Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) Leaf Extracts against Skin Flora

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In this study, the antimicrobial activity of niaouli leaf extracts was evaluated against skin flora. The skin flora used for experiments were three gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and two gram-negative, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa( P. aeruginosa), and the yeast, Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale). The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effects of niouli leaf extracts or fraction included the disc diffusion assay and broth dilution assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50% ethanol extract on B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. acnes, E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00%, 0.13% and 0.25% respectively and the MIC values of water fraction were 0.25%, 0.25%, 4,00%, 0.25% and 0.25%. P. ovale did not show antimicrobial activities. The MIC values of methyl paraben used as positive control indicated 0.25%, 0.25%, 0.25%, 0.13% and 0.50%. Also, Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 50% ethanol extract were 2.00%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.50% and 2.00% individually and the MBC values of water fraction were 0.50%, 0.25%, 4.00%, 0.50% and 1.00%. The MBC values of methyl paraben indicated 1.00%, 0.500%, 0.50%, 0.50% and 1.00%. These results showed that water fraction was as good as methyl paraben except for P. acnes. The 50% ethanol extract also showed activity similar with it. Thus, it is concluded that the 50% ethanol extract/fraction of niaouli could be applicable to cosmetics as a natural preservatives effective in antimicrobial activity against skin flora.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
Full-text available
An examination of the leaf oils of Melaleuca quinquenervia over its geographical range in Australia and Papua New Guinea has shown wide variation in chemical composition but only two major chemotypes. Chemotype 1 is comprised of E-nerolidol (74–95%) and linalool (14–30%) and is found from Sydney, north along the east coast of Australia to Selection Flat, New South Wales, with an isolated occurrence near Maryborough, Queensland. Two divisions occur in this chemotype which are based on the presence or absence of significant proportions of linalool (14–40%). Chemotype 2 contains 1,8-cineole (10–75%), viridiflorol (13–66%), α-terpineol (0.5–14%) and β-caryophyllene (0.5–28%) in varying proportions and order of dominance in the oils. It is found throughout the distribution of the species, from Sydney to Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. Within chemotype 2 there appears to be a continuous spread of oil composition without formation of any further discrete divisions as in chemotype 1.Analyses have shown that M. quinquenervia trees that occur at latitudes south of 25°S have high oil yields (1–3% w/w%, fresh leaves) and comprise chemotypes 1 and 2. North of 25°S, however, chemotype 1 does not occur and oil yields amongst the Australian populations are uniformly low (0.1–0.2%).
Article
Forty-two commonly used essential oils were investigated for the antioxidant capabilities by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents and photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. At the concentration of 5 mg/mL, cinnamon bark (91.4 ± 0.002%), origanum (86.66 ± 0.008%) and thyme wild (52.54 ± 0.016%) were shown to own the strongest DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Their total phenolic contents were 658.40 ± 4.383, 1107.20 ± 0.768 and 275.50 ± 0.607 (μg GAE / 5 mg essential oil), respectively. To compare with the standard reference BHA (μg/mL), their EC50 were in the order: BHA (25.11 μg/mL) < cinnamon bark (90.63 μg/mL) <origanum (751.51 μg/mL). The photochemiluminescence assay was also employed to investigate the antioxidative capabilities of lipid-soluble substances (ACL). The results were as follow: cinnamon bark (133.9 ± 0.26 μmol trolox/g) > origanum (62.63 ± 1.73 μmol trolox/g) > theme wild (5.88 ± 0.16 μmol trolox/g). The chemical compositions of cinnamon bark, origanum and thyme wild were analyzed by GC-MS and followed by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity assay to confirm that eugenol, carvacrol and thymol were the major compositions contributing the antioxidative capabilities of the essential oils.
Article
In this study, the antioxidative effects of extracts from different parts of Juncus effusus L. were investigated. The three parts (above-ground part, below-ground part, medulla part) were selected. 50 % ethanol extract, ethyl acetate and aglycone fractions of J. effusus L. were used in experiments. The highest DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activities (FSC_{50}) was shown by medulla part (42.9 ?g/mL) in 50 % ethanol extracts, below-ground part (12.1 ?g/mL) in ethyl acetate fractions, and below-ground part (12.1 ?g/mL) in aglycone fractions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities (OSC_{50}) on ROS generated in Fe^{3 }-EDTA/H_2O_2 system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay showed the most prominent effect of medulla part (0.29 ?g/mL) in 50 % ethanol extracts, below-ground part (0.25 ?g/mL) in ethyl acetate fractions, and medulla part (0.20 ?g/mL) in aglycone fractions. The cellular protective effects of extract/fractions of J. effusus L. on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were increased in a concentration dependent manner (0.5 ~ 10 ?g/mL). Especially, aglycone fraction of medulla part at a concentration of 10 ?g/mL showed the most prominent protective effect among all extracts ({\tau}_{50}, 321.0 min). These results indicate that extracts from below-ground part and medulla part of J. effusus L. extracts can be used as an natural antioxidant. Particularly, J. effusus L. can protect suggesting a high {\tau}_{50} skin where many ^1O_2 was generated by sunlight exposure.
Article
In the present study, the antioxidative and antibacterial activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (A. princeps Pamp.) extract were investigated. The ethyl acetate fraction of A. princeps Pamp. showed the most prominent free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity (). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities () of A. princeps Pamp. extract on systems were investigated using a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The ethyl acetate fraction of the extract () had a 5 times greater ROS scavenging activity than L-ascorbic acid (), known as a water soluble antioxidant. The cellular protective effects of fractions of A. princeps Pamp. on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were examined. The aglycone fraction of extracts suppressed photohemolysis in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of A. princeps Pamp. extract on tyrosinase were investigated to assess their whitening efficiency. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated a 7 times higher tyrosinase inhibitory effect () than albutin, known as a whitening agent. The antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate fractions against various normal skin flora were measured. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the fraction was the highest on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Antioxidant substances were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate fractions. Eupatilin and jaceosidin were identified. These results indicate that the extract/fractions of A. princeps Pamp. can function as antioxidant and/or antibacterial agents for the skin.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts with various countries of origin. Three samples of licorice with various origins (Korea, China, and Uzbekistan) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against six skin microflora. The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effects included the disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, and challenge test. The ethyl acetate fractions of G. uralensis and G. glabra extracts showed significant antimicrobial activities against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Propionibacterium acnes) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These samples had much more intensive antimicrobial activities than synthetic preservatives on B. subtilis, P. acnes, and P. aeruginosa, especially. Korean licorice showed the highest antimicrobial activity amongst the samples tested. In view of the observed inhibitory features of these G. uralensis and G. glabra extracts, it is suggested that they could be used as natural antiseptics against bacterial contamination in cosmetics and foods, instead of the common synthetic preservatives currently employed.
Article
In this study, we investigated the antioxidative activity and inhibitory effects on elastase and tyrosinase of Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts. The free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activities () of ethyl acetate fractions of Persicaria hydropiper L. was . Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities () of some Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts on ROS generated in -EDTA/ system were investigated using the luminol - dependent chemiluminescence assay. The ROS scavenging activities () of ethyl acetate fractions of Persicaria hydropiper L. was . The protective effects of extract / fractions of Persicaria hydropiper L. on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were investigated. The Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts suppressed photohemolysis in a concentration dependent manner (). Inhibitory effects () on tyrosinase of aglycone fraction of Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts was . Inhibitory effects () on elastase of aglycone fraction of Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts was . These results indicate that extract / fractions of Persicaria hydropiper L. can function as antioxidants in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to UV radiation by anti-oxidative activity and protect cellular membranes against ROS. Persicaria hydropiper L. extract / fractions could be used as a new cosmeceutical for whitening and anti-wrinkle products.
Article
In this study, the cellular protective effect of resveratrol on oxidative damage and its antioxidative activity were investigated. The free radical-scavenging activity () of resveratrol was measured to be . The reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity () of resveratrol on the ROS generated in a system was investigated using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. Resveratrol displayed ROS scavenging activity, which is 9.6-fold higher than that of L-ascorbic acid () and had a more prominent cellular protective effect than (+)--tocopherol. When HaCaT cells were exposed to of UVB or treated with rose bengal, resveratrol protected the cells against oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner; however, it was unable to protect the cells when the damage was induced by 10 mM . These results indicate that resveratrol could be employed to improve and prevent the skin aging through its antioxidative and cellular protective activities.
Article
The use of essential oils as therapeutic agents has become increasingly popular; however, research into the antimicrobial activity of these products has been hampered by the lack of standardized and reliable screening methods. The lack of standardized methods also makes direct comparison of results between studies impossible. In this study, the most commonly used antimicrobial assays cited in the literature were evaluated for reliability and their ability to accurately assess, and directly compare, essential oil antimicrobial activity. The methods used were disc diffusion, well diffusion, agar dilution and broth dilution. This study revealed that the disc diffusion, well diffusion and agar dilution methods were unreliable and produced inconsistent results. This was largely due to problems related to achieving stable dispersion of the oils in aqueous media, diffusion of lipophilic constituents in aqueous media and varying methods for determining numbers of viable bacteria remaining after the addition of the oil. An optimized broth dilution method, using 0.02% Tween 80 to emulsify the oils, was developed and shown to be the most accurate method for testing the antimicrobial activity of the hydrophobic and viscous essential oils. When evaluated against a range of oils, this method provided the most reliable and correct results and allowed direct comparison of the antibacterial activity of the test oils, irrespective of viscosity and hydrophobicity.
Article
The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake from New Caledonia has been investigated on 133 samples collected from seven harvesting locations on the island. Forty-two components were identified by GC–MS analysis and the major ones were 1,8-cineole (0.1–76%), viridiflorol (0–67%), p-cymene (0–40%), γ-terpinene (0–33%), α-pinene (0–30%), α-terpineol (0–24%), terpinolene (0–19%), limonene (0.1–16%) and ledol (0–21%). Viridiflorol and ledol, two sesquiterpene alcohols, were identified unambiguously by 1H- and 13C-NMR analyses. A sulphur compound, methylthiobenzoate, was characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Niaouli essential oils from New Caledonia were classified into three chemotypes, using principal component analysis (PCA). Of these three chemotypes, found co-occurring in the harvesting locations across the island, chemotype 2, already characterized in Madagascar, is rich in 1,8-cineole (up to 80%) and is widespread (65.4% of the overall samples); chemotype 1 (24.8% of samples) is rich in terpinene derivatives; and chemotype 3 (9.8% of samples) is rich in α-pinene and viridiflorol. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%.
Article
FULL TEXT available free from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x/pdf The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.
Article
Propyl paraben (CAS no. 94-13-3) is a stable, non-volatile compound used as an antimicrobial preservative in foods, drugs and cosmetics for over 50 years. It is an ester of p-hydroxybenzoate. Propyl paraben is readily absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and dermis. It is hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid, conjugated and the conjugates are rapidly excreted in the urine. There is no evidence of accumulation. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that propyl paraben is relatively non-toxic by both oral and parenteral routes, although it is mildly irritating to the skin. Following chronic administration, no-observed-effect levels (NOEL) as high as 1200-4000 mg/kg have been reported and a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the rat of 5500 mg/kg is posited. Propyl paraben is not carcinogenic, mutagenic or clastogenic. It is not cytogenic in vitro in the absence of carboxyesterase inhibitors. The mechanism of propyl paraben may be linked to mitochondrial failure dependent on induction of membrane permeability transition accompanied by the mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of cellular ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Sensitization has occurred when medications containing parabens have been applied to damaged or broken skin. Parabens have been implicated in numerous cases of contact sensitivity associated with cutaneous exposure, but high concentrations of 5-15% in patch testing are needed to elicit reaction in susceptible individuals. Allergic reactions to ingested parabens have been reported, although rigorous evidence of the allergenicity of ingested paraben is lacking.
Article
Four polyphenolic acid derivatives and three ellagitannins were isolated from the leaves of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Clav.) S. T. Blake for the first time. Their structures were elucidated as gallic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (4), 2,3-O-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-(4)C(1)-glucopyranose (5), castalin (6) and grandinin (7) on the basis of chemical, mass spectrometric (-ve ESI-MS) and spectroscopic (UV, (1)H-, (13)C NMR, (1)H,(1)H-, (1)H,(13)C-COSY, (1)H,(1)H-TOCSY and HMBC) analyses. Grandinin (the major compound) showed radical scavenging properties by its reaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical [EC(50) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 micro g mL(-1)]. It was found to be relatively nontoxic in mice [LD(50) = 316 mg Kg(-1) b.wt.]. It exhibited a significant dose-dependent (35-70 mg Kg(-1)) hypoglycemic effect by significantly reducing blood glucose level in basal condition and after heavy glucose load in normal mice. Moreover, it reduced the elevated blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In addition, grandinin reduced the elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid peroxides in STZ-induced diabetic mice.
Article
To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.
Antibaterial activity and skin moisturizing effect of Cedrela sinensis A. juss shoots extracts
  • S Y Kim
  • M H Lee
  • N R Jo
  • S N Park
S. Y. Kim, M. H. Lee, N. R. Jo, and S. N. Park, Antibaterial activity and skin moisturizing effect of Cedrela sinensis A. juss shoots extracts, J. Soc. Cosmet. Scientists Korea, 36(4), 315 (2010).
Antioxidative and antiaging effects of Sorbus commixta twig extracts
  • G N Lim
  • M A Park
  • S N Park
G. N. Lim, M. A. Park, and S. N. Park, Antioxidative and antiaging effects of Sorbus commixta twig extracts, J. of Korean Oil Chemists' Soc., 28(4), 482 (2011).
Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of Artemisia princeps pampanini extracts
  • H G Yang
  • H J Kim
  • H S Kim
  • S N Park
H. G. Yang, H. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, and S. N. Park, Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of Artemisia princeps pampanini extracts, Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 40(3), 250 (2012).
  • S T Blake
S. T. Blake, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 30(5), 457 (2002).