Article

Motivation, Personality, and Development Within Embedded Social Contexts: An Overview of Self-Determination Theory

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Self-determination theory maintains and has provided empirical support for the proposition that all human beings have fundamental psychological needs to be competent, autonomous, and related to others. Satisfaction of these basic needs facilitates people's autonomous motivation (i.e., acting with a sense of full endorsement and volition), whereas thwarting the needs promotes controlled motivation (i.e., feeling pressured to behave in particular ways) or being amotivated (i.e., lacking intentionality). Satisfying these basic needs and acting autonomously have been consistently shown to be associated with psychological health and effective performance. Social contexts within which people operate, however proximal (e.g., a family or workgroup) or distal (e.g., a cultural value or economic system), affect their need satisfaction and type of motivation, thus affecting their wellness and effectiveness. Social contexts also affect whether people's life goals or aspirations tend to be more intrinsic or more extrinsic, and that in turn affects important life outcomes.

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... However, each of these scales have some shortcomings. In self-determination theory [4,5], widely known as the motivation theory, motivation is broadly classified into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation involves performing a particular activity because it leads to a separable consequence; that is, the goal is separate from the activity itself. ...
... Extrinsic motivation involves performing a particular activity because it leads to a separable consequence; that is, the goal is separate from the activity itself. In contrast, intrinsic motivation involves performing a particular activity because it is interesting and enjoyable [4,5]. According to this classification, rewards, including functional recovery and praise from medical staff and family members, can be categorized as extrinsic motivation, and patients' enjoyment of the rehabilitation itself can be classified as an intrinsic motivation. ...
... The original Japanese version of the MORE scale is shown in S1 Table. The MORE scale contains 17 items, which were based on the following categories in our previous research [10]: four items (1,2,3,4) regarding the patients' goals, three items (11,12,13) regarding success and failure experiences, one item (14) regarding physical condition and cognitive function, two items (16,17) regarding resilience, four items (5,6,7,8) regarding the influence of rehabilitation professionals, one item (9) regarding relationships between patients, one item (10) regarding patients' supporters, and one item (15) regarding patients' behavior changes. In our previous study, patients' goals, success and failure experiences, physical condition and cognitive function, and resilience were based on the personal factors that influenced patients' motivation [10]. ...
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Objective This study aimed to develop the Motivation in stroke patients for rehabilitation scale (MORE scale), following the Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN). Method Study participants included rehabilitation professionals working at the convalescent rehabilitation hospital and stroke patients admitted to the hospital. The original MORE scale was developed from an item pool, which was created through discussions of nine rehabilitation professionals. After the content validity of the scale was verified using the Delphi method with 61 rehabilitation professionals and 22 stroke patients, the scale’s validity and reliability were examined for 201 stroke patients. The construct validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory analysis. Cronbach’s alpha confirmed its internal consistency. Regarding convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity, Spearman’s rho was calculated between the MORE scale and the Apathy Scale (AS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), which rates the subjective feelings of motivation. Results Using the Delphi method, 17 items were incorporated into the MORE scale. According to EFA and CFA, a one-factor model was suggested. All MORE scale items demonstrated satisfactory item response, with item slopes ranging from 0.811 to 2.142, and item difficulty parameters ranging from -3.203 to 0.522. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.948. Regarding test-retest reliability, a moderate correlation was found between scores at the beginning and one month after hospitalization (rho = 0.612. p < 0.001). The MORE scale showed significant correlation with AS (rho = -0.536, p < 0.001), SDS (rho = -0.347, p < 0.001), and VAS (rho = 0.536, p < 0.001), confirming the convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity, respectively. Conclusions The MORE scale was verified as a valid and reliable scale for evaluating stroke patients’ motivation for rehabilitation.
... In what follows, we show that the decision to farm can be markedly influenced by an individual's desire to satisfy their basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Deci and Ryan 2012). The specifics of how these needs manifest among farmers must be carefully considered to appreciate how they influence the choice to become a farmer. ...
... We employed a qualitative approach to examine farmers' motivations. As psychologists describe motivation as a complex and embedded human characteristic influenced by social contexts (Deci and Ryan 2012), and qualitative techniques lend themselves to understanding such socially negotiated factors (Creswell 2003;Ritchie et al. 2003;Creswell and Plano-Clark 2007;Taylor et al. 2015). This paper reports on findings from 24 individual interviews and 2 focus group discussions conducted between June 2017 and March 2018. ...
... Preliminary themes were inductively identified through this reading (Vaismoradi et al. 2013). These preliminary themes align with aspects of the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan 2012). These theoretical dimensions guided the thematic analysis, which was conducted using NVivo 11. ...
Article
In this paper, we report on the dynamics of motivations to farm among farmers in Newfoundland, and the potential to leverage these motives in policy interventions. The paper is the outcome of interviews with 24 farmers and two focus group discussions in the period 2017–2018. This paper aims to describe why participants engaged in farming and continue to farm in a region fraught with extensive challenges that undermine entry and retention. Using motivation and self‐determination theories, we show that individual need for autonomy (thus, the farmer's zest to be independent and to make free‐will choices); competence (farming because one can do so and believes in the work); and relatedness (farming to serve the community, to repay society and connect with family) aid the entry and retention of farmers by creating interests in farming and sustaining motivations. Therefore, we argue that, in light of diverse motivating factors and the need to satisfy basic psychological needs, interventions to attract and retain people in agriculture need to move beyond structural and economic concerns to consider how to satisfy the individual basic social, psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Motivations offer valuable insights into why people enter and stay in farming. The need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness influence farmers’ entry and retention. Agricultural policies should incorporate the individual's need for self‐determination. Motivations offer valuable insights into why people enter and stay in farming. The need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness influence farmers’ entry and retention. Agricultural policies should incorporate the individual's need for self‐determination. À l'intérieur de ce texte, nous présentons la diversité des motivations à exploiter une ferme chez les agriculteurs de Terre‐Neuve et la possibilité d'optimiser ces motifs dans les politiques publiques. Sur le plan méthodologique, nous avons procédé à des entrevues avec 24 agriculteurs et organisé deux groupes de discussion durant la période de 2017 à 2018. Notre article vise à décrire la raison pour laquelle les participants se sont engagés dans l'agriculture et continuent de le faire dans une région aux prises avec des problèmes considérables qui minent leurs activités. En utilisant les théories de la motivation et de l'autodétermination, nous démontrons que le besoin individuel d'autonomie (donc, l'enthousiasme des agriculteurs à être indépendants et à faire des choix de plein gré); la compétence (exploiter une ferme parce qu'ils peuvent le faire et croient à ce travail); et le rapprochement (exploitation d'une ferme pour servir la communauté, rendre à la société ce qu'elle nous a donné et rester en contact avec la famille) contribuent à la persévérance des agriculteurs. Par conséquent, nous soutenons qu'à la lumière des divers facteurs de motivation et de la nécessité de répondre aux besoins psychologiques de base, les interventions pour attirer et fidéliser les gens en agriculture doivent outrepasser les préoccupations économiques et structurelles afin d'examiner attentivement les principes de la compétence, de l'autonomie et du rapprochement.
... Il n'explique pas, toutefois, pourquoi il en est ainsi (Wigfield et al., 2015). Selon plusieurs chercheurs, les comportements en situation d'apprentissage seraient déclenchés prioritairement par la recherche de la satisfaction de certains besoins psychologiques (Baard et al., 2004;Deci et Ryan, 2012;Reeve, 2012). Particulièrement, les besoins d'accomplissement et d'affiliation seraient parmi les plus déterminants (Deci et Ryan, 2012). ...
... Selon plusieurs chercheurs, les comportements en situation d'apprentissage seraient déclenchés prioritairement par la recherche de la satisfaction de certains besoins psychologiques (Baard et al., 2004;Deci et Ryan, 2012;Reeve, 2012). Particulièrement, les besoins d'accomplissement et d'affiliation seraient parmi les plus déterminants (Deci et Ryan, 2012). ...
... S'il éprouve plutôt un sentiment de non-accomplissement ou d'incompétence, il aura tendance à déprécier sa formation et à s'engager dans d'autres sphères d'activités afin de se valoriser et de maintenir son équilibre psychologique. Le besoin d'affiliation correspond pour sa part à l'établissement de relations chaleureuses avec ses enseignants et les autres apprenants ainsi qu'au fait d'être accepté et reconnu par eux (Deci et Ryan, 2012). ...
Article
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L’impact des cours en ligne sur la motivation, l’engagement dans les études et la satisfaction des besoins psychologiques lors des premières vagues de COVID-19 ont été examinés à partir d’un questionnaire rempli par un échantillon d’étudiants en formation initiale à l’enseignement d’une université francophone de la région de Montréal (Canada) (n = 272). L’analyse des données révèle que les participants ont été moins motivés et moins engagés et qu’ils sont plus difficilement parvenus à satisfaire leurs besoins psychologiques dans les cours en ligne que dans leur habituelle formation en présentiel. Ces résultats sont discutés dans la perspective de la littérature existante sur le sujet et des futurs développements de la formation en ligne.
... Finally, to help satisfy employees' need for competence, transformational leaders, through inspirational motivation, encourage them to achieve higher goals and overcome obstacles to high performance. Hence, based on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012), it can be argued that transformational leaders enhance employees' psychological and physical well-being (Arnold et al., 2015) by meeting their basic psychological needs. Though linked to various dimensions of employee well-being (Arnold et al., 2007;Arnold, 2017;Berger et al., 2019;Walsh & Arnold, 2020) individually, transformational leadership has never been associated with multidimensional employee well-being. ...
... They exhibit active responsiveness (Goldman & Tabak, 2010) and provide feedback and recognition , enabling an enriched work atmosphere. Drawing from the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012), it can be argued that ethical leaders would enhance employee well-being by mobilizing job resources and defending and protecting subordinates from unfairness. ...
... In addition, it reduces burnout (Andrews & Kacmar, 2014) and psychological distress (Fitzsimons & Fuller, 2002). Based on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012), it can be argued that empowering leaders would enhance employee well-being by helping subordinates appreciate the significance of work, engaging them in decision-making, trusting their abilities to succeed, and reducing bureaucratic hurdles (Ahearne et al., 2005). Hence, we hypothesize that: ...
Article
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This study compared the direct relationships of transformational, ethical, empowering, and servant leadership with a multidimensional construct of employee well-being. Employee well-being is conceptualized as a higher-order construct composed of four lower-order constructs of job satisfaction (hedonic), job engagement (eudaimonic), job stress (negative), and sleep quality (physical). This study also examined the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). Data was collected in a two-wave online survey from 560 middle-level managers working in private banking and insurance sector organizations. Structural equation modeling technique was employed to find out the direct and indirect association of leadership styles with employee well-being. Results validated the hierarchical structure of employee well-being and revealed that transformational, empowering, and servant leadership promotes employee well-being directly. Except for servant leadership, all other leadership styles were indirectly associated with employee well-being through LMX. Servant leadership only affected employee well-being directly. Findings highlight the theoretical and practical significance of leadership styles and LMX for employee well-being.
... According to the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1980), supportive TSRs may make students feel safe, which further stimulates positive learning engagement (Verschueren & Koomen, 2012). According to self-determination theory (SDT) (Ryan & Deci, 2017;Deci & Ryan, 2012), positive TSRs are considered as an external source of motivation. The association among TSRs, motivation and student learning is quite complicated. ...
... SDT focuses on the process of internalizing goals and values, which suggests that a person may manifest a particular behavior for external or internal reasons (Deci & Ryan, 2012). There are different types of motivation according to the level of self-determination, and the main ones are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. ...
... There are different types of motivation according to the level of self-determination, and the main ones are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by an innate tendency, which is characterized by a perceived locus of a feeling of free choice and internal coherence (Deci & Ryan, 2012). In contrast, extrinsic motivation is stimulated by external forces, which is characterized by a feeling of reward, obligation and pressure (Ryan & Deci, 2017). ...
Article
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The present study investigated whether students' motivational beliefs act as a mediator in the association between teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and foreign language performance with a multiple mediation model. Furthermore, this research examined whether mediating roles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation differ. A total of 1171 eighth graders (583 male, 588 female) were chosen with purposive sampling in China. Student-reported measures of TSRs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) test based on national curriculum were administrated in October 2017. Results showed that the positive link between TSRs and foreign language performance is partially mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the mediation effect of intrinsic motivation is significantly greater than that of extrinsic motivation, controlling for gender and socioeconomic status. The results indicated that supportive TSRs can help learners to improve their foreign language proficiency by promoting their motivation, especially intrinsic motivation. The present results may have substantive theoretical and practical implications for teacher education and foreign language learning. El rol de la motivación en los efectos de las relaciones profesor-estudiante en el rendi-miento de la lengua extranjera. RESUMEN: El presente estudio investigó si las creencias motivacionales de los estudiantes actúan como mediadores en la asociación entre las relaciones profesor-alumno (TSR) y el rendimiento de un idioma extranjero con un modelo de mediación múltiple. Además, esta investigación examinó si los roles mediadores de la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca difie-ren. Se eligieron 1171 alumnos de octavo grado (583 hombres, 588 mujeres) con muestreo intencional en China. En octubre de 2017, se aplicaron a los estudiantes las pruebas de TSR, la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca y la prueba de inglés como idioma extranjero (EFL) ba-sadas en el plan de estudios nacional. Los resultados mostraron que el vínculo positivo entre TSR y el desempeño de un idioma extranjero está parcialmente mediado por la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca, y el efecto de mediación de la motivación intrínseca es significativa-mente mayor que el de la motivación extrínseca, controlando el género y el estatus socioeco-Porta Linguarum Nº 33, enero 2020 130 nómico. Los resultados indicaron que los TSR de apoyo pueden ayudar a los alumnos a me-jorar su dominio del idioma extranjero ya que promueven su motivación, especialmente la motivación intrínseca. Los resultados actuales pueden tener importantes implicaciones teó-ricas y prácticas para la formación del profesorado y el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. Palabras clave: relaciones profesor-alumno; motivación intrínseca; motivación extrínseca; teoría de la autodeterminación; modelo de mediación múltiple
... Concerning motivation, it is believed that if BPNs are satisfied, intrinsic motivation is enhanced. On the contrary, if these are not met, intrinsic motivation is said to be impaired (Deci & Ryan, 2012;Ryan & Deci, 2017). ...
... They believed that there are certain properties of activities that make them intrinsically motivating (Ryan & Deci, 2000b;Vansteenkiste et al., 2020). Concerning motivation, it was believed that if BPNs are satisfied, intrinsic motivation is enhanced and on the contrary, if these are not fulfilled, intrinsic motivation is impaired (Deci & Ryan, 2012;Ryan & Deci, 2017). ...
Thesis
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This study researched how different sequences of two types of cooperative learning (CL), informal (e.g. tasks) and formal (e.g. projects), affect Japanese first-year university EFL students’ motivation and basic psychological need (BPN) satisfaction. Research questions (RQs) for this study are as follows. RQ1. How does student motivation change over an academic year in different sequential arrangements of informal and formal CL? RQ2. How do students’ basic psychological needs change over an academic year in different sequential arrangements of informal and formal CL? The results suggest that informal followed by formal CL activities appear to make students focus on important aspects of working cooperatively in groups and positively affect their motivation and feelings toward BPNs. Formal CL followed by informal CL seems to positively affect identified regulation and competence over the year. It also appears to make some students focus on their English skills more than on their interpersonal connections.
... Some researchers believe that learning motivation is the causal variable of academic emotions and that the intrinsic motivation of learning can positively predict positive academic emotions (Dorothea et al., 2007), while others believe that learning motivation is the resulting variable of positive academic emotions and that positive academic emotions can improve individual learning (Chunmei et al., 2017). Self-determination theory maintains and has provided support for the proposition that all human beings have fundamental psychological needs to be competent, autonomous, and related to others (Deci & Ryan, 1985, that, if satisfied, generate positive emotion and improve performance. One could argue that students who report higher learning motivation might more readily find fulfillment of these needs in their learning environment and should therefore be more likely to report positive academic emotions (Gillet et al., 2013). ...
... Online, this difference may be because online learning is more of a "key-to-key" "no one" state, resulting in insufficient emotional, social, and cognitive interaction. This is consistent with research showing that feelings of isolation and disconnectedness are reasons for high dropout rates among online learners ( Rovai & Wighting 2005), and further validated the self-determinism theory related research results (Deci & Ryan, 1985Gillet et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Learning performance is an important indicator of online learning, is related to the quality of online education and the performance of students. Previous studies have found that learners’ learning performance is related to learning motivation and academic emotion, but the role of non-intellectual factors such as academic emotion has received less attention in empirical research. In order to make up for this gap, this study explored the mediating effect of positive academic emotions on college students’ online learning motivation and online learning performance, as well as the differences in mediating effects under different learning methods (i.e., online learning and offline learning). The data comes from 1088 college students who participate in online courses and offline courses in China. This study adopts correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis to analyze the intermediary effect of online and offline students and multi-group comparisons. The results showed that the (1) online learning motivation is positively affecting online learning performance and positive academic emotions, and positive academic emotions are related to online learning performance. There is also a positive correlation between the dimensions of the three; (2) positive academic emotions part of the intermediary role between college students’ online learning motivation and online learning performance; (3) the intermediary effect of positive academic emotions in offline learning is significantly greater than that of online learning. This study is not only conducive to understanding academic emotions, learning motives and learning performance, but also provides important enlightenment online learning performance management in promoting open curriculum construction.
... SDT involves the psychological needs and personal motivations of humans to engage in certain behavioral activities [27][28][29][30]. SDT emphasizes the degree of self-determination in human behavior, and suggests that the social environment can enhance internal motivation, promote the internalization of external motivation, and ensure healthy human growth by supporting the satisfaction of three basic psychological need for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. ...
... Individuals who feel that their psychological needs are met are more likely to be motivated and persistent in their tasks [29]. Motivation plays a crucial role in physical activity intentions and different attitude levels, and subjective norms and perceived behavioral control may arise from other types of motivation [30]. The combination of SDT and the TPB provides additional explanations for processes that cannot be explained by each view alone. ...
Article
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This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and self-determination theory (SDT) to predict the sports participation and exercise intentions of college students in Central China by considering the mediating roles of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze self-reported data from 294 college students (144 males and 150 females). The relationship between the research variables was tested by the mediation model and Bootstrap 5000 sampling using AMOS version 24. The results show that the direct effects of attitudes and perceived behavioral control on motor intention and motor participation are significant in the model. The satisfaction of the three psychological needs had a positive indirect effect on motor participation through attitudes; competence and autonomy had a positive indirect effect on motor participation mediated through subjective norms; however, only competence had a positive indirect effect on motor mediated through perceived behavioral control. In conclusion, this research demonstrates the importance of meeting these three basic psychological needs when designing intervention measures to promote college students’ sports participation.
... 33 Self-determination theory' developed by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan explains the association between human motivation and personality characteristics with basic needs satisfaction of these patients without external influences. 34,35 Self-motivation is classified into; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. 34 Intrinsic motivation causes a person engaging in a behaviour for its own sake as they enjoy it or finds the activity enjoyable. ...
... Whereas, extrinsic motivation causes engagement in an activity to earn a reward or to avoid negative consequences. [34][35][36][37][38] As the case in point, an intrinsically motivated patient with TIA who is obese but loves to exercise would willingly engage in the activity without expecting if the exercise would decrease their weight and would have had the same rigor even before the TIA event. In comparison, an extrinsic motivated patient with TIA and obese would start to engage in some physical activity to reduce weight based on past learning experience that obesity is a hindrance to wellness. ...
... · organismic -basic psychological needs as units of analysis; personality coherence understood as a degree of autonomous functioning, one's coherent sense of self (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2012;Ryan, 1993). ...
Article
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This special issue of the European Journal of Personality, entitled Towards conceptualizing and assessing personality coherence and incoherence, was designed to call for new approaches to the understanding and assessment of personality coherence. Seven papers have been brought together as a result: three theoretical and four empirical Although these papers are devoted to portraying novel or expanded existing conceptual and methodological approaches to personality coherence, they also share a historic commitment to studying this phenomenon. Based on those contributions, I refer to the four topics: (1) novel, extended, validated models of personality coherence, (2) personality coherence and related constructs, (3) functional/adaptive meaning of personality coherence, and (4) assessment-related issues that help display advances in the theory, measurement, and research on personality coherence. In addition, I present four areas that have been identified as avenues for future research: (1) potentials for further developing the personality coherence field, (2) personality coherence, self, and character, (4) personality coherence and development, and (4) personality coherence across different cultures.
... It is motivation that gets a student opting to study (Government), keeps them going on in the subject and determines what they achieve from the subject (Brown in Adekeye, Remu & Ademuwagun, 2012). There are two types of motivation-intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Adamma, et al., 2018;Ryan and Deci, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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This study investigated the Effect of Motivation Strategies on Students' Achievement and Interest in Senior Secondary School Government in Nsukka Education Zone Enugu State. The study adopted Quasi experimental design, specifically the pre-test, post-test, control group research design. Two thousand six hundred and twenty (2,620) SSII Government students across the sixty-two (62) public secondary schools in Nsukka education zone formed the population while One hundred (100) respondents drawn from four (4) intact classes formed the sample size. Achievement test tagged "Government Academic Achievement Test (GAAT) and Government Interest Scale (GIIS)" designed by the researcher, duly vetted and validated by three experts from Science Education Department (Measurement and Evaluation unit) and Social Science Department (Political Science unit), Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, were used for data collection. The reliability of the research instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha for GIIS which yielded the reliability of 0.91 and Kuder Richardson formular 20 (KR-20) which yielded the reliability of 0.70. GAAT's temporal reliability was established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while ANCOVA was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that the intrinsic motivation strategy (IMS) had positive effect on the academic achievement and interest of students in Government than the extrinsic motivation strategy, and that gender is not significant factor in determining students' academic achievement and interest in Government. It was recommended among other things that the use of intrinsic motivation strategy be encouraged in the teaching of Government in schools, for it helps to keep students abreast for they play the foremost role of intrinsically motivating themselves first, as they are the primary beneficiaries of their own academic achievement; skillful teachers in motivation strategies should be employed to teach. Keyword: Motivation, Strategies, Academic Achievement, Government, Interest, Secondary School
... SDT emphasizes how concepts, attitudes, and aspirations are integrated as a result of the effect of multiple elements in the social context, owing to the fact that an individual's connection with the environment is never complete. Each individual manages his or her behavior in accordance with his or her psychological demands, and each individual is capable of doing so on a constant basis, moving from a wholly external viewpoint to an integrated and independent one [41]. ...
Article
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The current research was an attempt to compare the impacts of online English language learning and face-to-face English language learning on Iranian EFL learners’ grammatical knowledge and their learning motivation. To this end, the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) was given to 81 Iranian EFL students, and 50 of them who were at the intermediate level were selected as the participants of the study. Then, they were randomly divided into two groups; one experimental group (EG) ( n = 25 ) and one control group (CG) ( n = 25 ). After that, both groups were pretested by a grammar test and a motivation questionnaire. After pretesting, the participants of the EG received the treatment through online instruction. On the other hand, the participants of the CG were taught the grammatical points through a face-to-face instruction. At the end of the treatment, both groups took the posttest of grammar and motivation. The EG outperformed the CG on both the grammar and motivation posttests, according to the findings of paired and independent samples t -tests. Implementing online instruction assisted Iranian EFL learners to enhance their grammatical knowledge and increase their learning motivation. The implications of this research can encourage teachers to use online learning methods in their classes.
... The level of physical activity is mainly determined by the individual's motivation, the level of satisfaction of his/her basic psychological needs (BPN), causing commitment [5]. In the light of the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) by Deci and Ryan [6], there is an opportunity for an in-depth analysis of motivation and personal development components in different contexts of an individual's daily functioning. ...
Article
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Background: To promote active commuting to and from school, it is pertinent to understand the motivational factors that influence the choice of this form of transportation. Objective: Translation, cultural adaptation and analysis of the factor structure as well as psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs and Satisfaction in Active Commuting to and from School (BPNS-ACS) scale among Polish students and examination of the distribution of the scale scores according to gender, mode of commuting to and from school and the frequency of using bicycle for this purpose. Material and methods: Data from 475 Polish students aged 11-18, including 53.9% of girls were analysed. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Polish version of the BPNS-ACS, U Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis H tests were performed. Results: The BPNS-ACS consists of 12 items forming three dimensions: autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties: χ2(51)=195.424 (p ˂ 0.001); χ2/df=3.832; CFI=0.944, TLI=0.927, RMSEA=0.077 (90%CI 0.066-0.089), AIC=249.424, BIC=361.833, GFI=0.937, AGFI=0.904. BPNC-ACS scores on factors corresponding to the three basic psychological needs differ based on gender, mode of commuting to and from school and the frequency of cycling to or from school. Conclusions: Further exploration of the function of basic psychological needs in active commuting to and from school among Polish adolescents may be conducted using an adapted version of the BPNS-ACS scale.
... Die empirisch vielfach belegte Selbstbestimmungstheorie postuliert, dass menschliches Verhalten und Erleben dadurch geprägt sind, ob bzw. inwieweit die drei psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse nach Eingebundenheit, Kompetenz und Autonomie befriedigt werden (Deci & Ryan, 2012). Autonomieerleben meint hierbei den Grad, zu dem Menschen das Gefühl haben, über eigene Kognitionen und Handlungen frei entscheiden zu können. ...
Chapter
[EN] In the literature on continuing vocational education and training, self-organized, self-determined and self-regulated learning are often used as complementary or alternative terms for self-directed learning and are rarely distinguished from each other. This article outlines and discusses previous approaches to conceptual-analytical separation and attempts to integrate them into a coherent model. It theoretically distinguishes self-control, self-organization, self-determination and self-regulation as independent constituents of learning (as far as possible) and describes their relation. [DE] Ob selbstorganisiertes, selbstbestimmtes oder selbstreguliertes Lernen - in der Fachliteratur zur beruflichen Weiterbildung werden zahlreiche Bezeichnungen ergänzend oder alternativ zum selbstgesteuerten Lernen verwendet, häufig miteinander vermischt und nur selten trennscharf voneinander abgegrenzt. Der vorliegende Beitrag skizziert und diskutiert die bisherigen Ansätze zur begriffsanalytischen Trennung und unternimmt daran anknüpfend den Versuch, diese in ein gleichgeordnetes Modell zu integrieren. Dieses grenzt Vorgänge der Selbststeuerung, Selbstorganisation, Selbstbestimmung und Selbstregulation als eigenständige Komponenten des Lernens theoretisch (weitmöglich) voneinander ab und setzt sie in einen Zusammenhang.
... · organismic -basic psychological needs as units of analysis; personality coherence understood as a degree of autonomous functioning, one's coherent sense of self (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2012;Ryan, 1993). ...
... интринзичну мотивацију и интернализацију, када су основне психолошке потребе задовољене у функцији интерперсоналне динамике и социјалних поставки (Deci & Ryan, 2000) Дакле, лично-сти имају способности да интернализују мотивисана понашања, тј. да се аутономно покрећу и самоодређују, што даље значи да дидактичке инструкције у учењу треба усмерити ка задовољењу њихових унутрашњих потреба током учења, које су различите, те их треба уочити и водити студента путем којим може стећи самоодређене облике, или врсте регулације (Deci & Ryan, 2012;Gojkov-Rajić i sar., 2021). Због ограничења обима текста о питањима о претходно поменутим предиспозицијама из овога мишљења дискутоваће се код интерпретације налаза, јер око овога постоје и данас дискусије о концепту и моделима саморегулације у страном језику, а тиме и даље о употреби постојећих инструмената за идентификацију феномена и сл. ...
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200 студената Новосадског и Београдског универзитета. Студенти са просечном оценом на студијама изнад 9,70 узети су као академски даровити (N=19). Коришћени инструменти су: тест знања страног језика струке, израђен за ово истраживање; Упитник ОП-Општи подаци, Инвентар стратегија за учење страног језика (SILL)-модификована верзија (немачки, енглески). 1
... The majority of entrepreneurship education studies were undertaken in business schools (Ahmad et al., 2018), and future studies could be carried out outside of the business school perspectives (such as engineering and science, hospitality, and tourism). Besides, people are under the influence of contexts embedded in the broader cultural climate, and there likely exists variability in their basic psychological needs across cultures (Deci & Ryan, 2012). Individuals in a more collectivistic-oriented Asian context, such as China, would benefit more from being involved in caring and supportive relationships, as they are in a more socialized and interpersonal context (Chen et al., 2015). ...
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This study investigated the impact of entrepreneurship course characteristics on students' entrepreneurial intentions through fostering entrepreneurial self-efficacy and study engagement. Furthermore, the moderating role of student needs differences was examined. Data were collected among 302 Chinese undergraduates who enrolled in an entrepreneurship course. Students filled in a questionnaire before and after the course. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that a challenging learning environment positively related to entrepreneurial self-efficacy and study engagement, which in turn related to entrepreneurial intentions. Teacher-student relationships only related to study engagement. In addition, a challenging learning environment related stronger to enhanced study engagement for the high need for achievement students, and teacher-student relationships significantly and positively related to entrepreneurial self-efficacy only among students with a high need for affiliation. The findings can be used to improve entrepreneurship education. Theoretical and practical implications will be discussed.
... According to social motivation theory, students with high social support from teachers will build strong motivational beliefs that will promote active learning engagement and effort (Furrer and Skinner, 2003;Cui et al., 2020, p. 2). Self-determination theory links STRs, motivational beliefs, and learning behaviors, suggesting that positive relationships serve as external sources of motivational adjustment that contribute to active learning behaviors (Deci and Ryan, 2008;Ryan, 2012;Cui et al., 2020, p. 2). Furthermore, students' perceptions of teachers in relational dimensions, such as fairness and high expectations, predicted students' goals, academic motivation, and ultimately academic performance (Wentzel, 2010;Gehlbach et al., 2016). ...
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Student–teacher relationships (STRs) have been examined by many studies. However, an omission still exists, the existing scales are not appropriate for studying STRs in private colleges because of the special character of these schools. This paper presents the development and validation of Private-College Student–Teacher Relationship Scale (PCSTRS), the first instrument to evaluate student–teacher relationships (STRs) in private colleges. The PCSTRS has six dimensions: trust, interaction, intimacy, care, approval, and comfort. In our main study, the validity and reliability of the six-factor PCSTRS model were demonstrated. The result of internal consistency coefficient indicated the high reliability of the scale, and the result of concurrent validity indicated the significant correlational relationships between the PCSTRS with other STR measures. In supplementary study, the PCSTRS was administered to 360 participants to confirm the applicability of PCSTRS and investigate the relation of STRs and students’ traits, performance, and wellbeing, as well as the differences between the private school and the public school in this relation; the analyses revealed that there were significant differences in trust, intimacy, and care between private and public colleges; positive correlations were found between STRs and self-esteem, self-efficacy, academic performance, extracurricular activity involvement, and subjective wellbeing. Present research firstly develops the PCSTRS, examined the reliability and validity, and provides the proposed nomological network among related constructs.
... However, motivation is a characteristic of the student and mediated by the teacher, the classroom environment, and the school culture. Extrinsic motivation mobilizes the student's interest and engagement through external means, expressed by seeking rewards and the desire to successfully fulfill people's expectations (Boruchovitch, 2009;Bzuneck & Boruchovitch, 2019;Deci & Ryan, 2014). ...
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This study aimed to investigate the association between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for the use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies in technologists. Possible differences in both constructs in terms of sex and course were also analyzed. Participants were 96 students from two technological courses at a public education institution in the state of São Paulo. The Motivation to Learn Scale for University Students and the Scale for Learning Strategies for University Students were used. The results showed the prevalence of intrinsic motivation and metacognitive strategies. The motivational orientations were positively related to cognitive and metacognitive strategies. There were no differences regarding gender, or the course attended. New studies should broaden the knowledge about the characteristics of this public, whose course curricula are directed toward inclusion in the labor market and include practical activities as a reality.
... Again, our findings showed the detrimental effect of perceiving the environment as constraining while being motivated to find a job. SDT proposes that, for optimal well-being, one should be able to freely engage in an action in line with what one wants and supported by the environment (71). In addition to the absence of amotivation, the more "balanced" experience (of external and introjected vs identified regulation) evident among the motivated provides more opportunities to report positive affective experiences and intensified job search efforts. ...
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In general, being unemployed has negative implications for the individual and the mental health of the public as a collective. One way to escape this situation is to search for a job. However, following self-determination theory (SDT), unemployed people’s different reasons (i.e., their motivation) for engaging in a job search influence their well-being, attitudes, and behaviors for better or worse. Some research has already supported the associations between different types of motivation and these outcomes, but less is known about how these types of motivation simultaneously associate with these outcomes. The current study addressed this issue by studying how different motivational profiles had different implications for the affective experiences, commitment to employment, and job search behavior of the unemployed. Latent profile analysis, among 865 unemployed individuals from previously disadvantaged communities inSouth Africa, highlighted four distinct motivational profiles: motivated, ambivalent, amotivated, and unmotivated. The motivated reported some good well-being (i.e., positive experiences) and economic outcomes (i.e., employment commitment and job search), but these came at a cost (i.e., more negative experiences). The same went for the ambivalent, but to a lesser extent. Being unmotivated seemed to have the opposite effect in that it came with psychological benefits, but with economic costs, as these individuals might withdraw from the labor market. This also applied to the amotivated, although they experienced less psychological benefit than their unmotivated counterparts. The findings made several contributions to SDT and unemployment research and could help tailor interventions and policies for particular types of unemployed people.
... A autodeterminação se refere à capacidade das pessoas de controlar e gerenciar suas próprias vidas (Ryan & Deci, 2019). Contudo, destaca-se que pesquisadores constantemente examinam a teoria da autodeterminação no âmbito esportivo (Curran et al., 2013;Deci, 2004;Deci & Ryan, 2012;Rigby & Ryan, 2018). Pesquisas recentes mostram que é desejável que os atletas sejam motivados de forma autônoma para o contexto esportivo, uma vez que essa regulação motivacional influencia positivamente na permanência, desempenho e desenvolvimento esportivo do atleta (Fiorese et al., 2017;Junior et al., 2017). ...
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Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar e correlacionar os motivos de adesão à prática do para atletismo em adultos com deficiência física. Participaram do estudo 27 adultos (idade: 34,93 ± 8,51 anos). Todos foram avaliados pelo questionário de motivação para exercícios (EMI-2). A amostra foi subdividida em dois grupos de etiologia da deficiência (congênita, DC, N=17; e adquirido, DA, N=10) Os dados foram correlacionados pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e comparados por uma análise multivariada de covariância. Diversão/bem-estar, prevenção de doenças e competição (médias=4,76; 4,48; 4,47; respectivamente). Para o grupo DC, os motivos mais frequentes foram competição, diversão/bem-estar e prevenção de doenças (médias=4,66; 4,63; 4,49; respectivamente). No grupo DA, prevenção de doenças, saúde/bem-estar e condição física (médias=4,45; 4,45; 4,40; respectivamente), foram os mais frequentes. Observou-se correlações significativas entre reconhecimento social e tempo de deficiência (r=0,406; p<0,05) e entre a prevenção de doenças e a idade (r=0,403; p<0,05). A análise multivariada revelou que reconhecimento social (p=0,006) e competição (p=0,043) apresentam-se de maneira diferente entre os grupos DA e DC. Contudo, ao se considerar a covariável idade, o controle do estresse (p=0,016) e a condição física (p=0,015), apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos avaliados. Concluímos que do ponto de vista absoluto, os aspectos relacionados à saúde, bem-estar e a competição parecem despertar mais motivação para a prática do para atletismo. Porém há que se considerar a idade e a etiologia da deficiência como fatores que podem modular os motivos de participação na modalidade.
... In this stage, AI can recommend interventions that produce the strongest impact for the variable relevant for learning based on the current state of these variables. For example, if a student has low grades and low motivation, AI can recommend interventions that promote the quality and quantity of motivation based on the self-determination theory of motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2012), such as an informative feedback or granting students freedom while working on a task (Euler and Hahn, 2014). The increased motivation increases the chance that the students improve their grades since motivation is related to the quality of actions (Cerasoli et al., 2014). ...
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Learning analytics represent a promising approach for fostering personalized learning processes. Most applications of this technology currently do not use textual data for providing information on learning, or for deriving recommendations for further development. This paper presents the results of three studies aiming to make textual information usable. In the first study, the iota concept is introduced as a new content analysis measure to evaluate inter-coder reliability. The main advantage of this new concept is that it provides a reliability estimation for every single category, allowing deeper insight into the quality of textual analysis. The second study simulates the process of content analysis, comparing the new iota concept with well-established measures (e.g., Krippendorff's Alpha, percentage agreement). The results show that the new concept covers the true reliability of a coding scheme, and is not affected by the number of coders or categories, the sample size, or the distribution of data. Furthermore, cutoff values are derived for judging the quality of the analysis. The third study employs the new concept, as it analyzes the performance of different artificial intelligence (AI) approaches for interpreting textual data based on 90 different constructs. The texts used here were either created by apprentices, students, and pupils, or were taken from vocational textbooks. The paper shows that AI can reliably interpret textual information for learning purposes, and also provides recommendations for optimal AI configuration.
... Such feelings were either described by others, themselves or within the B-MAY programme. The support from others and multimedia learning opportunities has been shown to enhance feelings of relatedness, which can, in turn, improve motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2012). This support helped YP relate to the B-MAY programme. ...
Thesis
Mental health issues are becoming a major global health issue. Problems related to mental health often arise during adolescence as the brain matures. If these problems continue, they have the potential to influence young people’s (YP’s) developmental trajectories and predict future adult mental health problems. Schools are ideally placed to deliver mental health interventions. It is paramount that YP’s voices are heard to ensure the success of mental health interventions. This research aimed to hear the voices of YP about their views and experiences of school-based mental health interventions within two studies. Chapter 1 provides a systematic review and thematic synthesis of YP’s views and experiences of school-based group mental health interventions. This review assessed findings from qualitative studies to help generate new insights into YP’s perspectives of group school-based mental health interventions for YP at secondary-level education. Fourteen articles were identified through electronic databases. Data was thematically synthesised according to established guidelines. Five main themes were identified: sense of agency, experience of content, group dynamics, perception of environment and acknowledging and embracing change. The findings provide evidence that group mental health interventions need to be embedded within educational systems to promote YP’s well-being. This review recommends how these can be implemented and how mental health problems could be prevented in the future. Chapter 2 comprises a qualitative study exploring facilitators and YP’s experiences of a school-based iCBT intervention programme called B-MAY for reducing YP’s anxiety. A total of 31 interviews were completed which comprised 22 YP and 9 facilitators. The data was analysed using a reflexive thematic analysis. Four main themes were found: hopes for programme, ease of use, perceived efficacy of B-MAY and significance of relationships. Findings indicated positive experiences of the intervention programme, with perceived strengths and barriers and suggestions of what an ideal school-based online intervention programme might be composed of. The findings provide an insight into how educators can implement digital interventions successfully within secondary schools with educational psychology support and potential future research.
... This scale, which was validated and used in more than 900 studios (Motoike, Cokley Cunningham, Bernard 2001;Barron, Horst, Fairchild, & Finney, 2005), is based on the principles of the theory of SDT. In relation to this theory, Deci and Ryan (2012) state that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational behaviour is regulated by individuals according to their values, goals and intentions in a particular context. The purpose of such a questionnaire is to measure three types of intrinsic motivation (knowing, achieving objectives and experiencing stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected and identified regulation) and amotivation or total absence of motivation. ...
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This article presents a research work that is aimed at developing a gamified system and a questionnaire to analyse, in a subsequent phase, how the motivation of university students of Spanish as a second language changes in a gamification context. The article is part of the data-collection phase for a doctoral thesis. Here, we discuss the following research question: to what extent does gamification influence students’ motivation when learning Spanish as a foreign language? Firstly, there arises a need for developing the specific gamified system that will be implemented among several groups of university students of Spanish as a second language. Secondly, an instrument must be created so that the data obtained from the system implementation could be collected and sorted, with the final purpose to provide the research question an empirical response within the subsequent phases of the study. The objective of this work involves the gathering of other comparable studies to make them the basis for a new own gamified system design and questionnaire which, in turn, would become a model for further similar works, by admitting the necessary modifications according to each specific context. Therefore, this work enumerates the different phases of the process that has been carried out to develop the questionnaire and the gamified system, whose configuration has been adjusted to the specific environment and needs. These tools will enable us to determine, in the successive phase of the empirical study, to which extent the motivation of those university students of Spanish as a second language chosen for the gamification experiment has increased from the time they were immersed in it.
... Furthermore, the happiness or dissatisfaction of autonomy influences not just the individual's motivation, but also the motivation of others. This happiness or dissatisfaction influences behaviour, resulting in well-being or ill-health (Deci & Ryan, 2012). ...
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Nowadays, when there are a lot of problems to solve and we are constantly caught up in daily tasks, it is more and more difficult to organize ourselves and make the ideal choices for our lives. We choose to smoke or not, to eat at fast food or not, to lead a sedentary or active life, etc. All these choices and behaviors can affect us to a greater or lesser extent our health. Free time is the biggest problem of modern people and the main reason why it does not move. However, the solution is relatively simple. If you can’t train at home, you can find at least one fitness gym in each neighborhood. So, the offer of gyms is generous, because the demand is starting to increase. Maintaining a permanent state of health is a difficult test that each of us must pass daily. Perhaps the most important aspect of this equation is responsibility. When we succeed to become aware about the responsibility for maintaining physical, mental and social well-being, as defined health by WHO, belongs to us and to no one else (family, doctors, teachers, coaches), then we can make the right choices for our lives. “Numerous studies have shown that a person’s life expectancy is directly influenced (positively) by seemingly commonplace aspects, such as maintaining a normal weight, quitting smoking, moderate or no alcohol consumption, sleep lasting 7 - 8 hours, diversified diet and rationally distributed, and last but not least, physical exercise practiced independently and regularly” (http://www.doctor.info.ro)
... Selanjutnya mereka beranjak dewasa juga mengalami keingin tahuan terhadap apa yang mereka akan lakukan. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa "keingintahuan" tersebut ialah suatu bentuk dorongan motivasi dalam diri mereka sendiri tanpa ada campur tangan seseorang (Deci & Ryan, 2012). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jika siswa semakin termotivasi secara intrinsik melalui pencarian pengetahuan yang baru bagi mereka (González-Cutre et al., 2016) yang selanjutnya akan menunjukkan sikap lebih menikmati mengikuti pembelajaran penjas (Navarro-Patón et al., 2019) dan lebih aktif terlibat dalam aktivitas fisik di dalamnya (Fin et al., 2017). ...
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This study aimed to analyze the motivation of students in participating in physical education Learning. This research used a survey that involved 659 samples. The test instrument was an online-based questionnaire (google form). The results of the motivation analysis data showed that the highest intrinsic motivation category is 24%, and the Amotivation category showed the lowest percentage is 16%. Thus it could be concluded that of the five categories that have been studied, intrinsic motivation was higher than other indicators. this indicated that there are still many students who take part in this physical education learning activity without compulsion. Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis motivasi siswa dalam mengikuti pembelajaran jasmani. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan melibatkan 659 sampel. Instrumen tes yang dipilih adalah menggunakan angket berbasis online (google form). Hasil data analisis motivasi siswa menunjukkan bahwa kategori intrinsic motivation paling tinggi sebesar 24%, dan kategori amotivation menunjukkan persentase yang paling rendah sebesar 16%. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari kelima kategori motivasi yang telah diteliti, intrinsic motivation lebih tinggi dibanding kategori motivasi yang lainnya. Hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa masih banyak siswa yang termotivasi dari dalam dirinya sendiri untuk mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani ini tanpa adanya keterpaksaan.
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Work motivation plays a vital role in the development of organizations, as it increases employee productivity and effectiveness. To expand insights into individuals’ work motivation, the authors investigated the influence of individuals’ competence, autonomy, and social relatedness on their work motivation. Additionally, the country-level moderating factors of those individual-level associations were examined. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to analyze data from 32,614 individuals from 25 countries, obtained from the World Values Survey (WVS). Findings showed that autonomy and social relatedness positively impacted work motivation, while competence negatively influenced work motivation. Moreover, the individual-level associations were moderated by the country-level religious affiliation, political participation, humane orientation, and in-group collectivism. Contributions, practical implications, and directions for further research were then discussed.
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Background: Recent advances in mobile and wearable technologies have led to new forms of interventions, called “Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions” (JITAI). JITAIs interact with the individual at the most appropriate time and provide the most appropriate support depending on the continuously acquired Intensive Longitudinal Data (ILD) on participant physiology, behavior, and contexts. These advances raise an important question: How do we model these data to better understand and intervene on health behaviors? The HeartSteps II study, described here, is a Micro-Randomized Trial (MRT) intended to advance both intervention development and theory-building enabled by the new generation of mobile and wearable technology. Methods: The study involves a year-long deployment of HeartSteps, a JITAI for physical activity and sedentary behavior, with 96 sedentary, overweight, but otherwise healthy adults. The central purpose is twofold: (1) to support the development of modeling approaches for operationalizing dynamic, mathematically rigorous theories of health behavior; and (2) to serve as a testbed for the development of learning algorithms that JITAIs can use to individualize intervention provision in real time at multiple timescales. Discussion and Conclusions: We outline an innovative modeling paradigm to model and use ILD in real- or near-time to individually tailor JITIAs.
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Introduction: Research demonstrates that young drivers exceed the posted speed limit more frequently than older drivers, and this demographic is also subsequently overrepresented in road crash statistics. This behavior remains a worldwide problem despite legal enforcement efforts that have proven to have limited efficiency and/or produce counterintuitive results. Method: Consequently, this study undertook a qualitative analysis in order to understand the factors that are perceived to both prevent and promote speeding behavior among young drivers, guided by self-determination theory (SDT). Focus groups were conducted with a total of 60 young drivers aged 17-25 years. An inductive thematic analysis approach was taken to analyze the data. Results: Findings revealed the following factors influence the prevention of speeding: (1) legal consequences were perceived to deter low-level speeding, (2) fear of injury was believed to prevent high-level speeding, and (3) speed awareness monitors were considered to be an effective countermeasure. Meanwhile, factors perceived to contribute to violating speed restrictions included: (1) perceiving it is safe to do so, (2) a perceived norm to speed, (3) emotions, and (4) unintentional speeding. According to SDT, the factors that were perceived to prevent speeding promote externalized self-regulatory processes and are therefore limited by short-term behavior change. Practical applications: The findings have important implications for designing countermeasures aimed at young drivers, not least illuminating the need to have education and media campaigns that target and build drivers' perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness in relation to speeding in order to promote longer term compliance.
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This work focuses on the actor perspective and elaborates the relations to the self and the applied technology in self-tracking (ST), expanding critical studies. Based on ethnographic material with ST informants and four years of autoethnography by the author, two complementary but also individually occurring modes of self-relations were synthesized. Interwoven in a duality a co-existence and ambiguity of self-care and self-control, which appear as two sides of the same coin, emerge. The self-control relation is characterized by increased awareness and complexity-reducing information about oneself, motivation (often occurring as self-challenge), and considering algorithmic recommendations, which summa summarum facilitate orientation and decision making in daily life. However, the self-control relation can go astray on the downside into losing control over the control (and becoming compulsive and addictive) and over the data. The self-care relation entails placing oneself in the center of attention in a digital medium by increased self-thematization, archiving body diaries, and self-affirmation. Self-concepts are no longer primarily constructed, confirmed, or rejected by the social environment but also by applying digital technologies upon oneself. However, self-care can be undermined on the downside, such as self-doubt, self-deception (maybe narcissism), and self-distraction. Three different relations to ST technology in technologically mediated self-care and self-control were elaborated: technology as a means, a counterpart (partner, nanny, coach), and a promise of salvation. Here another dialectic becomes visible. In using ST devices, the relationship of the users to technology seems to intensify, with the technology being able to perform a partner-like or even superior role. Finally, the often-assumed self-optimization in ST emerges as harmonizing and balancing life-maintenance tasks.
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There is a general paucity of studies on family caregivers' motivations for providing care to older persons in the urban poor context in Ghana. This study seeks to explore family caregivers' motivations for providing care to older persons in urban poor Accra, Ghana. A qualitative descriptive design was used and in-depth interviews were conducted with thirty-one family caregivers. The QSR NVivo 10 software was used to analyze the data thematically. We found that autonomous motivation inspired family caregivers to provide care. Empathy and affection intrinsically motivated some caregivers to provide care to their care recipients, while others were extrinsically motivated by filial responsibility, reciprocity, and obligation to provide care. These findings showed that family caregivers were autonomously motivated to provide care to older persons. We recommend the need for future studies to explore changes in family caregivers' motivations to provide care over time.
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Purpose Drawing from the self-determination theory (SDT) model of work motivation (Gagné and Deci, 2005), the paper aims to examine the relationship between employee intention to stay and happiness through work engagement and analyses how hope acts as a boundary condition in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach In this study a survey was conducted among the individuals working in the Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enable Services (ITeS) sector across India. The data were assessed through PROCESS v.3.3 macros in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings The moderated mediation results from 256 responses reveal that the intention to stay is positively related to happiness and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. The indirect effect of intention to stay on happiness is seen to be strengthened by hope, thus substantiating the moderated mediation hypothesis. Practical implications The empirical insights will be valuable for managers and organisations in the IT/ITES sectors around the globe. Happy employees are productive employees, and practitioners should focus on creating a positive environment. Originality/value This study aids in understanding the outcomes of intention to stay and moderating the role of hope between intention to stay and work engagement. It highlights how the positive construct of intention to stay and the negative construct of intention to quit, while essentially different, also appear to be two sides of the same coin. If an employee has decided to quit, it would be futile to bear further costs on them, whereas, if they intend to stay, they are unlikely to engage in deviant behaviours.
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Information and communication technologies supported by mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) have enhanced the ability for employees to stay connected with their companies outside working hours. However, we have little understanding of the implications for employees’ subjective well-being. This paper aims to analyze the impact of two forms of digital connection on subjective well-being: online communication through email and smartphone (communication technologies), and remote access to companies’ networks, i.e. files, management systems and software (information technologies). In order to asses this, we use a large survey on the working conditions and work quality of 14,685 employees in Luxembourg. Results show that being contacted frequently outside office hours has a negative impact on life satisfaction, whereas remote access to the companies’ networks is positively related to life satisfaction and negatively related to job stress.
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This study aimed to identify high school student profiles of motivation for participating in extracurricular activities, predict profile membership using indicators of need satisfaction and gender, and verify whether the profiles predicted continued participation the following year. The sample included 263 Canadian students in disadvantaged high schools (54% girls, Mage = 14.54). Results revealed four profiles based on three types of motivation (intrinsic, identified, and introjected): Poorly motivated (low scores on all types), Moderately motivated (average scores on all types), Highly motivated (high scores on all types), and Autonomously motivated (high scores on intrinsic and identified, and low scores on introjected motivation). Autonomy support from the activity leader and competence predicted profile membership. The Autonomously motivated profile also predicted continued participation relative to the Poorly motivated profile. Results provide useful information for school staff about how to foster more autonomous forms of motivation for participating in extracurricular activities.
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This paper aims to investigate the association between variables of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, cyber-market mavenism, and information sharing behavior, particularly among social network sites (SNS) users in Iraq.This study depends on a quantitative method to test the variables. The sample contains 388 Iraqi customers or users using social network sites to share information about different products and services. The study conducts a purposive sample to determine the characteristics of users who have much information about different products and services. A questionnaire was prepared based on previous research and distributed to participants. The statistical analysis program (SPSS) for descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM were used to analyze the measurement and structural models to test the hypotheses. The study results showed that altruism, moral obligation, and self-efficacy as intrinsic motivations influence cyber-market mavenism. However, self-enjoyment appears to have no impact on cyber-market mavenism. Moreover, reputation and social interaction also influence cyber-market mavenism. In addition, reciprocity and belongingness have no effect among Iraqi users. Thus, cyber-market mavenism plays a significant role in information-sharing behavior. The reason for such an outcome may develop a competitive advantage for marketers through understanding the market maven behavior on social network sites.
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The present paper explored the relation of wealth and support for self-determination to national subjective well-being (SWB). Support for self-determination was considered from both a political and cultural values standpoint. The results confirmed associations between wealth, support for self-determination, and well-being in a large sample of countries. Importantly, political and cultural value supports for self-determination remained significantly associated with national well-being (as measured by happiness reports and life expectancy) even after controlling for national differences in wealth.
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Theoretical work (Deci & Ryan, 1987) has implicated causality orientations as potential moderators of defensive attributions. The present study examined whether autonomy and control orientations moderate the attributional tendency to take more responsibility for success than failure. We examined both additive and synergistic models of the effect of causality orientations on self-serving attributions. We found that this self-serving bias disappeared for those with the unique combination of a high autonomy orientation and a low control orientation, thereby supporting a synergistic model. It was also shown that self-serving attribution was stronger for performance on a skill task than on a chance task.
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Previous research found that aspirations to financial success related inversely to self-actualization and that aspirations to community involvement related positively to self-actualization. We argue that diverse reasons can underlie both of these aspirations, leading to more complex predictions. In a sample of 246 participants, we assessed both self-determining and controlling reasons for each class of aspiration, along with endorsements of the aspirations themselves. Initial regression analyses replicated the earlier findings. Subsequent analyses found that endorsement of self-determining reasons for either class of aspiration related positively to self-actualization and that endorsement of controlling reasons for either class of aspiration related inversely to self-actualization. In the analysis involving community involvement, the aspiration itself no longer retained predictive power after the other variables were taken into account. In the analysis involving financial success, however, the aspiration retained an independent predictive role.
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Conducted an experiment to contrast and reconcile 2 cognitive theories of motivation and to investigate the expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior. 60 undergraduates were presented with 7 challenging tasks which varied in their level of difficulty. Ss were asked to select their most preferred task to work on and then to rank order the remaining tasks on their preferences for working on them. Ss were either told or not told that they would receive $2.50 for successfully accomplishing the task. Ss who could earn money for a successful completion of the task chose relatively easy tasks (though not the easiest), while Ss who could get no money for performing the task chose rather difficult tasks. Results indicate that when a salient monetary reward was available, Ss behaved largely (though not solely) as predicted by an extrinsically oriented expectancy-valence theory such as V. H. Vroom's (1964), whereas when no external reward was available, Ss' choices and preferences could be most accurately accounted for by an expectancy-valence theory utilizing an intrinsic valence function that relates in a positively accelerated manner to task difficulty. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The current studies examined relations between mothers’ trust in organismic development, autonomy supportive parenting, and adaptation among mothers and their young children. Study 1 showed that trust in organismic development was distinct from optimism, neuroticism, and social desirability whereas it correlated with having relaxed expectations for developmental milestones and making fewer social comparisons about one’s child. Study 2 used observational methods to demonstrate a significant link between trust in organismic development and mothers behaving in an autonomy-supportive rather than controlling manner toward their 1-year-old child during puzzle solving activities. Study 3 used a 1year prospective design to show that trust in first time mothers was associated with better maternal and child adaptation over time, controlling for initial levels of adaptation and child temperament. Study 4 explored possible social/political antecedents of trust in organismic development by comparing the beliefs of first time mothers from Canada and Norway. The four studies suggest that trust in organismic development fosters autonomy supportive parenting practices and positive maternal and child adaptation. These findings are discussed from the perspective of self-determination theory.
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Five studies examined whether quality of motivation (as individual differences and primed) facilitates or thwarts integration of positive and negative past identities. Specifically, more autonomously motivated participants felt closer to, and were more accepting of, both negative and positive past characteristics and central life events, whereas more control-motivated participants were closer to and more accepting of positive, but not negative, past characteristics and events. Notably, controlled motivation hindered participants' acceptance of their own negative identities but not of others' negative identities, suggesting that control-motivated individuals' rejection of negative past identities was an attempt to distance from undesirable parts of themselves. Defensive processes, reflected in nonpersonal pronouns and escape motives, mediated interaction effects, indicating that lower defense allowed fuller integration. Integration of both positive and negative past identities predicted indicators of well-being, namely, vitality, meaning, and relatedness satisfaction.
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Autonomy, often associated with an open and reflective evaluation of experience, is sometimes confused with reactance, which indicates resistance to persuasion attempts. Two studies examined a path model in which autonomy and reactance predicted motivation following the provision of anonymous or source-identified health-risk information, via the mediation of perceived threat to decision-making freedom and of perceived informational value. Study 1 (N = 122) investigated alcohol consumption. The results showed that autonomy was positively related to autonomous motivation and intentions to drink responsibly. Reactance negatively predicted autonomous motivation in the source-identified information condition but positively predicted autonomous motivation and intentions in the anonymous information condition. Reactance negatively predicted attitudes through the mediation of perceived threat to decision-making freedom. Study 2 (N = 145) tested our hypothesized model for smoking behavior and replicated several of the Study 1 findings. Implications for our understanding of autonomy, reactance, and responses to risk-information are discussed.
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Workers in a wide variety of jobs are paid based on performance, which is commonly seen as enhancing effort and productivity relative to non-contingent pay schemes. However, psychological research suggests that excessive rewards can, in some cases, result in a decline in performance. To test whether very high monetary rewards can decrease performance, we conducted a set of experiments in the U.S. and in India in which subjects worked on different tasks and received performance-contingent payments that varied in amount from small to very large relative to their typical levels of pay. With some important exceptions, very high reward levels had a detrimental effect on performance.