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Legged robots have not yet demonstrated the desired versatility and higher mobility that would justify their more complicated design with respect to wheeled or tracked vehicles. To make these robots ready for real world applications-for example as assistants to humans in dangerous areas-important challenges must be solved first, such as dynamic locomotion over rough terrain, dynamic balancing after disturbances, structural robustness to falls, self-righting (to get back up on the feet after falling), active or passive compliance in the legs, state estimation, perception and optional dexterous manipulation. In this paper we will focus on the robustness, self-righting and manipulation aspects. We will give an overview of the design of two new hydraulic robots: HyQ2Max, an improved, robust version of our hydraulic quadruped HyQ, and HyQ2Centaur, a centaur-style robot that combines the HyQ2Max locomotion platform with a pair of new hydraulic manipulator arms. We will focus on the self-righting ability of the quadruped robot and present the results of rigid-body dynamics simulations. Next, we will focus on the mechanical design concept of the new compact hydraulic arms and discuss the hydraulic actuation system. To the authors' best knowledge this is the first time the design of a fully hydraulically actuated centaur robot is presented.
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The Fourteenth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, May 20-22, 2015, Tampere, Finland
Claudio Semini, Jake Goldsmith, Bilal Ur Rehman, Marco Frigerio, Victor Barasuol,
Michele Focchi, Darwin G. Caldwell
Dept. of Advanced Robotics,
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT),
via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
Legged robots have not yet demonstrated the desired versatility and higher mobility that would justify their
more complicated design with respect to wheeled or tracked vehicles. To make these robots ready for real
world applications -- for example as assistants to humans in dangerous areas -- important challenges must
be solved first, such as dynamic locomotion over rough terrain, dynamic balancing after disturbances,
structural robustness to falls, self-righting (to get back up on the feet after falling), active or passive
compliance in the legs, state estimation, perception and optional dexterous manipulation. In this paper we
will focus on the robustness, self-righting and manipulation aspects. We will give an overview of the design
of two new hydraulic robots: HyQ2Max, an improved, robust version of our hydraulic quadruped HyQ, and
HyQ2Centaur, a centaur-style robot that combines the HyQ2Max locomotion platform with a pair of new
hydraulic manipulator arms. We will focus on the self-righting ability of the quadruped robot and present the
results of rigid-body dynamics simulations. Next, we will focus on the mechanical design concept of the new
compact hydraulic arms and discuss the hydraulic actuation system. To the authors’ best knowledge this is
the first time the design of a fully hydraulically actuated centaur robot is presented.
KEYWORDS: hydraulic actuation, hydraulic centaur, quadruped, legged robot, mechanical design
Research into legged robots is expected to result in vehicles that are able to navigate with agility on rough
terrain, exceeding the mobility of wheeled and tracked vehicles. However, despite the efforts of several
decades of research into legged robots, the current state of the art is still far from reaching this goal.
Recently a class of medium-sized, hydraulically actuated and torque-controlled quadrupedal robots (e.g.
Boston Dynamics' LS3 and BigDog [1] and IIT's HyQ [2]) have shown promising results of agile navigation
over flat and rough terrain and in presence of lateral disturbances [3]. Such robots are expected to assist
humans for practical applications such as search and rescue, fire-fighting, forestry and
inspection/maintenance tasks in dangerous areas or where automation is required in unstructured
environments. Fundamental capabilities that such robots will need to have, are the following: dynamic
locomotion over rough terrain, dynamic balancing after disturbances, structural robustness to falls, self-
righting (to get back up on the feet after falling), active or passive compliance in the legs, state estimation
and perception.
The HyQ project of the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) started in 2007 and resulted in the first version of
HyQ in 2011, a fully hydraulic, torque-controlled quadruped robot [2]. Since then, HyQ has demonstrated a
wide repertoire of static and dynamic motions ranging from walking trot over flat, inclined and rough terrain
(indoors and outdoors), balancing under disturbances [3], flying trot [4], squat jumps, step reflexes [5],
perception-enhanced trotting and crawling [6][7], to an optimized crawl gait for walking on stairs and stepping
stones [8]. A summary video of these results is available online [9].
Figure 1. Pictures of the first version of HyQ robot and leg. Left: HyQ robot on outdoor test track (2013);
Right: first prototype of HyQ leg on vertical slider test bench (2008).
Based on our experiences with HyQ and earlier leg prototypes (Figure 1), we have been developing a
second version of the robot that improves upon the weaknesses of HyQ. It is our goal to develop a versatile
machine that can be used for real-world applications. We expect that there will be situations in which the
robot loses balance and falls. To allow the robot to continue with its operation, it is fundamental that it is
robust to such impacts and that it can self-right after a fall. We therefore entirely redesigned the legs and the
torso to increase the robot’s robustness, extend its joint range of motion and increase its joint torque. This
resulted in a new robot called HyQ2Max. Furthermore, we believe that a versatile quadruped robot used for
real-world applications needs to have the option to mount a pair of dexterous arms to allow it to perform
manipulation tasks. Therefore, we have been developing compact hydraulic manipulator arms that can be
mounted on HyQ2Max, turning the quadruped robot into a centaur-like machine called HyQ2Centaur. A
quadruped locomotion platform with two arms combines the stability and agility of four legs with the dexterity
and functionality of a two-arm system.
This paper gives an overview of the design and hydraulic system of HyQ2Max and HyQ2Centaur. We will
focus on the self-righting ability of the new quadruped robot and present the results of rigid-body dynamics
simulations. To the authors’ best knowledge this is the first time the design of a fully hydraulically actuated
centaur robot is presented.
This paper first discusses the state of the art in the field of hydraulic quadruped machines and centaur-style
robots. Section 3 then introduces the new hydraulic quadruped robot HyQ2Max, presenting the concept of its
mechanical design, and the results of a simulated self-righting motion. Section 4 gives an overview of the
design concept of HyQ2Centaur, focussing on the design of the new hydraulic arms. The hydraulic system of
the robots is presented in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 discusses open problems and concludes the paper
with final remarks.
This section discusses the state of the art in the field of hydraulically actuated quadruped robots and
centaur-style robots.
2.1. Hydraulically actuated quadruped robots
Robotics research has resulted in a big variety of quadruped robots, most of them actuated by electric
motors. A much smaller number is powered by hydraulic actuators. This section presents the most important
In the 1960s, General Electric developed a four-legged walking truck that weighed over 1300kg. It was
hydraulically actuated and controlled by a human operator. Each limb of the operator was controlling one of
the robot’s four legs through an interface with force feedback. After about 20 hours of training an operator
was able to control the machine to walk, climb a stack of railroad ties and push a jeep out of the mud [10].
In the 1980s, Marc Raibert and colleagues constructed several hydraulically actuated legged robots, among
which also a quadruped robot. The robot had four prismatic legs with 3 hydraulic joints each and a
pneumatic spring at the end of the leg. It was able to trot, pace and bound on flat ground [11][12]. More
recently, Raibert and his team at Boston Dynamics constructed several other hydraulic quadruped robots:
BigDog [1], LS3, cheetah and wildcat. These robots clearly raised the bar of what is possible. However, very
little information on the robot hardware, hydraulics and control has been published.
Shigeo Hirose’s Titan XI is a large size hydraulically actuated quadruped robot. The 7000kg robot is
designed for construction work on slopes. [13]. Statically stable walking on flat and inclined terrain has been
experimentally demonstrated.
IIT’s HyQ robot is an 80kg hydraulic quadruped that was first presented in 2010 in Claudio Semini’s PhD
thesis [14]. Since 2011 the robot is fully torque controlled and has demonstrated a wide repertoire of motions
ranging from highly dynamic motions to carefully planned navigation over rough terrain. For a more detailed
introduction on HyQ see Section 1.
A number of hydraulic quadruped robots have been developed in Korea and China in the last years. For
example, the P2 robot [15] and Jinpoong developed by KITECH, SCalf by Shandong University [16] and
BabyElephant by SJTU [17].
2.2. Centaur-style robots
While humanoid and quadruped robots are very popular among researchers in the field of robotics, a
combination of the two has rarely been investigated. This section presents the state of the art in the field of
centaur-style robots.
The first known centaur robot was developed by a Japanese consortium of industry and universities from
1984-1993 as part of the ART project. The project was focussing on the development of several types of
nuclear inspection machines, including an electric centaur-style robot [18]. A few years later, KIST presented
their centaur robot with hydraulic legs and electric upper body [19]. The robot stood 1.8 meters tall and
weighed 150 kg. More recently, Tsuda et al. presented a few papers on a small centaur robot that is
actuated by electric RC servomotors [20]. Several other centaur-style robots were constructed with wheels at
the end of their legs (e.g. WorkPartner [21], NASA centaur 2 [22]). Even though not a full centaur, it is worth
mentioning that in 2013 a video of BigDog with one manipulator arm throwing a cinder block was published
online [23].
This section introduces the design concept of the HyQ2Max robot, shows the results of a study on self-
righting and presents an overview of possible future application scenarios of this robot.
3.1. HyQ2Max Design Concept
The HyQ2Max robot (Figure 2) is an improved version of the hydraulic quadruped robot HyQ [2]. The main
improvements are increased reliability and robustness of the robot’s hardware, larger joint range of motion
and higher joint output torque, as explained next.
Reliability and robustness against impacts and dirt are fundamental requirements for a legged vehicle
performing real-world tasks. HyQ2Max is designed to be robust against impacts and dirt. All sensitive parts
like sensors, valves, actuators and electronics are protected inside the structure. The torso is constructed
with a frame made of a strong aerospace-grade aluminium alloy (7000 series), tubular roll frames in the front
and back, and light-weight glass fibre/Kevlar covers that protect the onboard computer and hydraulics. The
four legs are built of the same aluminium alloy as the torso. The upper leg consists of two rugged halves
forming a shell that acts as protection and structural element. The lower leg is made of a light-weight yet
robust aluminium tube.
Figure 2. CAD of HyQ2Max robot and photo of single leg. Left: CAD model of the HyQ2Max robot with
explanation. The three leg joints are labelled HAA (hip abduction/adduction), HFE (hip flexion extension) and
KFE (knee flexion/extension); Right: photo of leg prototype of HyQ2Max attached to a vertical slider test
bench for experiments.
The joints’ range of motion of a legged robot determines the size of the workspace of its feet. The larger this
workspace, the more versatile motions can be implemented on the robot. A large workspace is especially
important for self-righting motions as explained in Section 3.2. Table 1 compares the joint range of motion of
HyQ and HyQ2Max and Figure 3 confronts the two different workspaces in the leg’s X-Z plane.
Table 1. Comparison of the main specifications of HyQ and HyQ2Max
Description HyQ HyQ2Max
Number of actuated joints 12 12
Joint range of motion (HAA, HFE, KFE) 90°, 120°, 120° 80°, 270°, 160°
Peak joint torque (HAA, HFE, KFE) @ 20MPa 120Nm, 181Nm, 181Nm 120Nm, 245Nm, 250Nm
Upper, lower leg segment lengths 0.35m, 0.35m 0.36m, 0.38m
Robot weight (offboard power supply) 80kg 80kg
It can be clearly seen, that HyQ2Max has a larger foot workspace than HyQ, leading to (1) faster running
since the step length can be increased, (2) self-righting ability since the leg can be moved completely up
above the robot’s center of mass (see Section 3.2), (3) a rest position of the robot by retracting the legs until
the bottom of the torso touches the ground and (4) an increased number of footholds for climbing motions
with foothold planning.
Figure 3. Comparison of the leg workspaces of HyQ (blue) and HyQ2Max (green line) in the X-Z plane (left).
HyQ2Max leg drawing in the X-Z plane illustrating the angle convention and leg coordinate frame (right).
Table 1 also shows that the HFE and KFE joints of the new robot have a higher joint output torque. This is
important for self-righting (see Section 3.2), carrying payload and for more agile motions. The HAA joint is
actuated by a double-vane rotary actuator, the HFE joint by a single-vane rotary actuator and the KFE joint
by a cylinder connected to a four-bar linkage.
3.2. Self-Righting study
As mentioned in the introduction, the self-righting capability is fundamental for a real-world legged robot,
since it is unavoidable that the robot falls during its operation on challenging terrain. We therefore
implemented a self-righting sequence (see Figure 4) and simulated it inside our rigid body dynamics
simulator SL [24]. All kinematics and dynamics calculations are implemented with efficient C++ code,
automatically generated by the robot code generator RobCoGen [25].
Figure 4. Self-righting sequence of HyQ2Max shown with CAD renderings: from top left to bottom right.
The joint angle and torque plots of this simulation are shown in Figure 5. The different steps of the self-
righting sequence are illustrated with different colours. The thin black lines show the limits of joint angle and
torques as specified in Table 1. Note that the torque limits of the KFE joint depends on the KFE joint angle
since the four-bar linkage creates a nonlinear torque output profile For a detailed discussion on such output
profiles, refer to [14]. The figure shows that all values stay inside their limits during the entire motion.
Figure 5. Simulation results of self-righting motion showing joint angles and torques for the left front (LF) and
right front (RF) leg. The different colours indicate the different steps of the self-righting sequence. The black
dashed line shows the joint angle and torque limits. Left: joint angle vs. time plots of the hip flexion/extension
(HFE) and knee flexion/extension (KFE) joints. Right: joint torques vs. time plots of the same joints.
3.3. Possible future application concepts
HyQ2Max is designed to be the light-weight, high-performance version of this new four-legged vehicle. In the
future, the robot’s hardware and configuration can be customized to match the requirements of the desired
application. Figure 6 shows the concept of the robot applied to a range of possible future tasks. Task-specific
features range from radiation-hardened hardware (e.g. nuclear decommissioning) to specific onboard
sensing (e.g. inspection) and manipulation capability (e.g. maintenance, decommissioning). The next section
will discuss our current efforts to add manipulation capability to HyQ2Max.
Figure 6. HyQ2Max application scenarios. From left to right: construction, fire and rescue, forestry industry,
inspection and maintenance, nuclear decommissioning.
Future quadruped robots operating in real-world applications will most likely need to manipulate objects in
the environment at some point, e.g. through a pair of dexterous arms. A centaur-style robot consists of a
quadruped locomotion platform and a pair of arms. It thus combines the advantages of a stable four-legged
base with the dexterity of a two arm system.
This section presents the design of HyQ2Centaur, which is a combination of HyQ2Max and a pair of arms.
We will first give an overview of the design of a pair of custom-built, light-weight hydraulic arms that can be
mounted onto HyQ2Max. Then we will present the concept of the centaur robot design and possible future
application scenarios of the centaur robot.
4.1. Hydraulic arm design
The most important requirements for a dual arms system mounted onto a quadruped robot are (1) low total
weight of arms including controllers, (2) compactness, (3) torque controllability, and (4) high joint speed and
torque. Commercially available solutions are either too bulky because of their heavy base and controller
units (Barrett’s WAM arm, KUKA’s lightweight arm), not torque controlled (Universal Robots UR5) and/or too
slow (HDT Robotics’ MK1).
Due to this lack of commercial solutions, we have developed a compact arm with 6 hydraulic, torque
controllable joints (Figure 7, left). The arm including all electronics and valves weighs around 13kg. The 6
degrees of freedom (DOF) are constructed with a combination of light-weight cylinders and rotary vane
actuators. Table 2 lists the actuator type and properties of the arm’s 6 joints, according to the definition
shown in Figure 7 on the right.
Figure 7. CAD rendering and kinematics of the new arms. Left: CAD rendering of the new pair of hydraulic 6-
DOF arms. Right: kinematics of the arm with the names of the joints: shoulder abduction/adduction (SAA),
shoulder flexion/extension (SFE), humerus rotation (HR), elbow flexion/extension (EFE), wrist rotation (WR)
and wrist flexion/extension (WFE).
Table 2. List of the actuator type and properties of the arm’s 6 hydraulic joints
Joint Name Actuator type Joint range max. Joint torque/force
(at 20MPa)
SAA single vane rotary 210° 126Nm
SFE double vane rotary 90° 120Nm
HR double vane rotary 98° 120Nm
EFE cylinder 130° 4kN
WR single vane rotary 210° 60Nm
WFE cylinder 120° 4kN
Each joint’s position is measured with high resolution absolute encoders (19Bit). While the rotary actuators’
torque output is measured with strain-gauge torque sensors, the cylinder force is obtained with load cells in
series to the piston rod. All actuators are controlled by MOOG E024 servo valves. Distributed electronics on
the arm read the sensors and create the output signal for the valve amplifiers. An EtherCAT bus connects
the arm to the robot. For more detailed information on the arm design and components, see [26].
4.2. HyQ2Centaur Design Concept
HyQ2Centaur is a combination of HyQ2Max (see Section 3.1) and a pair of the new hydraulic arms (Section
4.1) as illustrated in Figure 8. The modular design of the arms allows easy mounting and removing from the
robot’s torso. The hydraulic interface consists of two quick release couplings for the arm’s pressure and
return lines. The communication interface is a single EtherCAT cable that also provides the electric power to
the arm’s electronic boards and valve amplifiers.
Figure 8. CAD renderings of HyQ2Centaur that consists of a HyQ2Max four-legged base and a pair of the
new arms. Left: centaur with extended arms; Right: centaur with stowed-away arms.
The additional weight of the two arms is around 26kg. This payload is not located in an optimal position with
respect to the locomotion stability. The most conservative stability criterion is static stability, where the
projection of the robot’s center of mass onto the ground needs to stay inside the support polygon (created by
the feet in contact with the ground). Other stability criteria consider simplified dynamics of the robot to create
stable locomotion (e.g. Zero Moment Point).
Since all joints of the robot can be controlled in torque [27], the robot‘s whole body dynamics model can be
used to obtain joint torque profiles that optimise the force distribution of the four feet (and other contact
points, e.g. with the arms). We have recently presented our first results with optimized joint torques that
allowed the robot to climb inside a V-shaped groove [28]. The same approach allows the centaur robot in the
future to optimise joint torques during manipulation tasks.
4.3. Possible Application Scenarios
Manipulation capability allows a legged robot to perform various tasks in real-world applications. Figure 9
illustrates a few of these tasks performed by HyQ2Centaur. During an inspection or rescue operation it might
be necessary to open doors or to navigate over challenging terrain to open/close a valve. Other important
tasks will be the remote handling of hazardous objects for example for nuclear decommissioning.
Figure 9. HyQ2Centaur task scenarios. From left to right: opening doors, full-body motion to turn valve and
remote handling of hazardous materials.
This section discusses the hydraulic system of HyQ2Max and HyQ2Centaur. In the current configuration
hydraulic power is supplied to the robot through two highly flexible hoses. An onboard power pack is
currently under development.
Figure 10 shows the schematic of HyQ2Centaur’s hydraulic actuation system. For simplicity only the details
of one leg are shown. The torso of the robot carries the following hydraulic system components: An
accumulator to smooth out pressure ripples and provide extra flow during fast variations in hydraulic flow
demand; a pressure relief valve to protect the system; a normally-open, solenoid-operated vent valve
connecting the pressure supply to tank in case of an emergency and two pressure transducers. The robot’s
leg and arm joints are moved by cylinders and rotary vane actuators. Each joint is controlled by a servovalve.
Figure 10. Schematics of the hydraulic actuation circuit of the HyQ2Centaur robot. For simplicity only the
details of one leg are shown. The two arms and other legs are built up with the same actuators and valves.
Open challenges in the field of hydraulic legged robots are primarily the energy efficiency of the hydraulic
actuation system, the hose routing and the large size of commercially available components. Energy
efficiency is especially poor in torque controlled hydraulic robots because of the internal leakage of the high-
bandwidth servovalves needed for proper torque control [27]. Digital hydraulics (see [29] for a recent review)
and variable pressure systems are some of the possible solutions that are currently being investigated by the
research community. A neat routing of hoses across moving joints is tricky especially if the joint range of
motion is large. Slip rings, custom connectors and highly flexible hoses are possible solutions. Another
challenge for a hydraulic robot designer is the generally large size of commercially available components.
Since the market for small scale components is (still) small, custom-made parts or expensive niche products
are often the only solution.
This paper presented the design concepts of the hydraulic quadruped robot HyQ2Max and the centaur-style
robot HyQ2Centaur. HyQ2Max is an evolution of IIT’s hydraulic quadruped HyQ, a robot that since 2011
demonstrated various types of agile locomotion and carefully planned navigation over rough terrain. The
second version has improved robustness, larger joint ranges and higher joint torques. We presented an
overview of the robot’s design and demonstrated the robot’s self-righting ability with a rigid body dynamics
simulation. Next, we showed the design of a pair of new light-weight hydraulic manipulator arms that can be
mounted onto the HyQ2Max platform to turn the robot into the centaur-style machine HyQ2Centaur.
Furthermore, we presented the robots’ hydraulic actuation systems and discussed open research problems
in the field of hydraulic legged robots. To the authors’ best knowledge this is the first time the design of a
fully hydraulically actuated centaur robot is presented.
This research has been funded by the Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia. The authors would like to
thank also the colleagues that collaborated for the success of this project: Hamza Khan, Ioannis Havoutis,
Stephane Bazeille, Jesus Ortiz, Marco Camurri, Carlos Mastalli and our team of technicians. Furthermore,
we would like to thank Jonas Buchli and Thiago Boaventura of ETH Zurich and Satoshi Kitano of the Tokyo
Institute of Technology for their input and help.
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... Notable examples include Boston Dynamics's robots, the 360 kg LS3 (BostonDynamics, 2020a) and the 115 kg BigDog (Raibert et al., 2008). Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) has developed a series of 80 kg quadrupeds called HyQ (Semini et al., 2015). Extremely large 6800 kg hydraulic quadrupeds have also been built (Doi et al., 2005). ...
... Impedance control is most common for quadrupeds (Seok et al., 2013;Park et al., 2014;Semini et al., 2015;Hutter et al., 2016;Hubicki et al., 2016). ANYmal (Hutter et al., 2016) uses an inner, torque-feedback loop with friction compensation and an outer PID controller for positions. ...
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This paper presents the design, control, and initial performance from two iterations of human-scale (∼75 kg) quadrupedal robots built under the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) LLAMA (Legged Locomotion and Movement Adaptation) project. These all-electric, quadruped robots are designed with custom quasi-directdrive actuators powering 3-DOF, serial-parallel legs. To our knowledge, this is the first all-electric quadruped robot of this mass scale. The centralized energy management system uses a capacitor bank to supply burst loads and buffer regenerated energy. A hierarchical control scheme enables rapid motions (up to 1.8 m/s) over a variety of terrains. The onboard sensing suite enables deliberate, autonomous operation across rubble fields. In addition, we report on practical observations, lessons learned from field testing of two generations of the platform, and current drawbacks, such as low absolute payload (9 kg) and battery life (35 minutes). These lessons include strategies to address secondary effects at larger scales and parameters with the most impact to improve future designs.
... Therefore, recovery policies appear very important be taken into account to enable reliable locomotion over irregular terrains. Literature proposes methods that, starting from a random initial configuration, allow the robot to stand up and continue the task (72)(73)(74). However, these techniques consider only flat terrain scenarios. ...
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Legged robotic technologies have moved out of the lab to operate in real environments, characterized by a wide variety of unpredictable irregularities and disturbances, all this in close proximity with humans. Demonstrating the ability of current robots to move robustly and reliably in these conditions is becoming essential to prove their safe operation. Here, we report an in-depth literature review aimed at verifying the existence of common or agreed protocols and metrics to test the performance of legged system in realistic environments. We primarily focused on three types of robotic technologies, i.e., hexapods, quadrupeds and bipeds. We also included a comprehensive overview on human locomotion studies, being it often considered the gold standard for performance, and one of the most important sources of bioinspiration for legged machines. We discovered that very few papers have rigorously studied robotic locomotion under irregular terrain conditions. On the contrary, numerous studies have addressed this problem on human gait, being nonetheless of highly heterogeneous nature in terms of experimental design. This lack of agreed methodology makes it challenging for the community to properly assess, compare and predict the performance of existing legged systems in real environments. On the one hand, this work provides a library of methods, metrics and experimental protocols, with a critical analysis on the limitations of the current approaches and future promising directions. On the other hand, it demonstrates the existence of an important lack of benchmarks in the literature, and the possibility of bridging different disciplines, e.g., the human and robotic, towards the definition of standardized procedure that will boost not only the scientific development of better bioinspired solutions, but also their market uptake.
... Abdelkader BENMISRA (1)* , Abderahmane BELAIDI (2) Hadjira BELAIDI (3) ,Moufida IRKI (4) ( ...
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This publication concerns hydraulic robots used in flexible production lines, in fact in hydraulicsystems, energy is transmitted and controlled by means of a pressurized fluid circulating in a circuit. whichform a new series of applications pick & place (Patents: N° 9507799623622 AL 1996088,9622856 AL19960801, 9620818 AL 19960711. . .). Circuit diagrams are an aid facilitating the understanding, study anddescription of production cells. The new, very simple structure of the hydraulic robot is a novelty in Algeria andhas been adapted to the data of a production line made up of seven production lines. In order to avoid anyconfusion and error during development, production, installation and maintenance and in order to transformthis production line into a flexible cell, it appears essential that these diagrams be linked to a standardizedrepresentation.Keywords: CAD modification, trajectories, Pick & Place (Signals input-output).
... Hence, there are quite less cases for robots installed with hydraulic actuators, except some mobile robots or robot manipulators that need high power capability. For example, in the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, hydraulic rotary actuators were used in HyQ2Max for hip abduction and hip flexion, and a hydraulic cylinder was used for knee flexion (Semini et al. 2015). Hydraulic linear cylinders were used in the Bigdog project of Boston Dynamics n.d.. ...
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In this study, the development of a novel hydraulic robotic actuator is introduced. With the use of additive manufacturing (AM), lightweight and compact design can be achieved. A high load-to-weight ratio 3-DOF robot actuator with orthogonally connected hydraulic rotary cylinders is designed for AM. To validate the feasibility, a titanium hydraulic robot actuator is prototyped by using the metal powder bed fusion (M-PBF) AM process. A set of loading experiments are conducted on the AM-printed prototype. The study shows that system-level AM design and manufacturing methods can help gain increased output torque but with reduced weight and volume. With the use of hydraulic driving, the robotic actuator is more compact and solid to resist to tough environments as compared with the traditional actuators using electric motors. This study also implies the potential wide application of AM to design and print similar hydraulic link mechanism in heavy-duty robot or mobile humanoid robot.
... EtherCAT is a fairly popular solution, especially for complex systems with a large number of sensors. For example, there are projects for robotic skin [57], four-legged [58,59] and six-legged [60][61][62] robots, medical rehabilitation robots and exoskeletons [63][64][65]. Here is a brief description of the architecture of another human-like robot on EtherCAT and ROS, Talos Pyr'ene, developed by PAL-Robotics [54]. ...
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This article addresses the problem of cloud distributed control systems development for mobile robots. The authors emphasize the lack of a design methodology to guide the process of the development in accordance with specific technical and economic requirements for the robot. On the analysis of various robots architectures, the set of the nine most significant parameters are identified to direct the development stage by stage. Based on those parameters, the design methodology is proposed to build a scalable three-level cloud distributed control system for a robot. The application of the methodology is demonstrated on the example of AnyWalker open source robotics platform. The developed methodology is also applied to two other walking robots illustrated in the article.
... Legged robots can be used in many applications, such as the rescue robot after the disaster occurred [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. The dangerous and complex environment post-incident can be inaccessible to the Search and Rescue team, especially after the earthquakes and nuclear accidents [3]. ...
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This paper discusses an ongoing project of building a quadrupedal robot designed for operations in rugged terrain by using Theo Jansen’s linkage mechanism. The robot is unguided, but it is still able to maintain the ability to evade obstacles and change its course automatically. The robot utilizes Jansen’s linkage mechanism for all four legs to mimic a four-legged animal’s movement and stability. Due to the smooth motion nature, it can provide a very high degree of stability, enabling it to carry items that require a smooth and stable motion. Jansen’s linkage mechanism is also easy to operate and design; a pair of legs could also be powered by one rotational movement, reducing overall energy consumption. The quadrupedal robot’s goal was to maintain a smooth and stable motion even when navigating obstacles and could ensure item delivery safety. The fabricated robot’s average speed is 0.02178 m/s, and the power consumption is 5.71 W.
Natural terrain is uneven and walking over these substrates may benefit from grasping into the depressions or "valleys" between obstacles. To examine how leg geometry influences walking across obstacles with valleys, we (1) modeled the performance of a two-linkage leg with parallel axis "hip" and "knee" joints to determine how relative segment lengths influence stepping across rocks of varying diameter and (2) measured the walking limbs in two species of intertidal crabs, \textit{Hemigrapsus nudus} and \textit{Pachygrapsus crassipes}, which live on rocky shores and granular terrains. We idealized uneven terrains as adjacent rigid hemispherical "rocks" with valleys between them and calculated kinematic factors such as workspace, limb angles with respect to the ground, and body configurations needed to step rocks. We first find that the simulated foot tip radius relative to the rock radius is limited by friction and material failure. To enable force closure for grasping and assuming that friction coefficients above 0.5 are unrealistic, the foot tip radius must be at least 10 times smaller than that of the rocks. However, ratios above 15 are at risk of fracture. Second, we find the theoretical optimal leg geometry for robots is with the distal segment 0.63 of the total length, which enables traversal of rocks with a diameter 37\% of the total leg length. Surprisingly, the intertidal crabs' walking limbs cluster around the same limb ratio of 0.63, showing deviations for limbs less specialized for walking. Our results can be applied broadly when designing segment lengths and foot shapes for legged robots on uneven terrain, as demonstrated here using a hexapod crab-inspired robot. Furthermore, these findings can inform our understanding of the evolutionary patterns in leg anatomy associated with adapting to rocky terrain.
Technological development within the robotics field has made it possible to generate great advances, developing complex bio-inspired systems, such as robots with legs. The same ones have great applicability within search and rescue (SAR) tasks. This type of robot stands out for its extraordinary ability to move within unstructured environments, overcome obstacles and adapt to different terrains. However, quadruped robots have gained space in the SAR-Tasks field over the last few years. Most implementations are limited to collecting information using different sensors, such as cameras, lasers, or microphones. This article seeks to simulate, implement and carry out the teleoperation through Mixed-Reality (M-R) of a quadruped robot equipped with a manipulator with six degrees of freedom, for which the ARTU-R robot (A1 Rescue Tasks Unitree Robot) has been used. One of the main contributions of this work focuses on improving the efficiency in executing tasks of handling and transporting medical equipment in post-disaster situations, using Mixed Reality with the ARTU-R robot and a robotic manipulator. To develop this proof of concept, Matlab has been used as a computational tool for optimizing the workspace of the integrated robot. Simulations have been carried out on Gazebo in reconstructed post-disaster environments to validate the robot’s functionality. At the same time, the effectiveness of the M-R system has been verified with field tests executing medical assistance tasks with the robot. The main results show a 21% increase in the efficiency of performing complex handling tasks using the proposed M-R system compared to conventional interfaces and the efficiency of using quadruped robots with manipulators for medical assistance tasks.KeywordsQuadruped robotMixed reality teleoperationROSArm manipulatorWalking robotsSearch and rescueGazebo
The lateral fall of a quadruped robot is difficult to avoid. However, there are few studies on the fall recovery of quadruped robots, especially that with large size and weight. One of the important reasons originates from the driving capability of robot joints. This paper analyzes the fall recovery behavior of several animals in nature, and designs a bionic shell structure. Then the working mechanism and critical conditions of the shell have been studied in detail. The shell that with the ability of regulating the energy changes of the robot when rolling, can make the quadruped robot withstand large impacts and avoid tipping. Based on the compliant movement generated by the arc-shaped contour of the bionic shell, the demand for the explosive joint driving force can be greatly reduced. These inherent advantages of the mechanism of the shell make it suitable for the lateral fall recovery of a large quadruped robot. The effectiveness of the mechanism is verified by simulation. Moreover, the performance of the bionic shell is discussed, for different factors including impacts, terrains and structures.
Conference Paper
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We present a framework for quadrupedal locomotion over highly challenging terrain where the choice of appropriate footholds is crucial for the success of the behaviour. We use a path planning approach which shares many similarities with the results of the DARPA Learning Locomotion challenge and extend it to allow more flexibility and increased robustness. During execution we incorporate an on-line force-based foothold adaptation mechanism that updates the planned motion according to the perceived state of the environment. This way we exploit the active compliance of our system to smoothly interact with the environment, even when this is inaccurately perceived or dynamically changing, and update the planned path on-The-fly. In tandem we use a virtual model controller that provides the feed-forward torques that allow increased accuracy together with highly compliant behaviour on an otherwise naturally very stiff robotic system. We leverage the full set of benefits that a high performance torque controlled quadruped robot can provide and demonstrate the flexibility and robustness of our approach on a set of experimental trials of increasing difficulty.
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Research into legged robotics is primarily motivated by the prospects of building machines that are able to navigate in challenging and complex environments that are predominantly non-flat. In this context, control of contact forces is fundamental to ensure stable contacts and stability of the robot. In this paper we propose a planning/control framework for quasi-static walking of quadrupedal robots, implemented for a demanding application in which regulation of ground reaction forces is crucial. Experimental results demonstrate that our 75-kg quadruped robot is able to walk inside two high-slope (50°) V-shaped walls; an achievement that to the authors' best knowledge has never been presented before. Furthermore, the robot is distributing its weight among the stance legs so as to optimize user-defined criteria. We compute joint torques that result in no foot slippage, fulfillment of the unilateral constraints of the contact forces and minimization of the actuators effort. This paper presents an experimental study that compares the proposed framework with different state-of-the-art control strategies, demonstrating the effectiveness and robustness of our approach.
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Robots with legs and arms have the potential to support humans in dangerous, dull or dirty tasks. A major motivation behind research on such robots is their potential versatility. However, these robots come at a high price in mechanical and control complexity. Hence, until they can demonstrate a clear advantage over their simpler counterparts, robots with arms and legs will not fulfill their true potential. In this paper, we discuss the opportunities for versatile robots that arise by actively controlling the mechanical impedance of joints and particularly legs. In contrast to passive elements such as springs, active impedance is achieved by torque-controlled joints allowing real-time adjustment of stiffness and damping. Adjustable stiffness and damping in real-time is a fundamental building block towards versatility. Experiments with our 80 kg hydraulic quadruped robot HyQ demonstrate that active impedance alone (i.e. no springs in the structure) can successfully emulate passively compliant elements during highly dynamic locomotion tasks (running, jumping and hopping); and that no springs are needed to protect the actuation system. Here we present results of a flying trot, also referred to as a running trot. To the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first time a flying trot has been successfully implemented on a robot without passive elements such as springs. A critical discussion on the pros and cons of active impedance concludes the paper. This article is an extension of our previous work presented at the International Symposium on Robotics Research (ISRR) 2013.
Conference Paper
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A common disadvantage of quadruped robots is that they are often limited to load carrying or observation tasks, due to their lack of manipulation capability. To remove this limitation, arms can be added to the body of the robot, enabling manipulation and providing assistance to the robot during body stabilization. However, a suitable arm for a quadruped platform requires specific features which might not all be available in off-the-shelf manipulators (e.g. speed, torque-controlled, light-weight, compact, without external control unit). In this paper, we present a systematic approach to design a robotic arm tailored for an 80kg quadruped robot. A full robot with arms and legs (aiming for a centaur-style robot) was simulated performing a range of “representative” tasks to estimate joint torques and velocities. This data was then extensively used to select the design parameters, such as the joint actuators to develop a novel, compact (0.743m fully extended), light-weight (12.5kg), and fast (maximum 4m/s no-load speed at end-effector) hydraulically actuated robotic arm with 6 torque-controlled degrees of freedom. The enclosed video presents preliminary experimental results.
Conference Paper
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Legged robots that dynamically locomote through rough terrain need to constantly handle unpredicted collisions (e.g. foot stumbling due to an obstacle) due to the unstructured nature of the environment. If these disturbances are strong enough they can cause errors in the robot’s trunk that are difficult to control with a common feedback-based controller, imposing a serious risk to the overall system stability. The impulsive nature of such disturbances demands a very short reaction time, especially in case of dynamic gaits (trot, gallop, etc.). A quick reaction becomes increasingly crucial when the robot is deprived of reliable visual feedback (e.g. smoky areas or thick vegetation) or when an accurate map of the environment is not available. In this paper we propose a local elevator reflex which enables the robot to reactively overcome high obstacles. The reflex is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the hydraulic quadruped - HyQ. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach showing that the robot is able to step over a platform of 11cm height (14% of the leg length) without prior knowledge of the terrain. © 2013 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
Legged robots have the potential to navigate in challenging terrain, and thus to exceed the mobility of wheeled vehicles. However, their control is more difficult as legged robots need to deal with foothold computation, leg trajectories and posture control in order to achieve successful navigation. In this paper, we present a new framework for the hydraulic quadruped robot HyQ, which performs goal-oriented navigation on unknown rough terrain using inertial measurement data and stereo-vision. This work uses our previously presented reactive controller framework with balancing control and extends it with visual feedback to enable closed-loop gait adjustment. On one hand, the camera images are used to keep the robot walking towards a visual target by correcting its heading angle if the robot deviates from it. On the other hand, the stereo camera is used to estimate the size of the obstacles on the ground plane and thus the terrain roughness. The locomotion controller then adjusts the step height and the velocity according to the size of the obstacles. This results in a robust and autonomous goal-oriented navigation over difficult terrain while subject to disturbances from the ground irregularities or external forces. Indoor and outdoor experiments with our quadruped robot show the effectiveness of this framework.