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Abstract

In this research article make known on Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) as Medicinal plants have therapeutic potential due to the presence of natural antioxidants functioning as reducing agents, free radical scavengers and quenchers of singlet oxygen. And this article also determines the use of Withania Somnifera (leaves) Polyphenolic Compound activity on MCF-7, A549 and PA-1 cancer cell line (breast, lung and ovary respectively). By providing a scientific basis the study can be made conventional to evaluate its constituents (natural product) to determine which of Withania Somnifera (leaves), would facilitate further study as potential new anticancer agents or lead to new anticancer compounds. Hydro alcoholic (1:1) sample of Withania Somnifera (leaves) were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549and PA1) with standard Doxorubicin. The most essential reason of this study is to estimate cytotoxicity of certain important Indian medicinal plants with facilitate of MTT assay. Concentrations are set of each plant extract which are 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml, 0.01 μg/ml and 5-10×10 3 cells/ml are taken into each well which are exposed to different Concentrations of Withania Somnifera (leaves) for 96 hr and then treated with MTT. For MTT absorbance in use at 570 nm. From IC50 values of MTT assay of Withania Somnifera (leaves) for MCF7, A549 and PA1 cancer cell lines, from this it may conclude that Withania Somnifera (leaves)shows efficient cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (10 ± 1 μg) than PA-1 (13 ± 1 μg) and A-459 (11± 1 μg) cancer cell line.

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... Family: Solanaceae Parts Used: Root, stem and leaves Activity: In Indian traditional Ayurvedic medicine W. somnifera (local name: Ashwagandha) is well proven as a potential source of various anticancer components due to the presence of several bioactive components acting as free radical scavengers, reducing agents and quenchers of singlet oxygen [86]. Some recent studies using 50% ethanol extract of root, stem and leaves of W. somnifera exhibited in-vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines of four different tissues i.e. ...
... shows efficient cytotoxicity on MCF-7, A549 and PA-1 cancer cell line (breast, lung and ovary respectively) [86]. In a study, W. somnifera was suggested as an alternative long-term therapy to prevent the spread of cancer cells. ...
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Bengal possesses a diverse gene pool of ethno-botanically important plant species for alternative medicinal agents. Herbal remedies, also known as botanical medicine, have been recognized as a promising complementary treatment for cancer. In this article, we have methodically highlighted and summarized most popular and effective Bengal plants which possess phytocomponents with anti-cancer properties. Several in vitro as well as in vivo studies demonstrated the details of plant derived metabolites and their promising efficacy against different cancer cell lines. Therefore, recapitulated data about the bioactivity of these phytochemicals, with special emphasis on Bengal medicinal plants will enrich our knowledge about developing carefully designed standardized drug in controlling the carcinogenic processes traditionally over conventional therapies to prevent this global health crisis.
... Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal family Solanaceae (W.S.) also known as Ashwagandha is a well reputed plant in India as a multi-purpose medicinal agent and is well cherished for the cytotoxic activity of its extracts and isolates. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate its effectiveness in prevention and treatment of several forms of cancer [1,2]. Aqueous extract of WS leaves has selective cancer cell growth arrest activity tested both in vitro and in vivo [3]. ...
... Melting points were determined in open glass capillaries using Stuart capillary (Stuart Scientific Stone, Staffordshire, UK) and are uncorrected. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker Avance III (Switzerland) (at 400 and 100 MHz, respectively) in DMSO,d6 or CDCl 3 solution, using TMS as the internal standard. Chemical shift values are expressed in δ (ppm). ...
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Aims: To investigate the chemotype of the Egyptian Withania somnifera and explore the cytotoxic activity of different extracts as well as the major isolated withanolides on four cell lines of common cancer variants in Egypt, both in vitro and using computational methods. Study Design: Preparation of the different plant parts extract, determination of the chemotype of the Egyptian plant and bioactivity guided isolation of its major constituents. Place and Duration of Study: Department of biochemistry, faculty of medicine and department of pharmacognosy, faculty of pharmacy between November 2014 and July 2016. Methodology: We included four parts of the plant to be investigated on the four common cancer cell lines found in Egypt (liver, breast, lung and colon), in vitro MTT assay as well as docking analysis with the epidermal growth factor receptor identified as cancer molecular targets were performed, synergy analysis was carried on the most active withanolides. Results: Roots extract showed selective cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells while the 50% ethanolic extract of leaves showed selective inhibition against breast cancer cells. All investigated extracts and withanolides E, C and S showed cytotoxic activity against liver cancer cells with the highest activity manifested by the leaves extracts. Withanolide C showed anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cells. The highest cytotoxic activity aganist HepG2 was observed for a combination of the active withanolides (E, C, and S) with IC50 value < 0.1 μg/ml. Conclusion: Egyptian Withania somnifera is a subtype of chemotype III with different biological activity than the Indian one. Withanolides E, C and S might be a potential lead in the development of new anti-cancer treatment modalities.
... W. somnifera (leaves) flavonoid compounds show anti-cancerous activities on cell lines MCF-7, A549 and PA1. These readings showed that W. somnifera (leaves) shows efficient cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (10±1µg) than PA1 (13±1µg) and A459 (11±1µg) cancer cell lines [53]. A long term tumor genesis study on Swiss albino mouse model shows that roots of W. somnifera inhibit the benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach papillomagenesis and results in 60 and 92% inhibition in tumor incidence and multiplicity. ...
... Similarly, free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of W. somnifera leaves was studied by DPPH and NBT methods and the results indicate that leaf possess antioxidant activity which may be due the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaf extract [95]. A double blind clinical trial conducted on 101 healthy male (50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) for one year to test the anti-aging property of Ashwagandha showed a significant improvement in hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hair melanin, seated stature, decreased serum cholesterol and preserved nail calcium in subjects. Sexual performance was also increased in 70% of subjects [37,89]. ...
Article
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Present review article reveals the importance of species Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, distributed in India and other parts of the world, this extensive research information on this species is highly significant for future researchers worldwide. In this article cytomorphological, phytochemical and biological activities inputs have been extensively recorded and discussed. As a part of our investigation on cytomorphological and phytochemical aspects for important medicinal plants from India, the aim of this pioneer attempt is to provide precise, truthful and detailed information of W. somnifera (L.). As per our knowledge, there is not even a single, combined, constructive review report available about this species, evaluated by using cytomorphological, phytochemical and biological activities based aspects.
... Chemical constituents which are biologically active in this herb are protein, aminoacids, carbohydrate, steroids, alkaloids, oxalic acid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannis, withanoloides, inorganic compounds and saponins [11,[13][14][15]. ...
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The herbal plants are used for treatment of various diseases because of their safety and effectiveness from ancient time. Withania somnifera is an important member of plant family Solanacea. Commonly known as Ashwagandha. It is found in throughout the drier parts of South East Asia including India, Bangladesh, Sri-Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, different parts of Australia, Africa and America. Withania somnifera is cultivated in many of the drier regions of India. In India, it is widely distributed in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab Gujarat and Rajasthan. Its roots, leaves, flowers, and pods contain carbohydrate, protein, aminoacids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, oxalic acid, inorganic compounds, saponins and withanoloides. Pharmacological investigations have revealed the presence of several activities like antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypo cholesterolemic, anxiolytic, antitumor activity, anticancer, antifungal, hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities. This article is an attempt to present the overview of pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported on Withania somnifera.
... The active principles of roots are withanolides such as withaferin A along with withanone, withanolide D and withanosides are found to be effective against cancer cell lines [57]. In comparison to ovary and lungs cancer the leaf extract was more effectual against breast cancer [58] . In addition to having anti cancer properties, this report also suggested the ability of W. somnifera, to recover from fatigue induced by cancer, in cancer patients which may be helpful for improvement of their life expectancies. ...
Article
Plants have always been an indispensable part of human life since the beginning of human civilisation. Withania somnifera (L.) DUNAL, popularly known as Wintercherry or Indian Ginseng, is widely considered as Ashwagandha. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a Rasayana (rejuvenation) and projected to promote mental and physical health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. Due to its beneficial chemical constituents, the herb possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities and is used to treat a variety of diseases affecting human health. These include Cardioprotective activity, Anti-cancer activity, Immunomodulatory activity, Neuroprotective activity, Antimicrobial activity, Anti-stress activity,Anti-diabetic activity and Anti-inflammatory activity. The present review discusses the pharmacological importance of Withania somnifera and its important constituents.
... A study on withaferin-A of the chloroform leaf extract reported that it arrests cell cycle of human osteogenic sarcoma cell lines at G2, G1 and S phases with varying cell fractions. Along with this cancer inhibition factor, the hydroalcholic leaf extract also contains polyphenolic compounds that are known to control various cancer cell lines of the breast, ovary and lung cancers including MCF-7, A549 and PA-1 (86). The aqueous extract of W. somnifera leaves activate p53, which in turn increase the concentration of cyclin B1 (9). ...
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Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have been known for their toxicity and numerous side effects. A new approach to treat cancer involves phytochemical drugs. In the present review, anti-cancer activity of a class of steroidal lactones called withanolides obtained from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is discussed. The commonly studied bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A, withanoside IV, withanoside VI and withanolide-A among others obtained from methanolic and chloroform extract of the leaves and various alcoholic, aqueous and chloroform extract of roots have shown inhibition to various human cancer cell lines including skin, breast, colon, prostate, liver, ovary, cervical and lung. Prominent mechanisms of action include induction of apoptosis by NOS upregulation, ROS production and NBS2 or COX-2 inhibition; cytotoxicity by humoral and cell mediated immune response, activation of p53 and pRB and inhibition of various viral oncoproteins; cell cycle arrest by Cdc2 facilitated mitotic catastrophe, cyclin-D1 down-regulation and inhibition of transcription factors. Cancers are also controlled by inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis of the tumor cells. In addition to anti-tumorogenic properties, W. somnifera also holds properties that make it a potential adjuvant in integrated cancer therapeutics and in enhancing the effectiveness of ongoing radiation therapy.
... A study on withaferin-A of the chloroform leaf extract reported that it arrests cell cycle of human osteogenic sarcoma cell lines at G2, G1 and S phases with varying cell fractions. Along with this cancer inhibition factor, the hydroalcholic leaf extract also contains polyphenolic compounds that are known to control various cancer cell lines of the breast, ovary and lung cancers including MCF-7, A549 and PA-1 (86). The aqueous extract of W. somnifera leaves activate p53, which in turn increase the concentration of cyclin B1 (9). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have been known for their toxicity and numerous side effects. A new approach to treat cancer involves phytochemical drugs. In the present review, anti-cancer activity of a class of steroidal lactones called withanolides obtained from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is discussed. The commonly studied bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A, withanoside IV, withanoside VI and withanolide-A among others obtained from methanolic and chloroform extract of the leaves and various alcoholic, aqueous and chloroform extract of roots have shown inhibition to various human cancer cell lines including skin, breast, colon, prostate, liver, ovary, cervical and lung. Prominent mechanisms of action include induction of apoptosis by NOS upregulation, ROS production and NBS2 or COX-2 inhibition; cytotoxicity by humoral and cell mediated immune response, activation of p53 and pRB and inhibition of various viral oncoproteins; cell cycle arrest by Cdc2 facilitated mitotic catastrophe, cyclin-D1 down-regulation and inhibition of transcription factors. Cancers are also controlled by inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis of the tumor cells. In addition to anti-tumorogenic properties, W. somnifera also holds properties that make it a potential adjuvant in integrated cancer therapeutics and in enhancing the effectiveness of ongoing radiation therapy.
... The hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera leaves at a dose of 100 μg/ml was found to give anti-cancer activities on human cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and PA1. Doxorubicin was used as standard drug (Nema et al., 2013). W. somnifera roots powder were found to have potent cancer chemopreventive activity at a dose of 2.5 and 5% w/w against forestomach and skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mouse model. ...
... Cuscuta reflexa (Giant dodder) in cell lines [5], Swiss albino mice [6], human red blood cells [7] and human cancer cell lines [8]. Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng Withania somnifera has immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) expresses promising antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects [15,16]. ...
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UNANI MEDICINE AND CANCER Christer Sundqvist. Prepublished article, 2020 Petrafoundation, Helsinki, Finland https://www.petrafoundation.com/en/foundation Unani medicine is an alternative medical system originating in ancient Greece almost 2500 years back. It is now practiced primarily in India. Herbal remedies, dietary practices and alternative therapies characterize Unani medicine. Let us study what it can offer for a cancer patient.
... Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly called as Aswagandha, winter cherry or Indian ginseng serves both as tonic and a sedative due to its adaptogenic properties [12,13]. W. somnifera is known to possess anti-cancer properties against prostate, colon, lung, breast, leukemia, pancreatic, renal, head and neck cancer cells of humans [14][15][16]. Preclinical research and clinical trials support the use of W. somnifera for the treatment of various neurological conditions including anxiety, depression, cognitive disorders, senile dementia, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) [17,18,21,22], epilepsy and seizures [19,20]. A number of studies have reported anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, spermatogenic and hepato-protective properties of this medicinal plant [23][24][25][26][27]. ...
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Salvadora oleoides and Withania somnifera are the commonly found plants of Pakistan that are known to possess various medicinal properties. Present study was designed to evaluate the presence of various phytochemicals in these plants both qualitatively and quantitatively. This study was concluded with accessing the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of these phytochemicals against E. coli, Shigella Spp, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger. In addition qualitative analysis of phytochemical constituents i.e. alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpanoids and quantitative analysis of total proteins, sugars, reducing sugars, phenolics and flavonoids was performed. Plant extracts were also checked for the existence of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Results revealed the presence of a wide range of phytoconstituents including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the plants. Quantification of few pharmaceutically important phytoconstituents showed the diversified response. Presence of antioxidants was confirmed in S. oleoides (2.14±SD mg/mL) in methanol extracts of leaves and water extract of leaves of W. somnifera (1.97±SD mg/mL). Methanolic extracts of leaves, bark and roots of both the medicinal plants showed inhibitory effects against both fungal and bacterial strains used. Our findings provide strong evidence that these medicinal plants possess phytoconstituents of pharmaceutical importance and thus may serve as an effective alternative to routine therapeutics.
... The study reveals that the active component of aqueous leaf extract such as triethylene glycol shows accountable anticancer activity by the activation of p53 and pRB (tumor suppressor protein) by preparing the hydroalcoholic leaf extract to evaluate the cytotoxicity against breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovary cancer [154], this suggests that the leaf extracts are more effective for breast cancer compared to lung and ovary cancer, and this hydroalcoholic leaf extract contains polyphenolic compound which is more effective against cancer cells. ...
Article
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The World Health Organization reports that approximately 80% population from developing countries are facing complications from synthetic drugs used in maintaining their primary health-care needs. The chemotherapeutic strategies are very striking and have earned serious concern as potential means of controlling the incidence of this dreadful disease. However, the major problem in cancer is the long lasting toxicity of the well reputable chemical drugs. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have attracted enormous attention, to fight against various diseases with their broad-spectrum biological and therapeutic properties. Although plants, phytochemicals and their analogues have been confirmed to be safe and effective, having strong anticancer properties. A number of pharmaceutical agents with diverse chemical structures of natural origin from plants have been discovered as anticancer agents such as vincristine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, taxol, resveratrol, withaferin A, quercetin, and curcumin. Further modifications of these phytochemicals led to the development of numerous outstanding molecules such as drugs like topotecan, irinotecan, taxotere, etoposide, and teniposide. In this in-depth review, we meticulously investigated the selected medicinal plants for their anticancer properties. In particular, novel compounds from plants have beneficial effects on human health. Our observations suggest the preventive and therapeutic use of phytochemicals in managing various human malignancies.
... Hydro alcoholic (1:1) sample of Withania Somnifera (leaves) were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549and PA1) with standard Doxorubicin. The hydro alcoholic extract showed efficient anti cancer activity on breast, lung and ovary cancer cell lines15 . ...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to assess Acalypha indica methanolic leaf extract for its anti hemolytic activity, anti-bacterial activity and its various phytochemical constituents. The methanolic leaf extract of Acalypha indica shown to have reasonable anti hemolytic activity. The methanolic extract showed antihemolytic activity in the range from 27% to 54%. At varying concentration of plant extracts 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg /ml the percent of inhibition of hemolysis recorded were 27%, 34%, 40%, 47%, 54% respectively. The methanolic leaf extract of Acalypha indica showed significant inhibitory effect on all of the five bacterial species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans. The inhibition zones for S. aureus were 14 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm (including well 4 mm) at concentrations of 15 µl, 20 µl and 25 µl respectively. The inhibition zones P. aeruginosa were 14 mm, 14 mm and 16 mm, 10 mm, 11 mm and 20 mm for Streptococcus mutans. The zones for E. coli were 10 mm, 12 mm and 21 mm and 14 mm, 16 mm and 19 mm for Bacillus subtilis. The phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract of Acalypha indica leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavanoids, alkaloids, phenols and saponins.
... Study divulges that triethylene glycol (TEG) is the active component of an aqueous extract which is accountable to control the cancer by the activation of p53 and pRB (tumor suppressor protein). Hydro alcoholic extract of leaves (1:1) was prepared and its cytotoxicity was evaluated against breast, lung, and ovary cancer (Nema et al., 2013). Their study disclosed that the extract of W. somnifera leaves was more potent for breast cancer as compared with ovary and lungs cancer. ...
Article
Cancer, being a cause of death for major fraction of population worldwide, is one of the most studied diseases and is being investigated for the development of new technologies and more accurate therapies. Still the currently available therapies for cancer have many lacunae which affect the patient's health severely in the form of side effects. The natural drugs obtained from the medicinal plants provide a better alternative to fight against this devastating disease. Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments for centuries. Considering the immense potential of W. somnifera, this review provides a detail account of its vital phytoconstituents and summarizes the present status of the research carried out on its anticancerous activities, giving future directions. The sources of scientific literature were accessed from various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and library search. Various parts of W. somnifera especially the roots with its unique contents have been proved effective against different kinds of cancers. The most active components withanolides and withaferins along with a few other metabolites including withanone (WN) and withanosides have been reported effective against different types of cancer cell lines. This herb holds an important place among various anticancer medicinal plants. It is very essential to further screen and to investigate different formulations for anticancer therapy in vitro as well as in vivo in combination with established chemotherapy.
... Numerous studies published over the last two decades indicate that W. somnifera has unique characteristics to suppress various types of cancer and it has been used as Ayurvedic remedy for the treatment of various types of cancer over two thousand years. Ashwagandha possesses anticancer properties against prostate, colon, lung, breast, leukemia, pancreatic, renal, head and neck cancer cells of humans (Nema et al., 2013;Patel et al., 2013;Yadav et al., 2010), forestomach and skin cancer cells in mice (Padmavathi et al., 2005). Recently the anticancerous potential of W. somnifera and its bioactive withanolides has been extensively studied by several research groups all around the world, which have discovered diverse mechanisms such as cytotoxicity, cell differentiation induction, cancer chemoprevention, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition and a potential to inhibit the enzyme quinine reductase. ...
Article
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Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an important Rasayana herb and widely considered as Indian ginseng in Ayurveda. In traditional system of Indian medicine, it is used as tonic to rejuvenate the body and increase longevity. In Ayurvedic preparations, various parts of the plant have been used to treat variety of ailments that affect the human health. However, dried roots of the plant are widely used for the treatment of nervous and sexual disorders. The major active chemical constituents of this plant are withanolides, which is responsible for its wide range of biological activities. Since the beginning of the 20 th century, a significant amount of research has been done and efforts are ongoing to further explore other bioactive constituents, and many pharmacological studies have been carried out to describe their disease preventing mechanisms. In this chapter, we have reviewed the chemistry and pharmacological basis of W. somnifera in various human ailments.
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The article provides a general outline on descriptions of various types of cancers and their management from medicinal and ethnobotanical perspective underlying its scientific principles involved in treating these conditions with the use of natural products. The article reviews the available literature regarding researches on anti-cancerous traditional and ayurvedic herbs and also includes how these plants are used to control and cure various types of cancers.
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About the Book The book “Advances in Ethnobotany” is an attempt to integrate research work of different practicing ethnobotanist across India from laboratories of repute. This book is divided into three sections. In first section ethnobotanical works of Veligonda, Shivalik hills, and some other research works of North eastern states are described. A chapter is dedicated on research methodology in ethnobotany. Another chapter describes ethnobotany of orchidaceae. The second section deals with Pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus, bioactive metabolites from plant associated endophytic fungi, berries: source of natural antioxidant, phytochemistry of Murraya Koenigii and several other herbal drugs are explained in very lucid manner. The third section focuses on utilization and conservation of plants in which medicinal and economic importance of Rhododendron in Sikkim Himalaya, an efficient micropropagation protocol for Melissa officinalis, utilization of plant biodiversity for treatment and cure of diseases and many other relevant topics are discussed in length.This book will be very much helpful for Post Graduate students, researchers, scientists and doctors working in the field of Indian System of Medicine and academicians working in the field of Medical Botany, Herbal technology and Ethnobotany as well as other branches of Life sciences. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist. The editor has attempted to organise the book in such a way that it will be useful to everyone interested in the field of medicinal botany, pharmacy, ethno-medicine, ethnobotany, herbal therapy, naturopathy and green health therapy. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist .
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Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means "crab". In the classical Unani literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
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Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity of Ashwagandha.
Article
Withania somnifera, commonly known as "Ashwagandha" or "Indian ginseng" is an essential therapeutic plant of Indian subcontinent regions. It is regularly used, alone or in combination with other plants for the treatment of various illnesses in Indian Systems of Medicine over the period of 3,000 years. Ashwagandha (W. somnifera) belongs to the genus Withania and family Solanaceae. It comprises a broad spectrum of phytochemicals having wide range of biological effects. W. somnifera has demonstrated various biological actions such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-arthritic, anti-stress/adaptogenic, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, W. somnifera has revealed the capability to decrease reactive oxygen species and inflammation, modulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis regulation and improve endothelial function. Withaferin-A is an important phytoconstituents of W. somnifera belonging to the category of withanolides been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In this review, we have summarized the active phytoconstituents, pharmacologic activities (preclinical and clinical), mechanisms of action, potential beneficial applications, marketed formulations and safety and toxicity profile of W. somnifera.
Chapter
Withania somnifera is a very unique medicinal plant explored by number of orthodox medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. It is commonly known as Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng and winter cherry, and finds its potential medicinal properties in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. The Withania genus is classified under the Solanaceae family and includes around 60 species, among which W. somnifera and W. coagulans are often mentioned in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha is a treasure house of widespread array of metabolites such as steroids, flavones, alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and coumarin. Eight different polyphenols (five phenolic acids, vanillic, benzoic, p-coumaric, gallic and syringic acid, and three types of flavonoids, naringenin, catechin and kaempferol) were reported from Ashwagandha. Each part of this plant holds an assortment of different metabolites, and the metabolite concentrations vary among the different chemotypes. Ashwagandha has been used for a variety of ailment since a long time by traditional medicinal systems. It has been used for a range of diseases such as diabetes, emaciation, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis-related inflammations, some kinds of seizures, diarrhoea, dermatitis and insect bite and specially used in the treatment of nervous disorder. The importance of Ashwagandha in medicinal treatments has attracted the attention of a large number of scientists; as a result, numerous experiments have been carried out, which have verified the therapeutic properties of Ashwagandha. Further, the efforts are being taken for the breeding strategies via conventional breeding as well as plant tissue culture techniques and gene transformation for the improvement of withanolide contents. This chapter gives an extensive insight on the various aspects such as basic introduction, classification, botanical description, bioactive molecules, medicinal properties and commercially available products. Furthermore, this chapter narrates the several breeding approaches for the improvement of withanolide contents of Ashwagandha.
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Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and apoptotic inductive effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) leaf extract against a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Methods After treating HepG2cells with Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WX; 6.25 mg/ml–100 mg/ml), cell proliferation was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase), Fas-ligand level, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were measured. Molecular modelling assessed the binding-free energies of Ashwagandha in the cyclin D1 receptor. Results The MTT assay demonstrated increased cytotoxicity following treatment of HepG2 cells with ASH-WX compared with control untreated cells and theIC50was 5% (approximately 5.0 mg/ml). Antioxidant activities, Fas-ligand levels and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities significantly increased, while TNF-α level significantly decreased following ASH-WX treatment compared with control untreated cells. Molecular docking analysis revealed a good prediction of binding between cyclin D1 and Ashwagandha. There was significant accumulation of ASH-WX-treated HepG2cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases compared with the control untreated cells. Conclusion Ashwagandha could be a powerful antioxidant and a promising anticancer agent against HCC.
Chapter
Withania somnifera due to its characteristic secondary metabolite content is of valuable medicinal significance and thus various omics approaches have been recently gaining lots of interest. Present updates had revealed various key enzymes involved in withanolide biosynthetic pathway. Molecular markers (SSRs) resources have also been established and have provided leads to study intra and inter-specific gene diversity. Various in-vitro studies have been conducted to improve the withanolide content in this important plant. Further, emerging metabolomic area like phytochemical genomics has also been applied in case of Withania somnifera for metabolite detection and its structural validation.
Article
Background The Mediterranean basin is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the world, and the use of medicinal plants for treating cancer in this area has been documented for generations in different cultures. Objective To present and discuss the findings related to medicinal plants with confirmed data on active compounds and/or clear mode of action. Methods We undertook a structured search of bibliography of peer-reviewed research literature using key words and a focused review question. Papers with sufficient quality were reviewed, their findings presented and integrated into a coherent, state of the art document on wild plants of the Middle East with anti-cancer activity. Results 121 papers were included in the review, among them 10 define herbal medicine, 3 describe the status of cancer worldwide, 18 discuss biodiversity, chemodiversity, ethnopharmacological survey and conservation of medicinal plants, 12 describe well known natural products from plants used to treat cancer and 78 papers describe specific compounds and mode of action in different wild plants from the middle east, traditionally used to treat cancer. Conclusions Confirmed data on active compounds and/or clear mode of action exist for several wild plants traditionally used in herbal medicine to treat cancer. Yet, medicinal plants were mainly gathered from the wild, resulting in some of the commonly used herbs becoming endangered species. Also, in many cases, the activity and biochemical profile of plants harvested over different time spans and ecosystems may vary. Rational cultivation may ensure optimized yield with a uniform high quality of products.
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This is the first report describing two novel chondroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera root powder.First,these extracts had a statistically significant,short-term chondroprotective effect on damaged human osteoarthritic cartilage matrix in 50% of the patients tested. Second,these extracts caused a significant and reproducible inhibition of the gelatinase activity of collagenase type 2 enzyme in vitro.
Article
Alcohol Extracts From The Roots Of W. Somnifera (‘Ashwaganda’ In Sanskrit) Were Screened For Their Acute (24 H) Toxicity In Conventional Swiss Albino Mice and Subacute Toxicity (30 Days) In Wistar Rats. A Single Intraperitoneal Injection Of 1100 Mg/Kg Of The Extract In Mice Did Not Produce Any Deaths Within 24 H, But Small Increases Led To Mortality. The Ld50 Value Was Calculated As 1260 Mg/Kg Body Wt. Subacute Toxicity Studies With Repeated Injections Of Ashwagandha Extract At A Dose Of 100 Mg/Kg Body Wt. (= 1/12 Ld50) For 30 Days In Wistar Rats Of Either Sex Did Not Result In Any Mortality Or Changes In Peripheral Blood Constituents. However, Significant Reductions In The Weights Of Spleen, Thymus and Adrenals Were Observed In Male Rats At The End Of The Experiment. The Acid Phosphatase Content Of Peripheral Blood In Both Sexes Showed A Significant Increase From Control, While Other Biochemical Parameters Determined In The Study Were In The Normal Range.
Article
Four novel withanolide glycosides and a withanolide have been isolated from the leaves of Withania somnifera. The structures of the novel compounds were elucidated as physagulin D (1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 27-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl physagulin D (2), 27-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl viscosalactone B (3), 4,16-dihydroxy-5β, 6β-epoxyphysagulin D (4), and 4-(1-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propanone)-2,3-dihydrowithaferin A (5) on the basis of 1D-, 2D NMR and MS spectral data. In addition, seven known withanolides withaferin A (6), 2,3-dihydrowithaferin A (7), viscosalactone B (8), 27-desoxy-24,25-dihydrowithaferin A (9), sitoindoside IX (10), physagulin D (11), and withanoside IV (12) were isolated. These withanolides were assayed to determine their ability to inhibit cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes and lipid peroxidation. The withanolides tested, except compound 9, showed selective COX-2 enzyme inhibition ranging from 9 to 40% at 100μg/ml. Compounds 4, 10 and 11 also inhibited lipid peroxidation by 40, 44 and 55%, respectively. The inhibition of COX-2 enzyme by withanolides is reported here for the first time.
Article
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is used in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda and is believed to have a variety of health promoting effects. Molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying these effects have not been studied. We tried to characterize various activities of leaf extract of Ashwagandha (Lash) raised in the field and in the laboratory. We found that the Lash from field-raised plants has a significant anti-proliferative activity in human tumorigenic cells. However, it did not impart any protection against the oxidative damage caused by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide to human tumor cells suggesting that it can be used as an anti-tumor, but not as an anti-oxidant, substance.
Article
A monomeric glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 28 kDa in SDS-PAGE was isolated from the Withania somnifera root tubers. The protein designated WSG (Withania somnifera glycoprotein) demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. Antifungal effect has been demonstrated in that WSG exerts a fungistastic effect by inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth in the tested fungi. WSG showed potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticilloides and antibacterial activity against Clvibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. WSG is an acidic, non-toxic (trypsin-chymotrypsin) protease inhibitor. These results encourage further studies of WSG as a potential therapeutic agent for its antifungal activity.
Article
The present study is on the growth inhibitory effect of Withania somnifera methanolic leaf extract and its active component, withanolide on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. The decrease in survival rate of HL-60 cells was noted to be associated with a time dependent decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, leading to up regulation of Bax. Both the crude leaf extract and the active component activated the apoptotic cascade through the cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 revealed that caspase was a key mediator in the apoptotic pathway. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 12h indicative of caspase 3 role in the apoptotic pathway. Flow cytometry data demonstrated an increase of sub-G1 peak upon treatment by 51% at 24h, suggesting the induction of apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells.
Article
This study aims at investigating the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of a traditionally used medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, L. Dunal, (Solanaceae). Rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, 0.2 ml of x l0(7) parasites, was inoculated into Swiss albino mice intraperitoneally. Extracts were administered by intra gastric tube daily for four days starting from the day of parasite inoculation. Negative controls received the same amount of solvent used to suspend the exracts and the positive controls were given chloroquine by the same route. Parasite suppressive effect and effects on body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and body temperature were determined. Parasitemia percent inhibition of W. somnifera roots and root barks were 50.43% and 29.13% respectively, with 600 mg/kg dose. Inhibition was statistically significant at all dose levels, compared to the negative controls (p < 0.05), and maximum inhibition was seen at 600 mg/kg. Extracts of the leaves and root barks of W. somnifera showed parasite suppressive effect and a protective effect on PCV drop (at higher doses), both in dose-related fashions. However, the effects on body weight and body temperature falls are inconclusive.