.3 glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidases) are the majority because they hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages at the end of starch chains releasing glucose monomers. In this work, a glucoamylase secreted in the culture medium, by the ascomycete Aspergillus brasiliensis, was immobilized in Dietilaminoetil Sepharose-Polyethylene Glycol (DEAE-PEG), since immobilized biocatalysts are more stable in long periods of hydrolysis, and can be recovered from the final product and reused for several cycles. Glucoamylase immobilization has shown great thermal stability improvement over the soluble enzyme, reaching 66% more activity after 6 h at 60 °C, and 68% of the activity after 10 hydrolysis cycles. A simplex centroid experimental mixture design was applied as a tool to characterize the affinity of the immobilized enzyme for different starchy substrates. In assays containing several proportions of amylose, amylopectin and starch, the glucoamylase from A. brasiliensis mainly hydrolyzed the amylopectin chains, showing to have preference by branched substrates.
... Starch is one of the most spread biopolymer in nature (Shannon et al., 2009), being used especially in the food industry, as such or as starch derivatives (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). A special category of starch derivatives is those of starch hydrolysates (maltodextrins, glucose syrups, maltose syrups or dextrose syrups) obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis in two steps: liquefaction and saccharification by using different enzymes (Hobbs, 2009), with the preliminary step gelatinisation, needed to destroy the starch granule and so to make starch easily breakable by the amylolytic enzymes (Aehle, 2007). ...
Article
This paper investigates the use of the Petri Net modelling language for the description and analysis of the enzymatic reactions that are used for the starch liquefaction. The Coloured Petri Net formalism supported by the CPN Tools modelling and simulation environment is used. The pools of substrates and products are represented as the places and the possible reactions as the transition of the net. The concurrent reactions are modelled trough transitions that are enabled at the same time. The occurrence probabilities associated with each of these concurrent transitions are chosen as the model parameters. The analysis of the specific properties of the model is used to fit the model to data from the industrial production process using the enzyme Liquozyme for the starch hydrolysis.
... Branching is relatively random, but on average one branch occurs every 25 glucosyl units. Amylopectin has larger DP, within 10,000-100,000 glucosyl units (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). ...
Chapter
The role played by enzymes in the production and processing of foods and food ingredients is of acknowledged relevance. The application of these biocatalysts has been often associated to traditional products and processes, viz brewing, cheese or yogurt making. Their use has been incorporated into both new products, such as functional foods, as well as new or improved processes, such as combining microwave irradiation and lipolytic activity to obtain additives for the food sector. These developments resulted from several issues, such as identification of new enzymes and new reactions; development of manufacturing technologies enabling the production of enzymes fit for the diverse operational conditions specific for food production and processing; and new or improved enzyme formulations. Paramount to all these is the growing concern for a multidisciplinary approach toward applied biocatalysis, which allows a more rational and cost-effective development of enzyme-based processes. This trend has clear, positive effect for the implementation of such processes in the food industry. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the applications of enzymes in food production and processing, with particular focus on the recent developments, and to give some hints on prospective developments on enzyme applications in the food industry.
... Starch is a natural polysaccharide polymer found in seeds, roots and tubers. Starch is a renewable, inexpensive, and versatile raw material for numerous modifications (physical, thermal or chemical) [1]. Starch and its derivatives are used in various industrial applications, e.g., food, adhesives, textiles, and plastics. ...
Article
Chemical modification of cassava starch by transesterification of a vegetable oil (palm kernel oil) using aluminum chloride as a Lewis acid catalyst was achieved under relatively mild conditions (temperature 60–110 °C; atmospheric pressure). The reaction was carried out without any additional solvent. The modified starch was characterized by degree of substitution (DS), FTIR, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. DS of 0.09 to 0.53 were obtained. The cassava starch presented an X-ray diffraction pattern of a type A starch. X-ray analyses showed that the reaction did not significantly affect the crystallinity of starch. The modified starch films (MStF) adsorbed less water than the reference native starch film (NStF) at all the relative humidities investigated. The MStF were also less soluble in water. The tensile tests showed an increase of the strength and a decrease of the flexibility of MStF compared to the reference NStF. The results showed that this chemical route could be used to increase the water resistance of starch-based materials.
... Unfortunately, due to the hydrophilic nature of starch, its applications are limited. As a consequence, native starches are often modified through physical or chemical methods to improve their properties and consequently to enhance their application range (Schwartz and Whistler 2009). The main motivations for developing starch-based materials include several advantages (Scott and Gilead 1995) such as flexibility in adjusting the properties to the needs of the specific application by appropriately modifying the composition, low-cost blending as opposed to innovative synthetic material development, and biodegradability. ...
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Full-text available
Starch microparticles (SM) were prepared by delivering ethanol as the precipitant into a starch paste solution dropwise. Chemically modified starch microparticles (CSM) were fabricated by a reaction with malic acid using the dry-preparation technique. Composites were prepared using CSM and various cellulose materials as fillers within glycerol plasticized-corn starch matrix through the casting process. Microcrystalline cellulose (MC, as reference filler) and two cellulose-enriched materials, namely Asclepias syriaca L. seed hairs (ASSH) and Populus alba L. seed hairs (PSH), were compared in terms of morphology and performance when incorporated within the CSM/S thermoplastic matrix. The effects of cellulose fillers on the morphology, surface, water sorption, and mechanical properties were investigated. The surface water resistance of composite materials was slightly improved through addition of cellulose fillers. Samples containing cellulose fillers presented higher tensile strength but lower elongation values compared with those without fillers.
... A large amorphous region with crystalline peaks, as noted, was observed in the unplasticized CS film. CS films had crystallinity of 10 • to 20 • reflectance that was similar to the B-type diffraction pattern [67]. Similar remarks were made by Zhong et al. [68], who proposed the development of double-helical crystalline B-type with peaks at 2 θ to 17 • . ...
Article
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The research included corn starch (CS) films using sorbitol (S), glycerol (G), and their combination (SG) as plasticizers at 30, 45, and 60 wt %, with a traditional solution casting technique. The introduction of plasticizer to CS film-forming solutions led to solving the fragility and brittleness of CS films. The increased concentration of plasticizers contributed to an improvement in film thickness, weight, and humidity. Conversely, plasticized films reduced their density and water absorption, with increasing plasticizer concentrations. The increase in the amount of the plasticizer from 30 to 60% showed a lower impact on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. The S30-plasticized films also showed outstanding mechanical properties with 13.62 MPa and 495.97 MPa for tensile stress and tensile modulus, respectively. Glycerol and-sorbitol/glycerol plasticizer (G and SG) films showed higher moisture content and water absorption relative to S plasticized films. This study has shown that the amount and type of plasticizers significantly affect the appearances, physical, morphological, and mechanical properties of the corn starch biopolymer plastic.
... With a long history of research focusing on starch, food science has explored questions regarding starch classification and experimentation long before archaeologists became interested in similar questions (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009). In fact, much of the early understanding of starch formation, destruction, and damage that is used in archaeological research comes from these early studies (e.g., Campus-Baypoli et al., 1999;Gomez et al., 1989Gomez et al., , 1990Radley, 1976). ...
Article
Nixtamalization is a cooking technique that has played a significant role for thousands of years in the foodways of indigenous communities throughout the Americas. By cooking maize in an alkaline solution, often made from slaked lime, the process of nixtamalization increases the nutritional value of maize and helps to prevent severe malnutrition in populations dependent on maize as a staple food source. Due to the preservation bias against macrobotanical remains in tropical soils, microbotanical analyses of pottery residues are increasingly used to identify ancient plant use and preparation. However, to date no method has been developed to directly identify nixtamalization in the archaeological record via residue analysis. Through experimental replication of the nixtamalization process we have identified a unique product of the lime-based alkaline cooking process: residues that we conclude are starch spherulites. Here, we detail the range of diagnostic morphologies characteristic of starch spherulites and propose that the presence of starch spherulites found on cooking vessels and grinding stones, or within archaeological sediments, can act as a proxy for the use of the nixtamalization process. Through applications of polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and SEM-EDS, this research lays the groundwork for the direct identification of nixtamalization in archaeological contexts, offering for the first time a direct mechanism with which to assess the inception and expansion of nixtamalization throughout the Americas.
... Starch is a perennially useful substance. Beyond its nutritional value, it has been used as an adhesive and as a paper additive for centuries (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). More recently, starch has gained attention as a component in advanced composite materials in targeted drug delivery and controlled release system, antimicrobial agents and medical imaging (Abd El-Ghany et al., 2019;Ojogbo et al., 2020;Quintanilla-de Stéfano et al., 2020;Reddy et al., 2013;Xu et al., 2020). ...
Article
The outstanding versatility of starch offers a source of inspiration for the development of high-performance-value-added biomaterials for the biomedical field, including drug delivery, tissue engineering and diagnostic imaging. This is because starch-based materials can be tailored to specific applications via facile grafting or other chemistries, introducing specific substituents, with starch being effectively the “template” used in all the chemical transformations discussed in this review. A considerable effort has been carried out to obtain specific tailored starch-based grafted polymers, taking advantage of its biocompatibility and biodegradability with appealing sustainability considerations. The aim of this review is to critically explore the latest research that use grafting chemistries on starch for the synthesis of products for biomedical applications. An effort is made in reviewing the literature that proposes synthetic “greener” approaches, the use of enzymes and their immobilized analogues and alternative solvent systems, including water emulsions, ionic liquids and supercritical CO2.
... Starch is also the oldest additive in papermaking, as paper-like products from the Egyptian predynastic period are reported to be the first non-food application of starch using wheat-based starch adhesives to glue papyrus strips together. Also Chinese paper documents from the 4 th century AD were found to contain starch size (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). ...
Article
This review focuses on cationic starches with a low degree of substitution (<0.06) which are mainly used for production of paper-based products. After a brief introduction on starch in general, cationization pathways and importance of cationic starches in paper production, this review emphasizes on the analytical challenges from different perspectives. These include the different length scales of starches when in solution: the macromolecular level, their assembly into nm aggregates and finally hydrocolloids with hundreds of nanometers of diameter. We give an overview on the current state of the art on the analysis of such challenging samples and aim at providing a guideline for obtaining and presenting reliable analytical data.
... It is actually a mixture of two different polysaccharides, namely amylose and amylopectin, where amylose is a linear polymer consisting of 1-4 linked α-D-glucopyranose units. Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer, constituted by 1-4 linked and 1-6 linked α-D-glucopyranose units, and its proportion in natural starches may be as high as 95% [58]. At a supramolecular level, these polysaccharides are found to form grains that can be up to 100 µm in diameter, as shown in Fig. 2. ...
Article
Starch and derivatives thereof have proven their usefulness in paper coating processes. Among these derivatives, cationic starch has been widely used in the paper industry as a flocculation, dispersion and ink fixing agent. In another context, nanoscale cellulosic materials have been shown to improve the strength, retention of fillers, the barrier properties of packaging paper products, and printing qualities. This review summarizes the recent studies on the general components used in paper coating, describes the conventional and alternative synthetic processes of cationic starches and nanocellulose, and deals with their current and potential applications in papermaking, focusing primarily on surface treatments. Moreover, environmental applications have been considered to expand the understanding and usefulness of these materials. Further research on modified polysaccharides is encouraged to replace, in a feasible way, petro-based components of coating formulations, and to provide paper surfaces with new properties.
... ceratina Kulesh) is consumed as both starch source and vegetable. Although waxy corn originated in China, it is being consumed globally for its flavorful characteristics and high nutritional value (Schwartz & Whistler, 2009). In addition, the improved health benefits of Zn in Zn-fortified waxy corn appeal to consumers and farmers (Akhtar et al., 2018;Yadav et al., 2020). ...
Article
To determine whether high spraying concentrations of Zn sources increase the Zn concentration in waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) seeds without compromising agronomic performance, field experiments were conducted between 2018 and 2020. Excess ZnSO4 application caused foliar burn, barren ear tip, and grain yield loss. ZnEDTA and Glycine-chelated Zn (ZnGly) caused less foliar burn, but Glycine-mixed Zn caused more foliar burn than ZnSO4. The seed Zn concentration increased with spraying Zn concentration. ZnEDTA (≤ 0.8%) had a higher threshold concentration than ZnGly (≤ 0.4%). Nevertheless, Zn biofortification efficacy did not significantly differ between 0.4% ZnGly and 0.8% ZnEDTA, and the grain Zn recovery rate of 0.4% ZnGly was much higher than that of 0.8% ZnEDTA. Additionally, dual-isotope labelling tests confirmed that ¹⁵N-glycine and ⁶⁸Zn in ZnGly interacted. In the future, chelating technology is essential for developing new Zn fertilizers to optimize Zn biofortification efficacy.
... Starch plays an essential role in the food industry, such as in the production of candy, glucose, dextrose, and fructose. Besides, it is widely used in other industries, such as textile, paper, glue, and sludge drilling [2][3][4][5][6]. There are two kinds of starch that are produced in agriculture: native and modified [7]. ...
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The disadvantageous properties of sago starch has limited its application in food and industrial processes. The properties of sago starch can be improved by changing its physicochemical and rheological characteristics. This study examined the influence of reaction time, acidity, and starch concentration on the oxidation of sago starch with ozone, a strong oxidant. Swelling, solubility, carbonyl, carboxyl, granule morphology, thermal profile, and functional groups are comprehensively observed parameters. With starch concentrations of 10–30% (v/w) and more prolonged oxidation, sago starch was most soluble at pH 10. The swelling power decreased with a longer reaction time, reaching the lowest pH 10. In contrast, the carbonyl and carboxyl content exhibited the same pattern as solubility. A more alkaline environment tended to create modified starch with more favorable properties. Over time, oxidation shows more significant characteristics, indicating a superb product of this reaction. At the starch concentration of 20%, modified sago starch with the most favorable properties was created. When compared to modified starch, native starch is generally shaped in a more oval and irregular manner. Additionally, native starch and modified starch had similar spectral patterns and identical X-ray diffraction patterns. Meanwhile, oxidized starch had different gelatinization and retrogradation temperatures to those of the native starch.
... The majority of cereals possess carbohydrates in the form of starch, which is a unique calorie source for human nutrition and are used in a wide variety of industrial sectors as renewable raw materials (Carciofi et al. 2012). Starch is a biopolymer that is formed as a plant photosynthetic carbon fixation product (Schwartz and Whistler 2009), and was reported to be used in the pre-dynastic period by the Egyptians for producing cemented papyrus strips in combination with wheat adhesives (Inglett 1974). Since then, starch from various cereals and plant materials has been used in several applications such as textiles (Teli et al. 2009a), paper production (Roux and Voigt 2014), color printing (Teli et al. 2009b), and cement additives (Reddy et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
Being the most widely cultivated and consumed plant food, cereals have been known to humans since ancient times. The rich nutritional profile of cereals, namely, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; together with the abundance of certain secondary metabolites makes cereals an excellent source of high value nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. This chapter describes the types, characteristics, and food/health applications of the major nutritional and bioactive molecules from cereals.
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Adhesive bonding of fluted medium to linerboard is a fundamental process in manufacturing of wood-fiber based corrugated combined board for packaging. The quality of bonds requires frequent testing since production speed and container box stacking capacity are affected. Several different testing techniques are investigated in this paper that complement the standard tests commonly used: bond tensile strength “pin adhesion” (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) method T 821), visual qualitative inspection of adhesive distribution by iodine stained separated components (TAPPI method T 610), and examination of manually peeled separated boards. A specially prepared corrugated board sample set was made on a pilot corrugating machine producing a range of bonding defects associated with common inadvertent improper corrugating operating conditions. A thermoelastic stress analysis using infrared image processing applied to the produced samples demonstrates a patterned localization of strains that is associated with adhesive distribution and bond strength. Analysis of load-displacement data of the pin adhesion test indicates significant measurable changes in the elastic properties of the corrugated board structure corresponding to bond quality. The experimental results supported by finite element analysis indicate that increased bond strength arises from an increased localized modulus attributable to a combination of adhesive penetration into the substrate and formation of covalent bonds. Infra-red imaging of back-lighted board samples provides a complementary convenient means to assess the glue distribution.
Chapter
Starch has undisputable importance in foods both from the nutritional -mainly energy-related- and technological viewpoints. Different types of starch derivatives, including a number of hydrolysis products, are frequently used as food ingredients, especially because of the particular physicochemical properties they may confer. In recent years, certain hydrolytic derivatives of starch, such as maltodextrins, cyclodextrins, pyrodextrins, and isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), have raised considerable interest by virtue of their perceived ability to exert beneficial physiological effects upon ingestion. These effects are largely related to a slow—or even incomplete—digestion in the human small intestine, with potential modulating action on the gut microbiota. This chapter deals with the most relevant characteristics of these starch derivatives and the evidence supporting their physiological effects.
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In this article, starch microparticles (SM) were prepared by delivering ethanol as the precipitant into starch paste solution dropwise. Adipic acid (AA)-modified starch microparticles (AASM) were fabricated using the dry preparation technique. The composites were prepared using AASM as the filler in glycerol plasticized-corn starch (GCS) matrix by the casting process. Two lignins were also compared in terms of structure and reactivity when incorporated within the AASM–GCS matrix. The effects of lignin on the morphology, surface properties, and water sorption, as well as mechanical and thermal properties of starch–lignin composite films were investigated. The surface water resistance and the thermal stability of materials were improved through addition of lignin. Starch–lignin composite materials presented higher tensile strength, but a lower elongation capacity comparatively with those without lignin.
Article
In 2012, the world production of starch was 75 million tons. Maize, cassava, wheat and potato are the main botanical origins for starch production with only minor quantities of rice and other starches being produced. These starches are either used by industry as such or following some conversion. When selecting and developing starches for specific purposes, it is important to consider the differences between starches of varying botanical origin. Here, an overview is given of the production, structure, composition, morphology, swelling, gelatinisation, pasting and retrogradation, paste firmness and clarity and freeze–thaw stability of maize, cassava, wheat, potato and rice starches. Differences in properties are largely defined by differences in amylose and amylopectin structures and contents, granular organisation, presence of lipids, proteins and minerals and starch granule size.
Article
Schools can be places where students articulate a preferred social future and exercise informed judgment with others toward that goal. Yet, educators have few examples of what a curriculum explicitly concerned with undertaking such a process might look like. Distinct from questions about how best to receive an Other or social science investigations of what may constitute educational “best practices,” Kent den Heyer explores here the ways in which the work of Alain Badiou provides for a more proactive arrangement of knowledge in schools organized to instigate truth-processes that might supplement individual and socially inherited commitments. Through this exploration, den Heyer argues for the democratic and life-affirming benefits of scholars and teachers who take up a “disciplinary ethic of truths.” He provides one of potentially many curricular examples of such an arrangement of knowledge.
Article
We introduced vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) modified starch into the waterborne polyurethane (WPU) by covalent bond (hereafter called hybrids or chemical hybrids) to enhance the biodegradability of WPU. Effects of starch content on the biodegradation of the chemical hybrids in α-amylase solution and buffer solution were evaluated in terms of weight loss and tensile property change with incubation time, contact angle, Shore A hardness, and scanning electron microscopy morphology. The VTMS modified starch provided the chemical hybrids with multifunctional crosslinks and significantly enhanced tensile modulus and strength of the hybrids. When the hybrids were incubated in α-amylase solution, maximum weight loss of 15% and tensile strength decrease of 60% were noted in 10 days with 10% starch incorporation. Notably, these property changes were much smaller with physical blend of WPU and unmodified starch than those of chemical hybrids.
Article
We have investigated methods of starch dissolution with the aim of finding an optimum method to completely dissolve starch granules to form a molecularly dissolved starch solution without degrad¬ation of the polymers. Glycogen was used as a model molecule for amylopectin, to identify the dissolution conditions under which the degradation of the polymers was limited or not present. Dissolution was performed in water with temperatures up to 200°C, facilitated by the use of heating in an autoclave or a microwave oven, or in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 100°C. Waxy maize starch was chosen due to its high content of amylopectin and very low content of amylose. The degree of starch dissolution under different conditions was determined enzymatically. The effect of different dissolution conditions on the molar mass and root-mean-square radius of the polymers was determined with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index detectors (AF4-MALS-dRI). The results suggest that reliable and accurate size separation and characterization of amylopectin can be obtained by dissolution of starch granules in an aqueous environment at 140°C by autoclaving or in DMSO at 100°C. The results also clearly show an upper limit for heat treatment of starch, above which degradation cannot be avoided.
Article
To lower the retrogradation and digestibility of waxy corn starch for different food applications, a novel thermostable GtfC type 4,6-α-glucanotransferase without N- and C- terminals (GsGtfC) from Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 was used. Waxy corn starch of 50 mg/mL was incubated with GsGtfC of 40–100 U/g substrate at 65 °C and pH 5.5 for 1 h. Its molecular weight, iodine affinity, XRD crystallinity, and FTIR ratio of heights of bands at 1047 and 1022 cm⁻¹ decreased, but ratio of DP<6 to DP≥25 branches and degree of branching increased. GsGtfC cleaved α-1,4-glycosidic bonds and induced α-1,6-branching points to produce reuteran-likes polymers, which is different from Exiguobacterium sibiricum GtfC enzyme cleaving α-1,4-glycosidic bonds and synthesizing consecutive α-1,6-glycosidic bonds to produce isomalto/malto-oligosaccharides. GsGtfC modified waxy corn starch had significantly lower DSC retrogradation enthalpies during the storage at 4 °C for 3–14 days and significantly lower released glucose during the incubation with mammalian mucosal α-glucosidase at 37 °C for 10–360 min. GsGtfC at 100 U/g substrate increased slowly digestible portion from 11.07% to 24.11%.
Article
Three main in vitro approaches can be distinguished for obtaining amylose (AM): enzymatic synthesis, AM leaching, and AM complexation following starch dispersion. The first uses α-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), a glucosyl primer with a degree of polymerization (DP) of at least 4 and phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1), commonly from potatoes. Such approach provides AM chains with low polydispersity, the average DP of which can be manipulated by varying the reaction time and the ratio between G1P, primer and enzyme dose. AM leaching is the result of heating a starch suspension above the gelatinization temperature. This approach allows isolating AM on large scale. The AM DP, yield, and purity depend on the heating rate, leaching temperature, shear forces and botanical origin. High leaching temperatures (80-85°C) result in mostly pure AM of DP >1000. At higher temperatures, lower purity AM is obtained due to amylopectin leaching. Annealing as pre-treatment and ultracentrifugation or repetitive organic solvent based precipitations after leaching are strategies which improve the purity of AM extracts. When AM is separated by complex formation, complete dispersion of starch is followed by bringing AM into contact with e.g. n-butanol or thymol. The resultant complex is separated from amylopectin as a precipitate. Complete starch dispersion without degradation is critical for obtaining AM of high purity. Finally, higher DP AM can be converted enzymatically into AM fractions of lower DP.
Chapter
Starch is one of the most promising renewable biopolymers due to its versatility, low cost and applicability to the development of new biomaterials. Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth and is present in a wide variety of forms. The addition of cellulose fibers is an effective way to stabilize starch-based films, which are known to be very sensitive to air humidity. Cellulose fibers strongly interact with plasticized starch matrix and increase the crystalline feature of composite films, having a positive effect on their mechanical properties. Starch microparticles (StM) from corn starch can be modified by reaction with organic acid to obtain modified starch microparticles (CMSt) by the dry preparation technique. Starch composites may be prepared using CMSt as the filler within a glycerol plasticized corn starch matrix by the casting/solvent evaporation process. Composite films can be obtained by the addition of cellulose originating from different sources as filler within the CMSt/St matrix.
Article
In this work, activity of immobilized phytase on blended polyacrylamide (PAAm)/starch nanofibers produced via electrospinning was optimized by computer-aided statistical method of experimental design, response surface methodology (RSM). Thereafter, the role of polymer concentration and percentage of starch in period of enzyme activity were optimized using RSM. We employed these two polymers in blend format as two types of bio-compatible and biodegradable materials including sufficient chemical groups to be appropriate candidates for biological applications. Cross-linking treatments were performed using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilan (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA), and finally phytase enzyme was successfully immobilized on the surface of membranes. First, we used scanning electron microscopy for morphological observation of blended nanofibers. According to the results obtained from response surface method and mean effect assessment, PAAm concentration and percentage of starch as process variables in the experimental design were successfully able to influence the biological properties of immobilized enzyme. Besides, it is also supposed that the presence of starch as a biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer has a great effect on increasing the unit of enzyme’s activity on the membrane surface.
Book
In complex macromolecules, minor modifications can generate major changes, due to self-assembling capacities of macromolecular or supramolecular networks. Controlled Drug Delivery highlights how the multifunctionality of several materials can be achieved and valorized for pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications. Topics covered in this comprehensive book include: the concept of self-assembling; starch and derivatives as pharmaceutical excipients; and chitosan and derivatives as biomaterials and as pharmaceutical excipients. Later chapters discuss polyelectrolyte complexes as excipients for oral administration; and natural semi-synthetic and synthetic materials. Closing chapters cover protein-protein associative interactions and their involvement in bioformulations; self-assembling materials, implants and xenografts; and provide conclusions and perspectives. • Offers novel perspectives of a new concept: how minor alterations can induce major self-stabilization by cumulative forces exerted at short and long distances • Gives guidance on how to approach modifications of biopolymers for drug delivery systems and materials for implants • Describes structure-properties relationships in proposed excipients, drug delivery systems and biomedical materials.
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The most common nutritive (caloric) sweeteners in use today are sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Allegations that HFCS is especially obesigenic in comparison with other sweeteners promoted it from relative obscurity to national prominence and effectively positioned HFCS as the “unhealthy” sweetener; sucrose, which is comparable in so many respects, became the “healthy” sweetener by default. But is this polarizing characterization justified? This chapter will make the case that sucrose and HFCS are so similar in manufacturing, composition, caloric value, sweetness, and functionality as to make them interchangeable in many food formulations; and their consumption patterns and composition in the blood following digestion are also strikingly similar. Whether or not subsequent metabolism of the absorbed component sugars from sucrose and HFCS is different enough to affect disease risks and human health will be explored in the chapters that follow.
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Added sugars, particularly those containing fructose—high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), sucrose, honey, fruit juice concentrates, agave nectar, and crystalline fructose—have been blamed for a variety of adverse health consequences. Fructose containing sugars are among the most misunderstood nutrients in all of nutrition. While the consumption of added sugars has increased in the last 40 years in the American diet, the increase in sugars has not been disproportionate compared to flour and grain products. In fact, of the increase of over 450 cal in the overall diet in the USA between 1970 and 2010 only 34 cal came from all added sugars combined. Over this same time period, fructose consumption has changed very little. In this chapter we begin with an historical perspective on the manufacture of sugar and high fructose corn syrup including their production, consumption, and functionality. We then examine the modern scientific literature related to added sugars and their potential interaction with a variety of health related issues such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We then summarize emerging evidence on the interaction between sugars and the brain. Based on contemporary scientific research we conclude there is not a unique relationship between sugar consumption and changes in energy regulating hormones, obesity, diabetes, NAFLD or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and that HFCS and sucrose are not nutritionally distinct.
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In this paper, we study the relevance of a semantic organization of sounds to ease the browsing of a sound database. For such a task, semantic access to data is traditionally implemented by a keyword selection process. However, various limitations of written language, such as word polysemy, ambiguities, or translation issues, may bias the browsing process. We present and study the efficiency of two sound presentation strategies that organize sounds spatially so as to reflect an underlying semantic hierarchy. For the sake of comparison, we also consider a display whose spatial organization is only based on acoustic cues. Those three displays are evaluated in terms of search speed in a crowdsourcing experiment using two different corpora: the first is composed of environmental sounds from urban environments and the second of sounds produced by musical instruments. Coherent results achieved by considering the two different corpora demonstrate the usefulness of using an implicit semantic organization to display sounds,
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In this study, removal of copper, cadmium, mercury and lead from a synthetic wastewater by adsorption method using chemically modified starch was investigated. Starch was first pregelled with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to obtain insoluble cross-linked starch gel (CSG) materials. The latter was graft co-polymerized with different weight of dimethylaminoethyl acrylate (DMAEA) using potassium permanganate/sulphuric acid redox system. The prepared copolymers (PDMAEACSG, expressed as Nitrogen, N%) were dispersed in aqueous solution of heavy metal ions and filtered to form polymer - metal ions complex. Different factors affecting the heavy metal ions removal such as pH of medium, extent of grafting, adsorbent dose, treatment time, agitation speed and temperature were studied in detail. Furthermore, the prepared copolymer could be recovered by washing the metal ions from the complex with dilute acid; HNO3 (1N, pH 2) and the metal-binding activity of the starch were slightly reduced by this process. Finally, the ability of grafted copolymer (PDMAEACSG) to remove three types of acid dyes from their solutions was also reported. The experimental data have been analyzed using isotherm and kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. Proposed method had potential application for effluent treatment in industries.
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The success of modern biorefineries, including those using starch-based feedstocks, should be based on versatile biomass supply chains and on the production of a wide spectrum of competitive bio-based products. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of bio-based products obtained mainly from biochemical platforms from starch- and sugar-based feedstocks. After an initial review of starch production sources and starch properties as well as starch-based end applications, this chapter reviews the state of the art of starch hydrolytic enzymes, focusing on a bio-based platform for the main value-added (bio)chemicals, biofuels, and biomaterials that can be obtained from sugar-based feedstocks. At the present time, food and biofuels applications still dominate most of the uses of starch-based raw materials. Although bio-based chemicals and biomaterials still do not account for a significant share of current biomass use, new bioeconomy sectors are emerging such as biomaterials and green chemistry, and several markets (e.g., bioplastics, biolubricants, biosolvents, and biosurfactants) are expected to grow in the near future. Several examples of biological production routes are described in this chapter, namely, for ethanol, lactic acid, and polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), succinic acid, 1,4-butanediol (BDO), farnesene, isobutene, acrylic acid, adipic acid, ethylene, and polyethylene. One example of using a chemical catalytic route to obtain furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is also reported.
Article
Background Starch is an alternative material for the production of biodegradable plastics; however, native starches have drawbacks due to their hydrophilic nature. Chemical modifications such as acetylation and crosslinking are used to broaden the potential end‐uses of starch. Dual modification of starch increases their functionality compared to that of starches with similar single modifications. In this study, a dual‐modified potato starch (acetylated and crosslinked) was used to produce films by casting. Results Changes in the arrangement of the amylopectin double helices of dual‐modified starch were evident in the X‐ray diffraction patterns, pasting profiles and thermal properties. The substitution degree for acetyl groups was low (0.058 ± 0.006) because cross‐linking dominated acetylation. Modified starch film has higher elongation percentage (82.81 %) than its native counterparts (57.4 %), but lower tensile strength (3.51 MPa for native and 2.17 MPa for dual modified) and lower crystallinity in fresh and stored films. The sorption isotherms indicated that the dual modification decreased the number of reactive sites for binding water, resulting in a reduction in the monolayer value and a decrease in the solubility and water vapor permeability. Conclusions Dual modification of starch may be a feasible option for improving the properties of biodegradable starch films. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This chapter presents a brief overview of key discoveries that led to our current knowledge of starch. Due to the variability of natural starch, and the significance of this biopolymer to humans in foods and industrial applications, much attention has been given to gaining an understanding of its structure and functional properties. Early uses for starch are considered, as are developments in the growth of the starch industries, and how the molecular structure of starch was revealed.
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During the last decades, various biodegradable materials from natural sources have been developed. One of the most promising materials with the highest commercial projection is thermoplastic starch. Thermoplastic starch is obtained utilizing a conventional thermomechanical process and in the presence of a plasticizer. However, pure thermoplastic starch has some deficiencies in its mechanical and barrier properties against water vapor, in addition to retrogradation. In this sense, it is necessary to use different strategies to improve it. Among the strategies, it is worth highlighting the blend with other biopolymers, physical and chemical modification of the starch, or the use of additives that improve the chemical compatibility of some polymer blends. Finally, the starch-based materials obtained have various applications in medicine, pharmacy, food packaging, and agriculture.
Article
Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch’s amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.
Article
NARA, JAPAN—The Yangtze region could predate the more politically powerful Yellow River area to the north as both the site of the oldest civilization in China and the earliest cultivation of rice anywhere on Earth, according to preliminary findings by a team of Japanese and Chinese archaeologists. The report comes from the International Symposium on Agriculture and Civilizations, held here last month.