Article

The Deja Vu Experience

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Abstract

Most of us have been perplexed by a strange sense of familiarity when doing something for the first time. We feel that we have been here before, or done this before, but know for sure that this is impossible. In fact, according to numerous surveys, about two-thirds of us have experienced déjà vu at least once, and most of us have had multiple experiences. There are a number of credible scientific interpretations of déjà vu, and this book summarizes the broad range of published work from philosophy, religion, neurology, sociology, memory, perception, psychopathology, and psychopharmacology. This book also includes discussion of cognitive functioning in retrieval and familiarity, neuronal transmission, and double perception during the déjà vu experience.

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... Déjà vu is an experience of familiarity combined with the awareness that this experience is inappropriate. According to a review by Brown (2004), questionnaire data shows that déjà vu occurs in the daily lives of 67% of the population. Its occurrence is typically once every couple of months and it occurs most frequently in young people. ...
... While there are many theoretical explanations of déjà vu (Brown, 2004), currently a key line of research focuses on the similarity hypothesisthe idea that the situation eliciting the déjà vu is in some way similar to a prior experience. For example, Cleary, Ryals and Nomi (2009) used the recognition-without-cued-recall (RWCR) paradigm to study déjà vu. ...
... Firstly, the researchers struggle to explain why participants would report experiencing déjà vu in the control condition at all, as it is not consistent with their explanation of déjà vu as familiarity evoked by similarity. Secondly, given that déjà vu is reported to only occur once in a couple of months in daily life (Brown, 2004), the 13% and 17% seems really high for a laboratory estimate. There are two possible explanations here. ...
... For over a century, the phenomenon of déjà vu has attracted much interest, and in recent times, it has been studied by researchers in various scientifi c fi elds (e.g., Brown, 2003Brown, , 2004Sno & Linszen, 1990). Empirical studies of déjà vu phenomena have used interviews and questionnaires with normal people as well as psychiatric patients (e.g., Neppe, 1983;Sno & Linszen, 1990;Sno, Schalken, de Jonghe, & Koeter, 1994). ...
... Déjà vu experiences have been described in many works of fi ction including those by Dickens, Tolstoy, Proust and Hardy (Sno, Linszen, & de Jonghe, 1992). However, psychological studies of déjà vu in mainstream memory research are rare (e.g., Brown, 2003Brown, , 2004. Déjà vu experiences have been primarily studied as memory disorders (e.g., illusions, hallucinations, schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in the fi elds of psychiatry and psychoanalysis (e.g., Neppe, 1983). ...
... Recently, Brown (2004) classifi ed scientifi c explanations of déjà vu into four categories: dual-processing explanations (two cognitive functions that are momentarily out of synchrony), neurological explanations (brief dysfunction in the brain), memory explanations and double-perception explanations (brief break in one's ongoing perceptual processing). This study focuses on memory explanations. ...
... A review of the literature suggests that, older people report fewer instances of déjà vu (Brown, 2004). ...
... 22, and Kohr (1980) of-.31. In a review of studies which report mean age, Brown (2004) found that those studies with work in the aging individual, or age per sé (Back & Bourque, 1970). A classic example is the influence of the Second World War, an event that caused a massive shift in societal values, traumatic events, and even nutrition (at least in the UK, where there was rationing) amongst a whole cohort of people. ...
... Gallup and Newport (1991) reported that from 1978 to 1990, déjà vu experients increased from 30 percent of the population to 55 percent. Figure 1 presents an overview of Brown's (2004) review, plotting the lifetime incidence of déjà vu against population year for 41 studies. This shows a relationship between when the survey was conducted and how many people say that they have had the experience, r(41) = .50, ...
Chapter
A review of the literature suggests that older people report fewer instances of déjà vu (Brown, 2004). Chapman and Mensh (1951) found a negative correlation between déjà vu experience and age of -.23; Adachi and colleagues found negative correlations of -.38 (Adachi, Adachi, Akanuma, Matsubara, & Ito, 2007; Adachi et al., 2003), -.34 (Adachi et al., 2008), and -.37 (Adachi et al., 2010); Sno, Schalken, de Jonghe, and Koeter (1994) found a negative correlation of -.22, and Kohr (1980) of -.31. In a review of studies that report mean age, Brown (2004) found that those studies with an older sample had a lower lifetime incidence of the phenomenon, r(13) = -.44. As such, correlational studies are clear: the older you are, the less frequently you have experienced déjà vu.
... proposed a definition of déjà vu as 'any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of a present experience with an undefined past', which is now widely accepted in the field (Brown, 2004). Neppe (1983a) also pointed out the importance of clearly ruling out other memory phenomena that could be confused with déjà vu, such as flashbacks, cryptomnesia (real memories that are not recognized as such), pseudo-presentiment (a subjective impression that a present situation has been foretold; Neppe, 1983a), vivid memory, precognition (pre-knowledge of an event or scene regarding what will be experienced or seen there), and hallucinations. ...
... Initially (i.e. before c.1910) it was known by different names, such as 'paramnesia' (American authors), 'reminiscence' (British neurologists), 'fausse reconnaissance' (French authors), and Erinnerungsfälschung or -täuschung (German investigators), before the term 'déjà vu' (first proposed by Boirac in 1876) gained general acceptance (Funkhouser, 1983;Sno and Linszen, 1990;Sno, Linszen and de Jonghe, 1992;Berrios, 1995;Farina and Verrienti, 1996;Brown, 2004;Wild, 2005). ...
... The comparison of déjà vécu experiences with those of déjà visité reported by persons who said that they had had both experiences more than once showed that the déjà vécu experiences of our respondents tended to last longer, began earlier in their lives, and involved more precognition and also had somewhat more negative emotions than their déjà visité experiences. With respect to duration, the results shown in Table 3 are in general agreement with those found for déjà vu (Brown, Porter and Nix, 1994;Brown, 2004). Overall, déjà vécu experiences seem to be perceived as more impressive than déjà visité experiences. ...
Article
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It has been posited that the experience commonly called 'deja vu' can be subdivided into several types of deja experience. For the past nine years an internet questionnaire has collected data about what are called 'deja vecu' (already lived through) and 'deja visite' (already visited) experiences. It is clear from the data that deja vecu experiences occur more frequently than do deja visite ones. Further analysis of the data has shown that deja vecu experiences were rated as being significantly longer than those of deja visite. In addition, the mean age of the first experience was lower for deja vecu experiences as compared with deja visite ones. Moreover, positive emotions outweighed negative ones for both experiences while both tended to have sudden onsets. More deja vecu experiences were said to occur in a state of hyper-alertness, tended to be more comprehensive, were remembered in greater detail, and involved precognition more often than occurred in instances of deja visite. It appears one may be justified in considering these as two separate experiences. In the future, it would be desirable to conduct representative studies to obtain information about the frequencies of occurrence of the various types of deja experience in the general population and in-depth analyses regarding their situational context and content.
... For over a century, the phenomenon of déjà vu has attracted much interest, and in recent times, it has been studied by researchers in various scientifi c fi elds (e.g., Brown, 2003Brown, , 2004Sno & Linszen, 1990). Empirical studies of déjà vu phenomena have used interviews and questionnaires with normal people as well as psychiatric patients (e.g., Neppe, 1983;Sno & Linszen, 1990;Sno, Schalken, de Jonghe, & Koeter, 1994). ...
... Déjà vu experiences have been described in many works of fi ction including those by Dickens, Tolstoy, Proust and Hardy (Sno, Linszen, & de Jonghe, 1992). However, psychological studies of déjà vu in mainstream memory research are rare (e.g., Brown, 2003Brown, , 2004. Déjà vu experiences have been primarily studied as memory disorders (e.g., illusions, hallucinations, schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in the fi elds of psychiatry and psychoanalysis (e.g., Neppe, 1983). ...
... Recently, Brown (2004) classifi ed scientifi c explanations of déjà vu into four categories: dual-processing explanations (two cognitive functions that are momentarily out of synchrony), neurological explanations (brief dysfunction in the brain), memory explanations and double-perception explanations (brief break in one's ongoing perceptual processing). This study focuses on memory explanations. ...
... Numerous demographic factors and psychological variables have been identified that modulate the incidence and frequency of déjà vu experience in the population at large, and it is clear that there is considerable variability in this regard. An in‐depth review of related research is beyond the scope of this chapter but has been extensively covered in a recent monograph (Brown, 2004). Of particular interest to the current review, research has also started to address the neural basis of inter‐individual differences in the incidence of déjà vu in healthy individuals. ...
... From the perspective of the dual‐process model of recognition memory, it will be important to examine in future research the differential contribution of morphological variability in different MTL structures to déjà vu experiences in a more precise manner. In another approach, researchers have also started to develop behavioral paradigms that aim to elicit feelings of déjà vu in the psychological laboratory, and thus bring this phenomenon into the realm of controlled experimental investigation (Brown and Marsh, 2008, 2009; Cleary, Ryals, and Nomi, 2009; Cleary et al., 2012). Brown and Marsh conducted research to test the hypothesis that déjà vu experiences may occur when an initial encounter with a particular environment results in the more fluent processing of that environment in a subsequent encounter, while no pertinent contextual information about the initial presentation can be recovered (Brown and Marsh, 2008, 2010). ...
... In another approach, researchers have also started to develop behavioral paradigms that aim to elicit feelings of déjà vu in the psychological laboratory, and thus bring this phenomenon into the realm of controlled experimental investigation (Brown and Marsh, 2008, 2009; Cleary, Ryals, and Nomi, 2009; Cleary et al., 2012). Brown and Marsh conducted research to test the hypothesis that déjà vu experiences may occur when an initial encounter with a particular environment results in the more fluent processing of that environment in a subsequent encounter, while no pertinent contextual information about the initial presentation can be recovered (Brown and Marsh, 2008, 2010). This account was addressed in a study in which participants engaged in shallow (i.e., nonsemantic) processing of scenes from their home campus, and scenes from an unfamiliar campus that they had never visited in a study phase. ...
... Déjà vu experiences can be defined as any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of a present experience with an undefined past (Neppe, 1983). The percentage of participants reporting at least one déjà vu experience during their lifetime is often higher than 50% (Brown, 2004). Neppe (1983) listed 20 subtypes of déjà vu experiences like déjà vécu or déjà visité (see also Funkhouser and Schredl, 2014). ...
... Whereas the literature (see the extensive review of Brown, 2004) has focused on the phenomenology, the relationship to epilepsy and psychopathological conditions like schizophrenia, and possible explanations for the occurrence of déjà vu experiences, studies looking into personality correlates of déjà vu experiences are scarce. Funkhouser and Schredl (2010) found a high incidence of déjà rêvé among German students; about 95% of the sample reported to have had at least one déjà rêvé during their lifetime. ...
... As there are other forms of experience that are often confused with déjà experience, e.g. premonitions and anomalous familiarity -which includes cases of mistaken identity and conditions in some pathological disorders -and lack the startle and bewilderment that accompanies déjà experiences (Brown, 2004), future studies should include more precise definitions of déjà experience -even though the prevalence of these other experiences might be low. ...
... A puzzling association exists between the experience of déjà vu and the feeling of premonition. For example, reports of an association between these two feelings have emerged in survey studies of déjà vu (Brown, 2004;Moulin, 2018). Also, a report of an association between these two feelings can be found in early cortical stimulation work by Wilder Penfield, whereby a patient reported not only experiencing déjà vu when neurologically stimulated in the medial temporal lobe region, but also a strong sense of knowing exactly what would happen next (Mullan & Penfield, 1959). ...
... Unlike most memory paradigms, all of the test scenes in this paradigm are novel, yet some may seem more familiar than others. To the extent that the juxtaposition of familiarity and novelty are a central feature of the déjà vu experience (indeed, this is how déjà vu is usually defined; see Brown, 2004;Martin, Fiacconi, & Köhler, 2015;O'Connor & Moulin, 2010), the paradigm uniquely creates this on the test, potentially creating ideal circumstances for déjà vu. ...
... In the case of the déjà vu paradigm used in the present study, there is a deliberate construction of the juxtaposition of familiarity and novelty in a test phase, coupled with the uncertainty created by instances of retrieval failure. On top of this, the use of places is part of the paradigm because survey research (e.g., Brown, 2004) suggests that places are the most common elicitor of déjà vu, and many of the otherwise novel places used in the present study were familiarised through prior presentation of something similar. ...
Article
A recent laboratory study by Cleary and Claxton [2018. Déjà vu: An illusion of prediction. Psychological Science, 29(4), 635–644. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956797617743018] documented a relationship between déjà vu and feelings of premonition. During instances of retrieval failure, participants reported stronger feelings of prediction during déjà vu than non-déjà vu states, despite displaying no actual predictive ability in such instances. The present study further explored the link between déjà vu reports and feelings of prediction. Although feelings of prediction were more likely to occur during reports of déjà vu than non-déjà vu, they were not the sole defining feature of déjà vu, accounting for just over half of all reported déjà vu states. Instances of déjà vu that were accompanied by feelings of prediction were associated with greater feelings of familiarity than instances that were not. This was shown by a greater likelihood of reporting that the scene felt familiar and also by a higher rated intensity of the feeling of familiarity elicited by the scene when it did feel familiar. Though the present study was mainly descriptive in characterising the interrelations between déjà vu, feelings of prediction, and familiarity, the full pattern points toward the possibility that high familiarity intensity may contribute to the feeling of prediction during déjà vu.
... Déjà vu-the feeling of having experienced the current situation before despite that seeming impossible-has a long-appreciated link to some forms of epilepsy (reviewed by Brown, 2004, Cleary & Brown, 2022 [1,2]. Medical descriptions and this link were provided by John Hughlings Jackson over a century ago [3,4]. ...
... Déjà vu-the feeling of having experienced the current situation before despite that seeming impossible-has a long-appreciated link to some forms of epilepsy (reviewed by Brown, 2004, Cleary & Brown, 2022 [1,2]. Medical descriptions and this link were provided by John Hughlings Jackson over a century ago [3,4]. ...
... A potentially useful approach for examining this issue is a recently developed method for increasing reports of déjà vu among non-clinical participants in the laboratory [36][37][38]. In this method, based on early theories of déjà vu mechanisms [1], participants view a series of simulated virtual tours through various scenes. Later, they view a series of virtual tours with new scenes, some of which have the same spatial layout as earlier-viewed scenes despite otherwise being novel scenes (see Fig. 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Roughly two-thirds of all people report having experienced déjà vu-the odd feeling that a current experience is both novel and a repeat or replay of a previous, unrecalled experience. Reports of an association between déjà vu and seizure aura symptomatology have accumulated for over a century, and frequent déjà vu is also now known to be associated with focal seizures, particularly those of a medial temporal lobe (MTL) origin. A longstanding question is whether seizure-related déjà vu has the same basis and is the same subjective experience as non-seizure déjà vu. Survey research suggests that people who experience both seizure-related and non-seizure déjà vu can often subjectively distinguish between the two. We present a case of a person with a history of focal MTL seizures who reports having experienced both seizure-related and non-seizure common déjà vu, though the non-seizure type was more frequent during this person's youth than it is currently. The patient was studied with a virtual tour paradigm that has previously been shown to elicit déjà vu among non-clinical, young adult participants. The patient reported experiencing déjà vu of the common non-seizure type during the virtual tour paradigm, without associated abnormalities of the intracranial EEG. We situate this work in the context of broader ongoing projects examining the subjective correlates of seizures. The importance for memory research of virtual scenes, spatial tasks, virtual reality (VR), and this paradigm for isolating familiarity in the context of recall failure are discussed.
... An overview of 11 cross-sectional studies indicates that déjà vu (i.e. the 'mild form') lasts a second to minutes at most [8] and is reported by 30-96% of the general population [3]. Brown ...
... In psychiatry, manifestations are sporadically described in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders [21]. Pharmacologically, déjà vécu is associated with the use of 5hydroxytryptophan [22], amantadine, and phenylpropanolamine [23], and probably also with the use of amphetamines, alcohol, and hallucinogens [8]. Ward et al. [10] reported on déjà vécu in multiple sclerosis, while as early as in 1927 Dawson [24] described a 41-year-old man with neurosyphilis who suffered from a depressed mood and hypochondria, and went on to develop a euphoric mood after malaria treatment (which was the state-of the-art treatment at the time). ...
Article
Déjà vécu is an extremely rare type of identifying paramnesia characterised by the ongoing sensation of having experienced things before. Having the delusional conviction that this sensation is true, patients frequently exhibit recollective confabulation. We here describe an 84-year-old woman with idiopathic, partial déjà vécu, where her symptoms were limited to people and events. An extensive psychiatric and somatic work-up ruled out cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, dementia, psychosis, or intoxication as a potential underlying cause. Proposed to be a functional disturbance of the limbic system with involvement of a network that comprises at least the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, the pathophysiology of déjà vécu is in need of further elucidation. Our patient and her family were offered psychoeducation, which led to acceptance and improved coping. During the two-year follow-up, the déjà vécu sensations continued unaltered, but all involved were less bothered by them, with the patient’s functioning improving both personally and socially.
... Shortly after Schacter published The Seven Sins of Memory, from which the quote above is taken, Brown published two seminal reviews: a paper in Psychological Bulletin (Brown, 2003) and a book (Brown, 2004) in which he presented a comprehensive review of the literature in a range of domains. A common thread through the literature was the reliance on non-experimental questionnaire research. ...
... This emphasis on the subjective not only adds to our understanding of the qualities of déjà vu, but also opens up new avenues for understanding the diverse range of subjective experiences associated déjà vu (e.g. links between intensity of experience and the feeling of prescience; Brown, 2004) across a range of non-clinical and clinical domains. ...
... It is at this boundary of waking conscious experience, with its related temporal process in the brain, that we find the intriguing phenomenon of flow and a potential linkage to the allied concept of déjà vu. Let us begin such an examination with déjà vu (see Brown, 2004). One of the many current theories of déjà vu describes it as a sensory latency issue in which either probabilistic or pathological influences on sensory processes delay the input of the present from a companion input that should, nominally, have been derived at the same time. ...
... This is one of the short-term dysfunctional processing accounts of déjà vu. Certainly this form of disruption to the ongoing sensory stream may well constitute some proportion of the overall experiences reported as déjà vu, and in reality there remains a need to further develop a comprehensive taxonomic differentiation of all behavioral phenomena that are subsumed under the umbrella term déjà vu (see Brown, 2004;Cleary et al., 2012). ...
Article
It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain’s offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple “what if” simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain systems, I endeavor to resolve some fundamental paradoxes and conundrums expressed in the basic psychological and behavioral processes of sleep, consciousness, and memory. The implication
... In Experiment 4 we looked at déjà vu reports exclusively. This decision was driven by the flexibility that exists in defining the experience, especially in lay use of the term [15,16] . In the Paramnesia condition, we gave participants the same definition of déjà vu as in previous studies but replaced the label " déjà vu " , which the explanation defined, with " paramnesia " . ...
... As experimenters however, we do have control over how we elicit these self-reports and as such it is crucial to fully appreciate whether our methods influence participant responding (see [2]). Déjà vu and TOT are distinct experiences with unique underlying mechanisms (for reviews see [1,15]) and the methodologies employed for their assessment have therefore developed largely independently of each other. We are not the first to argue that current methods could be improved. ...
Article
Déjà vu and tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) are retrieval-related subjective experiences whose study relies on participant self-report. In four experiments (ns = 224, 273, 123 and 154), we explored the effect of questioning method on reported occurrence of déjà vu and TOT in experimental settings. All participants carried out a continuous recognition task, which was not expected to induce déjà vu or TOT, but were asked about their experiences of these subjective states. When presented with contemporary definitions, between 32% and 58% of participants nonetheless reported experiencing déjà vu or TOT. Changing the definition of déjà vu or asking participants to bring to mind a real-life instance of déjà vu or TOT before completing the recognition task had no impact on reporting rates. However, there was an indication that changing the method of requesting subjective reports impacted reporting of both experiences. More specifically, moving from the commonly used retrospective questioning (e.g. "Have you experienced déjà vu?") to free report instructions (e.g. "Indicate whenever you experience déjà vu.") reduced the total number of reported déjà vu and TOT occurrences. We suggest that research on subjective experiences should move toward free report assessments. Such a shift would potentially reduce the presence of false alarms in experimental work, thereby reducing the overestimation of subjective experiences prevalent in this area of research.
... Despite this advance in understanding the basis of déjà vu, a remaining scientific puzzle is the purported association between déjà vu and feelings of premonition, or knowing what will happen next. People often report such an association from personal experience in surveys (Brown, 2004). Case-study research on déjà vu elicited by cortical stimulation also uncovered this association: Cortical-stimulation-induced déjà vu in a patient was accompanied by a feeling of knowing exactly what would happen next (Mullan & Penfield, 1959, as cited in Brown, 2004. ...
... This study presents a significant advance in understanding the peculiar association between déjà vu and feelings of premonition (e.g., Brown, 2004). The results suggest a link between the sensation of déjà vu and a bias to believe that one knows what will happen next. ...
Article
Déjà vu is beginning to be scientifically understood as a memory phenomenon. Despite recent scientific advances, a remaining puzzle is the purported association between déjà vu and feelings of premonition. Building on research showing that déjà vu can be driven by an unrecalled memory of a past experience that relates to the current situation, we sought evidence of memory-based predictive ability during déjà vu states. Déjà vu did not lead to above-chance ability to predict the next turn in a navigational path resembling a previously experienced but unrecalled path (although such resemblance increased reports of déjà vu). However, déjà vu states were accompanied by increased feelings of knowing the direction of the next turn. The results suggest that feelings of premonition during déjà vu occur and can be illusory. Metacognitive bias brought on by the state itself may explain the peculiar association between déjà vu and the feeling of premonition.
... We focussed on the correlations between the agreement with statements about frequency and cause of déjà vu and the descriptions of déjà vu, with the aim of understanding what sorts of experiences contributed to a high likelihood of having déjà vu. For instance, it has previously been shown that there is a correlation between dream recall and déjà vu frequency (Brown, 2004) which has been borne out in this study: people who describe themselves as sometimes having premonitory dreams are more likely to describe déjà vu experiences as frequent. For the rest of our correlations, we found a pattern of findings that suggest people responded rationally to the questionnaire. ...
... We started with the expectation of finding differences in how different linguistic groups experience déjà vu. Interestingly, déjà vu is a term which is used in many different countries and languages (Brown, 2004) but it has a particular significance in French, it being a French phrase. We found that there were differences in how a French speaking and English speaking sample described their experience of déjà vu, which we discuss below. ...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how people characterise and classify the experience of déjà vu. The term déjà vu might capture a range of different phenomena and people may use it differently. We examined the description of déjà vu in two languages: French and English, hypothesising that the use of déjà vu would vary between the two languages. In French, the phrase déjà vu can be used to indicate a veridical experience of recognition - as in "I have already seen this face before". However, the same is not true in English. In an online questionnaire, we found equal rates of déjà vu amongst French and English speakers, and key differences in how the experience was described. As expected, the French group described the experience as being more frequent, but there was the unexpected finding that they found it to be more troubling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... An overview of 11 cross-sectional studies indicates that déjà vu (i.e. the 'mild form') lasts a second to minutes at most [8] and is reported by 30-96% of the general population [3]. Brown ...
... In psychiatry, manifestations are sporadically described in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders [21]. Pharmacologically, déjà vécu is associated with the use of 5hydroxytryptophan [22], amantadine, and phenylpropanolamine [23], and probably also with the use of amphetamines, alcohol, and hallucinogens [8]. Ward et al. [10] reported on déjà vécu in multiple sclerosis, while as early as in 1927 Dawson [24] described a 41-year-old man with neurosyphilis who suffered from a depressed mood and hypochondria, and went on to develop a euphoric mood after malaria treatment (which was the state-of the-art treatment at the time). ...
... Many terms that needed clarification, and a glossary was needed, particularly as déjà is written with accents in French, so locating data was more challenging [35]. The 2004 book by Alan Brown [34] focuses effectively on the most common subtype of déjà vu, occurring in two thirds of the population, what Neppe has called associative déjà vu [53]. But this presents an incomplete picture of the phenomenological vastness of déjà vu, and its multiple subtypes, specific population occurrences and different causes. ...
Article
The French term, 'deja vu', translates literally as "already seen". Neppe's 1979 definition is the universally accepted, carefully derived scientific one: deja vu is "any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of the present experience with an undefined past." Some historical firsts in the area are discussed, as well as some prioritized information about deja vu. The books available-Neppe's 4; Brown; Oesterle in German; and Jones- are mentioned, as well as Kohn's unpublished contribution. Studying deja vu provides us a window into understanding phenomenology, and how careful we must be in interpreting similar phenomena as from the same origin or cause. The detailed study of deja vu is the study of ensuring we cluster 'like with like' and do not confound this area with "like analyzed with unlike" phenomena.
... Questionnaires may not yield reliable measures of ability; however, they allow sensory experiences to be investigated easily. Sensations of memory such as déjà-vu-an experience whereby there is an overwhelming sense of familiarity juxtaposed with knowledge that that familiarity is inappropriate [35]-can be insightful in terms of memory functioning as well as dreaming. In experiential terms, déjà-vu may feel extremely strange as if, for a fleeting moment, everything that is perceived has already been perceived before. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dream recall has been investigated via various means, often relying upon self-report judgments. Such methods, as well as individual differences and cognitive correlates of dream recall, rarely acknowledge models, theory, or empirical work concerning waking memory. Study 1 presents the development and psychometric validation of the Memory Experiences and Dreaming Questionnaire (MED-Q)—a 30-item measure of autobiographical and dream memory sensations incorporating items on dreaming, sensory experiences, and autobiographical remembering behaviors. It produces a single score and can be broken down into its constituent factors: “awareness of dreaming,” “daydreaming,” “dream sensations upon waking,” “déjà-states,” “comprehensibility of dream content,” and “senses.” Study 2 demonstrates the validity of the MED-Q as compared with dream report indices of dream detail. The MED-Q measures the extent to which a person engages with their dream memories through both frequency and subjective characteristic ratings. It is therefore novel in emphasizing the context of autobiographical memory for dreaming.
... The percentage of people who experience déjà vu is probably somewhere between 30% (about 8 in a class of 30) and 100% (everyone in a class of 30) [1]. We are not sure about the exact percentage for two important reasons. ...
Article
Young people experience déjà vu the most. Having said this, depending on how old you are, you may still have to wait a while until you have your first déjà vu experience. A very small number of people say they had their first déjà vu experience by the age of 6. More people report their first déjà vu experiences as having happened sometime before they were 10 years old. The reason it may take a while to have your first déjà vu experience is that you need to be able to work out whether the feeling of familiarity you have really is stronger than it should be. For many younger kids, this may be a tricky thing to do.
... Déjà vuthe jarring feeling of having experienced something before despite knowing otherwisehas a long-held association with perceptions of premonition. This has been documented in people's subjective impressions of past déjà vu experiences (Brown, 2004;Moulin, 2018). Perceptions of premonition may occur while déjà vu is being experienced. ...
Article
Recent research links reports of déjà vu – the feeling of having experienced something before despite knowing otherwise – with an illusory feeling of prediction. In the present study, a new finding is presented in which reports of déjà vu are associated not only with a predictive bias, but also with a postdictive bias, whereby people are more likely to feel that an event unfolded as expected after the event prompted déjà vu than after it did not. During a virtual tour, feelings of predicting the next turn were more likely during reported déjà vu, as in prior research. Then, after actually seeing the turn, participants exhibited a postdictive bias toward feeling that the scene unfolded as expected following déjà vu reports. This postdictive bias following déjà vu reports was associated with higher perceived scene familiarity intensity. A potential reason for this association may be that high familiarity intensity as an event outcome unfolds falsely signals confirmatory evidence of having sensed all along how it would unfold. Future research should further investigate this possibility.
... In these cases, we often need to adopt that term into our vocabulary simply to think about and communicate the concept. An example is the phenomenon of de´ja`vu, which is used to describe the feeling that one has already experienced a present moment (Brown, 2005). Although a number of English translations have been suggested since the phenomenon was first researched in the mid 1800s, these terms have been cumbersome and fail to capture the true meaning of the French term. ...
Article
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This paper examines the theory behind and some examples of the relationships between gender, language, cognition and perception in the context of the criminal justice system. In particular, we consider the language of domestic violence and sexual assault and how words and communication styles can affect and are affected by what we think and believe to be ‘reality’. The paper illustrates how the language used to describe violence against women may act to minimise these acts and the dominant conversational style and female violence victims’ genderlect may collide to produce evidentiary issues and a credibility gap. We argue that there is an inherent dilemma in engaging with legal constructs which continue to negate women’s understandings of reality, and that the voices of female rape and domestic violence victims remain muted by the baritone ‘voice’ of the legal system.
... Our procedure captures a critical feature of déjà vu, the clash between subjective familiarity and objective novelty (Brown, 2004). Whilst our analyses compared the frequency of déjà vu reports according to the list-wise novelty manipulation, it should also be noted that each list, regardless of the novelty condition, included semantically related lures for which familiarity would have been high and novelty salience was low. ...
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Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.
... 'Continuous déjà vu' to Funkhouser and occasionally to Neppe d3 [23] (in the past), is a better term than 'Chronic déjà vu'. which Brown [90] and Moulin [86] might prefer, as it does not imply necessary pathology, but I currently think that if such an entity exists, it is more likely to be more characterized as chronic not continuously. ...
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... The individual difference literature is reviewed in Brown (2003) and comprehensively detailed in Brown (2004). As an example, associations are found with the degree to which people travel. ...
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Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206) to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance.
... A sense of reliving similar to that which occurs in autobiographical memory also occurs in déjà vu but with no explicit memory of what one is reliving. It is noteworthy that over several studies, based on both self-reports and analyses of participants' descriptions, the most common trigger of a déjà vu state is the actual physical setting (Brown, 2004), a finding which parallels our emphasis of the construction of a scene in memory. Overall, the autobiographical memory literature offers strong support for the claim that a visual image of an event is needed for a sense of reliving and that the more vivid the image, the stronger the sense of reliving. ...
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Prior research has suggested that configural resemblance between a current scene and a previously experienced but forgotten one may trigger deja vu experiences. The present study examined whether there is a relationship between the frequency of actual deje vu experiences, measured by questionnaires, and sensitivity to a configural resemblance between past and present events, measured by questionnaires, and between two scenes presented simultaneously in the laboratory. We measured familiarity ratings and remember-know judgements of several scenes. Some scenes had been previously presented, some were similar to previously presented scenes and the others were dissimilar. Deja vu tendencies were significantly correlated with sensitivity to similarity in the measured questionnaires and in the laboratory, as well as to a feeling of familiarity for similar scenes. In this study, we found for the first time that people who more frequently experience deje vu states were also more likely to regard themselves as sensitive to similarity and more likely to notice the similarity between two scenes in the laboratory.
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What is the function of the past in visions of the future? For critics, futures built on recycled futures-past, at best, signal a failure of imagination and, at worst, foreclose much-needed alternatives. Against a backdrop in which the future is predominantly thought of as a threat, this paper offers a more nuanced account of the entanglement of past and future at lieux de futur, complex assemblages of imagination, relations to time, scales of the past, forgetting, and sense experiences. Utilizing fieldwork at the 2018 Future of Everything Festival and collected materials from Astana Expo 2017 this paper reconsiders the function of the familiar in visions of tomorrow through the concept of déjà vu (promnesia). Triggered by a single familiar element among what is presented as novel, déjà vu activates a sensation that one can see the future unfold before its full arrival. Promnesic futures thus act as a prophylactic against broader looming threats (e.g. climate change) by rendering them seemingly navigable.
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I propose a model that places episodic, semantic, and other commonly studied forms of memory into the same conceptual space. The space is defined by three dimensions required for Tulving’s episodic and semantic memory. An implicit–explicit dimension contrasts both episodic and semantic memory with common forms of implicit memory. A self-reference dimension contrasts episodes that occurred to one person with semantic knowledge. A scene dimension contrasts episodes that occurred in specific contexts with context-free semantic information. The three dimensions are evaluated against existing behavioral and neural evidence to evaluate both the model and the concepts underlying the study of human memory. Unlike a hierarchy, which has properties specific to each category, the dimensions have properties that extend throughout the conceptual space. Thus, the properties apply to all forms of existing and yet-to-be-discovered memory within the space. Empty locations in the proposed space are filled with existing phenomena that lack a clear place in current theories of memory, including reports of episodic-like memories for events reported to but not witnessed by a person, fictional narrative accounts, déjà vu, and implicit components contributing to personality, the self, and autobiographical memory.
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Jamais vu is a phenomenon operationalised as the opposite of déjà vu, i.e. finding subjectively unfamiliar something that we know to be familiar. We sought to document that the subjective experience of jamais vu can be produced in word alienation tasks, hypothesising that déjà vu and jamais vu are similar experiential memory phenomena. Participants repeatedly copied words until they felt “peculiar”, had completed the task, or had another reason to stop. About two-thirds of all participants (in about one-third of all trials) reported strange subjective experiences during the task. Participants reported feeling peculiar after about thirty repetitions, or one minute. We describe these experiences as jamais vu. This experimentally induced phenomenon was related to real-world experiences of unfamiliarity. Although we replicated known patterns of correlations with déjà vu (age and dissociative experiences), the same pattern was not found for our experimental analogue of jamais vu, suggesting some differences between the two phenomena. However, in daily life, those people who had déjà vu more frequently also had jamais vu more frequently. Findings are discussed with reference to the progress that has been made in déjà vu research in recent years, with a view to fast-tracking our understanding of jamais vu.
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The semiotics of phenomena like déjà vus and hallucinations constitute a limit-field of a theory of the sign, but one that offers opportunities to question the fundamental principles of the discipline while at the same time offering the opportunity to address their underlying cognitive processes. The article describes the cognitive nature of déjà vus and hallucinations, briefly reviews the literature about them, and reads them as cognitive perturbations in the light of a semiotics of mental simulacra related to perception, apperception, awareness, memory, and imagination. The article then uses such cognitive and semiotic modeling in order to develop a critique of present-day digital culture, in which the uncritical adoption of a mnemonic ideal based on digital memory jeopardizes one of the key features of embodied memory: imperfection and, as a consequence, the possibility to access aesthetic and temporal singularity. A collective memory prone to déjà vus and hallucinations ensues.
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Déjà vu is characterised by feelings of familiarity and concurrent awareness that this familiarity is wrong. Previous neuropsychological research has linked déjà vu during seizures in individuals with unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy (uTLE) to rhinal-cortex abnormalities, and to recognition-memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. Here, we examined whether bilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (bTLE) show a similar pattern of performance. Using two experimental tasks, we found that bTLE patients exhibit deficits not only for familiarity but also for recollection. Relative to uTLE, this broader impairment also involved hippocampal abnormalities. Our findings confirm rhinal-cortex contributions to the generation of false familiarity in déjà vu that parallel its contributions to familiarity on recognition-memory tasks. While they do not rule out a role for recollection in identifying this familiarity as wrong, the deficits observed in bTLE patients weigh against the notion that any such role is necessary for déjà vu to occur.
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Attempts to generate déjà vu experimentally have largely focused on engineering partial familiarity for stimuli, relying on an ensuing, but unprompted evaluation of conflict to generate the experience. Without verification that experimentally-generated familiarity is accompanied by the awareness of stimulus novelty, these experimental procedures potentially provide an incomplete déjà vu analogue. We used a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory procedure to generate both familiarity and novelty within a déjà vu analogue – we coupled experimentally-generated familiarity with cues indicating that the familiarity was erroneous, using this additional source of mnemonic information to generate cognitive conflict in our participants. We collected fMRI and behavioural data from 21 participants, 16 of whom reported déjà vu. Using univariate contrasts we identified brain regions associated with mnemonic conflict, including the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. This is the first experiment to image an analogue of the déjà vu experience in healthy volunteers. The increased likelihood of déjà vu reports to DRM critical lures correctly identified as “new”, and the activation of neural substrates supporting the experience of cognitive conflict during déjà vu, suggest that the resolution of memory conflict may play an integral role in déjà vu.
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-Déjà vu is often explained in terms of an unconscious transfer of familiarity between a familiar object or objects and accompanying new objects. However, empirical research tests more the priming effectiveness than such a transfer. This paper reviews the main explanations of déjà vu, proposes a cognitive model of the phenomenon, and tests its six major assumptions. The model states that a sense of familiarity can be felt toward an objectively new stimulus (point 1) and that it can be transferred from a known stimulus to a novel one (point 2) in a situation where the person is unaware of such a transfer (point 3). The criteria for déjà vu are that the known and the novel stimuli may have graphical or semantic similarity, but differences exclude priming explanations (point 4); the familiarity measure should be of an non-rational nature (sense of familiarity rather than recognition; point 5); and that the feeling of familiarity toward a novel stimuli produces a conflict, which could be measured by means of increased reaction (point 6). 119 participants were tested in three experiments. The participants were to assess the novel stimuli in terms of their sense of familiarity. The novel stimuli were primed or were not primed by the known stimulus (Exp. 1) or primed by the known vs a novel stimulus (Exp. 2 and 3). The priming was subliminal in all the experiments. Reaction times were measured in Exps. 2 and 3. The participants assessed the novel stimuli as more familiar when they were preceded by a known stimulus than when they were not (Exp. 1) or when they were preceded by a novel stimulus (Exps. 2 and 3). Reaction times were longer for assessments preceded by known stimulus than for assessments preceded by a novel stimulus, which contradicts the priming explanations. The results seem to support all six points of the proposed model of the mechanisms underlying the déjà vu experience.
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While occasional déjà vu is benign in the general population, rare neuropsychological cases with persistent déjà vu have been described in the literature. We report the case of MN, a 25-year-old woman, who suffered a cerebral haemorrhage in the right thalamo-callosal region and experienced recurrent déjà vu episodes. Through clinical interviews and memory tasks related to déjà vu, we assumed that source memory errors and an inappropriate feeling of familiarity (measured by the number of false recognitions) were critically involved in MN’s déjà vu. Based on this, we developed the first neuropsychological intervention dedicated to déjà vu. The rationale was to train MN to detect elements that could produce an inappropriate feeling of familiarity and to promote metacognitive awareness about déjà vu. This intervention was effective at reducing the frequency of déjà vu episodes in MN’s daily life, as well as the number of false recognitions in memory tasks. In addition to its clinical contribution, this single-case study contributes to the limited literature on patients whose déjà vu is not related to epileptic abnormalities and medial temporal brain damage, and provide supportive evidence of the role of an erroneous feeling of familiarity and of metacognitive processes in déjà vu.
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The cognitive phenomenology thesis claims that “there is something it is like” to have cognitive states such as believing, desiring, hoping, attending, and so on. In support of this idea, Goldman claimed that the tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon can be considered as a clear‐cut instance of nonsensory cognitive phenomenology. This paper reviews Goldman's proposal and assesses whether the tip‐of‐the‐tongue and other metacognitive feelings actually constitute an instance of cognitive phenomenology. The paper will show that psychological data cast doubt on the idea that the tip‐of‐the‐tongue and other metacognitive feelings are clear‐cut instances of cognitive phenomenology.
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This paper analyses the déjà-vu experience in order to deepen the understanding of the complex nature of time-consciousness from a phenomenological point of view. The paper is divided into two sections: the first section focuses on Bergson’s research on déjà vu in order to assess the validity of his position; the second section describes a specific form of déjà-vu experience from a phenomenological perspective. This investigation will question the widespread assumption according to which déjà vu should be conceived as a disturbance of the memory of the past. On the contrary, the author shows that the disturbance primarily pertains to the dimension of the future. In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to focus on the coherent deformation of the immediate expectation of the imminent future.
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The study examines the prevalence of déjà vu in healthy Czech adults and explores its relationships with a number of variables: age, sex, neuroticism, depression, the degree of irritability in the limbic system, perceived stress, and finally attachment avoidance and anxiety. The participants were 365 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 70 years recruited in the Czech Republic (mean age = 29.05; SD = 11.17) who filled out online questionnaires. Déjà vu experiences were reported by 324 (88.8%) of them. Persons who experienced déjà vu were younger than the persons who had not experienced it. We found that sex, levels of neuroticism, depression, perceived stress, and attachment did not serve as predictors of experiences of déjà vu phenomena. Finally, those who had reported déjà vu experiences reported more limbic system irritability symptoms. We discuss the possibility that déjà vu reports together with other studied variables mainly reflect the participants' willingness to report "extraordinal" experiences.
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The phenomenon of déjà vu (DV) has intrigued scientists for decades, yet its neurophysiological underpinnings remain elusive. Brain regions have been identified in which morphometry differs between healthy individuals according to the frequency of their DV experiences. This study built upon these findings by assessing if and how neural activity in these and other brain regions also differ with respect to DV experience. Resting-state fMRI was performed on 68 healthy volunteers, 44 of whom reported DV experiences (DV group) and 24 who did not (NDV group). Using multivariate analyses, we then assessed the (fractional) amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), a metric that is believed to index brain tissue excitability, for 5 discrete frequency bands within sets of brain regions implicated in DV and those comprising the default mode network (DMN). Analyses revealed significantly lower values of fALFF/ALFF for specific frequency bands in the DV relative to the NDV group, particularly within mesiotemporal structures, bilateral putamina, right caudatum, bilateral superior frontal cortices, left lateral parietal cortex, dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. The pattern of differences in fALFF/ALFF measures between the brains of individuals who have experienced DV and those who have not provides new neurophysiological insights into this phenomenon, including the potential role of the DMN. We suggest that the erroneous feeling of familiarity arises from a temporary disruption of cortico-subcortical circuitry together with the upregulation of cortical excitability.
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This essay identifies the banal temporality of endless war in both the affective disposition signaled by the POW/MIA flag and the conditions of apperception of the war planners who orchestrated the US war in Southeast Asia. To explore this banal time, the essay turns to Christopher Nolan’s neo-noir Memento (), a film that explores the interplay of memory, subjectivity, and violence. Memento’s ostensible opposition between memory as the return of origin and absolute temporal dispersal in fact gives way to a quite different conception of subjectivity’s temporal connectivity, based in routine repetition, habit, and conditioning—the “banal time” that Hannah Arendt sees as underpinning the banality of evil. In a reading of Homi Bhabha’s account of freedom as being based “in the indeterminate,” the banal time of Memento is shown to destabilize the opposition of grand narrative and temporal dispersal upon which contemporary theory has staked its political orientation. At the same time, the essay counters interpretations of Arendt’s conception of the banality of evil that reduce it to a dismissal of the perpetrator’s character or humanity. Rather, Arendt’s conception is shown to focus on the temporal conditions of possibility of responsibility, and to prioritize modes of connectivity that would overcome banal time.
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Déjà vu occurs when one feels as though a sit-uation is familiar, despite evidence that the situation could not have been experienced before. Until recently, the topic of de´jà vu remained largely outside of the realm of mainstream scientific investigation. However, interest in investigating the nature of de´jà vu is growing among researchers of cognitive processes. In some cases, de´jà vu may be understood within the context of research on human recognition memory. Specifically, de´jà vu may sometimes result from familiarity-based recognition, or recognition that is based on feelings of familiarity that occur without identification of their source. KEYWORDS—déjà vu; familiarity; familiarity-based recog-nition; recognition without identification; recognition memory What produces a déjà vu experience? For over 100 years, thinkers and writers have pondered this question. Explanations have ranged from the paranormal to neurological dysfunction. In recent years, the topic has begun to receive scientific scrutiny, with several theories of déjà vu emerging (Brown, 2003, 2004a, 2004b). The present article focuses on one particular theory, which suggests that déjà vu results from a form of recognition memory known as familiarity-based recognition.
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A 46-item paranormal belief questionnaire was given to 836 Australian psychology students. Paranormal items, derived from the popular media, were rated on a 5-point strength of evidence scale. Responses to the questionnaire were correlated and subjected to a principle axis factor analysis, followed by orthogonal and oblique rotation. A seven-factor Obliquely rotated solution, accounting for 38.49% of the variance, was chosen as most interpretable. The seven factor were identified as popular science, obscure unbelief, traditional religion, alternative treatments, paratherapies, functional psi, and structural psi. Results thus provide support for the multidimensional structure of paranormal beliefs.
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A déjà vu experience is a dissociative phenomenon, which can be characterized as a subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of the present with an undefined past. This paper reviews empirical studies on déjà vu experiences and summarizes the most salient findings. Overall, the findings appear to be inconsistent and inconclusive. The authors conclude that the available empirical research is of limited significance due to various methodological and conceptual issues. In order to evaluate the clinical psychiatric relevance of déjà vu experiences, further research which also addresses its qualitative features is warranted.
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The literature on disturbance of time-sense in brain disease and schizophrenia is reviewed and the subjective experience of altered time-sense reported by 45 out of 350 personally interviewed schizophrenics is analyzed. A review of the literature on the effect of brain damage revealed that some phenomena (déjà vu, reduplication of time, altered tempo to events) were linked with right hemisphere dysfunction, one phenomenon (incorrect sequencing of events) was linked with left anterior brain damage, and others (disrupted "biological clock", disturbed serise of rate of flow of current or past events) could arise from subcortical as well as focal cortical damage. The sparse literature on disturbed time-sense in schizophrenia suggested that there was a shared psychopathology in this respect with right hemisphere dysfunction. The phenomena encountered in the 45 schizophrenics are described and classified.
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Older adults are often more susceptible to various illusions and distortions of memory than young adults. In the experiments reported here, we explored the question of whether normal aging was associated with a larger revelation effect, an illusion of memory in which items that are revealed gradually during a recognition test are more likely to be called old than unrevealed items that are shown in their entirety. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not susceptible to this memory illusion. A revelation effect occurred for young but not older adults, even when older adults were similar to young adults on measures of recognition and repetition priming. When data across experiments were combined, there was evidence for a negative revelation effect in older adults in which revealed items were less likely called old than unrevealed items. These results place boundary conditions on the claim that older adults are more susceptible than young adults to memory illusions, and imply that one or more mechanisms underlying the revelation effect are age sensitive.
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The revelation effect is the tendency to give higher proportions of positive responses to recognition test items that are distorted. Two plausible explanations of this response bias were tested. The 1st 3 experiments showed that the sense of familiarity leading to the revelation effect is not created because of the extra time or effort spent on the distorted items. The magnitude of the effect was neither correlated with the time taken to reveal the distorted items nor influenced by the Ss' efforts in revealing such items. The next 4 experiments showed that the sense of familiarity is not created because of priming of target words during the act of revealing. High-frequency words (presumed to be more highly associated to other words) and categorically or orthographically similar words did not elicit greater revelation effects than those elicited with low-frequency words and categorically or orthographically dissimilar words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A schizophrenic patient with different forms of experiences of inappropriate familiarity is described. The authors discuss traumatic experiences as aetiological factors in déjà vu experiences and reduplicative paramnesia. Finally, the differential diagnostic problem in psychotic and dissociative phenomena is stressed.
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the déjà vu experience is a subjective phenomenon that has been described in many novels and poems. Here we review over 20 literary descriptions. These accounts are consistent with the data obtained from psychiatric literature, including various phenomenological, aetiological and psychopathogenetic aspects of the déjà vu experience. The explanations, explicitly formulated by creative authors, include reincarnation, dreams, organic factors and unconscious memories. Not infrequently, an association with defence or organic factors is demonstrable on the basis of psychoanalytic or clinical psychiatric interpretation. The authors recommend that psychiatrists be encouraged to overstep the limits of psychiatric literature and read prose and poetry as well.
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The déjà vu experience is a common phenomenon, occurring in pathological as well as nonpathological conditions. It has been defined as any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of a present experience with an undefined past. The authors discuss the epidemiologic data, clinical features, and etiology of the phenomenon of déjà vu. They also review the different hypotheses on the psychopathogenesis of the déjà vu experience and introduce an explanation based on the hologram as a mnestic model.
The aim of the present study was to outline the development of the deja vu-research and to present an own study about the occurence of deja vu-experiences and their qualitative features. Methodological problems and different explanation models were presented for this study and other recent studies. A German version of theInventory for Deja Vu Experiences Assessment (IDEA) (Sno et al., 1994) was used among a sample of 224 college students and the frequency of different experiences and their relation to age and gender was shown. The results show that deja vu experiences are more closely related to day dreams than to jamais vu experiences, which are associated to de personalization and derealization experiences. Moreover, deja vu-experiences and day dreams were found more often than jamais, vu experiences as Well as: depersonalization and derealization experiences. The results were discussed on the basis of the meaning of deja vu for the personality.
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Some dreams are presented which in content seem closely related to the immediate situation facing the dreamer at the time of recalling the dream. The question is raised if the sense of pastness of such dreams is not like that of the déjà vu. An attempt is made to correlate the occurrence of dreaming and the déjà vu phenomenon in 58 patients seen in psychotherapy. All 10 who reported as not dreaming also reported as not having experienced the déjà vu; dreaming generally correlated with experiencing the déjà vu. These findings are discussed from the point of view that dreaming may also be a product of the awakening or awake state.
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Random samples of dormitory residents at three colleges in Xi'an, People's Republic of China, were polled regarding frequency of deja vu, night paralysis, extrasensory perception, communication with the dead, out-of-body experience, and belief in a "sixth sense." The Chinese students (N = 314) revealed incidence of these experiences, and faith in a "sixth sense," equivalent to, or higher than those found in Western populations. Since Chinese students engage in no formal religious practices, this finding suggests that such experiences are not totally a product of religious faith, but are universal in some sense.
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While amnesia literally means loss of memory, in clinical practice it has a more limited application. It refers to a person's verbal statement that he does not remember a particular event, person, place, or period of time. A further definition is that the situation is one with which the patient should be familiar as to where he lives, the kind of work he does, and why he came to the hospital. The term is not used to characterize poor performance on a memory test, or for loss of memory for actions (apraxia) or reading (alexia). Patients with amnesia may do well on standard memory tests and have no difficulty in reproducing previously learned acts.In the literature, amnesia following injury to the brain has been attributed to many types of neural deficit representing thinking in various disciplines and emphasizing certain aspects of the clinical picture.
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Using national sample data from the General Social Surveys, this study assesses cultural source theories of reported paranormal experiences. The reported paranormal experiences of extrasensory perception, clairvoyance, contact with the dead, and mysticism, but not déjà vu, are found to have an invariant and stable factor structure across the 1984, 1988, and 1989 General Social Survey data. Déjà vu is more frequent among younger and more highly educated respondents, but it is unaffected by sex, race, income, marital status, and religious preference differences. Other reported paranormal experiences are higher among women but are unaffected by age, race, education, income, marital status, and religious preference differences. The effects of age and education on déjà vu and the effect of sex on other reported paranormal experiences are consistent across 1984, 1988, and 1989 General Social Survey data. The findings of this study suggest that cultural source theories and deprivation theory have little empirical support in explaining reported paranormal experiences.
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This was an investigation of the effects of a drive-related subliminal stimulus on subsequent Rorschach images. 60 male Ss were seen for an experimental and control session in a balanced design. Ss were divided into 5 groups on the basis of their recogniton thresholds for the drive-related stimulus and a neutral stimulus. For each group, different predictions were made as to how the subliminally presented drive stimulus would affect subsequent Rorschach performance. The results indicated: for the total group, there was a clearcut subliminal effect; the nature of this effect varied considerably among Ss with regard to the relative influence of drive-expressive and defensive reactions; the different ways Ss responded to the subliminal activation were systematically related to their threshold behavior. (23 ref.)
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Significant relationships were found between creativity and the belief in psychical phenomena in 110 undergraduates in a creativity class. Scores on a test of belief in ESP were related to creativity in class projects, to scores on the What Kind of Person Are You? test, and to scores on the Personal-Social Motivation Inventory. Sensation-Seeking Scale results correlated significantly with ratings of creativity in class projects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides a theoretical motivation for the empirically tested operational definition for déjà vu, namely, any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of the present experience with an undefined past. Reasons are given for the rejection within the definition of other terms, and déjà vu is differentiated from flashbacks, pseudopresentiment, actualized precognition, and cryptomnesia. The 21 kinds of déjà vu, including 10 new terms introduced by the author, are mentioned. The metaphorical journalistic use of the term is briefly discussed. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined childhood traumas and parental encouragement of imagination as correlates of the occurrence of out-of-body experiences (OBE) and déjà-type experiences via a postal survey of 106 students (aged 19–55 yrs). Results show that, in comparison to nonexperients, Ss who experienced an OBE had higher prevalence during childhood of intrafamilial sexual abuse, death or serious illness of a close friend, extrafamilial sexual abuse, numerous and substantial periods of isolation from friends or playmates, and assault. Intrafamilial physical abuse during childhood was a predictor of déjà-type experiences. The findings are discussed with particular reference to studies of dissociative experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A nationwide sample of members of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (ARE) was surveyed in 1975–1976 regarding psi and psi-related experiences. A polling instrument developed and used by J. Palmer (see record 1980-06507-001) in a survey of townspeople and college students in Charlottesville, Virginia, was used. Over 400 persons responded to the ARE questionnaire. Since ARE members represent a special population of individuals attracted to such an organization because of their personal interest in psi, the high incidence of claimed psi experiences in the poll was not surprising. This atypical sample differed somewhat from Palmer's sample, which was more representative of the general population, but numerous correspondences were observed, including a tendency to report many occurrences of a particular type of experience and to have more than just 1 or 2 types of experience. Mystical experiences, dream recall, and lucid dreams were strong correlates of psi experiences, while demographic variables were not. Several internally consistent indices of psi experiences were constructed on the theory that a general psi sensitivity trait exists. These measures revealed high multiple correlations with predictor variables. The strongest correlate was a composite measure of mystical experience. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the incidence of the déjà vu experience as being dependent on the operational definitions of déjà vu, the measuring instrument, and the recall and recognition of the déjà vu experience by the S. 16 studies of déjà vu are reported chronologically, and it is argued that only one used adequate sampling and that 2 studies by the present author (1979, 1981) were the only ones that used an adequate screening questionnaire for déjà vu. A more adequate study of incidence should use a large, randomized sample for the general population in a prospective study of incidence and frequency in the individual. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
115 UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ANSWERED QUESTIONNAIRES ON FEELINGS EXPERIENCED BEFORE DREAMING, HALLUCINATIONS, EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP), AND BEING "OUT OF YOUR BODY." NEITHER SEX NOR ACADEMIC TRAINING INFLUENCED RESPONSES. ESP WAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THE STUDENTS, AND SOME CLAIMED TO HAVE THIS ABILITY; AT LEAST 30% INDICATED BELIEF IN ESP POSSIBILITIES. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Replication is made of L. J. Jacoby and K. Whitehouse's (see record 1989-31882-001) findings that short duration context stimuli induced false recognition of test stimuli when the 2 events matched one another, but that the reverse was true of longer duration context stimuli (i.e., matching led to fewer false, as well as true, old responses). Although they claimed their results supported unconscious perception, short exposure in the present article was clearly supraliminal, that is, 80 undergraduates judged the relation between context and test stimuli far in excess of chance. Two specific, nonsubliminal mechanisms that could produce the Jacoby-Whitehouse effect are that lengthening the context stimulus duration makes it more likely that test and context stimuli will be perceived as a group; form an integral, rather than separable, composite; or both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes the following criterion for calling a memory task redintegrative: In free recall the probability should be high that an S who recalls part of a unit recall the whole unit. 4 tasks that met the criterion and 2 tasks that did not were examined. The redintegrative tasks showed that whatever part of a unit was best remembered in free recall was also the best cue for eliciting the whole unit; it had the greatest redintegrative power. This consistency appeared in memory for single words, phrases, sentences, and 2-digit numbers. Results are related to the issue of associative symmetry and to other matters of verbal behavior. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although psychiatric literature abounds in allusions to the phenomenon of ‘déjà vu’, few communications were devoted to an analysis of this interesting psychological state. After a short review of the ‘déjà vu’ conditions, the author proposes a model consisting of two channels. Under normal conditions, the first deals with the reading of information already stored, and the second, the engrammic channel, will store future information. The ‘déjà vu’ condition is produced when the reading channel and the engrammic channel meet in the same area. This mechanism can explain the various etiological possibilities of ‘déjà vu’, ranging from more or less ordinary cases such as fatigue or anguish to the most important etiology which is a psychotic process.
Article
Caucasian-American, African-American, Chinese, and Japanese college students were polled regarding déjà vu, night paralysis, ESP, contact with the dead, out-of-body experiences, and belief in ESP. Hypotheses derived from the cultural source theory suggest that religiosity and scientific training affect the reporting of these episodes. Although the incidence of reported experiences varied cross-culturally, knowledge of a respondent's religious preference, self-reported religiosity, or scientific training provided little predictive ability regarding frequency of anomalous experience or belief in ESP. An alternative model suggests that dissociative faculties and related traits regulate the incidence of anomalous experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments on the “recovery effect” are reported. In Exp. I, Ss' recall of a briefly flashed stimulus was tested before and after fantasy generation. Postfantasy recall was greater than prefantasy recall to an extent that significantly exceeded corresponding increases in recall obtained by control Ss. One group of control Ss did not generate fantasy, while the other produced fantasy but copied an experimental S's first recall attempt instead of seeing the stimulus. When the number of responses emitted in postfantasy recall was equalized for all groups, however, the difference in recall increments disappeared between the fantasy and nonfantasy group, suggesting that fantasy augments response rates rather than sensitivity to the stimulus trace. Exp. II confirmed this inference. A recognition indicator with confidence ratings was employed, from which ROC functions were extracted, allowing direct measures of pre- and postfantasy sensitivity. No sensitivity increments were found in either the fantasy or the nonfantasy group, though fantasy affected confidence ratings and, therefore, hit and false alarm rates.
Article
Abstract Among 104 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy treated in our clinic between 1992–1995, thirteen patients with repeated dreamy states were evaluated for affective manifestations of dreamy states and their relationship with psychotic states. The types of dreamy states were classified as déjà vu, jamais vu and reminiscence. The affective experiences during dreamy states were evaluated as positive, negative or neutral. As a result, seven patients had déjà vu and/or reminiscence: seizure manifestations in four of these patients were affectively evaluated as positive (familiar and/or pleasurable), and three as neutral. Six cases had experience of jamais vu: five of them were affectively evaluated as negative (mostly fear), and one as neutral.Psychiatrically, only four patients with jamais vu accompanied by feelings of fear had mental disorders: a chronic paranoid-hallucinatory state in two cases, a chronic paranoid state in one case, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in one case. Other patients who had positive or neutral affect did not demonstrate psychiatric disturbances. Thus, most patients with jamais vu were accompanied by negative affect of fear, and those patients with jamais vu tended to show more psychotic symptoms than those with reminiscence or déjà vu, which were associated with positive or neutral affects. Based on these results, we discuss the possibility that repeated negative feelings associated with jamais vu are one of the causes for developing epileptic psychoses.
Article
An explanatory mechanism is discussed that leads to a so-called sufficiency theory of certain psychological phenomena, such as standard recognition as opposed to déjà vu, imagined novel experience, jamais vu, disturbed recognition, incorrect recognition, and hallucination—experiences that have not been explained before in a satisfactory scientific manner. Sufficiency theory, in general, means that a proposed structure of plausible mechanisms is sufficient but may not be uniquely necessary to explain, understand, and predict the behavior of the phenomenon under study.
Article
Three sisters had recurrent dreams of typical theme with identical imagery in some instances. Their father also had painful dreams of typical theme, while their paternal great grandmother had disturbed sleep with presumed painful dreams. All three sisters had phobias and headaches. One of Sister 3's children had headaches and another a convulsion. Thus, symptomatology involved four generations. The EEGs in all three sisters had bilaterally abnormal patterns, maximal in temporal and occipital areas. During sleep, abnormalities favored Stage 1, Stage 2, and REM. The waking EEG reported in the son showed similar abnormalities. The frequent typical dreams of the present kindred may reflect a cerebral dysrhythmic factor. This is supported by the EEG abnormalities and, in one instance, a convulsion. Temporal systems may be involved in view of the dream disturbance and, in two of the sisters, the deja vu episodes. The etiology of the kindred's symptomatology is most economically explained on a genetic basis. A dominant mode of inheritance of a cerebral alteration (dysrhythmic factor) through four generations is hypothesized.
Article
A prolonged period of depersonalization resolved in this 16-year-old boy with only supportive therapy. Reasons for the depersonalization and withholding of other treatment are discussed. Observations are shared of the very intriguing phenomenon of derealization and allied conditions, psychiatric syndromes which are appearing with increasing frequency among so-called "normal adolescents" who indulge in drugs or other experiences which alter the state of consciousness, and among adolescents who survive disasters or harrowing experiences.
Article
The less an individual is conscious of time, the more likely he is to be free of psychopathology. Under normal circumstances, time remains implicit and largely unconscious; but it tends to dominate consciousness in schizophrenia and borderline conditions as well as in normal people under stress. This exaggerated awareness of the sense of time is experienced as an affectless state. When consciousness becomes dominated by affect, the sense of time speeds up and then recedes, until all awareness of time is lost. Distortions in the sense of time reflect defensive operations with reference to unconscious fantasies that are characteristic of one's internal object relationships. Depending on the effectiveness of the defense in blocking the destructive intent and allowing for the fulfillment of the libidinal yearnings of such fantasies, time distortions tend to be experienced as pleasant (creative, blissful, ecstatic) or painful (boring, frightening, depressive).
Article
The belief that one can read others' minds has long been considered a symptom of psychosis, despite reports in the parapsychological literature of veridical telepathy. All patients admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit were screened for paranormal beliefs, and those claiming telepathic abilities were tested in a free-response ESP task. Eighteen per cent of the inpatient population claimed telepathic abilities; of the nine patients who completed the task, none performed above chance expectations. Higher frequencies of paranormal experiences than those reported previously in the psychiatric literature were attributed to the context of the study. Schneider's first rank symptoms and a belief in telepathy discriminated schizophrenics more reliably than other paranormal experiences. Possible psychodynamics of delusions of telepathy were discussed in view of the predominance of women and younger men reporting them, as were the possible effects of such research on patients' delusions.
Article
Five episodes of micropsia, which were precipitated by oedipal masturbatory fantasies, are described in the analysis of an adult male. Traumatic visual events and testicular retractions during the oedipal and latency years predisposed the ego functions concerned with visual perception to later involvement in conflict. The micropsia itself is seen as defending against castration anxiety by means of a series of unconscious fantasies of denial. These fantasies cause a regression to an earlier mode of visual perception (and to micropsia) characteristic of latency. The defensive modifications of the functions of the ego itself seen in micropsia are closely allied to those seen in the dèjá vu experience and in depersonalization.
Article
It is proposed that certain deja vu experiences may be the result of a sudden partial decathexis of the current situation, and a concomitant recathexis of primitive experiences which readily allow certain symbolic representations to force themselves into conscious awareness as a discrete and circumscribed experience in the perceptual ego, carrying with it only a strong sense of the familiar rather than discrete memories. The drive investment that cathects the current situation or object to be 'familiarized' (deja vu) may be derived in substantial part from the 'face gestalt configuration' of the symbiotic and, later, nonsymbiotic mother, described as an early crucial organizer of the psyche. Certain deja vu experiences may be initiated by anxiety (often castration anxiety) induced by the current reality situation. They could but not necessarily be dynamically similar or related structurally to other deja phenomena. It is speculated that there may be certain dynamic parallels between the deja vu, the dream screen of Lewin, and the Isakower phenomenon.
Article
AMNESIC agents, such as electroconvulsive stimulation, can cause loss of memory for events that occurred before treatment1. Usually as the interval between learning and convulsive treatment is increased, the resulting retrograde amnesia is diminished1-3. This temporal gradient of retrograde amnesia can sometimes cover several years4. Clinical descriptions of the amnesic syndrome suggest that information about the temporal sequence of events can be more severely impaired than other aspects of memory5,6. Thus, an amnesic patient may describe a past event accurately but be unable to report when the event occurred. We have administered a new remote memory test based on former one-season television programmes to psychiatric patients receiving bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and report here that memory for temporal order is markedly affected by ECT. ECT caused retrograde amnesia for order information about programmes broadcast from 1 to ~7 yr before treatment, but not for programmes broadcast from 8-17 yr before treatment.