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Abstract

How much media information, of what kinds, and delivered on what devices, do Americans consume? We measure each consumer information stream using 3 different measures of what is consumed-hours, words, and bytes-and sum across each recipient. We estimate that, in 2008, Americans consumed about 1.3 trillion hours of information outside of work, an average of almost 12 hours per person per day. Media consumption totaled 3.6 zettabytes and 1,080 trillion words, corresponding to 100,500 words and 34 gigabytes for the average person on an average day. We measure information flows, not stocks, and find that information consumption measured in bytes grew at an annual rate of 5.4% from 1980 to 2008, only a few percentage points greater than GDP growth over this period. We report our findings for different media types, including television, the Internet and computer games, and discuss the utility of analyzing contrasting measures of information consumption in totaling how much media information Americans consume.

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... Changes in screen-based media consumption, with massive increases in the hours devoted to so-called screen time over the last several decades, provide a critical example of contextual framing [29,30]. Indeed, compared to 1960, the per capita time spent devoted to media-based information consumption has increased by 60% [30]. ...
... Changes in screen-based media consumption, with massive increases in the hours devoted to so-called screen time over the last several decades, provide a critical example of contextual framing [29,30]. Indeed, compared to 1960, the per capita time spent devoted to media-based information consumption has increased by 60% [30]. From an evolutionary perspective, the same dopamine systems that signal ancient rewards-like food and water-also signal for information-seeking. ...
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Famed microbiologist René J. Dubos (1901¿1982) was an early pioneer in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) construct. In the 1960s, he conducted groundbreaking experimental research concerning the ways in which early-life experience with nutrition, microbiota, stress, and other environmental variables could influence later-life health outcomes. He also wrote extensively on potential health consequences of a progressive loss of contact with natural environments (now referred to as green or blue space), arguing that Paleolithic experiences have created needs, particularly in the mental realm, that might not be met in the context of rapid global urbanization. He posited that humans would certainly adapt to modern urban landscapes and high technology, but there might be a toll to be paid in the form of higher psychological distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression) and diminished quality of life. In particular, there might be an erosion of humanness, exemplified by declines in altruism/empathy. Here in the first of a two-part review, we examine contemporary research related to natural environments and question to what extent Dubos might have been correct in some of his 50-year-old assertions.
... These findings are notable in light of the numerous medical sequelae associated with obesity as well as the pervasiveness and social acceptability of weight stigma in the media (26Y30). Given the high levels of media consumption among Americans (57), it is likely that millions of individuals are frequently exposed to weight-stigmatizing content that may promote neuroendocrine stress and subjective distress, signaling a public health concern. Finally, this study directly challenges recently proposed strategies to combat obesity with the use of stigma and negative social pressure (58). ...
Article
Objective To determine the physiological impact of exposure to weight stigma by examining alterations in salivary cortisol among lean and overweight women.Methods Participants were 123 lean and overweight adult women (mean body mass index = 26.99 [7.91] kg/m(2)). Participants' salivary cortisol was assessed both before and after either a weight stigmatizing or a neutral video. Participants completed self-report measures of mood and reactions to the video. Height and weight were obtained at the conclusion of the study.ResultsParticipants in the stigmatizing condition exhibited significantly greater cortisol reactivity when compared with those in the neutral condition, irrespective of weight status (Pillai trace = 0.077; F(1,85) = 7.22, p = .009). Lean and overweight women in the stigmatizing condition were equally likely to find the video upsetting and were equally likely to report that they would rather not see obese individuals depicted in a stigmatizing manner in the media.Conclusions Exposure to weight-stigmatizing stimuli was associated with greater cortisol reactivity among lean and overweight women. These findings highlight the potentially harmful physiological consequences of exposure to weight stigma.
... Загалом 34 гігабайти інформації або 100 500 слів ми отримуємо в середньому за добу поза роботою [3]. У цих умовах використання інформаційних технологій стає пріоритетним завданням для бібліотек, формуючи суспільну думку про бібліотечних фахівців як про навігаторів у безмежному світі незвіданої інформації. ...
Conference Paper
Взаємодія бібліотек із цифровим світом стала безперервним процесом у якому всі сфери бібліотечної діяльності заполонили інформаційні технології, програми і сервіси. У статті розкрито сутність, зміст та важливість застосування інфографіки як креативного підходу до візуалізації інформації, бібліотечних продуктів і послуг. Розглянуто приклади інтерактивних зображень та інфографіки, створених із застосуванням додатку Genialy. Ключові слова: наукова бібліотека КНУКіМ, візуалізація інформації, інфографіка, інтерактивний плакат, сервіс Genial.ly Interaction of libraries with the digital world has become a continuous process in which all areas of library activity have been captured with information technologies, programs, and services. The article reveals the essence, content, and importance of the use of infographics as a creative approach to the visualization of information, library products, and services. Examples of interactive images and infographic, created with using the Genialy plugin, are given. Keywords: scientific library KNUCA, visualization of information, infographics, interactive poster, service Genial.ly
... Πέξα απφ ηελ πξαθηηθή αδπλακία πιήξνπο επεμεξγαζίαο θαη θαηαλφεζεο ηεο πξνθαινχληαη καζεζηαθέο δπζθνιίεο ζηα επάισηα ζηξψκαηα ηεο θνηλσλίαο καο, ζηνπο καζεηέο θαη ζηνπο εθήβνπο, θαζψο νη ηειεπηαίνη πξνζπαζνχλ λα αληαπεμέιζνπλ ζηε δηαρείξηζε ηεο ππέξνγθεο πιεξνθνξίαο. Πξφζθαηα, εξεπλεηέο απφ ην Παλεπηζηήκην ηεο Καιηθφξληα ππνιφγηζαλ ηελ πιεξνθνξία ζηελ νπνία εθηείζεηαη θαηά κέζν φξνο έλαο κέζνο Ακεξηθαλφο θαη θαη΄επέθηαζε έλαο κέζνο άλζξσπνο ηνπ δπηηθνχ θφζκνπ, ζε 34 GBytes ή ζε 100.500 ιέμεηο εκεξεζίσο (Bohn-Short, 2012). Ο εγθέθαινο θαιείηαη λα δηαρεηξηζηεί απηή ηελ πιεξνθνξία. ...
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Ως ενεργοί εκπαιδευτικοί διαπιστώνουμε την ολοένα αυξανόμενη έκπτωση της γνωστικής δυνότητας μαθητών και φοιτητών της Μέσης και της Τριτοβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης. Το ποσοστό των μαθητών με διεγνωσμένη δυσλεξία, μαθησιακά προβλήματα και κοινωνικοσυναισθηματικές δυσκολίες αυξάνει με ταχείς ρυθμούς. Πρόσφατες επιστημονικές εργασίες αποδίδουν σε μεγάλο βαθμό τα παραπάνω φαινομένα στις ακόλουθες αιτίες: α) στην υπερβολική έκθεση των αισθητηρίων οργάνων μαθητών-φοιτητών σε ερεθίσματα (κυρίως οπτικά). β) Στην «ψηφιακή φρενίτιδα» των μαθητών δηλαδή στην υπερβάλλουσα ενασχόληση τους με τις τεχνολογικά προηγμένες συσκευές και τέλος γ) στην ακτινοβόληση του εγκεφάλου από τα υπεράριθμα ασύρματα δίκτυα που βρίσκονται σχεδόν παντού γύρω μας. Στα παραπάνω προστίθενται και οι βλαβερές βιολογικές επιδράσεις της ασύρματης ηλεκτρομαγνητικής ακτινοβολίας. Η τεχνολογική πρόοδος δεν μπορεί να αναχαιτιστεί. Μία πρόταση στο πλαίσιο της αειφόρου ανάπτυξης και της προστασίας του περιβάλλοντος με την ευρύτερη έννοια είναι η ενδελεχής, τεκμηριωμένη ενημέρωση των μαθητών-φοιτητών μας για τις βλαπτικές συνέπειες όλων των παραπάνω και η συνετή καθοδήγηση μας προς την ορθή χρήση τους.
... Scientists have measured the amount of data that enter the brain and found that an average person living today processes as much as 74 GB in information a day (that is as much as watching 16 movies), through TV, computers, cell phones, tablets, billboards, and many other gadgets. Every year it is about 5% more than the previous year [1]. Only 500 years ago, 74 GB of information would be what a highly educated person consumed in a lifetime, through books and stories. ...
... Other forms of incidental information are targeted based on who one is (e.g., the targeted ads and articles that pop up on our computer screens), where one lives, or what one does. Regardless of why this non-sought-out information comes to us, the amount of incidental information that we encounter is astounding, as recent studies have estimated (see Bohn & Short, 2012;Short, 2013). ...
Article
The authors argue that nonfiction reading and writing instruction in K-12 settings must include authentic opportunities for students to seek information online. To that end, the authors provide two frameworks for thinking about information acquisition in the 21st century. The first, the intentional and incidental information continuum, describes how adults encounter information. On one end is the information that adults actively seek, often by going online; on the other is information that is encountered passively. In between is information that could be considered semi-incidental: The specific information is not actively sought, but the source was accessed purposefully. The second framework, a graphic for thinking about why adults actively seek information, proposes that searches should be thought of in terms of the seeker's education or preparation and the importance of the search. The authors contend that these frameworks can be used to rethink nonfiction reading and writing instruction.
... Using visual communication in critical areas of scientific research-such as in hypothesising-is necessary to reduce the current state of "information overload" plaguing the dissemination of scientific works [21]. It is also practical for researchers and the audience of the researchers because the human brain is visually wired [22]. ...
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Qualitative research involves scientific narratives and the analysis and interpretation of textual or numerical data (or both), mostly from conversations and discussions, to uncover meaningful patterns that describe a particular phenomenon. It is important to know other ways of framing and explaining these nuanced scientific narratives so that they can convey scientific knowledge. A qualitative hypothesis can play this role. The testing of hypotheses in qualitative research-which does not strictly mean the same thing as testing of hypotheses in quantitative research-always comes with challenges that provoke concerns. The questions that scholars, especially undergraduate and postgraduate students, have had to deal with are: Is it possible to "test" hypotheses using a qualitative method? If it is possible, how can this be done? This study deconstructs the concept, notion, and use of the hypotheses. It presents the "how-to" aspect of hypothesising (in qualitative research and inquiries) by using creative diagramming within post-positivist research, and also contributes to the literature on visual communication and qualitative research. The study is a guide to early career scholars (including undergraduate and postgraduate students) on how to formulate and "test" hypotheses qualitatively using visual or diagrammatical approaches.
... There is consensus that infobesity is a consequence of the growing ubiquity of big data. Bohn and Short (2012) reported that as early as 2008, Americans consumed 1.3 trillion hours of information outside work daily translating to about 12 hours per day per person. Sturmer and Roy (2015), citing Jocelyn Brewer, estimated that people averagely consume the equivalent of the content of 174 newspapers every day from the mass media, social media and other information sources. ...
Chapter
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Infobesity is the condition of individuals who exhibit difficulty in understanding issues and effectively making decisions because they have too much information about that issue. Persons who suffer from infobesity exhibit queer information seeking behaviour characterised by skimming of just a few pages of information and then bouncing off never to return. Most of the undergraduate university students are netizens who are intensive users of emerging technologies to create, collect or share information. Available evidence indicates that although netizens wallow in vast volumes of information, they hardly benefit from the information due to the consequences of infobesity. This chapter investigates the characteristics and prevalence of infobesity amongst university students in Tangaza University College as well as its impact on their information seeking behaviour. The study leading to this chapter applied exploratory research design. Data was collected from undergraduate university students through online questionnaires using Google Forms. The collected data was analysed thematically and presented using descriptive statistics. The findings confirm the fact that infobesity is real amongst undergraduate students in Tangaza University College. It is evident that infobesity is a consequence of vast amounts of information they are exposed to and the ease with which they are able to create, use or share information.
... In twenty-first century each individual belongs to a global society and the news of latest happenings spread throughout the world within short time and the amount of information continues to grow at an ever-increasing rate (Kellner & Share, 2007). Research claim people are deluged with around 100,500 words a day which equivalent to 23 words per second, through various of source such as internet, television, advertisement and etc (Bohn, R & Short, J., 2012). Furthermore, in this media saturated world caused people do not respond to information surround them especially the millennial generation (Newman, 2015). ...
... There is consensus that infobesity is a consequence of the growing ubiquity of big data. Bohn and Short (2012) reported that as early as 2008, Americans consumed 1.3 trillion hours of information outside work daily translating to about 12 hours per day per person. Sturmer and Roy (2015), citing Jocelyn Brewer, estimated that people averagely consume the equivalent of the content of 174 newspapers every day from the mass media, social media and other information sources. ...
Chapter
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This chapter examines the management of e-records at Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya and assessment of its impact on service delivery in the County. The specific objectives of the study which led to the chapter were to identify the services provided by Uasin-Gishu county headquarters using electronic records; investigate how e-records are managed at Uasin-Gishu County; find out the correlation between electronic records management and service delivery at the Uasin-Gishu County headquarters; and analyse the challenges faced by Uasin-Gishu county government in the management of e-records. The study was based on the Records Continuum Model developed by Frank Upward (1980) and the Service Canada Model developed by the Canadian government (2005). It utilised a qualitative research approach based on a case study design. The study population comprised of 112 respondents drawn purposively based on their work experience in records management services in various departments of Uasin-Gishu County headquarters. The findings of the study indicate that Uasin-Gishu County headquarters generates vast volumes of paper records. It also revealed that the County headquarters faces challenges in electronic records management. Some of the challenges include poor storage of electronic records, slow retrieval of records, among other shortcomings. This has consequently affected the overall service delivery at Uasin-Gishu County due to inefficiencies. The study recommends the adoption of a comprehensive e-records management and service delivery model which links records management and service delivery. Keywords: Electronic records, Records management, Service delivery
... Since people are constantly exposed to a large amount of information of differing degrees of validity (Bohn & Short, 2012), this content-centered perspective on conspiracy theories might be a worthwhile complement to the hitherto predominant person-centered focus. Ultimately, this perspective may offer strategies for authorities and media agencies to improve their coverage of phenomena for which conspiracy theories may arise. ...
Preprint
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Past research suggests that certain content features of conspiracy theories may foster their credibility. In two experimental studies (N = 293), we examined whether conspiracy theories that explicitly offer a broad explanation for the respective phenomena and/or identify potential threat posed by conspirators are granted more credibility than conspiracy theories lacking such information. Furthermore, we tested whether people with a pronounced predisposition to believe in conspiracies are particularly susceptible to such information. To this end, participants judged the credibility of four conspiracy theories which varied in the provision of explanatory and threat-related information. Interestingly, the specific type of information provided was not decisive. Instead, credibility judgments were only driven by people’s predisposition to believe in conspiracies. Findings suggest that there is no mechanistic, almost automatic effect of merely adding specific information and highlight the relevance of people’s conspiratorial mindset for the evaluation of conspiracy theories.
Chapter
The infographic represents a combination of visual imagery and big data, and it can be implemented successfully as a teaching tool across multiple educational settings. The infographic is also, by definition, a multimodal genre. It incorporates visual and textual elements, statistical evidence, research, graphic design, and digital literacy for both the creation and distribution of an effective data visualization through 21st century mechanisms of social action and interaction. In the following chapter, the authors, two instructors at a small, private, liberal arts university in the suburban South, will present examples of infographic curricula from undergraduate courses in first-year writing and professional writing in the medical humanities and analyze the effectiveness of this approach on student learning, particularly in relation to the impact of infographic instruction on the skills of synthesis, public resonance, transfer and social action.
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Problematyka alfabetyzmu finansowego – choć podstawowa w kontekście świadomości rozporządzania swoim majątkiem przez osoby fizyczne – wciąż ugruntowuje się w globalnej teorii oraz praktyce ekonomicznej. Największy stopień instytucjonalizacji, a zarazem systematyki terminologicznej i przekrojowości badawczej w określaniu alfabetyzmu finansowego został jak dotąd wypracowany w USA. Definiując alfabetyzm finansowy, amerykańska Narodowa Rada Pedagogiki Finansowej (ang. National Financial Educators Council) posługuje się pojęciem „posiadania takich umiejętności i wiedzy na temat problemów finansowych, które pozwalają na świadome podejmowanie skutecznych decyzji, sprzyjających w możliwie jak najpełniejszy sposób realizacji celów osobistych, rodzinnych oraz społecznych jednostki” . Alfabetyzm finansowy stanowi przy tym specyficzną formę alfabetyzmu numerycznego (ang. quantitative literacy). W skali międzynarodowej wiodącą instytucją, której celem jest wypracowanie metodyki oceny oraz zebranie i prezentacja międzynarodowych wyników alfabetyzmu finansowego, jest Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Chapter
Emotion and affect play a complex but critical role in the learning process. Researchers and educators have increasingly incorporated emotional understanding into pedagogy as captured in the now common refrain “teach to the whole student”. Social and emotional learning aims to improve academic outcomes in the classroom as well as promoting necessary emotional development in relationships and career outside the classroom. The proliferation of digital technologies poses opportunities and challenges for supporting the development of students’ emotional self-awareness. the role of emotion in the use and experience of digital technologies is profound. Marketing manipulation, online trolling, revenge porn, and digital escapism are just a few examples of challenges where emotion plays a central role. The increasingly “onlife” nature of our social experience suggests the need for emotional self-awareness (ESA) is only growing. However, there is a lack of coherence in the literature regarding what teaching ESA around digital technologies means. This chapter will argue that ESA ought to play a more prominent role in digital literacy curricula and is undertheorized in digital literacy literature.
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Introduction. Pressed by the increasing social importance of digital information, including the current attention given to the ‘big data paradigm’, several research projects have taken up the challenge to quantify the amount of technologically mediated information. Method. This meta-study reviews the eight most important inventories in a descriptive and comparative manner, focusing on methodological differences and challenges. Results. It shows that approaches differ in terms of scope and research focus. This leads to different answers to the question of ‘how much information?’. Differences include how the information realm is conceptualised (e.g., in terms of stocks or flows, or in terms of creation or consumption, etc.); differences in the unit of measurement (words, bits, minutes, etc.); varying geographic and temporal scopes; and diverse additional attributes that highlight complementary aspects of the amount of information (e.g., the kind of technology, the sort of content, the type of user sector, etc.). Conclusion. The study reveals how different answers to the ‘How much information?’ question hinges upon the particular question on the researchers’ mind and on the subsequent methodological choices. Differences in findings stem from different research interests. The review ends with a discussion of the remaining theoretical and practical challenges.
Book
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Past research suggests that certain content features of conspiracy theories may foster their credibility. In two experimental studies ('N' = 293), we examined whether conspiracy theories that explicitly offer a broad explanation for the respective phenomena and/or identify a potential threat posed by conspirators are granted more credibility than conspiracy theories lacking such information. Furthermore, we tested whether people with a pronounced predisposition to believe in conspiracies are particularly susceptible to such information. To this end, participants judged the credibility of four conspiracy theories that varied in the provision of explanatory and threat-related information. Interestingly, the specific type of information provided was not decisive. Instead, credibility judgments were only driven by people’s predisposition to believe in conspiracies. Findings suggest that there is no mechanistic, almost automatic effect of merely adding specific information and highlight the relevance of people’s conspiratorial mindset for the evaluation of conspiracy theories.
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