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Growth and yield of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system


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Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best training system of sweet cherry, considering regular and high yields and fruit quality. The three-year study was carried out on a 4-years old sweet cherry orchard with cultivar summit grafted on the dwarfing rootstock Tabel ® Edabriz. Three different training systems (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and V) were compared. The smaller vegetative growth, expressed as trunk crosssectional area (TCSA) was recorded in Spanish bush (34.68 cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.11 cm2) and V (40.82 cm2). The largest cumulative yield per hectare was gotten by the training system V (41.65 t/ha), followed by Spindle bush (21.12 t/ha) and Spanish bush (11.30 t/ha). Yield efficiency (YE) (kg/cm2) of Spanish bush (0.19 kg/cm2) was significantly lower than that of Spindle bush (0.32 kg/cm2) and V (0.28 kg/cm2). Yield per unit land area (YA) (kg/m2) differed in all training systems and the highest was recorded on V, while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight. Results showed that the training system significantly affected the growth and yield of sweet cherry.
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African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(24), pp. 4901-4906, 6 June, 2011
Available online at
ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Growth and yield of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)
as affected by training system
Mira Radunić1*, Anamarija Jazbec2, Marija Pecina3, Tomislav Čosić3 and Nikola Pavičić3
1Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation Split, Put Duilova 11, 21000 Split, Croatia.
2Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
3Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
Accepted 9 March, 2011
Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality
cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is
used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study
was to determine the best training system of sweet cherry, considering regular and high yields and fruit
quality. The three-year study was carried out on a 4-years old sweet cherry orchard with cultivar summit
grafted on the dwarfing rootstock Tabel ® Edabriz. Three different training systems (Spanish bush,
Spindle bush and "V") were compared. The smaller vegetative growth, expressed as trunk cross-
sectional area (TCSA) was recorded in Spanish bush (34.68 cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.11
cm2) and "V" (40.82 cm2). The largest cumulative yield per hectare was gotten by the training system
"V" (41.65 t/ha), followed by Spindle bush (21.12 t/ha) and Spanish bush (11.30 t/ha). Yield efficiency
(YE) (kg/cm2) of Spanish bush (0.19 kg/cm2) was significantly lower than that of Spindle bush (0.32
kg/cm2) and "V" (0.28 kg/cm2). Yield per unit land area (YA) (kg/m2) differed in all training systems and
the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density
did not affect the fruit weight. Results showed that the training system significantly affected the growth
and yield of sweet cherry.
Key words: Rootstock, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), training system.
Intensive production of sweet cherry requires an econo-
mically sustainable training system which induces early,
regular and high yield, and high fruit quality and efficient
harvest. For this purpose, less vigorous trees are needed
which could be grown at high density, using the most
productive training system, and providing satisfactory
conditions for undisturbed growth and yield.
Rootstock has a significant influence on tree vigor, yield
and fruit quality in a number of fruit species, especially
apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) (Fallahi et al., 2002) and
peach (Prunus persica L.) (Kappel and Bouthillier, 1995).
Dwarfing rootstocks have a large effect on precocious
fruiting and tendency of high tree productivity of sweet
cherry, which makes them more suited to high planting
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel: ++
385 (0) 21 43 44 68. Fax: ++385 (0) 21 31 65 84.
density. Apart from their early fruit production, such
orchards allow an easier application of cultivation proce-
dures, harvest and protection from rainfall and birds
during fruit ripening (Weber, 2001).
Gisela 5 (Prunus cerasus x Prunus canescens), Gisela
10 (Prunus fruticosa x P. cerasus), Tabel ® Edabriz (P.
cerasus L.) and GM 9 (Prunus incisia x Prunus serrulata)
stimulate early transition to reproductive age (De
Salvador et al., 2005) and allow the control of the height
and volume of the canopy. Rootstocks like Gisela 5 or
Tabel® Edabriz stimulate the formation of a large number
of spurs on shoots, which is of a particular importance for
light distribution of high yielding cultivars such as Tieton
or Regina (Lang, 2001).
Tabel® Edabriz is one of the first dwarfing rootstock
selected in France (Chalton et al., 2005). The vigor of
trees on Tabel® Edabriz could be 20 to 25% lower in the
tenth year when compared to trees on F12/1 (Prunus
avium), even though the soil and site are also of
4902 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
importance (Edin, 1993; Edin et al., 1996). It was also
shown that their vigor was 30 to 45% lower than of
MaxMa 14 (P. avium x Prunus mahaleb) (Chartlon et al.,
2005). Tabel® Edabriz initiates an earlier flower bud
differentiation, and initial bearing already in the third or
fourth year after planting (Lang, 2001) reaching full yield
potential in the seventh year (Charlton et al., 2005). The
specific yield efficiency is three to four folds higher when
compared with Colt (P. avium x Prunus pseudocerasus)
and up to ten fold higher than F/12 (Edin, 1989). Fruit
size could be slightly reduced (Callesen, 1998), but there
are results where Tabel® Edabriz produces acceptable
fruit size when compared to both F 12/1 and MaxMa 14
(Edin, 1993).
Tree canopy size may be regulated by many cultivation
measures such as: Planting density, deficit irrigation
(water stress), root restriction or root pruning, bending of
branches, summer pruning and/or plant growth regulator
application (Lang, 2001). An optimum orchard density is
inevitable for flower bud differentiation, which in turn
affects better yield and fruit colour. It is determined by the
rootstock, cultivar, training system and prevailing
ecological conditions (Balmer, 2001).
Sweet cherry has distinctive acrotonic growth with few
lateral shoots which make it difficult to establish training
systems. Therefore, it is recommended to use the
feathered nursery trees. Appropriate training system will
allow an early initial bearing, regular and high yield of an
excellent quality, while reducing the number of agro-
technical and pomotechnical management strategies
(Haberlein, 1990).
Several training systems have been developed for high
density sweet cherry plantations (Long, 2001). In the mid-
seventies, the sweet cherry grafting on Mazzard and Colt
rootstocks was intensified, focusing on the retaining of
fruit quality under Spindle bush production systems and
improvement of light distribution within the canopy (Zahn,
1994). At the beginning of eighties, Spanish bush training
system was developed on vigorous Prunus mahaleb
rootstock in Spain and "V" system in Australia. Both
proved very successful in respective climatic conditions.
Even though its planting density is very high, "V" system
is characterised with a very high yield and light inter-
ception (Chalmers et al., 1978), but it is rather expensive
with very high labour costs (Boucher and Adams, 1995).
Training systems are strongly related to planting density.
The main objective of this study was to determine the
best training system, considering regular high yields and
fruit quality.
This study was carried out on a 4-years old sweet cherry orchard in
Kaštela (43°33' N and 16°21' E) at 20 m height above sea level in
the period from 1999 to 2001. Average precipitation quantity in area
amounts to 1010.9 mm. During the course of the experiment, an
annual absolute temperature maximum was 37.4°C and absolute
minimum was -3.3°C. Orchard soil is deep with sufficient level of
total carbonates (19.4%) and 4.4% of active lime and pH 6.65.
The orchard was established in spring in 1995, with one year old
nursery trees of Summit cultivar grafted on the dwarfing r ootstock
Tabel® Edabriz (P. cerasus L.). Drip irrigation was applied during
vegetation period according to crop demand. Three training
systems were developed: Spanish bush (1.5 x 3.8 m; 1754 trees/
ha); Spindle bush (1.5 x 3.8 m; 1754 tr ees/ha) and “V” (0.7 x 3.8 m;
3759 trees/ha). The experiment was s et up by random design with
15 repetitions (trees) for each training system.
Development of training systems
Spanish bush
Trees were headed after planting at about 25 cm above the graft
union. In spring f ollowing planting, when shoots have already
reached 50 to 60 cm length, green pruning was carried out, and
shoots were headed to about 20 cm length. In year 2 (about mid-
March), the entire one-year-old shoots were headed to 25 cm and
excessive thinning was performed. In May, when new shoots have
reached 25 cm, those protruding into the canopy were thinned to
keep adequate light inside the tree. At the end of the second year,
all the trees had developed canopy. In the third year, after upper
branches have been pruned, as well as those in the top of the tree,
this provided good light exposure at the bottom part of the canopy
(Oromi et al., 1994).
Spindle bush
This was developed after Zahn (Zahn, 1994). Feathered nursery
trees were used so that the basic shape would be formed and post
planting heading was not necess ary. Lateral branches were bent
down at an angle of 90° and tied to the first wire. Short shoots along
the leader were obtained by its banding down. At the dormant
period, the leader was returned into vertical position and tied to the
second wire. Tip isolation took place just before vegetative period
started. Pruning was minimized and branches in undesirable
position were removed. Trees were also cleared and water-sprouts
and all the lateral branches with the diameter thicker than half of the
central leader were cut back to 20 to 30 cm stubs (Zahn, 1992).
Pruning was accompanied with regular branch banding by 70° to
90° during the first two years to stimulate faster differentiation of
flower buds.
"V" system
This training system was formed by a metal construction of "V"
shape. Sweet cherry trees were planted following the two
alternating rows planting pattern at 0.7 m within the row, directed
outward (by means of bamboo st icks) at an angle of 30° and the
60° angle between the trees. Feathered nursery trees are not
headed at planting. Two shoots were bent to the first wire. Branch
management during the first three years is limited to heading
shoots during springs and summers. This refers mainly to banding
and pruning. In some cases, this also includes notching above the
buds at the end of winter in trees with undesirable branch
distribution or blind wood. The tree height was maintained at less
than 2.5 m. To prevent over density of the canopy, the lush
branches were pruned and banded horizontally.
Growth and yield measurements
Trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) was calculated from the trunk
diameter, measured at 15 cm height above the graft union during
Radunić et al. 4903
Spanish bush
Spindle bush
Figure 1. The effect of training system (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and ‘V’ system) on the trunk cross-sectional
area (cm2) of sweet cherry cv. summit during 1999 to 2001 year. Vertical bar indicates mean ±1 SE (n = 15).
dormant period in each study year with a digital calliper. Trunk
vegetative growth (cm2) was obtained from the difference in TCSA
between study years.
Yield per tree (kg) was calculated as the average weight of
harvested fr uit. Yield per hectare (t/ha) was obtained by multiplying
the yield per tree and tree density (trees/ha). Yield efficiency ( YE,
kg/cm2) is the relationship between the yield per tree (kg)/TCSA
(cm2) and cumulative yield efficiency (kg/cm2) from the relation of
cumulative yield per tree (kg)/TCSA of the latest year (cm2). Yield
per unit land area (YA, kg/m2) was calculated from the relationship
between YE (kg/cm2) x TCSA/tree/orchard density (m2). Fruit weight
(g) was obtained as the average of fruit weight of the total of 100
fruits from each tr ee. Fruits were picked by random selection from
all canopy parts at the optimal stage of maturity. The difference
between training systems for all growth and yield measurements
were tested by the analysis of variance ( ANOVA). Turkey multiple
comparison test was applied to the main effects (training system,
years) which were shown significant (at P 0.05). All the data were
analysed using SAS 6.12 software (SAS Inc. 1989).
Vegetative growth
Significant difference in vegetative growth, expressed as
trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) cm2, was recorded
between all the training systems (Figure 1). Annual
vegetative growth reduced with time after planting. The
highest total vegetative growth (TCSA) cm2 in the period
of 1999 to 2001 was recorded for Spanish bush (18 cm2),
and the lowest was recorded for the "V" system (14 cm2).
Seven years after planting (2001), Spanish bush training
system showed smaller trunk cross-sectional area (34.7
cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.1 cm2) and "V"
system (40.8 cm2). Whiting et al. (2005) reported
significantly smaller TCSA in Spanish bush during the
first four years upon planting when compared to Central
leader, Palmetta and Y systems. Intensified pruning,
particularly during summer, accounts for the differences
during the first two years upon planting (Oromi et al.,
1994). Total increase in the size of canopy, trunk and
roots is higher in non-pruned trees, because severe
pruning during canopy formation depress the tree growth
(Bargioni, 1990). The present study did not record
differences in TSCA between Spindle bush and "V"
system. Pruning was minimised at canopy formation in
Spindle bush and "V" systems, and bending were
intensified. Bending reduces the vegetative growth of
4904 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
1999 2000 2001
Yield (kg/tree)
Spanish bush
Spindle bush
Figure 2. The effect of training system (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and ‘V’ system) on yield per tree
(kg/tree) of sweet cherry cv. summit during 1999 to 2001. Vertical bar indicates mean ±1 SE (n = 15).
leader and lateral long shoots and spurs, and enhances
flowering and fruit bearing (Lauri et al., 1998).
Vegetative tree growth is affected by climatic condi-
tions, soil type and vigour of the rootstock and cultivar as
well as pruning intensity. In eight year after planting,
sweet cherry cultivated in "V" system on Tabel® Edabriz
rootstock had 22.6 to 53.7 cm2 TCSA dependently on the
cultivar (Sansavini et al., 2001).
Yield per tree differed significantly from one study year to
another and between training systems (Figure 2). The
results indicate that year (environmental conditions) plays
an important role in productivity of sweet cherry, although
in the first two successive years, yield per tree showed
significant increase in all the systems. Comparing the
yields in 1999 and 2000, Spanish bush had the highest
growth yield in 2000. In 2001, a significant reduction in
yield per tree was recorded for all three training systems.
Unfavourable climatic conditions during blossom in April
2001, particularly long rainfall period accompanied with
the strong dry northern wind, adversely affected both the
pollination and fertilization.
Spanish bush yielded less per tree than Spindle bush
and "V" system. Intensive pruning at the formation of
canopy in Spanish bush improved shoot growth, delayed
fruit bud differentiation and fruit production. Spindle bush
and "V" system showed earlier and greater fruit bearing
potential, because banding of one-year-old shoots
reduces vegetative growth and enhances flowering and
fruit bearing (Lauri et al., 1998).
Yield per hectare (t/ha) significantly differed between
training systems (Table 1). The "V" system yielded most
and Spanish bush had the least yield in all years. The
cumulative yield per hectare of "V" system amounted up
to 41.65 t/ha (Table 1). Greater yield of the "V" training
system was due to higher density of orchard for this
system (3759 trees/ha) compared to Spanish bush and
Spindle bush systems (1754 trees/ha). However, different
orchard density did not significantly affect yield per tree
between Spindle bush and "V" system. The yield of sweet
cherry for "V" system was 17.69 t/ha in the 5th
vegetation, 18 t/ha in 6th vegetation and 13.9 t/ha in 7th
vegetation (Balmer, 2001). This makes a cumulative yield
of 49.59 t/ha at 3333 trees/ha orchard density. Cumu-
lative yield efficiency kg/cm2 of "V" system and Spindle
bush did not differ and exceeded the cumulative yield
efficiency of Spanish bush (Table 1). Sansavini et al.
(2001) reported cumulative yield efficiency of 0.32 kg/cm2
in the 8th year for "V" system (1670 trees/ha) with the
3.24 kg/tree in the seventh to eight year.
All the trees showed significant yield per unit land area
(kg/m2) increment during the first two years of the study;
however, yield was reduced in the third year (data not
shown). The significant differences in YA were found
between the training systems (Table 1). The highest YA
(1.4 kg/m2) were recorded for the "V" system and the
lowest one for Spanish bush (0.4 kg/m2). "V" system
utilizes the best production site. It has the greatest tree
density, only 2.66 m2 of available production area per
tree, and its fruit yield and weight equalled those of
Spindle bush which had 5.7 m2 available production site.
Training system did not play an important role in fruit
weight (Figure 3). Year of bearing affected fruit weight
more and the lowest fruit weight was recorded in 2000
(6.7 g) and the greatest in 1999 (10.8 g). Orchard density
Radunić et al. 4905
Table 1. The effect of training system (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and ‘V’ system) on the yield per hectare (t/ha), cumulative
yield per hectare (t/ha), cumulative yield efficiency (kg/cm2) and cumulative yield per unit land area (kg/m2) of sweet cherry cv.
summit during 1999 t o 2001 year.
Yield per hectare (t/ha) Cumulative
per hectare
Cumulative yield
unit land area
(5 year)
(6 year)
(7 year)
Spanish bush 1754 1.98 c* 7.60 c 1.81 c 11.30 c 0.19 b 1.15 c
Spindle bush 1754 6.54 b 9.59 b 4.98 b 21.12 b 0.32 a 1.93 b
“V” 3759 14.32 a 19.32 a 8.00 a 41.65 a 0.28 a 3.64 a
*Means within column followed by different letters are significantly different at P 0.05 by Tukey test.
Spanish bush
Spindle bush
Figure 3. The effect of tr aining system (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and ‘V’ system) on fruit weight
(g/fruit) of sweet cherry cv. summit during 1999 to 2001. Vertical bar indicates mean ±1 SE (n =
and yield per tree did not affect the fruit weight. In 2000
and 2001, fruit weight was significantly smaller than
standard of 10 to 12 g (Lugli et al., 1995). Sansavini et al.
(2001) reported an adverse effect of the Tabel® Edabriz
rootstock on fruit weight at yield increment. Smaller fruit
size was taken to be due to the decreased leaf area: fruit
ratio (Callesen, 1998). Whiting and Lang (2004) reported
negative relationship between the sweet cherry canopy
fruit: leaf area ratio and fruit quality on dwarfing
rootstocks. However, Meland (1998) stated that the
training system and orchard density of sweet cherry
cultivars on Damil rootstock did not strongly influence fruit
weight and soluble solids content. Moreno et al. (1998)
found higher sweet cherry yield efficiency but lower fruit
quality with Palmetta and Marchand training systems
when compared to the multiple leader vase system.
The results of the three-year study, in intensive orchard
of high tree densities on t he Tabel® Edabriz rootstock,
4906 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
confirmed the significant influence of training system on
an early fruit bearing, vegetative growth, initial cropping
and dynamics. Spindle bush and "V" system were better
systems for fasted initial cropping when compared to
Spanish bush. At Spindle bush, sweet cherry had the
highest yield per tree (kg) and yield efficiency (kg/cm2),
whereas for Spanish bush, the yield per tree was the
lowest. "V" system had the best yield per unit area (t/ha),
followed by Spindle bush and Spanish bush. This study
found no effect of training system on fruit weight.
According to these results, growth and fruit bearing of
sweet cherry are strongly related to training system and
the best results in this study were obtained with Spindle
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... However, it is difficult to obtain the desired yield from these trees without proper pruning and training system (Long 2003). Previous research (Peterson et al. 2003;Whiting et al. 2005;Blazkova et al. 2002;Radunic et al. 2011;Aglar et al. 2016) determined that the vegetative and the generative development of the tree varied depending on the training system applied in sweet cherry. Therefore, choosing the proper training system in sweet cherry breed-O. ...
... However, Blazkova et al. (2002) and Radunic et al. (2011) stated that there was no difference between the training systems in terms of fruit weight. In our study, there was no difference between the SB and VCL training systems in terms of firmness values. ...
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In the study, the effects of different training systems (Steep Leader: SL, Spanish Bush: SB and Vogel Central Leader: VCL) on quality properties and bioactive components of “0900 Ziraat” sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.) were investigated. The size, color and firmness values of the fruit varied depending on training system. The largest fruit was obtained in the SB training system. The fruit on trees trained VCL and SB had higher firmness than the fruit of trees trained SL. The color values of the fruit of VCL were higher than the other systems, while the vitamin C content was lower. The lowest acidity and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured in fruit trees trained SL. The highest values for bioactive compounds as phenolics, flavonoids were measured in fruit of SL training system. In the sweet cherry fruit, the major phenolic acid was catechin. The catechin, rutin, caffeic acid, 4‑hydroxybenzoic acid, 4‑aminobenzoic acid and transferulic acid content of the fruit in the SL training system were higher than those of SB and VCL. As a result, it was revealed that there is an effect of the training system on fruit quality; SB training system had higher values in terms of fruit size, whereas in terms of bioactive compound content, SL training system had higher values.
... The new, more intensive, training systems modify canopy architecture, seeking to optimize light interception and distribution in trees, thus favoring flower bud formation and plant carbohydrate assimilation. Consequently, fruit production and quality improvements are achieved (Ayala and Lang, 2004;Lang, 2005;Radunic et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2012). These new systems also facilitate the design of pedestrian orchards, enabling manual labor and cultural practices (Ayala and Lang, 2017). ...
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Canopy development and production efficiency variations were evaluated in four sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars: ‘Bing’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’ and ‘Regina’, grafted on different vigor rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘Cab-6P, ‘Maxma-14’ and ‘Gisela-12’, and conducted in two training systems: Central Leader (CL) and Kym Green Bush (KGB), growing in Chile. Leaf indicators were calculated after tree defoliation. A principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to select indicators that explain the variation among the combinations. Results showed that leaf size and number varied between different cultivar/rootstock combinations and training systems. By means of two principal components, the model employed could explain 72% of the data variability. The most relevant indicators for the PC1 were: leaf weight per hectare (0.98) and leaf area index (0.97), with a significant training system effect, whereas for the PC2 they were: leaf weight per leaf area (0.85) and production per leaf area (0.72), mainly for productive efficiency. In ‘Lapins’/‘Colt’, the KGB system presented a higher weight and leaf area than CL, with almost double the leaf weight per hectare and leaf area index, due mainly to a 37% leaf area per tree and 20% higher tree number/ha in KGB. However, average production per leaf area reached 0.49 kg m⁻², without distinction between training systems.
... Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for intensive sweet cherry production (Koumanov et al., 2018), which is based on smaller trees in denser orchards. As already mentioned, besides the selection of the most appropriate rootstock (Pal et al., 2017) and training system (Radunic et al., 2011), irrigation and fertilization are the key elements in such production system (Koumanov et al., 2018). Concerning irrigation and fertilization, the trees require slow and small applications of water and/or nutrients directly in the root zone, which can be achieved by precise systems such as microirrigation and fertigation (Koumanov et al., 2018). ...
... Non Commercial Use increasing demand for intensive sweet cherry production (Koumanov et al., 2018), which is based on smaller trees in denser orchards. As already mentioned, besides the selection of the most appropriate rootstock (Pal et al., 2017) and training system (Radunic et al., 2011), irrigation and fertilization are the key elements in such production system (Koumanov et al., 2018). Concerning irrigation and fertilization, the trees require slow and small applications of water and/or nutrients directly in the root zone, which can be achieved by precise systems such as microirrigation and fertigation (Koumanov et al., 2018). ...
ABSTRACT The genus Malus originated in Central and Minor Asia. There is evidence that apple was cultivated as early as 1000 BC. Today, about 72 million tons of quality fruit are produced annually worldwide across approximately 5 million hectares. The reasons for this success are that apple trees grow in different agroecological conditions and respond to the application of technological tools that increase yields. Apple fruits are pleasing to the eye and to the taste, they provide good nutrients with low calories, and they adapt well to conservation. Its particular 2suitability for transport has made the apple one of the most accomplished examples of globalization of markets. This chapter covers such topics as botany, taxonomy, varieties and cultivars, rootstocks, composition, and nutritional use of the apple. There is updated information on basic aspects of breeding and crop improvement, orchard management, harvest, postharvest, high-tech cultivation, transport, and packing. Topics such as disease, pest, and physiological disorders are also taken into account.
... тmolv_2016_11_130 (дата звернення: 22.07.2019). 19 The effect of climatic conditions on sweet cherry fruit treated with plant growth regulators / S. Zeman ed al. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 2013. ...
... Intense planting systems implemented by using such rootstocks require more efficient training systems which induce early, regularly and high yield, and efficient harvest (Radunic et al., 2011). In recent years, the desire for high yield and efficient harvest have led to the development of many different training systems such as Steep leader, Vogel central leader, Spanish bush, Kym green bush, Upright fruiting offshoots, Tall spindle axe and the Super slender axe (Zahn, 1992;Robinson, 2005). ...
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The effects of three rootstocks (‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘MaxMa 14’) and three training systems (Spanish bush, Steep leader and Vogel central leader) on early performance of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry were compared. There have been significant differences among both rootstocks and training systems in terms of tree heights. At the end of the fourth year, while the height of the trees grafted on ‘Gisela 5’ was 238.3 cm, those grafted on ‘MaxMa 14’ reached 266.4 cm in height. While the shortest tree height was obtained from Spanish bush system, heights of the trees in Steep leader and Vogel central leader training systems were found to be at similar levels. ‘Gisela’ 5 had lower trunk cross section area (TCSA) than ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘MaxMa 14’ rootstocks. Among three systems, trees trained to Steep leader had the highest TCSA, followed by Spanish bush and Vogel central leader. Interactions were found between rootstock and training system for yield and yield efficiency. On ‘Gisela 6’, cumulative yield of Vogel central leader system (17.0 g/tree) was significantly higher than Spanish bush (14.8 g/tree) and Steep leader (12.6 g/tree). On the other hand, on ‘MaxMa 14’, there were not significant differences in cumulative yield per tree among training systems. On ‘Gisela 5’ and ‘Gisela 6’, the highest yield efficiency were observed in trees trained as Vogel central leader. Yield efficiency of Vogel central leader (0.49 kg cm-²) was two time higher than those of Spanish bush (0.29 kg cm-²) and Steep leader (0.26 kg cm-²) on ‘Gisela 6’. The weight of fruits from trees grafted on ‘Gisela 5’ was lower than those from trees on ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘MaxMa 14’. In the fourth year, while the average fruit weight was 5.86 g on ‘Gisela 5’, it was 6.00 and 6.25 g on ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘MaxMa 14’ rootstocks respectively.
... The analysis of morphological and anatomical characteristics of rootstocks is an important tool in understanding their influence on the growth of the scion (Zoric et al., 2012). Radunić et al. (2011) reported that the training system for intensive sweet cherry orchard is a cultivation measure expressed by plantation density and canopy size which can influence fruit quality, yield and labor cost. It is unlikely for a single rootstock to have all the properties mentioned above. ...
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Gisela 5 rootstock is most important in terms of reducing the vigor of growth. The varieties grafted on Gisela 5 had good horticultural results in terms of yield, adaptability and dwarf growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the growth and physiological behavior of the most popular sweet cherry cultivars in Europe grafted of Gisela 5 rootstock in one of the most important fruit growing area from Romania. The rootstock – scion combinations namely Skeena, Kordia and Ferrovia were grafted on Gisela 5 dwarf rootstocks. Gisela 5 influenced significantly the trunk cross section area among all the tested cultivars (p<0.05). Ferrovia cultivar was the most vigorous in terms of trunk cross sectional area and total annual growth length. Total annual growth was lower for Kordia (1225.61 cm). The ratio between Chl a and Chl b seems to be constant in all grafted plants. The photosynthesis rate [µ mol (CO 2) m-2 s-1 ] varied from 24.12 µ mol (CO 2) m-2 s-1 in the Kordia grafted sweet cherry variety to 25.80 µ mol (CO 2) m-2 s-1 in the Ferrovia sweet cherry cultivar. Data obtained from field measurements and laboratory observations demonstrated that the Gisela 5 rootstock is compatible with foreign sweet cherry varieties under the selected growing area and can be used to achieve high-density sweet cherry orchards.
... The rootstock -scion combination may determine the training system for intensive sweet cherry orchards. It is a cultivation measure expressed by plantation density and canopy size, which can influence fruit quality, yield and labor cost (Radunić et al., 2011). Dwarfing rootstocks may induce increases in the number and size of flowering spurs on older wood, increase precocity, yield per tree size and in the meantime, may reduce the amount of scion dry weight, excessive shoot growth and scion leaf area (Atkinson and Else, 2001). ...
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Grafting is widely used in horticulture to improve fruit crop production. The selection of rootstocks in the grafting process depends on soil conditions, local climatic and environmental resources. The objective of this research was to assess the growth and physiological behavior of different national sweet cherry varieties. The cherry cultivars i.e. Radu, Maria, Bucium, and Daria were grafted on IP-C7 dwarf rootstocks. It is demonstrated that the IP-C7 Romanian rootstock is compatible with Romanian sweet cherry varieties and can be used successfully for the establishment of intensive cherry plantations. The evaluation of the rootstock - scion interactions showed graft compatibility between the studied sweet cherry cultivars and dwarfing rootstocks. Plant vigor, number of buds and photosynthetic capacity were influenced by the interaction between rootstock and scion. The lowest trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) determined by IP-C7 was recorded in Radu cultivars. The Maria sweet cherry cultivar was the most vigorous in terms of trunk cross sectional area and trunk circumference. Rootstock - scion interactions revealed different photosynthetic capacity. Assimilatory pigments were differently influenced in different rootstock - scion combinations. The rootstock - scion combination evaluated in this study may be useful to develop high-density orchards. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.
In a field experiment, to identify the best sweet cherry varieties for high density orcharding, maximum canopy volume (18.94 cm3) was recorded in variety ‘Steela’ and minimum in ‘Lambert’ while, ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ had maximum TCSA (213 cm2). Trees grown under HDP have lower TCSA in comparison to normal density. Primary and secondary branch girth were maximum in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ whereas, annual extension growth and shoot thickness were high in ‘Steela’. Yield, yield efficiency and cumulative yield efficiency were registered maximum in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ and ‘Bigarreau Noir Grossa’ cultivars. Largest fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter were found maximum (10.16 g/fruit), (25.51 mm) (25.20 mm) respectively in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’. Total soluble solids were found maximum in ‘Bigarreau Noir Grossa’ (17.30 0Brix) among the studied cultivars. Correlation matrix showed that TCSA had positive correlation with canopy volume, primary branch girth and secondary branch girth and fruit weight showed positive correlation with fruit length and fruit diameter.
Technical Report
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The deliverable identify the improvements developed or needed to be developped in order to overcome the possible weaknesses of different MPT and NWFP models. The main body of the deliverable is structured in two chapters. The first part (chapter 2) is focused on those existing models that already present a high degree of development and that were already described in the previous report Deliverable 2.1 (Tomé and Faias, 2014). The third chapter is devoted to those MPT and NWFP that, despite their importance, do not count with a yield model yet and need to be developed, not only models for new MPTs or NWFPs, but also models in different regions for the same product.
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High yield and low cost of production are the important ingredients of profitable fruit growing. The Tatura Trellis aims to optimize yield by using orchard design and management principles that are based on understanding and overcoming the plant physiological shortcomings of existing orchards. It aims to reduce the cost of production by eliminating labor in the simplest and therefore the cheapest way.
Conference Paper
The performance of three training systems, palmette, marchand and vase planted at 3.5 × 4 m, 3.5 × 4 m and 6 × 6 m, respectively, on 4 sweet cherry cultivars 'Burlat', 'Lapins', 'Sunburst' and 'Vittoria', are compared and evaluated. The experimental design was a split-plot plan with an elementary plot of 100 m2 and 3 single tree replications. The rootstock was Colt (P. avium x P. pseudocerasus). The trees were planted in 1989. After 8 years the trellis forms had higher cumulative yields than the vase for all varieties. For production, expresed in kg/ha, marchand was the best training system for 'Lapins' and 'Sunburst', and palmette for 'Burlat' and 'Vittoria'. Yield efficiency, measured as kg of cumulative yield/cm2 of trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) has been calculated. Considering all four varieties, the efficiency of palmette was the highest with 1.27 kg/cm 2, which was on the same level as marchand with 1.21 kg/cm 2. These training systems were significantly more efficient than the vase with an efficiency of 0.58 kg/cm2. 'Lapins' obtained the highest yields; with the marchand system the cumulative yield, in 8 growing seasons, was 113,7 t/ha with 29,5 t/ha in the last year. The vase system produced larger fruits than the palmette and the marchand systems, but this was most likely associated with a lower crop load.
This review deals with recent developments in rootstock research as well as initiatives for future work. Prunus avium and P. mahaleb have been the main sources for rootstocks for sweet and sour cherry production. Improvement of seed sources for uniform rootstock production was earlier the main topic. The need for smaller trees has lead to interest for rootstock breeding. It was not easy to find dwarfing genotypes within the established species, which may be the main reason for the interest in a wide range of Prunus species as sources for dwarfing rootstocks. However, incompatibility became one of the major problems to solve during the selection work. Over the last 3 to 4 decades much rootstock breeding and research have been done. Many Prunus species are included in the selection and breeding and numerous interspecific hybrid seedlings have been tested for their potential as dwarfing and productive rootstocks. Colt was the first hybrid rootstock to gain importance in Europe and is now the standard rootstock used in some cherry producing regions. The Gembloux selections Inmil, Damil and Camil have been included in several trials and will be dealt with. The biggest programme maybe the breeding of interspecific crosses in Giessen, Germany. From this programme Gisela 1, Gisela 5, Gisela 10 and Gisela 4 were introduced and many others with potential are tested in several countries. The German Weiroot selections of P. cerasus origin have proved to be of interest. The same is the case for the French Edabriz. The Bohemian P-HL series seem to contain potential rootstocks, as well as the Pillnitzer series Pi-Ku. In recent Danish work on P. cerasus a rootstock series named DAN has been selected. All selections are more dwarfing than Colt and most of them have higher specific productivity. Beside the primary interest in vigour and specific productivity, many characteristics such as cold tolerance, nematode and replant disease resistance, PNRV tolerance, effect on flower quality and compatibility maybe important for the choice of new rootstocks. Many promising rootstocks are now available for research and a new European rootstock trial is under propagation and will include Colt and Damil as standards. The following clones are included: P-HL-A, P-HL-B, hexaploid Colt, Pi-Ku 4.20, Pi-Ku 4.83, Weiroot 10, Weiroot 158, Weiroot 53, Gi 195/1, Gi 195/20, Gi 107/1, Gi 497/8, Gi 148/13, Gi 148/1, Gisela 5, Gi 148/8, Gi 154/7, Gi 475/10, Gi 209/1, Gi 523/02, Gi 318/17, Edabriz, MaxMa 14, MaxMa 60 and MaxMa 97.
An intensive orchard of 'Van' sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) all grafted on the semidwarf rootstock Damil was established in 1991 at Ullensvang Research Centre, western Norway at 60 ° North. The objectives were to evaluate four different single row planting systems (vertical axis, free spindle, vase-shaped and Y-trellis) and three planting densities (1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 × 4 m and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 × 4 m for the Y-trellis trees) in a northern climate. These planting distances gave a range of tree density of 1670 - 5000 trees per ha. The experiment was located on a loamy sand high in organic matter and trickle irrigation was provided. Soil management was grass in the alleyways with a vegetation-free strip along the tree rows. Annual data of yield, fruit size and internal quality were recorded. The experiment was rapidly established and gave already a small yield the year after planting on the vertical axis trees. During the first years the yields per ha were positively correlated with tree density. Cumulative yield per hectare was highest on the Y-trellis trees with the highest density (5000 trees per ha). Already in the third leaf, this system gave 14.5 tons per hectare. The yields the following years have slightly declined. Vertical axis trees have increased the yields for all the planting densities every year. In the 6th leaf this canopy system spaced 2×4 m produced 16 tons per hectare. The same trees had the highest yield efficiency. All canopy systems had a low yield in the 7th leaf due to unfavourably pollination conditions. 'Van' fruit weights averaged 8.6 g and no differences between either canopies nor densities were found. The fruit content of soluble solids was high for all combinations (17.6 % on average), but increased with decreasing planting densities. A tendency of reduced concentration of fruit soluble solids of the Y-trellis trees was registered.
Within the framework of a National program supported by the Italian Ministry for Agricultural and Forestry Policy, three different sweet cherry rootstock trials were established in the north (Forlì), center (Rome) and south (Catanzaro) of Italy. The Forli and Catanzaro trials (planted spring 1993) consisted of 'Lapins' grafted on: Mazzard F12/1, Mazzard F12/1-1M (induced mutation of F12/1), Franc 4, Mont × Rom (all selections of P. avium); SL 64, Magyar (both selections of P. mahaleb); CAB 6P, CAB 11E, Tabel® Edabriz, Vladimir, Victor (all selections of P. cerasus); C×A (P. avium × P. cerasus); (MaxMa Delbard®14 (P. avium × P. mahaleb); Colt (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus); GM 9 (P. incisa × P. serrulata); GM 61/1 (P. dawyckensis), GM 79 (P. canescens), Gisela® 5 (P. cerasus Schattenmorelle × P. canescens), and Gisela® 10 (P. fruticosa × P. avium). The Rome trial (planted spring 1997) consisted of 'Lapins' on: Mazzard F12/1, Mazzard seedling (all P. avium); SL 64, Argot (all P. mahaleb); CAB 6P, CAB 11E, Edabriz, Weiroot 158, (all selections of P. cerasus); Colt, MaxMa Delbard®14 and MaxMa Delbard®97 (P. avium × P. mahaleb); GM 61/1; GM 79; and Gisela® 5. Rootstocks that promoted the most vigor were those that originated from P. mahaleb, followed by Colt, F12/1, CAB 6P and Victor. Mazzard F12/1 and Mont × Rom (P. avium selections) were intermediate in growth and yield, generally less than Colt. Magyar, SL 64, Colt, CAB 6P and Victor had the highest production, but only Victor combined very high yield efficiency in both trials. The weakest rootstocks were Gisela® 5 and GM 9, which induced poor tree growth and high mortality. Gisela® 10, GM 61/1, GM 79 and Tabel® Edabriz induced low vigor, but seemed to be affected negatively by physiological stress induced by the hot climatic conditions of southern Italy. A high number of suckers was observed with Vladimir, CAB 6P and CAB 11E, while fewer suckers were seen with Victor and MaxMa Delbard®14. The best fruit size was obtained with P. mahaleb selections in the south and with P. avium and P. cerasus selections in the north. Gisela® 5, Gisela® 10, Tabel® Edabriz and GM 61/1 had significantly lower fruit weights. While it is too early to report many definitive conclusions from the trial near Rome, trees on Weiroot 158 have been most precocious, with significantly higher production and yield efficiency compared to the other rootstocks. Preliminary data show the highest vigor with Colt and Argot, followed by MaxMa Delbard®14, CAB 11E, and CAB 6P. As elsewhere, trees on Gi 5 were very weak.