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Antioxidant and weight loss effects of pomegranate molasses

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Abstract

Pomegranate molasses (PM) is a large compound of the eastern diets, yet no research has been performed on this product. In this study, we measured the total polyphenols content of PM, compared to fresh pomegranate juice, obtaining 252.28 and 79.49 mg of Gallic Acid equivalent/L respectively. The antioxidant effect of PM and juice was then measured in vitro using electrolysis as a free radical generating system. At the concentrations of 100 to 600 μl PM has strong antioxidant properties (4 times more active than juice). Moreover, molasses or juice were added to the drinking water of mice (4 ml/l) during 11 weeks leading to a significant decrease of weight curve compared to control animals; also triglycerides and lipid peroxidation were decreased in the heart, lungs, and the liver, while superoxide dismutase activity increased. In conclusion, Pomegranate molasses possesses a powerful antioxidant activity and a weight loss effect in mice.

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... It is known that equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants is crucial to the body. The advantage of antioxidant substances is one important factor to control individual healthy life that has a protective effect at level population [2] . ...
... Furthermore, phenolic compounds such as flavonoid and tannin are particular that can capture metals like iron S781 involved in free radical formation [5] . Indirectly, polyphenols can interfere with the cellular detoxification systems, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase or glutathione peroxides [2] . Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a tropical fruit, which is widely grown in Indonesia. ...
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Objective: To determine body weight gain, expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1 receptor on obese rat model treated with rambutan peel extract (RPE) as a physiological response. Methods: Normal and obese rat feed with normal and high calorie diet around 1 2 weeks and continued to treat with ellagic acid, RPE 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg body weight respectively. Physiological responses observed were weight gain and expression of Igf-1 with its receptor. Body weight of rat was weighed once per week. Expression of Igf-1 and igf-1R observed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The intensity of Igf-1 and Igf-1R expression was analysis using FSX-BSW software. Results: The lowest weight gain was obtained on obese rat model treated with RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. The expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R were reduced on obese rat model treated with RPE compared with obese rat model of non treatment (P
... The compounds present are intense in pomegranate peel and juice, which depicts 85-95% of the antioxidant activity allied with the fruit (Afaq et al. 2005;Negi et al. 2003;Zahin et al. 2010). Pomegranate peels consist of pericarp, albedo (white fleshy membrane), membrane (translucent yellow material surrounding the pomegranate arils), and rind (outer peel or husk of a pomegranate); the pericarp is a good source of polyphenols such as anthocyanin, leucoanthocyanins, catechins, and flavonoids and contains about 30% tannins (Chalfoun-Mounayar et al. 2012). Another part of pomegranate fruit is seeds, which are rich origins of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) mostly linolenic (nÀ3) and linoleic (nÀ2) acids. ...
... These findings were corroborated by a decrease in the TG (triglyceride) levels and lipid peroxidation but SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity increase in the heart, lungs, and liver. Meanwhile, the protective effects of the pomegranate molasses against ROS (reactive oxygen activity) generated by the electrolysis were histologically demonstrated (Chalfoun-Mounayar et al. 2012). Extraction of antioxidant from pomegranate peel and seed by using methanol, acetone, or water found that methanol gave an excellent antioxidant effect. ...
Chapter
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer made up of lactic acid monomers. It is being increasingly produced today because of its potential applications in textile industry, pharmaceutical, packaging, bioremediation, and many more. The commercial production of lactic acid enantiomers is mostly done using renewable materials such as lignocellulosic and starchy biomass along with the milk-processing industry by-products like whey. Homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are most widely used for production. However, some cyanobacteria, fungi, and yeast have also been reported for efficient lactic acid fermentation. Genetic engineering and molecular biology approaches are being continuously used for strain improvement for more efficient and economic production. Fermentation has been commercially performed in batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode with the use of techniques like membrane filtration, reactive extraction, and others for separation from the broth. PLA can be composed of either pure l-isomer or d-isomer or both d, l-lactic acid depending upon the requirement and use. Polymerization processes such as polycondensation, ring-opening polymerization, and direct methods like azeotropic dehydration and enzymatic polymerization are used to form PLA from lactic acid monomers. This paper discusses the need of PLA and the methods used for its commercial production along with its structural properties and wide range applications.
... Pomegranate molasses are still being produced by traditional methods. It is a thick, dark red liquid formed after cleaning, crushing, extraction, filtration, and evaporation in an open vessel or under vacuum, (18,19) Additionally, the total phenolic contents of PM was reported to be nontoxic and four times greater than those found in the juice (20) . ...
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Objective: Epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is an essential process for tumor progression. Targeting molecules in EMT might repress tumor progression. Pomegranate molasses and red grape vinegar are rich in polyphonic compounds with a significant therapeutic use. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effect of pomegranate molasses and red grape vinegar on dysplastic changes in chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinoma in hamsters. Material and Methods: 76 male hamsters were divided equally into 4 groups (19 each). Group I served as control group with no intervention. Group II received topical application of 0.5% 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on the left buccal pouches for 16 weeks with no intervention. Group III received 0.5 ml of Pomegranate molasses plus 0.5 ml distilled water through ingestion daily which was concomitant with DMBA application and continued for 3 months post induction period. Group IV received a red grape vinegar in a protocol similar to group III. Then the pouches were collected, fixed and processed for H&E, anti-TGF-β and anti-CK-19 staining.
... Ellagitannins in Punica granatum L. are effective in powder form as in juice form [10]. A 2010 issue of "Disease Prevention Research" expressed that ellagitannins from Punica granatum L. showed anticancer capacities by halting the development and expansion of breast cancer tumours in an in vitro investigation [11]. Punica granatum L. beneficial effects has been studied in the context of xenobiotics induced toxicity pertaining to the hepatic and renal tissues [12][13][14][15]. ...
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Background Pomegranate powder derived from pomegranate fruit contains phytochemicals chief of which is ellagitannins. Owing to their high antioxidative capabilities we investigated its efficacy against lead acetate induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Methods Pomegranate powder (500 g) was procured and soaked in 1 Litre of ethanol for three days, its filtrate was concentrated and freeze dried to form Punica granatum L. ethanol extract (PLEE). Thirty (30) male albino Wistar rats with average weight between 140 ± 20 g were used for this study. They were equally shared into 6 groups with 5 animals each; A: Control; B: Lead acetate only C: Lead acetate + PLEE (1); D: Lead acetate + PLEE (2); E: PLEE (1) and F: PLEE (2). Serum, liver and kidney samples were obtained for biochemical assays. The integrity of liver and kidney tissues were also accessed. Results Lead administration resulted in marked elevations in liver transaminases in serum and liver as well as a significant increase in kidney function markers in the serum and kidney ( p < 0.05). There was also a significant decline in average body weight, antioxidant markers in the liver and kidney of Wistar rats while there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels in both liver and kidney. However, administration of PLEE at different doses significantly modulated these changes. Conclusion Lead acetate administration led to hepatic and renal toxicity as evident by alterations in liver and kidney function markers, antioxidant status and tissue integrity. However, PLEE can combat these toxicities.
... Pomegranate fruit is characterized by its high phenolic contents and antioxidant properties Ç am et al., 2009;Madrigal-Carballo et al., 2009;Anoosh et al., 2010;Qu et al., 2010;Elfalleh et al., 2009Elfalleh et al., , 2011aViuda-Martos et al., 2011;Zaouay and Mars, 2011;Chalfoun-Mounayar et al., 2012;Jing et al., 2012;Orak et al., 2012;Zaouay et al., 2012). It is also clinically more effective in the treatment of depression and bone loss in menopausal syndrome in women (Mori-Okamoto et al., 2004). ...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree species, originating in Central Asia, but with a wide geographical global distribution, reflecting its adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions. It is important for its nutritional, medicinal and ornamental properties and its high consumption and industrial value. In a bid to better utilize and improve the current genetic resources, there is a need to understand and appreciate studies related to the use, centre of origin and diversity, as well as the characterization, evaluation and conservation, taxonomy and systematics of the genus Punica. In addition to understanding the basic biology of the plant, how biotechnological tools, including cell and tissue culture and micropropagation (i.e. somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, synthetic seeds, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, haploidy, and in vitro conservation), genetic transformation and marker technology, have been used to improve pomegranate germplasm are all topics that have been covered in this review.
... Our, results agree with [52] who found that pomegranate juice and molasses antioxidants activity induced weight loss in the animals. Hypercholesterolemic rats administrated with different levels of pomegranate peel powder had significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain ratio [53]. ...
... Diabetes induced by streptozotocin alters the structure and function of the body including the liver cells (Chalfoun-Mounayar et al., 2012). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with various structural and functional liver abnormalities, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatic glycogenosis (HG). ...
Article
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Antioxidant therapy has been thought to be effectual for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including diabetes. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the potency of Paracentrotus lividus extract (PLE) for alleviating the complications that resulted after induction of the diabetic rat models (T1DM and T2DM) using high fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ). Thirty six male Wistar albino rats were assigned into normal control, T1DM and T2DM untreated, and PLE treated diabetic rat groups. Induction of T1DM was performed by streptozotocin injection (60mg/kg of dissolved in sodium citrate buffer, 0.1mol/L, i.p). T2DM induction through 4weeks of high fat diet (HFD) intervention was followed by a single low dosage of STZ (30mg/kg dissolved in 0.1mol/L citrate buffer at pH 4.5, i.p). Both diabetic rat models showed a significant increase in serum; levels of fasting glucose, total protein, bilirubin, activities of arginase, transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), lipid profile parameters, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA). However, T1DM and T2DM rats have decreased levels of serum insulin, and liver glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione reduced (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the present study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant potency of the PLE as confirmed by its ability for ameliorating most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters of diabetic rats. In conclusion, PLE may be useful as therapy against oxidative stress and liver damage in both types of diabetes mellitus and is therefore recommended for further studies.
... Based on findings, pomegranate peel extract resulted in nonsignificant decrease in body mass index after 8-weeks. Some studies indicated pomegranate peel extract induces weight loss in mice, due to its effect on reducing serum TG and plasma glucose concentration [40,41]. By considering significant reduction in serum TG and TC levels in pomegranate peel extract group in our study, it was possible that, longer duration of intervention results in significant changes of body weight. ...
Article
Introduction Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that pomegranate and its polyphenols may have hypolipidemic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on some cardiovascular risk factors in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Thirty eight obese women (30< body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2) with dyslipidemia were allocated into two groups receiving two 500 mg pomegranate peel extract (n = 19) or placebo (n = 19) daily for 8 weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG)), Blood Pressure(BP), serum high sensitive-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and BMIwere measured. Results Pomegranate peel extract significantly decreased post treatment levels of serum TC (p = 0.014), LDL-C (p = 0.021), and TG (p = 0.036) and increased HDL-C (p = 0.020)compared to baseline. There was a significant decrease in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) levels and hs-CRP in pomegranate peel group whereas Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) levels and BMI remained unchanged after intervention. No significant changes were seen in terms of all post treatment values for the placebo group at the end of trial (p > 0.05). After adjusting for the baseline values, energy intake and weight changes, there were significant differences in post-treatment values between the two groups except in serum concentrations of HDL-C, DBP and BMI. Conclusions Current study showed a positive effect of pomegranate peel extract in improving cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with dyslipidemia.
... Based on findings, pomegranate peel extract resulted in nonsignificant decrease in body mass index after 8-weeks. Some studies indicated pomegranate peel extract induces weight loss in mice, due to its effect on reducing serum TG and plasma glucose concentration [40,41]. By considering significant reduction in serum TG and TC levels in pomegranate peel extract group in our study, it was possible that, longer duration of intervention results in significant changes of body weight. ...
Article
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with several pathological mechanisms. The intervention that provides for reduced pain and disability with fewer side effects may help improve OA. Pomegranate peel is known to have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to its great amount of polyphenols. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the pomegranate peel extract on clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA. Methods: This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted amongst 60 women in the age range of 38 - 60 years who were referred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran (Sep 2014 - Feb 2015). The participants were allocated using the block randomization method in one of two study arms. The intervention and control groups received 500 mg of pomegranate peel, hydro alcoholic extract (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30), twice daily for 8 weeks, along with standard drug therapy. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean, Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the secondary outcome measure was the visual analog scale score. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean of age, body mass index (BMI), disease duration and parity before intervention (P > 0.05). The mean of KOOS increased from 46.15±16.82 to 57.57±15.61 after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) as compared to the placebo group 50.83±18.83 declining to 56.10±18.07 (P < 0.001). The VAS score declined significantly in both treatment and control groups compared with baselines (P < 0.005). These changes in the intervention group were significantly greater than those in the control group after adjusting for baseline values, weight changes, energy intake, physical activity, disease duration and parity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study presented some effects of the pomegranate peel extract in reducing pain and improving clinical signs and symptoms in women with knee OA and might be considered as a complementary medicine in treating OA.
... In other words, the mechanism of the inhibitory effects, by which pomegranate molasses protects against lipid peroxidation, may involve radical scavenging capability and antioxidant enzymes activation, and this depletion may result from oxidative modification of these proteins. Our results are in agreement with other previous studies (Türk, Sönmez et al. 2008, Chalfoun-Mounayar, Nemr et al. 2012, Al-Moraie, Arafat et al. 2013.Our study showed no statistical alteration in the level of serum TC in the model group. This result in agreement with anohter previuos study (Ellis, Fitzharris et al. 1992). ...
Conference Paper
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Pomegranate molasses (PM) is one of a main compound of the eastern diets, which is used for popular medicine treatment of various diseases. Most of these effects were attributed to its high phenolic antioxidant effects, but without much scientific investigations. For this reason, we have studied the effects of pomegranate molasses (PM) on cisplatin (CP)-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats. Thirty adult male rats, of about 300-320g body weight, were allocated into three groups; Control (n = 5) receiving standard rat chow and tap water ad libitum. For the model group, CP-induced oxidative stress, animals were injected (intraperitoneal) with CP (2 mg/kg BW/week). Whereas the third group, in addition to the CP, animals received PM (traditionally homemade) (0.5ml/kg BW/day) for eight weeks. Results showed that the concentrations of liver function enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST) and serum total bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) improved by PM treatment after their significant elevation by CP-injection. On the other hand, the level of serum urea and uric acid decreased significantly (P<0.05) in PM treated rats in comparison to CP-injected group. Unexpectedly the serum creatinine concentration was not recovered by PM. Furthermore, pomegranate molasses statistically recovered the lipid profiles especially serum TAG, VLDL, HDL and LDL but not total cholesterol. In addition, concentration of serum MDA (a well-known marker of the degree of lipid peroxidation) was significantly(P<0.05) improved in PM supplemented group. In conclusion, this study supported the idea that the supplementation of pomegranates molasses, through its antioxidant activity, significantly ameliorates the oxidative stress in rats, providing a variety of health benefits.
... Diabetes induced by streptozotocin alters the structure and function of the body including the liver cells. 15 The structure and function of the body and also the liver cells will be changed by diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Other research suggests that consumption of artichoke leaf extract (21 days) increases serum levels of ALP, ALT and AST in non-diabetic rats. ...
Article
Background and aims: Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a plant of the Asteraceae family. This plant is used in herbal medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of artichokeextract on insulin, glucagon, glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats weighting 220-200 g were used. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups including, control, diabetic and 2 diabetic experimental groups. Two experimental groups respectively received 100 and 300 mg/kg of artichoke hydro ethanol extract as intraperitoneal for 6 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. At the end of the sixth day, blood was taken from the heart of animals. Afterward serum concentration of insulin, glucagon, glucose, ALP, ALT and AST were measured. Then, the parameters measured in the different groups were compared with a control group. Data were evaluated by ANOVA, Duncan test and Student’s t-test. Results: Results showed that artichoke extract significantly reduced the levels of glucagon, glucose, ALP, ALT, AST and increased insulin level compared to control and diabetic groups. It is worth noting that before the experiment, parameters tested were equal in all groups. Conclusion: Artichoke reduces blood sugar so it has a role in treatment of diabetes. Additionally, this herb is effective in control of blood glucose by liver enzymes reducing.
... No toxic effects or significant differences were observed in the treatment group compared to controls, which was confirmed via histopathological analysis of rat organs (Cerda et al. 2003). The protective effects of the PM against ROS generated by the electrolysis were histologically demonstrated (Chalfoun- Mounayar et al. 2012). ...
... In other words, the mechanism of the inhibitory effects, by which pomegranate molasses protects against lipid peroxidation, may involve radical scavenging capability and antioxidant enzymes activation, and this depletion may result from oxidative modification of these proteins. Our results are in agreement with other previous studies (Türk, Sönmez et al. 2008, Chalfoun-Mounayar, Nemr et al. 2012, Al-Moraie, Arafat et al. 2013.Our study showed no statistical alteration in the level of serum TC in the model group. This result in agreement with anohter previuos study (Ellis, Fitzharris et al. 1992). ...
... The present work showed that HCC group treated with POM and MT displays significant reduction in MDA in correspondence with elevation of hepatic GSH. This results could be explained by Orak et al. [55] and Chalfoun-Mounayar et al. [56] who reported that pomegranate is among the richest fruit in antioxidants of the polyphenolic class which includes tannins and anthocyanins. As investigated by Middleton et al. [57], Polyphenols like catechin or quercetin exhibited antioxidant activities and directly scavenge ROS, which can be very injurious causing lipids, proteins and DNA damage [58,59]. ...
Article
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Punica granatum (POM) and Silybum marianum (MT) receiving attention as potential potent anti-oxidant and anti-mutant agents. In this context, the present study was designed to highlight their effects either in vitro as well as in vivo model of induced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Human hepatoma (HepG2 cells) were treated with MT and POM to explore their antitumor activity then in vivo were carried out on thirty-six male albino rats divided into six groups (n=6). Two weeks after induction of HCC, rats were co-treated with either MT or POM ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg, orally) daily for 8 weeks. The results displayed marked reduction in the viability of HepG2 cells with IC50 equal to 48.4 and 8.6 μg/mL of POM and MT treatment respectively. Considering, in vivo experiment HCC group displayed significant elevation liver function indices (p<0.05). It also elicited depletion of liver reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased content of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to control group. HCC was proved after a significantly elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (p<0.05). All of these measurements were diminished significantly after POM and MT treatments, except the GSH level that was increased significantly. Supplementation of pomegranate and milk thistle extracts had a protective effect against chemically induced HCC.
... The pericarp, the inner lamella, and the consumed part constitutes 38%, 10% and 52% of the total weight of the fruit, respectively. The juice is 78% of the portion used (45-61% of total weight), and the seeds are 22% [8]. Interestingly, the above nutraceutical properties are not limited to the edible part of pomegranate fruit; the nonedible fractions of fruit (i.e., peel and seeds), although considered as waste, also contain even higher amounts of specific nutritionally valuable and biologically active components, as compared to the edible fruit [9]. ...
Article
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A clarification method was proposed to ameliorate the technological quality of fruit juices by preserving bioactive compounds. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities and the in vivo effects of Punica granatum L. natural (NJ) and clarified (CJ) juice by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. CJ was more active as an antioxidant and as a α-glucosidase inhibitor than NJ. Mice were orally gavaged with water (Control), NJ, and CJ for 28 days. NJ group showed significant decrease of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, and creatine-phosphokinase. CJ administration was associated with urea, creatine-phosphokinase, and triglycerides values significantly lower with respect to the control. Oxidative status was ameliorated with CJ administration, showing a reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) reduction of 32% and a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) boosting of 23% compared to the control, whereas NJ did not show a similar effect. Results confirmed the beneficial properties of pomegranate juice, showing that membrane clarification may enhance such effects in terms of antioxidant activity.
... The non-edible ingredients of pomegranate fruit are considered as waste materials (i.e., peels and seeds), contain even higher quantity of biologically active components compared to the edible part of fruit (Orgil et al., 2014). Pomegranate is considered one of the oldest fruit and one of the earliest to appear in human diet (Chalfoun-Mounayar et al., 2012). Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, a residues of juice processing industries was recoded to contain a several of bioactive compounds, minerals and crude fibers for a extended range of human dietary requirements (Mirdehghan and Rahemi, 2007). ...
... These findings were corroborated by a decrease in the TG (triglyceride) levels and lipid peroxidation but SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity increase in the heart, lungs, and liver. Meanwhile, the protective effects of the pomegranate molasses against ROS (reactive oxygen activity) generated by the electrolysis were histologically demonstrated (Chalfoun-Mounayar et al. 2012). Extraction of antioxidant from pomegranate peel and seed by using methanol, acetone, or water found that methanol gave an excellent antioxidant effect. ...
Chapter
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belongs to the family Puniceae and is commonly known as pomegranate. In India pomegranate is commercially cultivated in the districts of Solapur, Sangli, Nashik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Dhule, Aurangabad, Satara, Bijapur, Belgaum, Bagalkot, etc. The peel of pomegranate is rich in antioxidants, which help in curing degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetics, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. The therapeutic potential of pomegranate peel has been also reported. The rind of pomegranate is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins of the ellagitannin group. From previous studies, it can be concluded that pomegranate peel is rich in proximate composition and antioxidant potential. Hence it is an antioxidant used for natural preservatives and also used in the production of dyes. Pomegranate peel helps in the treatment of intestinal worms, diarrhea, inflammation, infertility, cough, etc. Pomegranate peel extracts used for antibacterial activity were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, Salmonella typhi, etc. Recent studies show that from pomegranate peel pectin can be extracted. The pomegranate peel can be available at very low cost expenditure from industries, which can be used as value addition in different food products such as cookies, pasta, biscuits, etc.
... Sour pomegranate varieties (with 2-3 pH), which cannot be consumed as tableware, are pressed, clarified, then concentrated to minimum 68 brix for pomegranate molasses production [7]. This is a product with high nutritional value and contains at a significant level of minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca) and phenolics [8]. Pomegranate sour sauce dissimilarly contains pomegranate syrup, water, pomegranate aroma, acidity regulator (citric acid), colorant and preservative [9]. ...
Article
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In this research, pomegranate molasses, pomegranate sour sauces and pomegranate jams were evaluated in terms of some physicochemical properties including hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility. While ascorbic acid of these products ranged between 0.89-19.78 mg 100g-1 , total phenolic contents changed between 31.40-2061.10 mg gallic acid equivalent 100g-1. Antioxidant capacities of the products were determined as 34.01-2377.52 mg trolox equivalent 100g-1 with DPPH assay and 18.9-6439.0 mg trolox equivalent 100g-1 with CUPRAC assay. The bioaccessibilities regarding phenolic substance and antioxidant capacity after simulated gastrointestinal digestion ranged between 74-247% and 53-213%, respectively. High HMF levels, which were reflected on color and sensory features, have indicated the necessity of improving the production and storage conditions. On the other hand, the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate molasses and the bioaccessibility of pomegranate jams in terms of antioxidants showed the importance of consumption of these products in the daily diet. So, this study can be regarded as a case surveillance study that can be used by producers, nutritionals and authorities to make assessments on manufacturing conditions, consumer health and nutrition. Bazı nar ürünlerinin antioksidan özellikler ve in-vitro biyoerişilebilirlik açısından değerlendirilmesi Öz Bu çalışmada, nar ekşisi, nar ekşili sos ve nar reçelleri hidroksimetilfurfural, toplam fenolik madde, antioksidan kapasite ve biyoerişilebilirliği de kapsayacak şekilde bazı * Bige İNCEDAYI, bige@uludag.edu.tr, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6128-7453 İNCEDAYI B. 97 fizikokimyasal özellikler yönünden değerlendirilmiştir. Ürünlerin askorbik asit içeriği 0.89-19.78 mg 100g-1 arasında değişirken, toplam fenolik madde miktarları 31.40-2061.10 mg gallik asit eşdeğeri 100g-1 arasında saptanmıştır. Ürünlerin antioksidan kapasiteleri DPPH yöntemi ile 34.01-2377.52 mg troloks eşdeğeri 100g-1 ; CUPRAC metodu ile 18.9-6439.0 mg troloks eşdeğeri 100g-1 arasında belirlenmiştir. Simüle edilmiş gastrointestinal sindirim sonrası fenolik madde ve antioksidan kapasiteye ilişkin biyoerişilebilirlik değerleri sırasıyla %74-247 ve %53-213 arasında değişim göstermiştir. Renk sonuçları ve duyusal özelliklere yansıyan yüksek HMF seviyeleri, üretim ve depolama koşullarının iyileştirilmesi gerektiğini ortaya koymuştur. Diğer taraftan, nar ekşilerinin yüksek askorbik asit, toplam fenolik madde içeriği ile antioksidan kapasitesi; nar reçellerinin ise antioksidanlar açısından yüksek biyoerişilebilirliğe sahip olması, bu ürünlerin günlük diyette tüketiminin önemini göstermiştir. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışma üreticiler, beslenme uzmanları ve diğer otoriteler tarafından üretim koşulları, tüketici sağlığı ve beslenme ile ilgili değerlendirmelerde kullanılabilecek bir durum tespit çalışması olarak değerlendirilebilir.
... Coronary heart diseases, cancer (skin, breast, prostate and colon), inflammation, hyperlipidemia , diabetes, cardiac disorders, hypoxia, ischemia, aging, brain disorders, liver damage and AIDS are the potential disease targets in years to come for treatments using pomegranate ingredients (Pantuck et al., 2006; Rahman and Megeid, 2006; Seeram et al., 2006; Jyotsana and Maity, 2010; Adhami et al., 2012). Pomegranate fruit is characterized by its high phenolic contents and antioxidant properties (Ozgen et al., 2008; C ¸ am et al., 2009; Madrigal-Carballo et al., 2009; Anoosh et al., 2010; Qu et al., 2010; Elfalleh et al., 2009 Elfalleh et al., , 2011a Viuda-Martos et al., 2011; Zaouay and Mars, 2011; Chalfoun-Mounayar et al., 2012; Jing et al., 2012; Orak et al., 2012; Zaouay et al., 2012). It is also clinically more effective in the treatment of depression and bone loss in menopausal syndrome in women (Mori-Okamoto et al., 2004). ...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree species, originating in Central Asia, but with a wide geographical global distribution, reflecting its adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions. It is important for its nutritional, medicinal and ornamental properties and its high consumption and industrial value. In a bid to better utilize and improve the current genetic resources, there is a need to understand and appreciate studies related to the use, centre of origin and diversity, as well as the characterization, evaluation and conservation, taxonomy and systematics of the genus Punica. In addition to understanding the basic biology of the plant, how biotechnological tools, including cell and tissue culture and micropropagation (i.e. somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, synthetic seeds, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, haploidy, and in vitro conservation), genetic transformation and marker technology, have been used to improve pomegranate germplasm are all topics that have been covered in this review.
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II Summary The current study included fifty-six young male albino rats (4 months old and weighted 280 –290 gm), and twenty-four senescent male albino rats (24 months old and weighted 420 – 450 gm). The study was conducted in Biology Department of the College of Science, University of Mosul, and in the Medical Research Center of Hawler Medical University. Animals' treatment and assessing biomarkers of the experiment lasted a period between January- 2013 and December - 2014. The present study aimed to investigate the antiaging properties of grape seed extract (GSE), green tea extract (GTE), pomegranate seed extract (PSE), ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), α- lipoic acid (LA) and centrophenoxine (CPH) in normal and D- galactose (D-gal) induced aged male albino rats, and their preventing and improving effects in some biomolecular and physiological biomarkers of aging resulted from oxidative damage to cells in natural and D-gal Induced aged rats. Young male rats of four months age were divided randomly into eight groups (7 rats in each group), group I (control), group II (D-gal.), group III (D-gal. +CPH), group IV (D-gal. + GSE), group V (D- gal. + GTE), group VI (D-gal.+ LA), group VII (D-gal. + PSE) and Group VIII (D- gal. +GBE). Senescent male rats of 24 month old were divided randomly into four groups (7 rats in each group), group I (control), group II (CPH), group III (GSE) and group IV (GTE). At the end of the nine weeks experimental treatment period, blood samples were collected and the obtained serum were stored at-80 °C then used for biochemical assay. The dissected liver and brain of each animal in the all groups had been homogenized and liver and brain supernatant was collected and stored at -80 °C then used for oxidative stress biomarkers assay, also small pieces were taken from the liver and the brain of each animal to be used in the biomolecular studies. The results showed that mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) deletion4834 bp, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG), Malondialdehyde Summary III (MDA) and isoprostane (IsoP) significantly (P< 0.01) increased in the liver and brain of natural aged and D-gal. induced aging rats. Cellular mtDNA copy number is significantly (P< 0.01) increased also in liver and brain of natural aged and D-galactose induced aging rats in response to oxidative stress with the aging. Administration of antiaging biocompounds; GSE, GTE, PSE, GBE, LA and CPH significantly (P< 0.01) decreased mtDNA deletion4834 bp and 8- OHdG, mtDNA copy number, MDA and IsoP in liver and brain of normal aged rats and D-Galactose induced aging groups. The data of this study showed a significant (P< 0.01) decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TCA), total glutathione (T.GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of the liver and brain of rats and indicates that this decrease may be involved in the mechanisms of free radical induced damage to lipids, proteins and DNA during normal aging and chronic administration of Dgalactose. Administration of antiaging biocompounds; GSE, GTE, PSE, GBE, LA and CPH significantly (P< 0.01) increased TCA, T.GSH, SOD, CAT of the liver and brain in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. Total non-heme iron and ferritin concentration of liver and brain were significantly (P<0.01) increased in natural and induced aged rats. Treatment with GSE, GTE, PSE, GBE, LA and CPH significantly (P< 0.01) caused decrease of the non-heme iron in liver and brain of normal and induced ageing rats. Significant (P<0.05) elevation in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and significant (P<0.05) reduced of albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (TBI) as a liver function biomarkers was shown in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. Rats treated with GSE, GTE, PSE, GBE, LA and CPH showed a protective role in decreasing significantly (P<0.05) the serum levels of AST ALT, ALP, GGT with significant (P<0.05) increasing in the serum ALB and TBI as a liver function biomarkers in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. Summary IV The levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as a hepatic function biomarkers significantly (P<0.05) increased in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. The treatment with GSE, GTE, GSE, GBE, LA and CPH showed a protective role in significantly decreasing the serum levels of LDH and CPK in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. The levels of serum urea, creatinine and uric acid as a renal function biomarkers significantly (P<0.05) increased in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. The rats treated with GSE, GTE, GPE, GBE, LA and CPH showed a protective role in decreasing significantly (P< 0.05) the serum levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine in natural and D-gal. induced aging rats. Body weight and organs weight (liver, heart and brain) were slightly decreased in D-gal. induced model rats but antioxidants administration improves them. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that aging induces a significant mtDNA oxidative damage and oxidative stress biomarkers in rats. Chronic administration of D-gal. accelerates aging via enhancing production of reactive oxygen species and advanced glycation ends products (AGE), this sequence of events results an oxidative stress and cellular damage. 9-week supplementation of GSE, GTE, PSE, GBE, LA and CPH supplementation suppresses senescence biomarkers and down regulates oxidative stress damage in the liver, heart, kidney and brain tissues of normal and D-gal.-induced aging rats.
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