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Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Rosa damascena MILL. essential oil, different extracts of rose petals

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Rosa damascena petals were extracted by water, hexane and ethanol. The latter was further fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Rose oil and different petal extracts were evaluated against three fungi and eleven Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fast bacteria. Rose oil and all extracts exerted broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms. The descending order of antifungal activity of rose oil and different extracts was, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Ethyl acetate extracted fraction was relatively more active against the tested bacteria than the other tested extracts. Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes were more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria and had MICs and MBCs in the range of 0.125 to 2 mg/ml and 0.5 to 4 mg/ml respectively. Acinetobacter baumannii, which is intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics, was relatively more sensitive than other Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the least sensitive Gram-negative bacterium. The MICs of Gram-positive bacteria to different extracts were significantly (p≤0.05) less than those of K. pneumoniae. The acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, was intermediate in its sensitivity to the extracted fractions compared to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of petals suggests a possible utilization of rose petal boiling water after rose oil distillation. Further studies are required to separate and identify the active antimicrobial phytoconstituents of petals to utilize them pharmaceutically.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Global Journal of Pharmacology 8 (1): 01-07, 2014
ISSN 1992-0075
© IDOSI Publications, 2014
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjp.2014.8.1.81275
Corresponding Author: Mohamed Shohayeb, Department of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University,
Saudi Arabia and Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt.
1
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Rosa damascena MILL.
Essential Oil, Different Extracts of Rose Petals
Mohamed Shohayeb, El-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Salih A. Bazaid and Ibrahim Maghrabi
1,2 3,4 3 5
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt
1
Department of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
2
Natural Products Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
3
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
5
Abstract: Rosa damascena petals were extracted by water, hexane and ethanol. The latter was further
fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Rose oil and different petal extracts were evaluated
against three fungi and eleven Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fast bacteria. Rose oil and all extracts
exerted broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms. The descending order of antifungal
activity of rose oil and different extracts was, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
Ethyl acetate extracted fraction was relatively more active against the tested bacteria than the other tested
extracts. Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes were
more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria and had MICs and MBCs in the range of 0.125 to 2 mg/ml and 0.5
to 4 mg/ml respectively. Acinetobacter baumannii, which is intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics, was
relatively more sensitive than other Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the
least sensitive Gram-negative bacterium. The MICs of Gram-positive bacteria to different extracts were
significantly (p0.05) less than those of K. pneumoniae. The acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, was
intermediate in its sensitivity to the extracted fractions compared to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of petals suggests a possible utilization of rose petal boiling water
after rose oil distillation. Further studies are required to separate and identify the active antimicrobial
phytoconstituents of petals to utilize them pharmaceutically.
Key words: Antibacterial Antifungal Rosa damascena Rose oil Extracts
INTRODUCTION Members of the genus Rosa (Family Rosaceae) are
Medicinal plants have been used for treatment of plants because of their beauty and fragrance [7].
diseases since the early civilizations of the Middle East, Although, there are over 100 species of roses, Rosa
India, China and the New World [1]. Although there is a damascena Mill. is considered one of the most important
domination of the synthetic chemistry as a method to Rosa species for its beauty, flavor and fragrance industry.
discover new and novel products for disease prevention The name of R. damascena species is based on
and treatment, eighty percent of the world’s inhabitants Damascus, Syria, where it originally existed as a wild
still rely mainly on traditional folk medicine [2]. In recent plant. However, it is now cultivated in different countries
years, there has been a revival in the use of traditional around the world [7]. Although, Taif is known for the
medicinal plants [3-5] and therefore, pharmaceutical production of a high quality rose essential oil, from R.
companies are investigating a lot of money in developing damascena, Bulgaria, Turkey, France and India are the
natural products extracted from plants [6]. largest producers of rose essential oil [8].
considered as one of the world’s most popular ornamental
Global J. Pharmacol., 8 (1): 01-07, 2014
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In addition, to fragrance industry of R. damascena Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions: Bacteria used
there has been an interest in the medicinal applications of in this study were obtained from the microbial collection
roses. In ancient medicine, R. damascena was used for of the Department of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy,
treatment of abdominal and chest pain, menstrual Taif University (Table 1). Bacteria were subcultered from
bleeding, digestive problems, depression, grief, nervous stocks maintained in nutrient broth containing 20%
stress, tension, skin problems and headaches [9]. Some glycerol at -80°C.
new medical applications for R.damascena have been
reported. Flavonoids of petals were found to possess Determination of Antifungal Activity: This was done as
strong resistance to UV radiation (254 nm) and they previously described by Halawani and Shohayeb [24].
potentially could be used in antisolar creams [10]. Wells of 5mm diameter were punched in Sabouraud's
Flavonoids have also antioxidant activity [11] and were dextrose agar plates with sterile cork borer and filled with
found to be protective to DNA from oxidative damage 50 l of 40 mg/ml plant extracts dissolved in
[12]. The essential oil of R. damascena was found to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The plates were incubated at
reduce systolic blood pressure and breathing rate [13] and 25°C for 48 hrs. The antibacterial activity was assessed by
was found to be cytotoxic against human prostate measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition of the
carcinoma cells (PC-3) [14]. In addition aqueous extracts respective plant extract.
of rose petals showed anticonvulsant effect and therefore
could be used as an adjunctive therapy for pediatric Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
refractory seizer [15]. (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC):
One of the major problems that concerns MIC and MBC were performed as previously described
public health, is bacterial resistance against antibiotics [25]. Briefly, the reconstituted extracts in DMSO were
[16, 17]. Therefore, researchers have been screening serially diluted two-folds in nutrient broth medium in
natural sources for as yet undiscovered antimicrobial microtiter plates. Each dilution was inoculated with 5 x 10
agents [18-20]. Extracts of R. damascena were CFU/ml of the test bacterial strain. The plates were
evaluated qualitatively by disk diffusion method incubated at 37°C for 18 hours. MIC was taken as the
and were found to have antibacterial activity [6,14, 21-23]. highest dilution (Least concentration) of extract showing
In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the no detectable growth. Subinhibitory concentrations were
antimicrobial activity of R. damascene essential oil sub-cultured onto nutrient agar plates to determine the
and petal extracts by different solvents against both minimum bactericidal concentrations.
bacteria and fungi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS in triplicates and the statistical analyses were carried out
Collection and Preparation of Plant Extracts: Rose
flowers were collected early morning from Shafaa, Taif. RESULTS
Extraction with Ethanol: Rose petals were extracted Antibacterial Activity of Rose Extracts Against Different
with alcohol. The extract was dried under Types of Pathogenic Bacteria: R. damascena petals were
reduced pressure using a rotary vacuum evaporator extracted with water, hexane and ethanol. The latter extract
at 60°C. The dried extract was then fractionated was further fractionated with solvents of different
consequently with chloroform, ethyl acetate and polarities (Choloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). All
butanol. All solvent fractions were dried under reduced extracts and rose oil were evaluated for their antimicrobial
pressure at 60°C activities against seven Gram-negative bacteria, an acid
Extraction with Hexane: Rose petals were extracted with (Table 1).
hexane. The hexane was evaporated under reduced The MICs of rose oil and different extracts against
pressure at 40°C to get the concrete. the tested bacteria ranged between 0.125 and 8 mg/ml. On
Extraction with Water: Petals were boiled with water for ranged between 0.5 and >8 mg/ml (Tables 2 and 3).
30 min and the water extract was dried under reduced Usually the MBCs of a tested extracts were 2 to 4 the
pressure at 60°C. values of MICs (Tables 2 and 3).
4
Statistical Analysis: All determinations were carried out
using SPSS 13.0.
fast bacterium (M. phlei) and three Gram-positive bacteria
the other hand the MBCs of the tested preparations
Global J. Pharmacol., 8 (1): 01-07, 2014
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Table 1: Microorganisma used in this study and their sources
Bacteria Characteristic Source
Bacillus subtilis Standard 168 strain Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt
Staphylococcus aureus Ap, Cf, Sm, Gn Clinical isolate, Taif University, KSA
Streptococcus pyogenes Clinical isolate Clinical isolate
Mycobacterium phlei Standard strain (ATCC 6841) Tanta University, Egypt
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 standard strain Clinical isolate, Taif University, KSA
Escherichia coli Ap, Tc, Cm, Sx, Sm Clinical isolate, Tanta University, Egypt
Klebsiella pneumoniae Ap, Pp, Cp, Tc, Cm, Sx Clinical isolate, Tanta University, Egypt
Salmonella typhimurium Ap, Tc, Sx, Sm Clinical isolate, Taif University, KSA
Shigella flexneri Ap, Tc, Sx, Sm Clinical isolate, Tanta University, Egypt
Proteus vulgaris Ap, Pp, Cp, Tc, Cm, Sx, Ctx Clinical isolate, Taif University, KSA
Acinetobacter baumannii Ap, Pp, Cp, Tc, Cm, Sx, Ctx, Cip Clinical isolate, Taif University, KSA
Aspergillus niger Standard strain (ATCC-13794) Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt
Penicillium chrysogenum Standard strain (ATCC-18226) Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Standard strain (ATCC-9080) Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt
* Clinical isolate resistance to: Ap, ampicillin; Cf, cephalexin; Cp, cephoperazone; Pp, piperacillin; Tc, tetracycline; Sm, streptomycin; Cm, chloramphenicol;
Sx, sulfamethoxazole; Gn, gentamicin; Ctx, Cefotaxime; Cip; ciprofloxacin.
Table 2: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of rose oil and different extracts of petals against Gram-
positive, acid-fast and two none-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacteria
Streptococcus Bacillus Staphylococcus Mycobacterium Pseudomonas Acinetobacter
pyogenes subtilis aureus phlei aeruginosa baumannii
------------------------- ----------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ----------------------- -----------------
Extract MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC
mg/ml
Rose oil 0.25 0.5 0.25 2 0.25 4 2 4 4 8 2 4
Aqueous extract 2 4 0.25 4 0.25 4 2 4 8 8 4 4
Concrete 4 4 1 4 2 4 4 4 4 >8 2 4
Ethanol extract 0.125 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 2 2 2 4 8 2 2
Chloroform fraction 1 2 0.125 2 1 2 1 2 4 >8 4 8
Ethyl acetate fraction 0.125 0.5 0.125 0.5 0.125 0.5 0.25 0.5 2 4 2 4
Butanol fraction 2 4 0.25 2 0.5 4 2 4 4 >8 2 4
Residue fraction 2 4 0.25 2 0.25 4 2 4 4 >8 2 4
Table 3: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of rose oil and extracts of petals against five Gram-
negative Enterobacteriaceae bacteria
Proteus vulgaris Escherichia coli Salmonella typhimurium Shigella flexneri Klebsiella pneumoniae
-------------------------- ------------------------- --------------------------- ----------------------- -------------------------
Extract MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC
Rose oil 4 8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8
Aqueous extract 4 8 8 8 4 4 4 8 8 >8
Concrete 4 8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8
Ethanol extract 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 8 4 8
Chloroform fraction 2 4 4 8 2 4 4 8 4 >8
Ethyl acetate fraction 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8
Butanol fraction 4 8 4 8 4 >8 4 >8 8 >8
Residue fraction 8 >8 4 >8 4 >8 4 >8 8 >8
Global J. Pharmacol., 8 (1): 01-07, 2014
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Fig. 1: Inhibition zones (mm) produced by rose oil and extracts of petals against Aspergillus niger,Penicillium
chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than C. albicans was the least sensitive and P. notatum
Gram-negative bacteria. While, Gram-positive bacteria was the most sensitive fungus. On the other hand, the
were inhibited by 0.125- 2 mg/ml of extracts and killed by aqueous extract was the least active and rose oil was the
0.5-4 mg/ml, Gram-negative, bacteria except for A. most active antifungal extract of petals. The concrete and
baumannii, were inhibited by concentrations ranging other fractionated extracts were more or less similar in
between 2 to 8 mg/ml and killed by 4 to >8 mg/ml extract. their activity against the tested fungi.
The most sensitive Gram positive bacterium was B. Generally speaking, ethyl acetate extracted fraction
subtilis. It was inhibited by a concentration ranging were relatively more active as antibacterial than the other
between 0.125 and 2mg/ml and killed by a concentration tested fractions of petals. Gram-positive bacteria, S.
ranging between 0.5 and 4 mg/ml (Table 3). aureus,B. subtilis and St. pyogenes were more sensitive
While, A. baumannii, was the most sensitive Gram- than Gram-positive bacteria and had MICs and MBCs of
negative bacterium, K. pneumoniae was the least 0.125-2 mg/ml and 0.5-4 respectively.
sensitive one. A. baumannii was inhibited by 1 to 4 mg/ml While, A. baumannii, was the most sensitive Gram-
and killed by 2 to 8mg/ml (Table 2). On the other hand, negative bacterium, K. pneumoniae was the least
MICs and MBCs of K. pneumoniae ranged between 4 to sensitive one. The MICs of both B. subtilis and S. aureus
8 mg/ml and 8 to>8 mg/ml, respectively (Table 2). M. phlei for different fractions were in most cases significantly
was, generally speaking, more sensitive than Gram- (p0.05) less than those of K. pneumoniae.
negative bacteria and less sensitive than Gram-positive M. phlei, on the other hand, was intermediate in its
bacteria (Tables 2 and 3). sensitivity to the extracted fractions compared to Gram-
With regard to the antifungal activity of the tested positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The higher
rose oil and petal extracts, three microorganisms were susceptibility of the tested Gram-positive bacteria than
tested; two molds (P. notatum and A. niger) and a yeast Gram-negative bacteria to rose petal extracts is consistent
(C. albicans). The inhibition zones ranged between 10.5 with previous studies on the antibacterial activity of
to 17.5 mm. inhibition zones of C. albicans ranged natural products [25-29]. Possibly this may be attributed
between 10.5 and 14mm, while those of the P. notatum to the fact that Gram-negative bacteria possess an outer
and A. niger ranged between, 12 to 17.5 and 11 to 17 membrane which acts as a barrier which prevents or
respectively. P. notatum was the most sensitive and C. decreases the penetration of numerous antimicrobials [30-
albicans was the least sensitive fungus (Fig. 1). 32]. Lack of the outer membrane in Gram-positive bacteria,
DISCUSSION leads to the leakage of their cytoplasm contents [33].
In this study R. damascena essential oil and different M. phlei to essential oil and different extracts of petals
extracts of petals were evaluated for their antimicrobial R. damascene compared to the other tested Gram-negative
activities against three Gram-positive bacteria, seven bacteria is rather interesting. Both organisms are known
Gram-negative bacteria, one acid-fast bacterium and three to be less susceptible to antimicrobials [34-36]. Resistance
fungi. Rose oil and all tested rose fractions exerted broad of A. baumannii is attributed to the less permeable outer
spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria membrane and the ability to acquire resistance genes
and fungi. [35, 36]. On the hand, M. phlei is characterized by a highly
makes it more vulnerable to damaging molecules and this
The higher susceptibility of A. baumannii and
Global J. Pharmacol., 8 (1): 01-07, 2014
5
hydrophobic cell wall with a mycolyl-arabinogalactan- 2. Owolabi, J., E.K.I. Omogbai and O. Obasuyi, 2007.
peptidoglycan skeleton that leads to its impermeability to Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the
antimicrobials [36]. ethanolicandaque C. erectus paperous extract of
On the other hand, K. pneumonia was the least Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) stem bark. Afr. J.
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study were multidrug-resistant, this did not affect (Asteraceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine,
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT flower extracts as a natural antisolar agent, Int.
The authors are thankful to the Chair of Research and 11. Pawlak, K., W. Bylka, B. Jazurek, I. Matlawska,
Development Studies of Taif Rose, Taif University, for its M. Sikorska, H. Manikowski and G. Bialek-Bylka,
financial support to project 34/1/002 and the College of 2010. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids of different
Pharmacy, Taif University, for providing the required polarity, assayed by modified abtscation radical
research facilities. The authors are also thankful to Mr. decolorization and epr technique, Acta
Mohamed Fouad and Mr. Mohanad Aref for their Biol.Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 52: 97-104.
technical assistance. 12. Kalim, M.D., D. Bhattacharyya and A. Banerjee, 2010.
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... Поради това при тях е определена най-висока зона на инхибиране IZ=21.5 mm при Rosa damascena (Таблица 47) и IZ=21 mm при Rosa alba (Таблица 48). Получените резултати потвърждават данните от изследвания на други автори за наличието на антимикробна активност на етанолни екстракти от розов цвят срещу E.coli, Salmonella sp., St.aureus, Pr.vulgaris, Ps. aeruginosa (Hirulkar and Agrawal, 2010;Shohayeb et al., 2014), но и представляват новост, тъй като в случая тези екстракти са получени от индустриално преработени суровини, което показва, че те могат да намерят приложение в хранително-вкусовата промишленост, в козметиката и др., като естествени биоконсерванти. ...
... активност на алкохолни екстракти от розов цвят срещу E.coli, Salmonella sp., St.aureus, Pr.vulgaris, Ps. aeruginosa(Hirulkar, Agrawal, 2010;Shohayeb et al., 2014). Таблица 51. ...
... А растежът на останалите патогени, включени в изследването, се потиска само от 70% алкохолни екстракти, като за всички е определена MIC 600 ppm. Получените резултати потвърждават данните от изследвания на други автори за наличието на антимикробна активност на водни и водно-алкохолни екстракти от розов цвят срещу B. subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum(Shohayeb et al., 2014). Само алкохолните екстракти (70%) влияят на растежа на плесенните гъби, като MIC е 600 ppm.Таблица 52. ...
... The rose concrete and rose absolute have exclusive roles in health advantageous activities. Many researchers have studied different therapeutic properties of rose extracts such as anti-HIV (Labban and Thallaj, 2020), anti-inflammatory (Hajhashemi et al., 2010), antioxidant (Boskabady et al., 2011;Kovatcheva-Apostolova et al., 2008;özkan et al., 2004;Yassa et al., 2009), anticonvulsant (Kheirabadi et al., 2008;Labban and Thallaj, 2020), and antibacterial (Andoğan et al., 2002;Basim and Basim, 2003;özkan et al., 2004;Shohayeb et al., 2014;Ulusoy et al., 2009). Rose concrete is usually extracted from rose petals by nonpolar organic solvents (Mahboubi, 2016). ...
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Rosa damascena Mill. is one of the rosa species that is broadly used for commercial products such as rose concrete and rose absolute. First, the effect of two organic solvents of hexane and ethyl acetate and three alcohols of methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol were studied on the yield and quality of the rose concrete and rose absolute from air-dried petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Then, a predictive thermodynamic model based on the UNIFAC activity coefficient was employed to predict the composition of rose absolute obtained from the rose concrete. The extraction of rose concrete from dried rose petals was performed at 30 °C by hexane or ethyl acetate, and then the produced rose concrete was combined with an alcohol and the mixture was placed at -18 °C for 48 hours to produce rose absolute. Based on the results, the maximum yield of rose absolute was achieved if the extractions were performed with ethyl acetate to extract rose concrete, and ethanol to extract rose absolute. The extracts were analyzed using a GC-MS method to determine the effect of the solvents on the quality of the rose absolute. The most critical constituents detected in the extracts were high-value fragrant components of phenyl ethyl alcohol, citronellol, geraniol, nerol, and farnesol. The results showed that using the pair of hexane and methanol led to achieving a rose absolute with the highest odor value (16038) but a low extraction yield. Using ethyl acetate and ethanol, the maximum yield of rose absolute was achieved. Finally, the thermodynamic model showed a good agreement in predicting the rose absolute production from the rose concrete with the alcohols.
... The weakest antimicrobial property was observed in extracts prepared with the use of hexane. Shohayeb et al. [53] used many popular solvents to prepare Rosa damascena flower extracts (water, hexane, and ethanol and alcoholic extracts were suspended in chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate). Then, the bactericidal properties of the extracts against Streptococcus pyogenes, B. subtilis, and S. aureus were examined. ...
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Staphylococcus bacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms. They occur in practically all environments. They also show the ability to colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. The current trend is to look for new natural factors (e.g., plant extracts rich in polyphenols) limiting the growth of undesirable bacteria in food and cosmetics or use as an adjunct in antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts from Rosa rugosa Thunb. on the antagonistic properties of selected lactic acid bacteria strains in relation to Staphylococcus spp. isolates. The biological material consisted of seven strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and seven strains of bacteria of the Staphylococcus genus. The anti-staphylococcal properties of the Rosa rugosa Thunb. pomace extracts (the tested extracts were characterized by a high content of polyphenols, namely 8–34 g/100 g DM/dm) were tested using the well method. The conducted research showed that the pomace extracts of the pseudo-fruit (Rosa rugosa Thunb.) had the ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus spp. bacteria. The minimum concentration of polyphenols inhibiting the growth of staphylococci was in the range of 0.156–0.625 mg/mL. The conducted research showed that combined lactic acid bacteria and extracts from the pomace from the pseudo-fruit Rosa rugosa Thunb. (LR systems) may be factors limiting the growth of Staphylococcus spp. bacteria. As a result of the research, two-component antagonist systems consisting of LAB cultures and extracts from Rosa rugosa Thunb. pomace were developed, which effectively limited the growth of the test strains of Staphylococcus spp. In 41% of all tested cases, the zone of inhibition of growth of bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp. after the use of two-component antagonist systems was higher than that as a result of the control culture (without the addition of extracts).
... Hexane is not appropriate, due to the extract use as a food supplement, solvent. Both water and ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against most common pathogenic microorganism, responsible for foodborne diseases (Shohayeb et al. 2014). Dragoev et al. (2021) found the presence of polyphenols in the extract obtained from the dry distilled rose petals (DDRP). ...
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Nature is a source of natural additives that can be incorporated into the meat products’ matrix. Extracts from spices, herbs, nuts, fruits and vegetables are most common. The extracts can be from whole, individual parts, and from various waste products. Those extracts can be used in meat products for various purposes. They are rich in substances with antioxidant properties, such as anthocyanin, vitamins and polyphenols. Those substances are capable of inhibiting lipid and pigment oxidation, prolonging shelf life and at the same time having a positive effect on organoleptic characteristics. Sodium nitrite is almost essential ingredient in production of cooked meat products. Strict regulated use, the existing risk of carcinomas and even the direct toxicity of nitrites lead to increased interest in search of natural antioxidants. It is believed that they can maintain the quality characteristics of meat products with reduced nitrite content. In the past decade there is a growing interest in the search for, certification and implementation of safe natural additives. The growing demand for the so-called "clean label" foods is the driving force for many of the conducted researches in the last two decades.
... Trong et al. have been reported P. timera essential oil inhibited Gram positive more than Gram negative bacteries [36]. Shohayeb M et al. studied the antimicrobial and antifungal effects of R. damascena and showed that gram-positive bacteria had a higher susceptibility than gram-negative [37]. Gram negative bacteria's have more complex cell wall than Gram-positive bacteries so extracts can penetrate to Gram-positive bacteria [2]. ...
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Medicinal traditional plants are a source of inspiration for the discovery of new bioactive substances. Plant infusions, extracts, and essential oils are known for their diverse biological activity since they are rich in secondary metabolites. The Mediterranean area in general and Lebanon in particular is known for its plant diversity due to its climate and geographical location. This chapter will provide an overview of Lebanese plants with antimicrobial activity. Many of these plants are known for their culinary and traditional medicinal uses for the treatment of different ailments. The main plant families discussed here include Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Cannabaceae, Cistaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, Rosaceae, and others.
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