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Extraction and Analysis of Heavy Metals from Soil and Plants in the Industrial Area Govindpura, Bhopal

  • overnment Maharani Laxmibai Girls' Post Graduate (Autonomous) College, Bhopal.

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Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a global problem. It is present everywhere, though to different degrees and is specific to certain parts of the biosphere. Living organisms are not able to prepare and adapt rapidly to a sudden and huge environmental load with different toxic compounds, thus the accumulation of such toxic compounds, especially of heavy metals having highly hazardous effect, can cause undesirable changes in the biosphere with hazardous consequences. In the present investigation soil samples were collected from industrially contaminated soils of industrial area, Govindpura, Bhopal and Heavy metals analysis was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Extraction results of heavy metals showed that Cr, Ni and Pb concentration was higher in soil. Various plants were also analyzed for heavy metal analysis and they showed the higher accumulation of Heavy metals.
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ISSN(Print): 2373-8324 ISSN(Online): 2373-8332
Volume 1, Number 2, July 2014
Extraction and Analysis of Heavy Metals
from Soil and Plants in the Industrial Area
Govindpura, Bhopal
Ashwini A. Waoo1*, Swati Khare2, Sujata Ganguli3
1Research Scholar MVM, Bhopal (M.P), India.
2Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (IEHE), Bhopal (M. P.), India.
3M.V.M. College, Bhopal (M.P.), India.
*Corresponding author: ashwini
Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a global problem. It is present everywhere,
though to different degrees and is specific to certain parts of the biosphere. Living organisms
are not able to prepare and adapt rapidly to a sudden and huge environmental load with
different toxic compounds, thus the accumulation of such toxic compounds, especially of
heavy metals having highly hazardous effect, can cause undesirable changes in the biosphere
with hazardous consequences. In the present investigation soil samples were collected from
industrially contaminated soils of industrial area, Govindpura, Bhopal and Heavy metals analysis
was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Extraction results of heavy metals showed
that Cr, Ni and Pb concentration was higher in soil. Various plants were also analyzed for heavy
metal analysis and they showed the higher accumulation of Heavy metals.
Biosphere; Bhopal; Heavy metals; Pollution; Soil; Spectrophotometer
Soil is a key element in human survival and can be described by various definitions. It has been
accepted that soil is a very complex heterogeneous medium which consists of solid phases containing
organic matter and minerals, and soil solution, defined as the fluid phase where soil reactions, transport
and adsorption occur. Plants used in phytoremediation have the capability to self engineer or exert some
control over the rhizosphere, local biogeochemistry (soil and water pH, redox conditions, organic content),
water and nutrients availability, creating hydraulic barrier to capture contaminant plumes and the local
microclimate. Nevertheless, despite the availability of literature on the potentials of phytoremediation in
achieving in situ treatment of a wide range contaminants found in municipal solid waste dumpsites and
mining areas, there is little to no awareness about this technology in India.
Biosphere pollution by chemicals and heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel, zinc, lead, etc., increased
in great extent during the last few decades due to mining, smelting, manufacturing, industrial waste
Extraction and Analysis of Heavy Metals from Soil and Plants in the Industrial Area Govindpura, Bhopal
material dumping, traffic emissions, municipal wastes, industrial effluents and industrial chemicals etc.
The problem of environmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to cause concern now in most major
cities having big industrial area [
]. Heavy metals entering in the ecosystem may lead to bioaccumulation,
geo accumulation, and bio magnification [2].
Phytoremediation takes advantage of the fact that a living plant can be considered a solar energy driven
system, which can extract and accumulate particular elements from the environment. Phytoremediation
is becoming possible because of the reproductive interdisciplinary cooperation of plant biochemists,
molecular biologists, agronomists, soil chemists and eco engineers [3].
All heavy metals at high concentrations have strong toxic effects and are regarded as environmental
pollutants [
]. Phytoremediation that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements and
compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues appears very
promising for the removal of pollutants from the environment [5].
The study site is mainly consists of pollution of hazardous concentrations of following heavy metals.
2.1 Cadmium
Cadmium has no vital biological function but it is highly toxic to plants and animals. The soil standard
levels of 0.06-1.1 mg/kg, it can be considerably increased by deposition from the gical industrial waste,
sludge application and impurities from phosphatic fertilisers [
]. It has high concentration at surface soils
where it is retained by the organic matter. It can also move down the soil profile depending on soil and
site factors. In the soil solution, the Cd2+free ion is the principal and most toxic species, but its organic
and inorganic complexes also exist [7].
2.2 Nickel
White magnetic hard metal used in alloys with copper, chromium, iron and zinc. Widely used in
industry like fuel production, electroplating, pigments, ceramics, household appliances, food production,
making jewellery, heat exchangers, magnets, coins, medical prostheses, batteries, etc.
Nickel has hazardous impact on human health. Acute poisoning of Nickel sulfate or nickel carbonyl
causes death due to cardiac arrest, pneumonia or brain hemorrhage, Allergies (most common health
effects), Adverse pregnancy outcomes (occupational exposure), Cancer (occupational inhalation exposure)
etc [8].
2.3 Chromium
Chromium generally occurs in the three most common forms: metallic (Cr
) – does not exist naturally,
trivalent (Cr
) – nutrient, limited solubility and hexavalent (Cr
) – water soluble, highly toxic. It
is widely used in industry due to its anticorrosive property like metal surface plating, leather tanning,
glassware cleaning, textile production etc.
Acute poisoning of chromium cause nausea, vomiting, acute renal failure, irritation, contact dermatitis,
eczema, allergies, contact dermatitis, eczema and reproductive toxicity etc.
2.4 Lead
Lead occurs naturally in the soil. Most of lead concentrations that are found in the environment are due
to the human activities. Due to the use of lead in gasoline an unnatural lead-cycle has generated. Lead is
burned in car engines and lead salts (chlorines, bromines, oxides) will originate.
Lead toxicity results in several ill effects, such as - Disruption of the biosynthesis of haemoglobin and
anaemia, a rise in blood pressure, kidney damage, miscarriages and subtle abortions, disruption of nervous
systems and brain damage etc.
Industrially contaminated sites were randomly chosen. Samples considered were of soil and plants.
Sediment samples were collected at each sampling point. Sediment samples were collected using a
stainless steel collector at about 10 to 30 cm depth. The plants samples for phytoextraction were collected
by cutting the shoots [9,10].
3.1 Sampling Location
The field study site was located in an industrial area, the most common industries at all the study sites
are electroplating, paint, soft drinks etc situated in Govindpura, Bhopal, Soils and plants were sampled in
the surrounding of the dumpsite around 200000 m
. Sampling was collected out between June 2012 and
July 2013. Shoots of several plant species were collected, as well as representative soil samples from the
soil directly adjacent to the sampled plants (0-20 cm, topsoil layer) were also collected, obtaining a total
of 3 soil samples and 3 plants samples.
3.2 Analysis of Soil for Trace and Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectropho-
Soil samples from the selected sites were collected in triplicates and were dried at 105
C to constant
weight. Three replicates of 0.25 g sediments were acid-digested in microwave assisted Kjeldahl digester.
Each microwave extraction vessel was added with 5 ml of conc. nitric acid, 2 ml hydrochloride acid
Extraction and Analysis of Heavy Metals from Soil and Plants in the Industrial Area Govindpura, Bhopal
Figure 1. Analysis of heavy metals from industrially contaminated soil
Figure 2. Extraction and Analysis of heavy metals from plants found at industriallycontaminated soil
and 1 ml of hydrofluoric acid. The vessels were capped and heated in a microwave unit at 800 W to a
temperature of 210
C for 20 min with pressure of 40bar. The digested samples were analysed for the
metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using flame atomization. Results are expressed on dry
weight basis.
3.3 Analysis of Plants for Trace and Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectropho-
Live plant parts i.e. leaves and stem were collected randomly from the plants found in target study
area in January 2013. All the samples were air-dried for seven days. The samples were oven-dried at
60C temperature to a constant weight and ground to powder. Three dried samples were digested with a
mixture (3:1) of concentrated nitric acid and hydrofluoric in microwave assisted Kjeldahl digestion. Each
microwave extraction vessel was added with 6 ml of nitric acid and 2 ml of hydrofluoric acid together with
0.8 g of plant sample. The vessels were capped and heated in a microwave unit at 800 W to a temperature
of 190
C for 20 min with a pressure of 25 bars. The digested samples were diluted to 50 ml and subjected
to analysis of the metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using flame atomization. Results are
expressed on dry weight basis of each component.
Table 1. General concentrations of heavy metals in soil and plants [1113]
Metals Threshold Values(mg/kg dry weight)
[Metal] in plant [Metal] in Soil
Pb 50 100-400
Ni 1-5 1-100
Cd 0.01-1 1-3
Cr 0.5-2 150
Table 2. Heavy Metals Found in Different Soil Samples at Contaminated Sites
Soil Samples Copper (mg/kg) Chromium (mg/kg) Lead (mg/kg) Cadmium(mg/kg) Nickel(mg/kg)
S-1 30.39 140.0 199.5 59.2 37.36
S-2 22.87 159.8 180.9 70.5 38.50
S-3 28.58 201.9 258.7 62.5 32.51
Evaluation of heavy metals in soils of industrial waste site showed that amounts of some heavy metals
in the waste sites of the region are several times more than natural areas.The
Table 1
] particularly
showed the threshold values of heavy metals in soil sediment. The nutrient and heavy metal concentrations
in the sediment from sampling sites are shown in
Table 2
and it was graphically represented in
Figure 1
In sediment, the nutrient and heavy metals were found to decrease in the order of Pb
Cd for
contaminated sites. Among the analyzed heavy metals, Pb had the highest concentrations up to 199.5
mg/kg in all the sampling sites and in plants, while Cd shows the low concentrations up to 70.2 mg/kg.
Significant differences in heavy metals concentrations were found between 3 sampling sites except in the
case of Pb. Sediment concentrations in the industrial area are characterized by the high values of Cr (up
to 209.1mg/kg) and Pb (199.5 mg/kg). These values of heavy metals found in experimental soil samples
were very much higher than threshold values.
Table 3
have shown the extracted values of heavy metals in the majority of the plant species found at
industrially contaminated area of Govindpura and it was graphically shown in Figure 2.
From the above observation table it was clear that industrially contaminated site contains high concen-
tration of Chromium and Lead The toxic level of chromium in soil is around 2-50 ppm , and in comparison
with this value chromium measurements were very high in the investigation area. Critical levels of Cr for
the plants are 5-10 ppm, 0.006-18 ppm and our results show that the investigation area runs a risk of Cr
pollution in soil samples.
Table 3. Heavy Metals Found in Different Plant Samples at Contaminated Sites
Plant Samples Copper (mg/kg) Chromium (mg/kg) Lead (mg/kg) Cadmium(mg/kg) Nickel(mg/kg)
Castor 17.41 58.92 84.35 18.71 23.58
Calatropis 10.79 76.50 74.71 20.52 25.01
Dhatura 11.59 82.50 92.48 21.53 25.03
Polygonum 15.46 84.71 96.12 32.48 29.12
Extraction and Analysis of Heavy Metals from Soil and Plants in the Industrial Area Govindpura, Bhopal
Bhopal city and nearby regions are one of the most important industrial hub in the country. These
regions contain many industries and therefore, there is a big risk of environmental pollution which is very
hazardous to our health. Many hazardous waste sites in industrial area in Bhopal require remediation. The
contaminated groundwater and soil contain a mixture of contaminant types. These may include organics,
heavy metals, salts and radioactive compounds. Due to this, almost every major city and Industrial
Township of the state – Indore, Bhopal, Ujjain, Dewas, Nagda, Peethampur, Mandideep and Ratlam is
sitting on a top of highly toxic sludge underground. But, the fact is that industries are required for the
economy modernization and development of the city like Bhopal. Therefore, environmental pollution
with toxic chemicals, metals and xenobiotics is a global problem.
The solution to this problem comes from the concept of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a low
cost effective, eco-friendly, pleasant approach most suitable for developing countries and cities like Bhopal
. Phytoremediation is the engineered use of green plants to remove environmental contaminants like
heavy metals from soil or water. Despite this potential, phytoremediation is yet to become a commercially
available technology in India.
Objectives of the research in future will be:
1. To carry out extensive botanical survey of contaminated soil
2. To select non-agricultural crops for their ability to either degrade
3. To extract or to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils
To trace out pathways employed in the uptake and metabolism of Heavy metals and identification
of metabolites
To study rhizosphere of the selected specific plants, which are involved in the metabolism of target
6. To prepare a risk analysis scheme for phytoremediation technique
I would like to thanks to my supervisor and co-supervisor for their valuable guidance and also thankful
to Dr. Shagufta Khan, Director, Growtips Biotech Training Institute, Bhopal for her support in my
research work. I would like to thanks to Dr. Aabha Gargava, Pricipal, Govt. M.V.M. Bhopal to provide
me resources in M.V.M. college.
This research was also facilitated by UGC, Delhi, India.
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Abstract Grasses have been used widely to remediate contaminants present in domestic wastewater, but leachate generated from municipal solid waste that usually contain some concentrations of heavy metals has never been reported to be treated with grasses, especially Rhodes grass. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the contaminant uptake from municipal solid waste leachate by Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass) grown in combination with two commonly available grass varieties namely Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass) and Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass). Leachate used for the experiments had high values for chemical oxygen demand (5 g/L), pH (8.5), electrical conductivity (9.0 mS/cm), nitrates (182.1 mg/L), phosphates 6.4 mg/L along with heavy metals i.e. copper, zinc and manganese. Different dilutions of leachate ranging from 0 to 100% were applied in batches and their result showed that collectively all the grasses reduced overall contaminant concentrations. These were reported for chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and phosphates reduced up to 67, 94, 94, and 73%, respectively. Metals uptake by grasses also showed a significant decrease in applied dose i.e. zinc (97%), copper (89%), and manganese (89%). Plant analysis showed that all grasses showed preference to heavy metals uptake e.g. Rhodes grass favoured up taking zinc, Elephant grass for copper and Vetiver grass preferred manganese. Overall growth performance of Rhodes grass was better in dilute leachate, whereas in more concentrated leachate, Rhodes grass did not perform better and production of biomass decreased. In Vetiver grass, root and shoot lengths decreased with increasing leachate strength, but the biomass did not change significantly.
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This study was conducted to assess the level of heavy metals contamination of soil around oil filling and service stations in the Tamale Metropolis. Soil samples were collected from various oil filling and service stations. Elemental analysis of samples was conducted using atomic absorption spectrometer at Atomic Energy Laboratory, Accra. The metals concentrations ranged from 2.37 to 15.00 mg/kg for Cr; 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg for Hg; 3.2 to 22.68 mg/kg for Cu; 0.12 to 6.63 mg/kg for Cd and 4.93 to 74.20 mg/kg for Pb. The mathematical models: Index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factors (EF), contamination factor and degree of contamination were employed to identify possible levels of pollution from anthropogenic sources. The enrichment factor means places the elements in a decreasing order as Cd > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni> Fe > Zn > As > Hg > Mn that agreed with others models such as contamination factor, pollution load index and degree of contamination. Elements such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mg) gave enrichment factor values ranging from 2-5 signifying moderate enrichment. The study revealed that soil contamination by the metals originated from a common anthropogenic source such as the oil filling activities, brake wear, tyres wear and corroded vehicles engine materials since these sources are noted to contribute one or two correlated metals to the natural environment. Hence, pose potential threat to humans and critical environmental media such as water bodies. It is therefore recommended that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should regularly monitor the oil filling and service stations to check the levels of heavy metals in the metropolis.
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In developing countries like India, most of our industries are at the preliminary phase and cannot manage to pay for as invest in waste matter management and pollution control due to little income edge. Enormous number of contaminants and waste materials containing heavy metals are disposed into the biosphere. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using chemical or physical techniques is the most challenging task. Phytoremediation can be used as an alternative remediation and cleaning up techniques. The aim of our research was to identify some interesting accumulators which may associate an important biomass production with an effective absorption and translocation of heavy metals. Among the analyzed heavy metals, Cr had the highest concentrations in all the sampling sites, while Cd had the lowest concentrations. Sediment concentrations in the industrial area are characterized by the high values of Cr and Ni. For phytoremediation purpose Datura inoxia and Lantana camera were studied for in vitro culture and there parameters were compared. The present paper describes a prime and easy-to-use protocol for large scale production of plantlets through shoot tip culture of Datura inoxia, the plant having phytoremediation potential and the method is useful for the ex-situ conservation of other phytoremediational important species.
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In the present investigation soil samples were collected from peri-urban agricultural soils irrigated by industrial and sewerage waste of Hudiara drain, Lahore, Pakistan and mine waste of Wiesloch, Germany for the analysis of fungal diversity and tolerance to heavy metals. Heavy metals analysis was done by X-ray florescence and ICP-MS. X-ray florescence showed that Zn, As and Pb concentration was higher in waste mine soil sample of Wiesloch, Germany. ICP-MS appeared to be more sensitive and showed that Fe, Mn, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ti, Zn and Pb were present in higher concentration in waste mine of Germany. Soils of peri-urban areas of Pakistan had lower concentration of heavy metals as compared to waste mine of Wiesloch, Germany. Diversity and frequency of fungi was analyzed using soil dilution method. Overall frequency percentage and diversity was higher in Pakistan soil than soil of Wiesloch, Germany. Different fungi viz., Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus nodulans, Aureobasidium sp., Chaetomium sp., Coniothyrium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp., Monilia sp., Monocillium sp., Mortierella sp., were isolated. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nodulans were selected and checked for tolerance to toxic metals (CdCl 2 , CuSO 4 , NiCl 2 and ZnCl 2) at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 ppm) by the measurement of radial growth. All the tested fungi showed tolerance to ZnCl 2 (25ppm) and NiCl 2 (12ppm) but no tolerance against CdCl 2 and CuSO 4 .
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The utilization of organisms, primarily microbes, to clean up contaminated soils, aquifers, sludges, residues, and air, known as "bioremediation", is a rapidly changing and expanding area of environmental biotechnology, that offers a potentially more effective and economical clean-up technique than conventional physicochemical methods. Although it is certain that up to now the technologies employed are not technically complex, considerable experience and expertise is required to design and implement a successful bioremediation program. As a matter of fact, and since bioremediation frequently addresses multiphasic, heterogenous environments (i.e., soils), successful bioremediation is dependent on an interdisciplinary approach involving such disciplines as microbiology, engineering, ecology, geology, and chemistry. The bio-enthusiasm of the early years that followed the initial promising research results and inspired the creation of many remediation companies has ended in a more realistic and sometimes even sceptical view of bioremediation since it has now become clear that results obtained in the laboratory do not necessarily indicate what may happen actually in the field, since it is not possible to simulate all the changing conditions of a real situation. Most traditional remediation methods do not provide acceptable solutions for the removal of metals from soils. Microorganisms that use metals as terminal electron acceptors, or reduce metals as a detoxification mechanism can be used for the removal of metals from contaminated environments. In some cases, phytoextraction of metals is a cost-effective approach that uses metal-accumulating plants to clean up metal polluted soils.
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This study investigated effect of soil textures and cadmium (Cd) concentrations on the growth, fibre yields and Cd absorption of kenaf. Screen-house experiment was conducted in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB), Ogun State, Nigeria. Top soils were collected from Murtala Victoria Botanical Garden, Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria and UNAAB Teaching and Research Farm. Ten-litre plastic pots were filled with 10 kg soil. Experimental design was a 2 × 5 factorial in RCBD replicated three times. Two soil textures and five levels of Cd concentration (as Cadmium nitrate): 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mgCd/kg soil. Growth and yield parameters were collected. Cd content of plants and soils were determined using AAS and analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and correlation. UNAAB soil had pH of 6.3 with sandy loam texture while Epe soil had pH and texture of 5.3 and sand respectively. Control had significantly (P<0.05) higher plant height, stem girth, bast and core yields while 6.0 mg/kg had the least in the two soils. The more the concentration of Cd applied, the higher was the absorption by kenaf in the two soils. Kenaf planted in Epe soil had better absorption than UNAAB soil. There was significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between Cd applied and Cd absorbed by kenaf.
Alzinc is a ursine situated in the Ghazaouet town western part of the republic of Algeria. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination which soil and plants are burdened with some heavy metals: Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and As, then the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and plant adjacent of area the alzinc ursine was detected and the interdependence of pollution among all three regions of the environment determined. This paper analyzes the heavy metal contents within a 2-years period in the soil and plants at the beginning of the vegetation period. The presence of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and As, in the samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Measurements of heavy metal contents were performed at three locations in soil and vegetative parts of three-plant types (plant alimentary) period during summer. The plant samples from the immediate environment of the dumpsite were highly contaminated with Zn, Cd and Mn. Three plants species: grape, artichoke and pepper, particularly, grape met some of the conditions to be classified as accumulators for Zn, Cu, Cd and Fe, consequently, she revealed a health risk for human and livestock due to the spread of the metal pollution from waste dumpsites to agricultural areas.