Article

Conditions facilitant les « bons soins » palliatifs aux soins intensifs selon la perspective infirmière

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Conditions to facilitate palliative « good care » in intensive care unit by nurse’s perspective The aging population, the complexity and irreversibility of certain conditions lead to the deaths of 20 % of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). However, in Quebec, as elsewhere in America, few of them currently receive palliative care. Method: inspired by a conceptual model considering nursing as a moral practice, this phenomenological study was conducted in four phases: focus groups (n=6) observation sessions (n=6) followed by individual interviews and group validation activities (n=5). In its first part, this study shows that through several caring behaviours, « good palliative care » in the ICU is manifested by the consideration of six dimensions of the person, physical, relational, psychological, moral, social and spiritual. This article presents the second part of this study and reveals three main themes summarizing the conditions facilitating « good the palliative care » according to ICU nurses : Sharing a common vision enhanced by a collective and specific palliative care knowledge, an informed and concerted decisionmaking process in a favourable organisational and physical environment.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
Full-text available
Prior researchers studying end-of-life decision making (EOLDM) in intensive care units (ICUs) often have collected data retrospectively and aggregated data across units. There has been little research, however, about how cultures differ among ICUs. This research was designed to study limitation of treatment decision making in real time and to evaluate similarities and differences in the cultural contexts of 4 ICUs and the relationship of those contexts to EOLDM. Ethnographic field work took place in 4 adult ICUs in a tertiary care hospital. Participants were health care providers (eg, physicians, nurses, and social workers), patients, and their family members. Participant observation and interviews took place 5 days a week for 7 months in each unit. The ICUs were not monolithic. There were similarities, but important differences in EOLDM were identified in formal and informal rules, meaning and uses of technology, physician roles and relationships, processes such as unit rounds, and timing of initiation of EOLDM. As interventions to improve EOLDM are developed, it will be important to understand how they may interact with unit cultures. Attempting to develop one intervention to be used in all ICUs is unlikely to be successful.
Article
Nurses in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) informally expressed moral angst when caring for patients who are approaching the end of life. The purpose of this study was to better understand CVICU nurses' perceptions about their roles and responsibilities in the decision-making process about change in intensity of care and end-of-life care for patients within the CVICU setting. Nineteen nurses from one CVICU consented to being interviewed individually regarding their experiences caring for patients approaching the end of life, and specifically regarding the initiation of a change in code status. Investigators used a qualitative descriptive approach to collect and analyse the data. Transcript data were analysed and as concepts emerged they were compared with those from earlier interviews to establish similarities and differences. Investigators reached consensus about the major themes. Analysis revealed four major themes: (a) exhausting patient treatments; (b) promoting family presence; (c) acknowledging physician authority; and (d) walking a fine line. This research adds to the limited body of knowledge concerning CVICU nurses' experiences with end-of-life care. Results of this study provide a basis for putting in place support systems for CVICU nurses.
Article
As technological advances transform health care and the American population ages, care at the end of life (EOL) assumes ever-greater significance. Nurses in all practice settings and specialties are challenged to integrate quality palliative care into patient care. Today, this imperative is unifying the nursing profession, with help of the Nursing Leadership Academy for End-of-Life Care.
Article
The primary goal of this study was to address the documented deficiencies in end-of-life care (EOLC) in intensive care unit settings by identifying key EOLC domains and related quality indicators for use in the intensive care unit through a consensus process. A second goal was to propose specific clinician and organizational behaviors and interventions that might be used to improve these EOLC quality indicators. Participants were the 36 members of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Critical Care End-of-Life Peer Workgroup and 15 nurse-physician teams from 15 intensive care units affiliated with the work group members. Fourteen adult medical, surgical, and mixed intensive care units from 13 states and the District of Columbia in the United States and one mixed intensive care unit in Canada were represented. An in-depth literature review was conducted to identify articles that assessed the domains of quality of EOLC in the intensive care unit and general health care. Consensus regarding the key EOLC domains in the intensive care unit and quality performance indicators within each domain was established based on the review of the literature and an iterative process involving the authors and members of the RWJF Critical Care End-of-Life Peer Workgroup. Specific clinician and organizational behaviors and interventions to address the proposed EOLC quality indicators within the domains were identified through a collaborative process with the nurse-physician teams in 15 intensive care units. Seven EOLC domains were identified for use in the intensive care unit: a) patient- and family-centered decision making; b) communication; c) continuity of care; d) emotional and practical support; e) symptom management and comfort care; f) spiritual support; and g) emotional and organizational support for intensive care unit clinicians. Fifty-three EOLC quality indicators within the seven domains were proposed. More than 100 examples of clinician and organizational behaviors and interventions that could address the EOLC quality indicators in the intensive care unit setting were identified. These EOLC domains and the associated quality indicators, developed through a consensus process, provide clinicians and researchers with a framework for understanding quality of EOLC in the intensive care unit. Once validated, these indicators might be used to improve the quality of EOLC by serving as the components of an internal or external audit evaluating EOLC continuous quality improvement efforts in intensive care unit settings.
Article
Despite concern over the appropriateness and quality of care provided in an intensive care unit (ICU) at the end of life, the number of Americans who receive ICU care at the end of life is unknown. We sought to describe the use of ICU care at the end of life in the United States using hospital discharge data from 1999 for six states and the National Death Index. Retrospective analysis of administrative data to calculate age-specific rates of hospitalization with and without ICU use at the end of life, to generate national estimates of end-of-life hospital and ICU use, and to characterize age-specific case mix of ICU decedents. All nonfederal hospitals in the states of Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, and Washington. All inpatients in nonfederal hospitals in the six states in 1999. None. We found that there were 552,157 deaths in the six states in 1999, of which 38.3% occurred in hospital and 22.4% occurred after ICU admission. Using these data to project nationwide estimates, 540,000 people die after ICU admission each year. The age-specific rate of ICU use at the end of life was highest for infants (43%), ranged from 18% to 26% among older children and adults, and fell to 14% for those >85 yrs. Average length of stay and costs were 12.9 days and $24,541 for terminal ICU hospitalizations and 8.9 days and $8,548 for non-ICU terminal hospitalizations. One in five Americans die using ICU services. The doubling of persons over the age of 65 yrs by 2030 will require a system-wide expansion in ICU care for dying patients unless the healthcare system pursues rationing, more effective advanced care planning, and augmented capacity to care for dying patients in other settings.
Article
To determine the feasibility of using nurse ratings of quality of dying and death to assess quality of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit and to determine factors associated with nurse assessment of the quality of dying and death for patients dying in the intensive care unit. Prospective cohort study. Hospital intensive care unit. 178 patients who died in an intensive care unit during a 10-month period at one hospital. Nurses completed a 14-item questionnaire measuring the quality of dying and death in the intensive care unit (QODD); standardized chart reviews were also completed. Five variables were found to be associated with QODD scores. Higher (better) scores were significantly associated with having someone present at the time of death (p <.001), having life support withdrawn (p =.006), having an acute diagnosis such as intracranial hemorrhage or trauma (p =.007), not having cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the last 8 hrs of life (p <.001), and being cared for by the neurosurgery or neurology services (p =.002). Patient age, chronic disease, and Glasgow Coma Scale scores were not associated with the 14-item QODD. Using multivariate analyses, we identified three variables as independent predictors of the QODD score: a) not having cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed in the last 8 hrs of life; b) having someone present at the moment of death; and c) being cared for by neurosurgery or neurology services. Intensive care unit nurse assessment of quality of dying and death is a feasible method for obtaining quality ratings. Based on nurse assessments, this study provides evidence of some potential targets for interventions to improve the quality of dying for some patients: having someone present at the moment of death and not having cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the last 8 hrs of life. If nurse-assessed quality of dying is to be a useful tool for measuring and improving quality of end-of-life care, it is important to understand the factors associated with nurse ratings.
The success of biotechnology has created moral and ethical dilemmas concerning end-of-life care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Whilst the competent individual has the right to refuse or embrace treatment, ICU patients are rarely able to exercise this right. Thus, decision-making is left to medical professionals and family/significant others. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of ICU nurses caring for clients having treatment withdrawn or withheld, and increase awareness and understanding of this experience amongst other health professionals. Van Manens' (1990) phenomenological framework formed the basis of this study as it provided an in-depth insight into the human experience. A convenience sample of ten ICU Nurses participated in the study. Conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a process of thematic analysis. Five major themes emerged during the analysis. These were: (1) comfort and care, (2) tension and conflict, (3) do no harm, (4) nurse-family relationships and (5) invisibility of grief and suffering. The experience of providing care for the adult having treatment withdrawn or withheld in the ICU represents a significant personal and professional struggle. Improvements in communication between health professionals, debriefing and education about the process of withdrawing or withholding treatment would be beneficial to both staff and families and has the potential to improve patient care and reduce burden on nurses.
Article
Palliative care consultants play an increasing role in assisting critical care clinicians with end-of-life communication in the intensive care unit (ICU). One of the ethical principles these consultants may apply to such communication is nonabandonment of the patient. Limited data exist concerning expressions of nonabandonment in the ICU family conference. This analysis examines expressions of nonabandonment during ICU family conferences. Our goal was to categorize these expressions and develop a conceptual model for understanding this issue as it arises in the ICU setting. We identified family conferences in the ICUs of four hospitals. Conferences were eligible if the attending physician believed that discussion about withholding or withdrawing life support or the delivery of bad news was likely to occur. Fifty-one conferences were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. We identified categories capturing expressions of nonabandonment in the ICU family conference. Clinicians expressed nonabandonment of the patient or family in three ways: alleviating suffering/ensuring comfort, allowing family members to be present at the bedside for the death, and being accessible to patients and families. Families expressed their own nonabandonment of the patient or concern about abandonment of the patient by the health care team in five ways: ensuring the patient's suffering is eased, being present at the bedside, ensuring the patient's end-of-life preferences are respected, ensuring that everything possible be done to cure the patient, and "letting go." These categories were placed into a conceptual model that differentiates explicit and implicit statements of nonabandonment. This paper describes categories and a conceptual model for understanding expressions of nonabandonment that may allow palliative care consultants to help critical care clinicians express nonabandonment and respond to families' expressions of nonabandonment in the ICU family conference. Future studies could use this model to develop a communication intervention for the ICU family conference.
Article
This paper presents and discusses the findings from a phenomenological study which illuminated the lived experiences of experienced critical care nurses caring within a technological environment. While nursing practice is interwoven with technology, much of the literature in this area is speculative. Moreover, there is a debate as to whether and how 'high tech' and 'high touch' are reconcilable; this orientation is referred to as the optimism vs. pessimism debate. On a personal level, the motivation for this study came from the author's 13 years' experience in the critical care area. Following ethical approval, 10 experienced nurses from two cardiothoracic critical care units in Ireland participated in the study. A Heideggerian phenomenological methodology was used. Data collection consisted of unstructured interviews. A method of data analysis described by Walters was used. The findings provide research-based evidence to illuminate further the optimistic/pessimistic debate on technology in nursing. While the study demonstrates that the debate is far from resolved, it reveals a new finding: life-saving technology that supports the lives of critically ill patients can bring experienced nurses very close to their patients/families. The three main themes that emerged: 'alien environment', 'pulling together' and 'sharing the journey' were linked by a common thread of caring. Experienced critical care nurses are able to transcend the obtrusive nature of technology to deliver expert caring to their patients. However, the journey to proficiency in technology is very demanding and novice nurses have difficulty in caring with technology. Relevance to clinical practice. It is recommended that more emphasis be placed on supporting, assisting and educating inexperienced nurses in the critical care area and that the use of technology in nursing be given serious consideration.
Article
Background: These recommendations have been developed to improve the care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the dying process. The recommendations build on those published in 2003 and highlight recent developments in the field from a U.S. perspective. They do not use an evidence grading system because most of the recommendations are based on ethical and legal principles that are not derived from empirically based evidence. Principal findings: Family-centered care, which emphasizes the importance of the social structure within which patients are embedded, has emerged as a comprehensive ideal for managing end-of-life care in the ICU. ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects of this care, including the practical and ethical aspects of withdrawing different modalities of life-sustaining treatment and the use of sedatives, analgesics, and nonpharmacologic approaches to easing the suffering of the dying process. Several key ethical concepts play a foundational role in guiding end-of-life care, including the distinctions between withholding and withdrawing treatments, between actions of killing and allowing to die, and between consequences that are intended vs. those that are merely foreseen (the doctrine of double effect). Improved communication with the family has been shown to improve patient care and family outcomes. Other knowledge unique to end-of-life care includes principles for notifying families of a patient's death and compassionate approaches to discussing options for organ donation. End-of-life care continues even after the death of the patient, and ICUs should consider developing comprehensive bereavement programs to support both families and the needs of the clinical staff. Finally, a comprehensive agenda for improving end-of-life care in the ICU has been developed to guide research, quality improvement efforts, and educational curricula. Conclusions: End-of-life care is emerging as a comprehensive area of expertise in the ICU and demands the same high level of knowledge and competence as all other areas of ICU practice.
Good nursing care to ICU patients on the edge of life. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing
  • Hov R
  • Athlin E Hedelin B
  • HOV
Being an intensive care nurse related to questions of withholding or withdrawing curative treatment
  • Hov R
  • Athlin E Hedelin B
  • HOV
Barriers to intensive care unit nurses providing terminal care. An integrated literature review
  • Young A Espinosa L
  • Walsh T
  • ESPINOSA
Elargissement des plages horaires de visites dans une unité de réanimation : l'avis des proches. Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation
  • Mari A Roger C
  • Bousquet Pj
  • ROGER