Article

Visual pollution: Advertising, signage and environmental quality

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Abstract

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the problems that public spaces face because of the design of commercial signs. The negative consequences that commercial signs can have on the visual quality of urban areas and further more, on people's quality of life, has been studied from both architectural, planning and psychological perspectives. While the issue of visual pollution, as this phenomenon is commonly described, has been widely debated, there is as yet no clear conclusion as to how best to control commercial signage and whether different urban contexts and people from different backgrounds and cultures have universal or distinct preferences. Several different commenrcial signage approaches are currently applied to different historic cities, but these initiatives are not based on principles derived from the perception and evaluation of users. Drawing on a range of comparative and contrasting empirical studies of historic city centres in the UK and Brazil, this book examines questions of commercial signage control management, the preservation of historic heritage and user preference and satisfaction. The author takes an environment behaviour approach to this research, involving theories, concepts and methodologies related to environmental psychology, architecture, planning and urban design. In doing so, it argues that there are in fact visual preferences common to the majority of people, independent of their urban context and that these common views can be useful to the development of a general theory of how to control commercial signage. In conclusion, the book suggests that the best way of controlling signage is not only to recommend general guidelines related to the operation of commercial signage, but also to recommend design principles that can create commercial streetscapes evaluated positively by different users.

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... Chmielewski et al. (2016) researched into the commercialisation of public space by outdoor advertising with a possible negative impact on local quality, whiles Suditu et al. (2016) looked at OA within the context of urban planning and poor regulation associated with it. Moon (2013) and Portella (2014) studied OA impact on the visual quality of the landscape and its contribution to visual pollution. Billboards have been associated with distracting motorists and causing road accidents (Decker et al., 2015;Dukic et al., 2013). ...
... While the issue of visual pollution has been widely debated, there is yet no clear conclusion as to how it can be measured and checked. The issue is very subjective as different urban contexts and people from different backgrounds and cultures have universal or distinct visual preferences (Portella, 2014). A perusal of the literature suggests that visual pollutants include outdoor advertisement (OA) that cause distraction, annoyance and irritation to passersby with possible mental and psychological effects; destroy aesthetics by affecting visual scenery including views of the landscape and the quality of visual images with possible economic effects. ...
... Six (6) areas with at least 45 OA were recorded on that section of the road. This gives credence to studies that have suggested higher pollution at road intersections (Chmielewski et al., 2016;Portella, 2014). Some of the junctions with higher OA numbers were observed to have traffic lights which delayed commuters at these junctions. ...
Chapter
Advertisers, in emerging economies, typically use outdoor advertisements (OA) to reach the public and their eagerness within an unregulated outdoor advertising industry lead to visual pollution. With field observation, photography and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research investigates the contribution of the excessive usage of billboards, banners and posters in the urban city of Accra, Ghana. Many unhealthy scenes created by outdoor advertisements were recorded in the city. In June 2020, the frequencies, the spatial distributions and the types of OA were recorded on the Spintex Road of Accra. Archived data were retrieved via the Google Street View map for the period of March 2016. A 22% decrease in the total number of OA on the road was noted between 2016 and 2020. Analyses show that there is a significant difference in the overall OA data between the two data sets. The road was segmented into 100 m sections and the data were merged and mapped to bring out the compounded effect of OA leading to visual pollution. Overall, the mapping of the road shows excessive numbers of OA and the various shifts in the status of the sections from the year 2016 to 2020 are explained by ongoing activities at a particular time. The study illustrates the contribution of OA to visual pollution due to its inadequate regulatory nature and cluttering on urban roads. It also provides a monitoring tool against the proliferation of OA. This research not only raises awareness of the increasingly un-sightly and uncontrolled OAs in the city but also proposes policy recommendation for the economic and environmental management of urban cities. Finally, it appeals to advertisers to engage in environmentally-friendly outdoor advertising.
... Chmielewski et al. (2016) researched into the commercialisation of public space by outdoor advertising with a possible negative impact on local quality, whiles Suditu et al. (2016) looked at OA within the context of urban planning and poor regulation associated with it. Moon (2013) and Portella (2014) studied OA impact on the visual quality of the landscape and its contribution to visual pollution. Billboards have been associated with distracting motorists and causing road accidents (Decker et al., 2015;Dukic et al., 2013). ...
... While the issue of visual pollution has been widely debated, there is yet no clear conclusion as to how it can be measured and checked. The issue is very subjective as different urban contexts and people from different backgrounds and cultures have universal or distinct visual preferences (Portella, 2014). A perusal of the literature suggests that visual pollutants include outdoor advertisement (OA) that cause distraction, annoyance and irritation to passersby with possible mental and psychological effects; destroy aesthetics by affecting visual scenery including views of the landscape and the quality of visual images with possible economic effects. ...
... Six (6) areas with at least 45 OA were recorded on that section of the road. This gives credence to studies that have suggested higher pollution at road intersections (Chmielewski et al., 2016;Portella, 2014). Some of the junctions with higher OA numbers were observed to have traffic lights which delayed commuters at these junctions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
From the stakeholder theory perspective, the current study seeks to evaluate the various types of CSIs as a response to the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic in emerging economies, particularly Asia, South America, and Africa. In each context, the study evaluates explicitly social initiatives of the top three companies listed on the stock exchanges in China (Asia), Brazil (South America), South Africa, and Ghana (Africa). The study explored these companies’ websites to ascertain their CSR initiatives concerning the Covid-19 pandemic. The study drew similarities and key differences from the various contexts and the most appropriate CSI mix for Africa, Asia, and South America. The results show corporate philanthropy as the most widely and intensive CSI approach to the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic across these emerging economies. There is a complete lack of cause-related marketing as a CSI approach to mitigate the pandemic’s impact. Although limited, corporate social marketing and cause promotion received more attention in Africa than in Asia and South America. Employee volunteerism as a contribution toward the fight against the pandemic equally received limited engagement.
... Chmielewski et al. (2016) researched into the commercialisation of public space by outdoor advertising with a possible negative impact on local quality, whiles Suditu et al. (2016) looked at OA within the context of urban planning and poor regulation associated with it. Moon (2013) and Portella (2014) studied OA impact on the visual quality of the landscape and its contribution to visual pollution. Billboards have been associated with distracting motorists and causing road accidents (Decker et al., 2015;Dukic et al., 2013). ...
... While the issue of visual pollution has been widely debated, there is yet no clear conclusion as to how it can be measured and checked. The issue is very subjective as different urban contexts and people from different backgrounds and cultures have universal or distinct visual preferences (Portella, 2014). A perusal of the literature suggests that visual pollutants include outdoor advertisement (OA) that cause distraction, annoyance and irritation to passersby with possible mental and psychological effects; destroy aesthetics by affecting visual scenery including views of the landscape and the quality of visual images with possible economic effects. ...
... Six (6) areas with at least 45 OA were recorded on that section of the road. This gives credence to studies that have suggested higher pollution at road intersections (Chmielewski et al., 2016;Portella, 2014). Some of the junctions with higher OA numbers were observed to have traffic lights which delayed commuters at these junctions. ...
Chapter
The discussion on the role and influence of public relations within the integrated marketing communication (IMC) structure has been deliberated on for years without a firm conclusion. This is particularly given the fear that integrated communication will lead to a domination of public relations (PR) by marketing with public relations performing a more tactical role. Scholars have debated on whether PR has enough influence to affect the integration process in organisations. The chapter contributes to the discussion by examining the views of 15 PR practitioners in Ghana using a cross-sectional qualitative study. Findings show that IMC is premised on coordinating the various promotional tools to achieve organisational goals. PR is integral to the IMC structure and functions at the managerial level. IMC is coordinated within the broader PR function, making PR very influential. Overall, influence is enacted by affecting organisational decisions, being the point of call for all communication/information, showing their value as experts in the field and having a broader role. Thus, PR practitioners in emerging economies should lead their organisations’ communication integration efforts. Additionally, PR practitioners should lead cross-functional teams in the development and implementation of integrated communication strategies with elements of various communication disciplines.
... Visual pollution (VP) [1], caused by the oversaturation of a landscape with anthropogenic visual information, is a recognized visual landscape quality issue [2] concerning both urban and suburban areas. The above definition provides a general understanding of landscape physiognomy threats and vividly refers to the disharmonious urban features as "pollutants" which we want to get rid of for aesthetic reasons. ...
... The VP research aims to assess the landscape's visual quality and label visually devastated areas as "visual pollution". The VP assessment can be based on both quantitative [3,4] and qualitative methods relating to subjective public opinions [1,5] or expert knowledge [6]. The factors determining the VP effect are also varied. ...
... However, the most common cause of VP are outdoor advertisements (OAs)-the primary medium of the OOHb industry. The spectrum of VP effects is not limited to landscape quality issues only [1,3,8], strengthening its negative assessment as a phenomenon. For example, the OAs' content, contrasting colors, and graphical layout may induce negative emotions [7] and distract drivers' attention [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visual pollution (VP) is a visual landscape quality issue, and its most consistently recognized symptom is an excess of out of home advertising billboards (OOHb). However, the VP related research concerns landscape aesthetic and advertisement cultural context, leaving the impact of outdoor billboard infrastructure on landscape openness unanswered to date. This research aims to assess the visual impact of outdoor billboard infrastructure on landscape openness, precisely the visual volume-a key geometrical quality of a landscape. The method uses 3D isovists and voxels to calculate the visible and obstructed subsets of visible volume. Using two case studies (Lublin City, Poland) and 26 measurement points, it was found that OOHb decreased landscape openness by at least 4% of visible volume; however, the severe impact may concern up to 35% of visual volume. GIS scientists develop the proposed method for policy-makers, and urban planners end users. It is also the very first example of compiling 3D isovists and voxels in ArcGIS Pro software in an easy-to-replicate framework. The research results, accompanied by statistically significant proofs, explain the visual landscape's fragility and contribute to understanding the VP phenomenon .
... T HE aesthetic quality of urban streetscapes is one dimension of people's perception of their surroundings [1] and it affects the attractiveness of urban spaces [2]. Among several fundamental properties of streetscapes that affect the perception, order and complexity are known as the most influential factors [3], regardless of other individual factors such as experience and values [4]. However, in today's streetscapes in city centers, both elements seem not to be satisfied because of the abundance of various signs, billboards, and eccentrically designed buildings [4]. ...
... Among several fundamental properties of streetscapes that affect the perception, order and complexity are known as the most influential factors [3], regardless of other individual factors such as experience and values [4]. However, in today's streetscapes in city centers, both elements seem not to be satisfied because of the abundance of various signs, billboards, and eccentrically designed buildings [4]. Portella (2016) called such disorder of the streetscape as visual pollution and attributed a source of streetscapes' disorder to "conflict between the design of commercial signs and aesthetic composition of building facades [4]." ...
... However, in today's streetscapes in city centers, both elements seem not to be satisfied because of the abundance of various signs, billboards, and eccentrically designed buildings [4]. Portella (2016) called such disorder of the streetscape as visual pollution and attributed a source of streetscapes' disorder to "conflict between the design of commercial signs and aesthetic composition of building facades [4]." ...
Preprint
The disorder of urban streetscapes would negatively affect people's perception of their aesthetic quality. The presence of billboards on building facades has been regarded as an important factor of the disorder, but its quantification methodology has not yet been developed in a scalable manner. To fill the gap, this paper reports the performance of our deep learning model on a unique data set prepared in Tokyo to recognize the areas covered by facades and billboards in streetscapes, respectively. The model achieved 63.17 % of accuracy, measured by Intersection-over-Union (IoU), thus enabling researchers and practitioners to obtain insights on urban streetscape design by combining data of people's preferences.
... As the community moves about the environment and gathers new information, the image is continuously revised -creating a two-way constant communication between the community and the environment (Lynch, 1960). Portella (2014); Jana and De (2015) stated that this image can be degraded by visual pollution, which they defined as the elements in or of the landscape that are unattractive and disrupt the ability of the people to enjoy the view/s in the city. Portella (2014) further states that the proliferation of visual pollution can lead to the image of the city's degradation in historic cities, altering its image unrelated to its past. ...
... Portella (2014); Jana and De (2015) stated that this image can be degraded by visual pollution, which they defined as the elements in or of the landscape that are unattractive and disrupt the ability of the people to enjoy the view/s in the city. Portella (2014) further states that the proliferation of visual pollution can lead to the image of the city's degradation in historic cities, altering its image unrelated to its past. This phenomenon has become evident in the cities of the Philippines. ...
... According to Portella (2014), visual pollution has two aspects: the (1) non-affective, which pertains to the tangible, concrete objects or elements of the visual landscape; and the (2) affective, which pertains to the intangible elements such as pleasantness, stressfulness, and security. The non-affective aspect relates to Lynch's Image of the City (1960) wherein the construction of the environment directly affects the visual landscape. ...
... As the community moves about the environment and gathers new information, the image is continuously revised -creating a two-way constant communication between the community and the environment (Lynch, 1960). Portella (2014); Jana and De (2015) stated that this image can be degraded by visual pollution, which they defined as the elements in or of the landscape that are unattractive and disrupt the ability of the people to enjoy the view/s in the city. Portella (2014) further states that the proliferation of visual pollution can lead to the image of the city's degradation in historic cities, altering its image unrelated to its past. ...
... Portella (2014); Jana and De (2015) stated that this image can be degraded by visual pollution, which they defined as the elements in or of the landscape that are unattractive and disrupt the ability of the people to enjoy the view/s in the city. Portella (2014) further states that the proliferation of visual pollution can lead to the image of the city's degradation in historic cities, altering its image unrelated to its past. This phenomenon has become evident in the cities of the Philippines. ...
... According to Portella (2014), visual pollution has two aspects: the (1) non-affective, which pertains to the tangible, concrete objects or elements of the visual landscape; and the (2) affective, which pertains to the intangible elements such as pleasantness, stressfulness, and security. The non-affective aspect relates to Lynch's Image of the City (1960) wherein the construction of the environment directly affects the visual landscape. ...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of visual pollution in the Philippines has been increasingly evident, and people are becoming aware of it. But to create effective solutions, a deep understanding of the problem should first be established. This paper was aimed to identify, analyze, and measure the visual pollution present in Intramuros, a heritage city in the Philippines that encapsulates the Philippine colonial architecture in the 1890s. The site is known for its preservation of its city image but also modern landscape changes. To achieve the goal, the application of the Indirect and Direct Method of Landscape Evaluation was executed. These methods led to two results: (1) the identification of components— which are landscape attributes and indicators, that make up a visual landscape; and (2) the understanding of how it is perceived by the observer through a survey and interviews, which are quantified by ratings. To further understand the relationship of indicators and ratings with each other, a series of correlational studies was done. This resulted to the establishment of Disturbance, Stewardship, and Image Rating as the primary descriptors of visual pollution. A weighted average formula was then established, which quantified the visual pollution of Intramuros through indicator values and response ratings. It was concluded that visual pollution in Intramuros, through research-based methodology, can be identified, analyzed, and measured. Specific viewpoints in the district were identified as unacceptably visually-polluted. Magallanes St. cor. Victoria St. in Intramuros had the highest VP Score at -4.886. Elements that contributed to visual pollution were also identified.
... However, such problems pertaining to the aesthetics of landscapes and specifically, to the physiognomy of cityscapes, require a scientific explanation on the basics of visual landscape theory [8,9] as well as landscape aesthetic indicator systems development [10]. Towards this end, the research contained herein has focused on VP [11] as a form of spatial chaos. ...
... Since 1985 [69], studies on VP have focused on aesthetic assessment [5] by expert and public opinions [70] of visually polluted areas. The count, color, compositional disharmony, and [11] cultural context [15] of VP were the subjects of dissertations, leaving the impact of free-standing billboards on landscape physiognomy unrecognized to date. This study contributes to VP measurement methods and considers VP as a threat to cityscape physiognomy. ...
... The former use chaos as a form of communication [94]. The latter quantifies the landscape to propose sustainable solutions against spatial chaos [5,11,23] However, spatial chaos should not be confused with spatial uniformity [95]. As mentioned, the attribution of positive or negative qualities to spatial chaos depends on the personal aesthetics and education of the observer, and may be further influenced by experiencing the landscapes of branded-cities [96] in everyday life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visual pollution (VP) in the form of outdoor advertisements (OA) is a threat to landscape physiognomy. Despite their proven usefulness in landscape aesthetic studies, landscape metrics have not yet been applied to address the phenomenon of VP. To fill this knowledge gap, a methodological framework for the measurement of VP using tangential view landscape metrics is proposed, which is accompanied by statistically significant proofs. Raster products derived from aerial laser scanning data were used to characterize two study areas with different topographic conditions in the city of Lublin, East Poland. The visibility of the cityscape in motion was simulated through viewshed measurements taken at equal intervals in the forwards and backwards directions along pedestrian walkways. The scrutinized tangential view landscape metrics (visible area, maximum visible distance, skyline, Shannon depth, view depth line) was the object of a twofold interpretation wherein the spatial occurrence of VP as well as its impacts on the visual landscape character (VLC) were examined. The visible area metrics were found to be highly sensitive VP indicators. The maximum visible distance metrics provided evidence for the destructive effect of OA on view corridors. The Shannon depth and depth line metrics were not found to be statistically significant indicators of VP. Results from directional viewshed modelling indicate that distortion in the analyzed cityscape physiognomy depends on the view direction. The findings allow for particular recommendations with practical implementations in land use planning, which are discussed along with limitations to our proposed methods.
... Para Yances (2013) la contaminación visual es producida en el espacio urbano por el uso indiscriminado de elementos publicitarios. El concepto de contaminación visual según Portella (2003Portella ( , 2007Portella ( , 2014) es la degradación de la calidad visual de los centros urbanos ocasionada por anuncios comerciales que se encuentran en las fachadas de los edificios y espacios públicos. Para fines pertinentes de este trabajo se considera la contaminación visual como "la generada por la saturación de la información visual en el paisaje urbano por elementos atípicos de carácter publicitario y no publicitario que no se ajustan a criterios legales y de diseño". ...
... Esta publicación es una recopilación de los estudios de Maestría y post doctorado de la autora realizados en los años 2003 y 2007. Aquí se abordó como objetivos principales la identificación de la percepción de los usuarios frente a la calidad visual de los espacios construidos, los factores simbólicos y formales característicos que vinculan el valor estético del paisaje asociado a las ciudades, los controles a la publicidad comercial asociado a la cultura de consumo, el turismo urbano y el comercio de la ciudad(Portella 2003(Portella ,2007(Portella , 2014.La utilización de encuestas en los procedimientos metodológicos a personas que son consumidores de los servicios de los centros históricos de las ciudades, que mayoritariamente pertenecen a diversas culturas, países y grupos arrojan resultados donde se expone que dependiendo de las características físicas de la publicidad comercial y el diseño de las edificaciones de los centros históricos puede influir en la calidad de vida de las personas de una misma forma(Portella 2003(Portella ,2007. El libro expone que el orden visual de los centros de comercio urbanos, se constituye en un patrón muy importante, que define una evaluación positiva por parte de los usuarios consumidores, si se encuentran en un paisaje urbano ordenado, mientras que la evaluación será negativa al percibir un paisaje urbano donde hay una alta variación física de las construcciones y la publicidad, haciendo que la relaciones de sus partes no formen un conjunto(Portella 2014).Las principales conclusiones de estas investigaciones aseguran que la percepción de los usuarios de las calles de los contextos urbanos de las diferentes ciudades, prefieren y califican a una calle como la mejor en términos de apariencia, es la que tiene el menor porcentaje de cobertura de fachadas de edificios por anuncios comerciales, y la calle elegida por el mayor número de usuarios como la peor en términos de apariencia, es la que tiene la más alta cobertura de señalización comercial en las fachadas de los 22 edificios. ...
... Aquí se abordó como objetivos principales la identificación de la percepción de los usuarios frente a la calidad visual de los espacios construidos, los factores simbólicos y formales característicos que vinculan el valor estético del paisaje asociado a las ciudades, los controles a la publicidad comercial asociado a la cultura de consumo, el turismo urbano y el comercio de la ciudad(Portella 2003(Portella ,2007(Portella , 2014.La utilización de encuestas en los procedimientos metodológicos a personas que son consumidores de los servicios de los centros históricos de las ciudades, que mayoritariamente pertenecen a diversas culturas, países y grupos arrojan resultados donde se expone que dependiendo de las características físicas de la publicidad comercial y el diseño de las edificaciones de los centros históricos puede influir en la calidad de vida de las personas de una misma forma(Portella 2003(Portella ,2007. El libro expone que el orden visual de los centros de comercio urbanos, se constituye en un patrón muy importante, que define una evaluación positiva por parte de los usuarios consumidores, si se encuentran en un paisaje urbano ordenado, mientras que la evaluación será negativa al percibir un paisaje urbano donde hay una alta variación física de las construcciones y la publicidad, haciendo que la relaciones de sus partes no formen un conjunto(Portella 2014).Las principales conclusiones de estas investigaciones aseguran que la percepción de los usuarios de las calles de los contextos urbanos de las diferentes ciudades, prefieren y califican a una calle como la mejor en términos de apariencia, es la que tiene el menor porcentaje de cobertura de fachadas de edificios por anuncios comerciales, y la calle elegida por el mayor número de usuarios como la peor en términos de apariencia, es la que tiene la más alta cobertura de señalización comercial en las fachadas de los 22 edificios. Y recomienda de una manera general que las medidas de descontaminación visual, para liberar las fachadas y el espacio público de anuncios comerciales en los centros históricos de las ciudades, parte de promover el desarrollo de políticas de control del porcentaje de cobertura y ubicación de anuncios en fachadas y el en espacio público(Portella 2003(Portella ,2007(Portella , 2014.El artículo científico: "La contaminación visual de espacios públicos en Venezuela" de autoría de Méndez (2013) estudió el impacto de la contaminación visual sobre los habitantes de un sector de la ciudad de San Cristóbal, estado Táchira, Venezuela teniendo en cuenta la percepción de los objetos visuales que se encontraban el espacio público. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La ciudad de Montería ha presentado una evolución urbanística desde un eje monocéntrico, y su desarrollo no planeado ha propiciado conflictos como la contaminación visual condicionada por elementos atípicos de carácter publicitario y no publicitario que no se ajustan a criterios legales colombianos y de diseño generando saturación de la información visual en el paisaje urbano. Este estudio se enfocó en la identificación de los principales elementos atípicos que afectan el paisaje urbano del centro de la ciudad de Montería, partiendo de una categorización de elementos atípicos propuesta en esta investigación y considerándose como unidad de análisis los lados de las manzanas que conforman los tramos entre las calles 31 y 41 con carreras 1era y 4ta, los cuales se abarcaron mediante recorridos peatonales entre los meses de abril y mayo de 2016. Se aplicó una adaptación del criterio de densidad de la información visual, para determinar las zonas de mayor conflicto por contaminación visual. Se pudo establecer que los elementos atípicos publicitarios son los de mayor presencia con un número total de 1239; a su vez, los tramos con densidad alta de elementos atípicos publicitarios y no publicitarios que están sobre la carrera 3ra conforman la zona con mayor afectación por contaminación visual del área de estudio. Posteriormente se trazaron lineamientos para propiciar la descontaminación visual del centro de la ciudad; los cuales, se constituyen en una guía para abordar la problemática de contaminación visual en otras áreas de la ciudad de Montería, así mismo para ciudades intermedias que hayan tenido procesos evolutivos urbanísticos no planificados. Palabras clave: contaminación visual, elementos atípicos, espacio público, planificación urbana.
... Received 20 March 2019; Received in revised form 12 June 2019; Accepted 7 July 2019 detection processes with applications in the broader spectrum of environmental management. Apart from environmental management, in the future, large scale deployment of the system will aid in deriving visual pollution statistics and metrics across the globe to be used in public health, urban planning, legislative research etc. Portella (2016), in her book "Visual Pollution: Advertising, Signage and Environmental Quality" explored the available literature on the topic. Researchers initially defined visual pollution as the degradation of the "visual quality" of places by advertisements and signage (Ashihara, 1983;Nasar, 1992;Passini, 1992;Cullen, 2000). ...
... Although a globally accepted standard is yet to be made, according to Portella (2016), there can be a general guideline for ensuring the quality of the visual sphere based on the common views of the users worldwide. But there also needs to be specific guidelines for each and every place/country, since users' views differ based on their culture/ background. ...
... Billboards and signage refer to artificial, usually planar objects placed in the natural and built environment i.e., urban, suburban and city centers, primarily for the purpose of advertisement (Portella, 2016). Billboards and signage were previously an issue that only western countries were encountering. ...
Article
Visual pollution is a relatively new concern amidst the existing plethora of mainstream environmental pollution, recommending the necessity for research to conceptualize, formalize, quantify and assess it from different dimensions. The purpose of this study is to create a new field of automated visual pollutant classification, harnessing the technological prowess of the 21st century for applications in environmental management. From the wide range of visual pollutants, four categories have been considered viz. (i) billboards and signage, (ii) telephone and communication wires, (iii) network and communication towers and (iv) street litter. The deep learning model used in this study simulates the human learning experience in the context of image recognition for visual pollutant classification by training and testing a convolutional neural network with several layers of artificial neurons. Data augmentation using image processing techniques and a train-test split ratio of 80:20 have been used. Training accuracy of 95% and validation accuracy of 85% have been achieved by the deep learning model. The results indicate that the upper limit of accuracy i.e. the asymptote, depends on the dataset size for this type of task. This study has several applications in environmental management. For example, the deployment of the trained model for processing of video/live footage from smartphone applications, closed-circuit television and drones/unmanned aerial vehicles can be applied for both the removal and management of visual pollutants in the natural and built environment. Furthermore, generating the ‘visual pollution score/index’ of urban regions such as towns and cities will create a new ‘metric/indicator’ in the field of urban environmental management.
... Received 20 March 2019; Received in revised form 12 June 2019; Accepted 7 July 2019 detection processes with applications in the broader spectrum of environmental management. Apart from environmental management, in the future, large scale deployment of the system will aid in deriving visual pollution statistics and metrics across the globe to be used in public health, urban planning, legislative research etc. Portella (2016), in her book "Visual Pollution: Advertising, Signage and Environmental Quality" explored the available literature on the topic. Researchers initially defined visual pollution as the degradation of the "visual quality" of places by advertisements and signage (Ashihara, 1983;Nasar, 1992;Passini, 1992;Cullen, 2000). ...
... Although a globally accepted standard is yet to be made, according to Portella (2016), there can be a general guideline for ensuring the quality of the visual sphere based on the common views of the users worldwide. But there also needs to be specific guidelines for each and every place/country, since users' views differ based on their culture/ background. ...
... Billboards and signage refer to artificial, usually planar objects placed in the natural and built environment i.e., urban, suburban and city centers, primarily for the purpose of advertisement (Portella, 2016). Billboards and signage were previously an issue that only western countries were encountering. ...
Article
Visual pollution is a relatively new concern amidst the existing plethora of mainstream environmental pollution, recommending the necessity for research to conceptualize, formalize, quantify and assess it from different dimensions. The purpose of this study is to create a new field of automated visual pollutant classification, harnessing the technological prowess of the 21 st century for applications in environmental management. From the wide range of visual pollutants, four categories have been considered viz. (i) billboards and signage, (ii) telephone and communication wires, (iii) network and communication towers and (iv) street litter. The deep learning model used in this study simulates the human learning experience in the context of image recognition for visual pollutant classification by training and testing a convolutional neural network with several layers of artificial neurons. Data augmentation using image processing techniques and a train-test split ratio of 80:20 have been used. Training accuracy of 95% and validation accuracy of 85% have been achieved by the deep learning model. The results indicate that the upper limit of accuracy i.e. the asymptote, depends on the dataset size for this type of task. This study has several applications in environmental management. For example, the deployment of the trained model for processing of video/live footage from smartphone applications, closed-circuit television and drones/unmanned aerial vehicles can be applied for both the removal and management of visual pollutants in the natural and built environment. Furthermore, generating the 'visual pollution score/index' of urban regions such as towns and cities will create a new 'metric/indicator' in the field of urban environmental management.
... It turns out that the visual pollution, described among others by Iveson (2012); Gomez (2013); Portella (2014) Bonenberg (2015) and Chmielewski, Lee, Tompalski, Chmielewski, and Wężyk (2016) so far haven't been taken up as a citizen science task. Moreover, there are no existing online tools for visualizing this urban phenomenon. ...
... Visual pollution is a term used to describe the compounded effect of disorder, excess and clutter of various object and graphic in the landscape. For example, the source of visual pollution may be: wind turbines (Furze, 2002;Jensen, Panduro, & Lundhede, 2014), abandoned buildings (Cercleux, Merciu, & Merciu, 2016), building facades (Portella, 2014) lighting features (Chalkias et al., 2006), street furniture (Falchi et al., (Nagle, 2009), administrative negligence (Enache, Morozan, & Purice, 2012) but the most typically is associated with excess, disorder and cultural intrusion of OOH advertisement (Enache et al., 2012;Gomez, 2013;Koeck & Warnaby, 2014;Portella, 2014;Yilmaz & Sagsoz, 2011). ...
... Visual pollution is a term used to describe the compounded effect of disorder, excess and clutter of various object and graphic in the landscape. For example, the source of visual pollution may be: wind turbines (Furze, 2002;Jensen, Panduro, & Lundhede, 2014), abandoned buildings (Cercleux, Merciu, & Merciu, 2016), building facades (Portella, 2014) lighting features (Chalkias et al., 2006), street furniture (Falchi et al., (Nagle, 2009), administrative negligence (Enache, Morozan, & Purice, 2012) but the most typically is associated with excess, disorder and cultural intrusion of OOH advertisement (Enache et al., 2012;Gomez, 2013;Koeck & Warnaby, 2014;Portella, 2014;Yilmaz & Sagsoz, 2011). ...
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Online mapping platforms enable citizens to generate geographic content that can be geoprocessed and displayed in real time as scientific data. Typically, this is implemented through 3-tier architecture including GIS server software and it may be challenging to achieve a comparable level of online mapping features without it. The aim of this study is to implement geoprocessing in a SaaS WebGIS mapping application with the use of a desktop GIS plug-in. The advantages of the adopted approach are scalability as well as complexity reduction in the IT system architecture, which may be critical for small bottom-up citizen science projects. The downloadable and editable toolbox, transfers this solution to any other WebGIS project based on an ArcGIS Online platform. We test our WebGIS approach on a visual pollution case study (Lublin, E. Poland), well-recognized phenomena concerning both citizens and cityscape, and an emerging research topic in international literature. Until now, visual pollution hasn’t been applied to citizen science research, so this paper also introduces a first methodology of integrating WebGIS in visual pollution studies. Our findings have demonstrated that georeferenced web-based polling can be quality-checked, geoprocessed, and interactively visualized with detailed statistics in near real-time without using a GIS server.
... De acordo com pesquisas realizadas de 2001 a 2007 na Inglaterra e no Brasil (PORTELLA, 2014), poluição visual corresponde à degradação do espaço urbano em função do uso desordenado de anúncios comerciais, os quais são fixados sem ser consideradas as características estéticas dos edifícios e a identidade do espaço urbano. Dentro desse conceito, anúncios colocados no espaço urbano de modo ordenado e respeitando a identidade do lugar não podem ser classificados como causadores da poluição visual. ...
... Segundo estudos desenvolvidos sobre a qualidade visual do ambiente urbano (PORTELLA, 2014;STAMPS, 2000;NASAR, 1988;KAPLAN, 1982), foi constatado que a complexidade é um dos princípios de organização formal que mais interfere nas avaliações estéticas, influenciando, principalmente, no grau de satisfação dos usuários com a qualidade visual dos centros de comércio. Com isso, nesta investigação foi considerado esse princípio de organização visual para a análise de uma seleção de ruas comerciais. ...
... Conforme os achados de Portella (2014), Nasar (1988) e Nasar e Hong (1999), foi constatado que os fatores relativos aos anúncios comerciais que mais interferem no grau de complexidade do espaço são: a variedade de formas, cores; tamanhos (tamanho em relação à fachada), fixação (pintado ou fixado na fachada por um painel), estilos de letras (maiúsculas, minúsculas, em negrito, em itálico), e extensões dos textos. De acordo com essas investigações, a moderada complexidade na variação das características físicas dos anúncios comerciais é considerada mais agradável à percepção do observador e pode ser alcançada através da padronização das proporções e das formas dos anúncios. ...
... The study found that the variation of commercial signs and buildings affect user perception and evaluation of beauty, interest, and order. According to Portella (2014), higher variation of commercial signs and buildings with lack of order was negatively perceived by users from different urban contexts while lower variation in commercial signage was related to higher level of beauty, interest, and order. Portella (2014) indicated that order was an important factor in good streetscape design because order keeps signs visible and decreases distraction along a streetscape. ...
... Portella (2014) indicated that order was an important factor in good streetscape design because order keeps signs visible and decreases distraction along a streetscape. According to Portella (2014), the characteristics of commercial signs influencing user perceptions include size of signs, discrete commercial signage, legibility, color, number of commercial signs, and the coverage of street façade. Portella (2014) also indicated that user perception and evaluation of beauty, interest, and order were significantly influenced by resident's familiarity with the streetscape. ...
... Given that signage codes can influence the visual aesthetics of commercial signage and urban streetscapes, we hypothesized that signage design with different signage codes (form-based code, traditional zoning code, and no code application) will be perceived differently by users. Based on three dimensions of aesthetic qualities (Portella, 2014): beauty, interest, and order, three hypotheses are formulated: H1. There are significant differences in the user's perception of beauty toward streetscape alternatives with form-based codes, traditional zoning codes, and no code applications H2. ...
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The use of form-based codes for commercial signage regulation, as an alternative to conventional zoning codes, is a growing conversation with planners, designers, lawyers and the sign industry. The purpose of this study is to address a knowledge gap in the conversation—how different signage code applications impact users’ aesthetic perceptions of urban streetscapes. This study evaluates aesthetic perceptions of alternative streetscapes depicting form-based codes, traditional zoning codes, and no codes in terms of sense of beauty, interest, and order. One hundred and sixty six respondents rated their perceptions of alternative streetscape signage designs and their responses were compared across the four study nodes in the study. The findings revealed significant differences in respondents’ aesthetic perceptions of beauty, interest, and order among streetscape alternatives with form-based codes, traditional zoning codes, and no code applications. The streetscape with form-based codes was perceived as the most beautiful and interesting followed by the ones with zoning codes. Findings indicate that development of a model form-based code may enhance positive perceptions of beauty and interest across different downtown street signs. Respondents’ perception of order varied by landscape type, showing lower sense of order for formbased code applications in the corporate area, while higher sense of order in the downtown business area. Findings can inform interdisciplinary discussions on planning code development, signage design and urban streetscape design.
... Açıkhava reklamları birçok şehirde hem otoyollarda ve sokaklarda hızla yaygınlaşmakta hem de bina cephelerini kaplayarak şehrin peyzajına hâkim hale gelmektedir. Kamusal alanlara yayılan reklamlar mimari dokuyu ve çevre görüntüsünü bozarak şehirlerde görüntü kirliliğine yol açmaktadır (Ahmed, Islam, Tuba, Mahdy & Sujauddin, 2019;Aydın & Nişancı, 2008;Chmielewski, Lee, Chmielewski & Wężyk, 2018;Iveson, 2012;Koeck & Warnaby, 2014;Portella, 2014;Wakil, Naeem, Anjum, Waheed, Jamal & Qadeer, 2019a). ...
... Bu durum 2000'lerden itibaren, şehirlerde meydana gelen görüntü kirliliği tartışmalarını alevlendirmiştir. Reklam panoları ve tabelaları ile şehrin görsel kalitesinin düştüğü ve bunun da kamusal yaşama olumsuz etkileri olduğu sıkça dile getirilmeye başlanmıştır (Portella, 2014). Mimarlık, hukuk, siyaset bilimi ve iletişim gibi farklı disiplinlerden çalışmaların katıldığı tartışmalarda, şehirlerde reklamcılığın plansız ve denetimsiz yayılması sonucu olarak iki büyük sorunun altı çizilmektedir: 1) Kamusal alanların demokratik erişilebilirliği 2) Şehrin estetik bütünlüğünün zarar görmesi (Iveson, 2012, s. 151). ...
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Öz Birçok şehirde açıkhava reklamları hızla yaygınlaşırken, otoyollara ve sokaklara yerleştirilen reklam panoları şehirlerin peyzajına hâkim hale gelmekte, bina cepheleri reklam iskelesine dönüşmektedir. Bu bağlamda kamusal alanlara yayılan reklamların, şehrin mimari dokusunu ve çevre görüntüsünü bozarak, görüntü kirliliğine yol açtığı iddiası literatürde daha sıklıkla dile getirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada bahsi geçen iddiaları test etmek amacıyla bina cepheleri incelenerek, reklam tabelalarının bina cephelerini ne oranda kapladığı araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla çalışma için örnek olarak seçilen Ankara Aşkabat Caddesi boyunca tüm bina cepheleri içerik analizi yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Yapılan analizlerde reklam tabelalarının bina cephelerinin ortalama olarak üçte birini kapladığı ve bu oranın bazı binalar için yüzde 74’e kadar çıktığı saptanmıştır. Görüntü kirliliği için kabul görmüş belli bir doygunluk sınırı ya da eşik bulunmamakla birlikte, bu oranı dikkate alarak reklam tabelalarının caddede görsel kirlilik yarattığı söylenebilir. Bu çalışma kontrolsüz tabela kullanımı ile oluşan görüntü kirliliği konusunda somut kanıtlar ortaya koymakla beraber konunun ölçümü için niceliksel bir yöntem önererek alana katkı yapmayı amaçlamaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Açıkhava Reklamcılığı, Ankara, Görüntü Kirliliği, İçerik Analizi, Reklam Tabelaları Abstract While outdoor advertisements are spreading rapidly in many cities, the billboards placed on highways, streets and urban furniture become dominant in the landscapes of the cities, and facades turn into scaffoldings for ads. Accordingly, the current literature increasingly refers to the hypothesis that advertisements pervading public spaces cause visual pollution in cities by deteriorating the city’s architectural texture and the landscape. This study focuses on the advertising signboards on the building surfaces and examines the extent of the coverage on the building facades for testing these hypotheses. The content analysis on the front faces of buildings along Ankara Aşkabat Street showed that advertising signboards cover onethird of the building facades on average, and this rate reaches up to 74 percent for several cases. Although there is no accepted saturation limit or threshold for visual pollution, by taking this ratio into account, it can be said that advertising signs create visual pollution on Aşkabat Street. This study provides concrete evidence about the visual pollution caused by uncontrolled signboards and aims to contribute to the field by proposing a quantitative method for measuring the issue. Keywords: Advertising Signboards, Ankara, Content Analysis, Outdoor Advertising, Visual Pollution,
... Rapid urbanization has affected visual pollution, deteriorating the quality of life in urban centres. Researchers have recently started exploring various dimensions of this new form of pollution [1][2][3][4]. Wakil et al. have labelled the "pollutants" as "Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs)" to refer to all kinds of manmade features along with their physical characteristics (placement, appearance, size, color, view and functional hindrance) that affect the visual quality of urban surroundings [5]. Portella has listed VPOs in the context of developed countries [1], while Sivaramanan [6] and Wakil [7] have identified contextual VPOs in developing countries. ...
... Wakil et al. have labelled the "pollutants" as "Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs)" to refer to all kinds of manmade features along with their physical characteristics (placement, appearance, size, color, view and functional hindrance) that affect the visual quality of urban surroundings [5]. Portella has listed VPOs in the context of developed countries [1], while Sivaramanan [6] and Wakil [7] have identified contextual VPOs in developing countries. In their recent works, Wakil et al. have identified thirtynine VPOs and ranked them based on contribution to the Visual Pollution Index (VPI), which is a scale of measuring visual pollution at a given node. ...
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Urban visual pollution is increasingly affecting the built-up areas of the rapidly urbanizing planet. Outdoor advertisements are the key visual pollution objects affecting the visual pollution index and revenue generation potential of a place. Current practices of uninformed and uncontrolled outdoor advertising (especially billboards) impairs effective control of visual pollution in developing countries. Improving this can result in over 20% reduction of visual pollution. This article presents a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to facilitate all the stakeholders (development control authorities, advertisers, billboard owners, and the public) in balancing the optimal positioning of billboards under the governing regulations. In terms of its technical implementation, SDSS is based on well-known geospatial open source technologies and uses an analytical hierarchy process AHP-inspired approach in spatial decision-making. It can help users through its category-specific user interface to identify potential sites to position new billboards and the selection of boards from existing sites based on a wide variety of characteristics. The observations of all stakeholders have been recorded through panel feedback to assess the system’s initial effectiveness. The proposed system has been found functional in identifying hot spots for the focused management and exploration of the best suitable sites for new billboards. So, it helps the advertising agencies, urban authorities, and city councils in better planning and management of existing billboard locations to optimize revenue and improve urban aesthetics. The system can be replicated in other countries irrespective of spatial boundaries by incorporating jurisdictional rules and regulations.
... Due to a lack of competent authorities' awareness in addressing this phenomenon, the impacts are becoming more widespread and complicated day after day. [24]. This phenomenon is widespread in the historical city of Ibb. ...
... These include sightings of garbage dumps, exposed waste, construction waste, writing on the walls, billboards, telephone poles, vehicles, abandoned buildings, unregulated grasses and shrubs, beggars, vehicle lamps, and others [25]. He has pointed to manifestations of visual pollution for cities generally while Portella and Reeve [24,26,27] have referred to visual pollution in historical cities as that resulting from advertising boards. Destroyed buildings were referred to as one of the manifestations of visual distortion in Cercleux [28]. ...
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The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. Despite the historical and cultural importance of the Old City of Ibb, the manifestations of visual pollution are increasing day after day. This study aimed at identifying the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb and to provide appropriate solutions that are suitable for the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon, based on images and observations. The second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of three parties related and interested in the phenomenon, namely residents and visitors of the city, competent authorities' officials, and some specialists in the field of the urban environment. The study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb in terms of its appearances and causes. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which are suitable for complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions focused on the methods to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the ways of addressing the current visual pollutions.
... O aspecto de qualidade estética de algum ambiente se reflete positivamente tanto maior for a sua ordem, simetria e regularidade. O contrário disto, normalmente refletido pela exposição a peças publicitárias destoantes e à existência de espaços públicos desordenados provocam saturação nos indivíduos que coexistem naquele ambiente (PORTELLA, 2016). ...
... A saturação rouba dos habitantes o prazer da variedade ordenada e, por consequência, os dessensibiliza graças à aleatoriedade e desordem dos signos visuais apresentados. A qualidade visual dos espaços públicos influencia o comportamento humano, o tornando mais seguro e melhor capaz de provocar integração comunitária, entre a própria população e entre a população e as autoridades locais (PORTELLA, 2016). ...
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p>O presente artigo se propõe a analisar a Lei Cidade Limpa do município de São Paulo. Ela limita o excesso publicitário físico dentro da cidade, uma virtude vinda das diretrizes constitucionalmente estabelecidas para a dignidade humana dentro do meio ambiente artificial. O foco se destina à visão dos seus artigos, além das fontes normativas na Constituição Federal, e contextualiza a razão da existência desta lei: salvaguardar o direito fundamental ao meio ambiente equilibrado. O método utilizado foi o bibliográfico dedutivo e a conclusão é que a Lei é excessivamente restritiva, mas benéfica ao tornar o ambiente urbano mais visualmente agradável.</p
... Usually, amenities are provided to the citizens without a well-managed plan of service provision; this results in the visual deterioration of physical characteristics such as abandoned cars, dilapidated buildings, or litter in the streets [26,27]. Visual pollution is very much linked with the visual quality of public and community spaces [25] which includes regularity, order, beauty, symmetry, and simplicity, etc. ...
... It employs a combination of visuals, public opinion and observations to enlist visual pollution objects. These methods have been used in several studies to investigate public preferences [3,25,29,35,[49][50][51][52]. A carefully selected panel of experts was engaged to group, rank and weight VPOs using AHP, which is a widely tested approach to handle subjectivity [30,48,53]. ...
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With increasing focus on more nuanced aspects of quality of life, the phenomenon of urban visual pollution has been progressively gaining attention from researchers and policy makers, especially in the developed world. However, the subjectivity and complexity of assessing visual pollution in urban settings remain a challenge, especially given the lack of robust and reliable methods for quantification of visual pollution. This paper presents a novel systematic approach for the development of a robust Visual Pollution Assessment (VPA) tool. A key feature of our methodology is explicit and systematic incorporation of expert and public opinion for listing and ranking Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs). Moreover, our methodology deploys established empirical complex decision-making techniques to address the challenge of subjectivity in weighting the impact of individual VPOs. The resultant VPA tool uses close-ended options to capture the presence and characteristics of various VPOs on a given node. Based on these inputs, it calculates a point based visual pollution scorecard for the observation point. The performance of the VPA tool has been extensively tested and verified at various locations in Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such tool, both in terms of quantitative robustness and broad coverage of VPOs. Our VPA tool will help regulators in assessing and charting visual pollution in a consistent and objective manner. It will also help policy makers by providing an empirical basis for gathering evidence; hence facilitating evidence-based and evidence-driven policy strategies, which are likely to have significant impact, especially in the developing countries.
... The delivery is often aggressive, repressive, and unpleasant (Ghorbanzadeh, 2018;Kaplan, 1987), increasing people's sense of oppressiveness and then mental stress. Moreover, many billboards block the sky overhead or the space inside the street, thus leading to a poor visual extent which can increase the sense of oppressiveness and then mental stress (Portella, 2016;Stamps, 2005). In addition, as a powerful mass media in the era of consumerism, advertisements on billboards encourage people to over-consume, creating excessive psychological pressure and status anxiety (Bauman, 2013;Gabriel & Lang, 2015;Zhang, 2021). ...
Article
Due to intense urbanization in the last decade, high-density city has become a major type of human habitat globally. In those cities, oppressiveness has been recognized as a dominating environmental perception. Stress Reduction Theory is a leading theory that explains the relationship between environmental exposure and mental stress. However, the theory missed that perceived oppressiveness may substantially explain impacts of environmental exposure on mental stress in the context of high-density city. This study aimed to address that significant theoretical deficiency. A new pathways model was proposed to investigate whether and to what extent environmental exposure impacts mental stress through perceived oppressiveness. To test this pathways model, we conducted an online photo-based experiment with Hong Kong city residents. Firstly, we used a grid method to randomly choose 90 street spots in the city area. We created one GIF image by integrating nine Google Street photos to cover the full 360° viewshed for each spot. The percentage of all streetscape elements for each GIF image was measured. Then, 1396 participants were randomly assigned to view three of 90 GIF images. After viewing each image, participants reported perceived oppressiveness, perceived environmental quality, and acute mental stress responses. Lastly, participants reported their socioeconomic, demographic, and other background information. We identified three pathways linking streetscapes to mental stress response. After controlling for covariates, perceived oppressiveness was the major mediator to link streetscapes and mental stress, explaining 50.2% of relationship. Tree canopy and sky had the greatest association with lower level of stress through perceived oppressiveness, while vehicles and billboards had the greatest association with higher level of stress through perceived oppressiveness. This new pathways model confirms the major role of perceived oppressiveness in interpreting the impact of urban streetscapes on mental stress in high-density cities. The results suggest an update of Stress Reduction Theory is feasible and necessary. Keywords Stress reduction theory;High-density city;Mental stress;Oppressiveness;Streetscape;Pathways model
... People who initially lost their sense of belonging refuse to participate in city development and become provocateurs of spatial violations in terms of the elements of urban form and daily life (Nofre et al., 2017). These violations frequently appear in two aspects: visual pollutants and behavioural reactions (Chmielewski et al., 2016;Portella, 2014). A recent systematic review found that an individual's sense of belonging diminishes when one loses the ability to participate in critical decisions about where to live; recent studies have examined this problem (Peterson, 2016;Pinkster, 2016). ...
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Hyper-diversity in old communities should be rehabilitated to address various man-made changes that threaten sustainability and viability at night. This study elucidates this argument by reviewing and synthesising theoretical and empirical evidence about urban governance support regarding the participation of neighbourhood residents to improve or eliminate nightlife. The method is based on a systematic review, direct observation and interview with random samples of residents, workers and visitors in commercial and recreational places. This study criticises changes in the public space of the Al-Hussein Mosque, which led to changes in urban forms and affected the nightlife in Old Cairo. However, it asserts that the hyper-diversity of activities in public spaces because of the lack of urban govern-ance controls should consider changes in terms of the participation of vulnerable groups in nightlife. A new conceptual framework for interpreting stakeholders' positive and negative responses is proposed, which operates across four overlapping steps of urban governance: predicting, proposing, preparing and preventing.
... After preliminary analysis of the data, two focus groups were convened to provide further detail about the issues people had considered when arriving at their preferences (Portella 2014). The two meetings were held in Wellington of volunteers who had participated in the street survey, with six lay people (those without formal design training) meeting in one and five built environment professionals in the other. ...
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The appearance of the built environment is an important matter for most people, as it can affect their physical, financial and psychological wellbeing. Many studies have been conducted to understand people’s visual preferences for buildings and streetscapes and the majority have used photographic or video representations to stimulate responses. Few have asked people for their preferences as they walk along the street. This research addresses that gap in knowledge, utilising a mixed methods research methodology. People were invited to indicate their preferences while walking along three case study streets, two in Auckland and one in Wellington. The survey responses were supplemented by two focus group discussions. The research found that people prefer streetscapes where differences in height and architectural composition vary within a narrow band of difference along the length of the street. At the scale of the individual building façade, people were found to prefer traditional cladding materials such as brick and those that could be painted or refinished. Compositionally, people preferred buildings with discrete window openings, a finding that was strongly supported by a dislike for horizontally banded façade treatments. The findings invite questions around contemporary architectural design practices and how these can be directed toward creating a better liked built environment. Keywords: streetscape design; visual preference studies; design review
... Sampah visual menimbulkan beberapa dampak seperti penurunan keragaman pendapat, hilangnya identitas, kemacetan lalu lintas, bahaya kesehatan, pencemaran lingkungan dan estetika, hingga kerugian materil. (Cauduro, 1981;Jana & De, 2015;Portella, 2014) Dalam penelitian ini, penulis membatasi pengertian sampah visual dengan mengartikannya sebagai sebuah aktivitas kampanye yang dilakukan oleh kandidat, pasangan calon, atau tim kampanye dengan cara pemasangan iklan ataupun promosi baik berupa poster, baliho, dan bentuk lainnya yang dipasang secara berlebihan. ...
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Campaigning is a ritual that cannot be eliminated in implementing the General Election or Local Election. Given that campaigns are an essential part of political communication carried out by legislative or executive candidates to attract people's votes. Some of the campaign models that are frequently used are posters, banners, billboards, etc. This study uses a qualitative method by combining two data collection methods: observation and literature study. The results of this study are: First, conventional campaigns using posters, banners, billboards, and so on will create visual waste that disturbs beauty and the environment. Second, although the Perbawaslu already exists, the regulation has not created obedience in the implementation of campaigns carried out by candidates. But on the other hand, there is a Law on Environmental Protection and Management (UUPPLH) that exclusively regulates the use of criminal law facilities and administrative and civil law facilities related to environmental management. Therefore, it is necessary to make stricter regulations to create environmental order due to the implementation of the campaign. Third, conventional campaigns that create visual waste should be replaced with new media campaigns or campaigns using environmentally friendly materials. It aims to develop green elections.
... They are considered to be an aesthetically displeasing structural disruption of the urban environment and are often insensitive to the local culture and traditions (Nowghabi & Talebzadeh, 2019). For these reasons, the term 'visual pollution' is employed in the research (Baker, 2007;Chmielewski, Lee, Tompalski, Chmielewski, & Wężyk, 2016) and its individual and social consequences are discussed (Portella, 2014). Correa and Mejía (2015) argue in their research that the physiological impact of high levels of visual pollution in Ecuador's main city, Quito, is increasing stress levels, eyestrain and headaches. ...
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The free association method is often employed in marketing research to investigate perceptions of a particular product or brand in different socio-cultural groups of customers. In our research, international and domestic students produced free associations in response to photographs of outdoor billboards from two different locations in one city (city centre and outskirts). The results indicate that free associations can depict qualitative aspects of outdoor billboards like poor quality (relating to the categories of amateurish and fake), problematic content (relating to female stereotypes, gender stereotypes and cultural differences), and that they have the potential to capture the general atmosphere of the neighbourhood (categories of decay, depression, danger and past).
... An element that intensifies spatial chaos is the visual pollution which is understood as an aesthetic issue and refers to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy the view. Visual pollution is defined as all irregular formations that are most often found in nature (Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė et al. 2015;Portella 2016). Effects of exposure to visual pollution include: distraction, eye fatigue, decreases in opinion diversity, and loss of identity (Yilmaz, Demet 2011). ...
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The phenomenon of outdoor advertising is particularly worrying in protected areas due to the limitation and depreciation of natural and landscape assets. The paper aims to identify and compare legal provisions concerning the advertising policy in relation to naturally and visually precious areas in Poland and Slovakia. Moreover, it determines the scale of visual pollution in a protected area – trends in the location, size, form and influence on the surroundings and perception. In both analysed countries there are regulations that would not bring the desired effects regarding the advertising policy. Advertisement devices are present in settlements and at significant road points, entrances to facilities connected with tourism. A point of concern is that they are frequently placed in the most precious landscape areas.
... Historic city centers in most urban environments in different countries are hit visual distortions due to the uncontrolled use of billboards and trademarks (Portella, 2016). This phenomenon is widespread in the old city of Ibb in a large variety of shapes and sizes: photographic boards, canvas, wall paintings, paintings on walls and others leading to significant distortion in the visual image of the city, there is no interest from the competent authorities to confront this phenomenon. ...
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The old city of Ibb has a distinctive architectural and urban character. It contains many mosques, schools, a palace, markets, squares, walls and other architectural and urban elements, which together form a cohesive urban fabric that expresses the identity of the city. The urban environment in the old city suffers many environmental problems and manifestations of visual distortion that increase day after day, amid the lack of studies to assess this situation, and the negligence competent authorities their role on preserve the identity of the city. The study aims to inductive the visual pollution in the old city of Ibb and the urban context adjacent to, and study the reasons that led to spreading this phenomenon, and the adverse effects resulting from that, to get the solutions of visual pollution phenomenon in the old city. The study relies on the inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods: The first is a visual survey of the of visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second: analyses opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the competent authorities responsible, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the results of interviews, the study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the old city of Ibb regarding appearances and reasons, and then presents suggestions to all parties concerned to do their role in limiting the spread of this phenomenon.
... In a general analysis, it denotes that regions with more intensive commercial use tend to landscape detraction, especially due to the visual pollution inherent to this form of land use. Portella (2014) mentions that this kind of impact is often dismissed as a matter of public management, given difficulties for measuring and dependence on personal tastes, subject to less regulation level than more tangible environmental problems. However, the author stresses the importance of assessment of their interference in the central areas of cities and in the life quality of citizens. ...
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Considering the scenarios of cities as results of spatial production forms, especially of its streets, the general objective of the investigation is to evaluate relations between guidelines determined by the public administration and perception of urban road axis by the population. Supported byspecific theoretical background and multiple methodological procedures, the research was conducted in five main phases: (i) selection of the study area, comprising Conselheiro Laurindo Street, in the central region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; (ii) determination of eight main landscaped sectors and 14 secondary homogeneous compartments; (iii) direct perceptual analysis, based on the responses of 144 virtual questionnaires; (iv) interpretation of 51 mental maps; and (v) confrontation of previous information with government policies. The achieved results confirm the hypothesis of relative untying of the planning process with what is perceived by citizens, being concluded the need of broad community participation for the democratic management of cities.
... Visual pollution is considered the least of the environmental pollution but it is difficult to calculate and specifically because it needs a great cultural background and a big environmental awareness and a trained eye that can spot the ugliness (error or chaos, disorder, confusion, amalgam) mixture in the built environment. The danger of the visual pollution is its strong relation first with losing the sense of beauty and the collapse of beauty consideration also comes the acceptance of the ugliness because it is widespread and it becomes according to the measurements of eyes an existing law and costume (Portella, 2014;Alkubaissy, 2016). Punter (1999) cautions policymakers and controllers to be mindful that they are entrusted to represent the interest of the public, besides to what extent is it reasonable to expect citizens preferences. ...
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Urban corridors play important roles in all cities. The term corridor suggests a connection and access between urban districts, besides planners considered them as major elements in shaping the city image and forming its identity. This study examined the visual effects (quality) that resulted from the contemporary urban transformation practice in Al-Madina Al-Munawara Street which local planners considered one of the main urban corridors in Amman, the capital of Jordan. This study aimed to direct the efforts to search for positive visual characteristics that may strengthen the identity of urban corridors and reduce the visual pollution created by the lack of one language and clear regulation by analysing the visual characteristics at this corridor and linking them with the factors that affected its urban growth. Researchers also studied the discordant chaos resulting from designed facades practices where each building owner seeks attention. The paper sighted the massive visual pollution resulted in this corridor and concluded that the undefined architectural statements, the lack of awareness and the absence of clear regulation were the main factors that produced a chaos in its visual properties.
... Consider a situation similar to the one sketched above, when a given person has ''failed to comply'' with a given informative sign (its actual realization, but in the end based on sign-type), which is contentally convergent with a given normative sign-type (but its realization is absent in the place of action/omission of this person) and is tried to be brought to ''justice'' under the specific provisions. 13 On visual pollution see [28,36]. 14 However, as a preliminary proof of complexity of traffic signs' redundancy, next to rather controversial, because potentially abusive, sign-type-sign-type redundancy, already here one can tentatively distinguish other kinds of traffic signs' redundancy, which-in comparison with the one outlined in this study-can be regarded as neutral or even highly positive and functional [compare 5: 54, 10: 7, 15: 73]. ...
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This article discusses a rare instance of the highest national courts explicitly addressing traffic signs in their judgments or decisions. It critically examines the standpoint expressed by the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Court, according to which the basic traffic sign categories in Poland—obligatory, prohibitory, informative and warning—are not separable (not disjunctive) [e.g. prima facie non-normative signs (informative or warning) can also be normative (obligatory or prohibitory)]. These courts formulated this idea when addressing the legal question concerning the applicability of legal provision penalizing failure to comply with a traffic sign to parking a car without paying a fee in an area marked by an informative sign that indicates the need to charge a fee for parking. The article analyses and criticizes the relevant standpoint of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Court. It shows how many negative consequences can result from frivolous treatment and neglect of traffic signs. It also reconstructs some possible practical recommendations concerning not only traffic signs but also visualizations of legal rules in general.
... Precise OA visibility range information is essential for OOH media mangers who are interested in obtaining the maximum advertising impact of billboards in urban areas. From a regulatory perspective, city planners focused on visual pollution monitoring (Portella 2014; Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, Godienė, Kavoliūnas, 2015, Chmielewski et al. 2016) also wish to know OA visibility ranges. ...
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Visibility estimation is one of the most fundamental spatial analyses, usually conducted with the use of 2D and 3D GIS tools. The 3D approach requires 3D features that represent the complex character of visibility obstacles. While a bare ground surface can be precisely represented with raster data, and building footprints can be extruded into 3D objects, visibility obstacles created by high vegetation are still challenging to represent in 3D. To analyze visibility in cityscapes with complex vegetation we propose a hybrid model consisting of voxels and raster surfaces. The aim of this study is to assess optimal parameters for airborne laser scanning (ALS) data voxelization for the purpose of visibility analysis. In doing so we are answering two essential questions: 1) what is the optimal ALS point cloud post-spacing distance for accurate 3D visibility modeling using voxels? and 2) what is the right voxel volume for this kind of analysis? We tested several ALS data thinning algorithms and various voxel sizes. Based on 48 visibility tests we propose an optimal model (both accurate and reasonably fast) for 3D visibility modeling. We also propose a novel approach to display visibility results that move on from traditional binary cartographic presentations to the probability of visibility. Our study is focused on a relatively small cityscape object where detailed, large-scale visibility analysis is required. We present our visibility results on the example of a standard (6 x 3 m) advertisement billboard where, visibility, the main impact factor of this medium can be virtually mapped.
... Most of the studies directly tells us that these billboards, signboards and hoarding which create visual pollution but side by side they benefited the society in term of their economic status and till now no research give significant results that these visual polluted factors increase pollution than their economic status or condition in society. In his book he perfectly defined a +ve or-ve influences of commercial billboards in historic city centers (Portella, 2016). The significant mistake is that advertiser or billboard owners picked busiest streets for the publicizing announcements. ...
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There is an alarming situation that roadside billboards creates a factual threat for driving safety, with some traditional measurements putting exterior distractors accountable for equal to 10% of all mishaps. In this paper we quantify the impact and effect of billboard on drivers, passersby and citizens through survey. The outcome express that billboards which place on the roadside has an obvious damaging cause on tangential power, raises intellectual work-load, visual pollution and observing obsessions, and on various transportation can illustrate concentration missing from second important highway signage. In-depth analysis of the data recommends that the outcomes of visual pollution may in reality be more substantial in this situation where population of drivers and passengers are increasing day by day.
... The visual pollution [1,2] has a significant impact on residential areas evolution and it is related to different sources, from which the abandoned buildings represent an important element generating negative effects on the living environment. In general, the sources of visual pollution are connected to various fields, such as: commerce [3], industry [4,5,6], transports [7] or advertising [8] and they may conduct to land use conflicts [9]. ...
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The study is presenting a model of strategic approach of creative industries development in the Old City of Bucharest and more specifically, in the street called Strada Franceză (the French Street), having as purpose the diminution of visual pollution in the area Among a wide range of parameters used in the interpretation of visual pollution, the analysis focuses on the condition of the abandoned buildings, as a whole or just partially By using a complex methodology including various analysis criteria in relation with the history of the area, the legislative context, the spatial planning policies and the current socio-economic profile, two potential areas that hold resources for the development of creative industries are proposed for intervention Forwards, a model of development strategy was shaped, together with the project stages that should be considered in order to achieve the objective of changing Strada Franceză into an important creative area of Bucharest's Old City, thus leading to a reduction of the visual pollution.
... In the aforementioned cities, there are some proximity and content regulations for individual OAs that imply some recognition of visual pollution, but OA landscapes are weakly described and pollution from OA landscapes are not measured. In Portella's (2014) book on visual pollution, she draws from cross-cultural studies in England, Japan, and Brazil to conclude that common opinions on OA landscapes should be used to create general design guidelines and principles for signage control. This implies that public opinion can be predicted by certain physical manifestations of OA landscapes. ...
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Debates on the encroaching commercialization of public space by outdoor advertising highlight its possible negative impact on local quality of life and enjoyment of public spaces. These overstimulating outdoor advertisements are often considered a source of visual pollution, but cities have no standard way of measuring where it exists and its local impact, and thus cannot regulate it effectively. This study illustrates that visual pollution can be measured in a useful way by relating public opinion to the number of visible advertisements (intervisibility analysis). Using a 2.5D outdoor advertisement (OA) dataset (location and height) of a busy urban street in Lublin, Poland, this preliminary experiment translates visibility into visual pollution. It was found that streetscape views with more than seven visible OAs created visual pollution in this case study. The GIS-based methodology proposed could provide Lublin officials with a basic tool to assess and manage visual pollution, by informing permitting decisions on OAs.
... GIS-based 3D visibility modelling is often used in the field of landscape and urban planning to assess the impacts of proposed developments like solar farms or wind turbines [1,2], the impacts of developments on streetscape visibility or heritage landmarks; or simply for benchmarking landscape structure [3]. However, there are few studies that focus on visibility modeling for outdoor advertisements (OAs), whether it be to measure visual pollution [4,5] or deciding on OA placement for maximum advertising impact [6]. This is informative towards balancing landscape elements and maintaining visual harmony of public spaces. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we compare the accuracy of the viewshed approaches to 3D line of sight visibility analysis of outdoor advertisements in two different urban contexts. A solution is tested that transforms LiDAR vegetation points into spherical multipatch objects for rapid and more accurate 3D visibility modeling. This study confirms that a 3D approach performs better than a 2.5D approach and more importantly, that modeling vegetation as 3D spherical multipatches allows us to use LiDAR data in a rapid way to reach highly accurate results (up to 94,3% of overall accuracy) in outdoor advertisements visibility modeling.
Conference Paper
In recent years, visual pollution has become a major concern in rapidly rising cities. This research deals with detecting visual pollutants from the street images collected using Google Street View. For this experiment, we chose the streets of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, to build our image dataset, mainly because Dhaka was ranked recently as one of the most polluted cities in the world. However, the methods shown in this study can be applied to images of any city around the world and would produce close to a similar output. Throughout this study, we tried to portray the possible utilisation of Google Street View in building datasets and how this data can be used to solve environmental pollution with the help of deep learning. The image dataset was created manually by taking screenshots from various angles of every street view with visual pollutants in the frame. The images were then manually annotated using CVAT and were fed into the model for training. For the detection, we have used the object detection model YOLOv5 to detect all the visual pollutants present in the image. Finally, we evaluated the results achieved from this study and gave direction of using the outcome from this study in different domains.
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Framed within the context of contemporary place making and the urban tourism destination, a novel trans-disciplinary approach to mapping and interpreting gentrification and cityscape change is presented. A combination of multi-scalar cartographic and visual techniques, including Google Street View (GSV) and geo-tagged images (Photo Sphere), is applied within the setting of Valletta, Malta, to convey cartographically the dynamism of urban transformations and detect tourism-led gentrification in a rapid way through the identification of the visual and aesthetic markers of gentrification. Utilising a critical approach, such map-making can inform and transform the understanding of the processes underpinning urban change and their cartographic and visual representation. It identifies and highlights issues of image and street-level ‘realities’ for both (re)imagining and marketing place. Individual tourists are able to access and utilise GSV and other mobile digital imaging and cartographic tools, as well as social media, to create their own, potentially counter, place-imaginaries and interpretations of urban change, thereby encouraging and/or discouraging visiting the city.
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The paper considers the issues, particularly relevant for the current state of society, regarding the unrestrained distribution of advertising messages in the architectural environment, especially in the underground space of the metro. As a result of this expansion, copyright is violated, the architectural image is distorted, extraneous meanings are introduced, and a “carnival" style is formed that is not typical for engineering infrastructure facilities. The necessity is postulated to involve the community in the process of forming an opinion regarding these phenomena and making certain decisions. A methodology is proposed for assessing the opinions of consumers, in this case, passengers of the Kharkiv Metro. Questions have been developed in order to record and scale respondents' opinions. Key words: architectural environment, outdoor advertising, brand, architectural image, visual perception, metro space.
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El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el rol de los componentes plásticos de la publicidad popular en las interacciones comerciales en espacios de saturación y contaminación visual en el centro de Lima, Perú. Para ello, a través de técnicas cualitativas, se desarrolla un análisis semiótico sobre material gráfico recogido en el centro comercial Lima (Avenida Wilson, Cercado de Lima, Perú) con el propósito de identificar su papel en las interacciones de sentido comerciales que se asientan en los espacios de contaminación visual. Los resultados logran identificar una funcionalidad cooperativa de la publicidad popular con el trayecto de las interacciones comerciales a través de un uso gráfico excesivo de la dimensión plástica (cromática, eidética y topológica) y figurativa que, más que representar una realidad u ocultar significados abstractos, busca ser objetal, es decir, concretar la atracción, retención y anclaje de la caminata económica (acelerada y fugaz) hacia el consumo en el espacio público saturado.
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Artigo publicado na Revista Magister de Direito Ambiental e Urbanístico (ISSN 2175-1994) RESUMO: As mudanças climáticas ocorridas no último século, com aumento de temperatura global, derretimento das calotas polares, aumento dos níveis do oceano e mais recentemente locais com grandes quantidades de água passando por secas de proporções gigantescas, trouxeram à tona com mais vigor grandes discussões sobre o futuro da humanidade caso se perpetue tamanho descaso com o meio ambiente. O mundo evoluiu a passos largos em todos os setores, mas se esqueceu de cuidar de uma parte frágil de grande importância para todos, o meio ambiente. Tudo o que se fez durante séculos sem a preocupação com a preservação do espaço onde se vive tem como reflexo graves danos ambientais. Trata-se de estudo teórico-documental, para o qual foram analisadas as disposições legais e os entendimentos doutrinários acerca do tema. Ademais, estudou-se a evolução da sociedade e de seus impactos no ambiente natural, a fim de mostrar a importância do desenvolvimento sustentável. O atual cenário mundial no tocante ao meio ambiente exige a ação urgente e rápida do homem para que se consiga pelo menos salvar e preservar o que resta do meio ambiente e com isso garantir às gerações futuras condições mínimas de sobrevivência saudável. Percebe-se, ao final, que não há condições e nem motivos de impedir o crescimento e desenvolvimento social, mas se ele não se concretizar de modo sustentável, voltado à preservação ambiental e ao futuro, os problemas climáticos serão cada vez mais graves. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sustentabilidade. Meio Ambiente. Direito Fundamental. Urbanismo. SUMÁRIO: Introdução. 1 A Evolução da Sociedade, o Desenvolvimento Urbano e as Influências no Meio Ambiente. 2 O Direito de Propriedade e seus Impactos no Meio Ambiente. 3 Do Desenvolvimento Sustentável como Forma de Garantia dos Direitos Fundamentais. 4 O Planejamento Urbano na Constituição em Contraposição à Sustentabilidade. 5 As Proteções Jurídicas ao Meio Ambiente: a Constituição e o Direito Ambiental. Considerações Finais. Referências.
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Because advocacy planning and use of design guidelines are so prevalent, it is becoming important to ascertain how well each method can predict environmental quality. This article describes two experiments, covering 59 respondents and 76 environmental scenes, in which preferences of neighborhood groups and an architect's group were compared to each other, to responses of a random sample of a city's population, and to predictions based on design attributes of entourage, building interest, and building dominance. Results from both studies indicated that the attributes of building interest predicted the most preference variation. These findings suggest that the design guidelines' approach to visual amenity might be more efficacious than the advocacy approach.
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This paper critiques the narrow empiricist focus and inadequate theoretical development of much architectural geography. The geographer's concern and interest in the built environment is integrated with a more critical and relevant awareness of social theory. Four theoretical categories of building and architectural function are discussed: buildings as cultural artifacts, as objects of value, as signs, and as a spatial system. Directions for research are proposed for the example of historic preservation.
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There has been much recent interest in visual resource management. One frequently raised issue is the effect of rendering and photographic protocols on preferences. This article describes a meta-analysis of the literature (covering 1215 stimuli and over 4200 respondents) and two new preference experiments. The experiments compared preferences based on pre-construction line elevation drawings to preferences based on post-construction elevation and perspective photographs of infill residences. It was found that the different simulations produced very similar preferences. It is suggested that pre-construction line drawings and either photo-protocol could be used to make visual resource management decisions for infill housing. It is also suggested that meta-analysis might be a useful for environmental researchers.
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Tall buildings are a significant feature of many urban skylines. The visual complexity of the tall buildings that make up the urban skyline can vary according to the degree of silhouette complexity and the extent to which the façade is articulated. This article reports a study in which 60 undergraduate psychology students ranked a set of 9 synthetic skylines according to either the perceived complexity of the skyline or their preference. The pleasure and arousal associated with each skyline was also measured using the Affect Grid. The strongest influence on preference, arousal, and pleasure was the degree of silhouette complexity, with higher silhouette complexity associated with higher levels of perceived complexity and preference and higher arousal and pleasure. Façade articulation only influenced the evaluations of skyline complexity, although this isolated finding may be due to the pretask training.
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Commissioned by the Building Research Establishment (BRE), the objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of identifying criteria that can be used to assess the visual impact of buildings in a manner that is not only acceptable and meaningful to developers and architects, but also to a broader audience that includes, amongst others, the public. The first stage of the research involved an extensive review of the literature and consultation with experts in both Europe and the United States in order to identify a comprehensive set of criteria that should be included in a visual assessment methodology. The second stage "tested" these criteria through interviews with developers, consultants, architects, planners, conservationists, and members of the public. It was concluded that although there are some differences between the various groups there are sufficient areas of overlap to make a visual assessment methodology feasible. However it is suggested that such a methodology should be process-oriented focusing on how rather than just whether criteria have been integrated into building planning and design.
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Sustainable development has been conceptualised as a "commonwealth of values" lying at the intersection of environmental, economic and social goals (Alternatives 17 (3) (1990) 14). This captures well the approach taken by the present study, which examines the cultural, environmental and economic components of sustainable development and framed within cultural theory. People do not perceive the world through clear eyes, but through perceptual lenses coloured by their worldview. Cultural theory provides an alternative to the conventional attitude-driven approaches to environmental perceptions. This study sought to test the relationship between the four worldviews of cultural theory (hierarchy, egalitarianism, individualism and fatalism) in the context of their cultural, environmental and economic domains, with particular reference to the costs and benefits of car use. Questionnaires, designed to measure cultural, environmental and economic worldviews, attitudes towards car use and socio-demographic indices (A theoretical and methodological examination of cultural theory applied to environmental issues. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Surrey (2002)) were sent to residents of a prosperous town in the south-east of England and where car ownership levels are significantly higher than the national average. The findings of this study support the predictions of cultural theory. The results are discussed in terms of their significance both for future research on understanding the predictors of environmental perceptions, attitudes and behaviour, as well as environmental interventions.
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Preferences for urban spaces were studied as a function of spatial category and nine predictor variables: spaciousness, refuge, enclosure, coherence, legibility, complexity, mystery, typicality, and age. A non-metric factor analysis of the preference ratings yielded four categories of urban spaces: Open-Undefined, Well-Structured, Enclosed Settings, and Blocked Views. These categories are similar to the spatial categories proposed for natural environments by S. Kaplan (1979, Assessing Amenity Resource Values. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-68), who stressed openness and spatial definition as bases for categorization. The Well-Structured category was best liked, with the other categories not very well liked and about equal in preference. Regression analyses revealed three variables as consistent predictors of preference. Coherence and complexity were positively related to preference, and age was negatively related. Overall, the results support the Kaplans' proposal that both spatial and non-spatial factors are important in categorizing environments and in explaining environmental preferences.
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The experience of the urban environment was studied in terms of how it is categorized, what people's preferences are, and the extent to which complexity and familiarity can account for these preferences. College students rated urban scenes on these three variables under three methods of scene presentation: Slides, Label (name and location), and Imagery (Label with instructions to imagine the scene). A nonmetric factor analysis of the preference ratings for the Slide condition yielded five urban dimensions: Cultural, Contemporary, Commercial, Entertainment, and Campus. The pattern of results was virtually identical across the three presentation conditions. The five urban dimensions differed significantly in terms of each of the rating scales. Both complexity and familiarity were factors in accounting for the obtained preferences, pointing to the need for examining a variety of predictor variables. At the same time, the fact that the pattern of relationships was quite different across the content dimensions points to the need for caution in interpreting results based on relatively global prediction of preference. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67003/2/10.1177_001391657684008.pdf
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In this paper I propose a clear, efficient, and accurate method for determining if a block of contiguous buildings has an overall character. The work is needed because most contemporary design reviews presuppose the existence of visual character, but existing design principles are often too vague to make the required determination. Clarity is achieved by shifting from vague notions to a definite concept for block character: a design feature will be perceived as part of the overall character of that block if the frequency of the feature is greater than a critical threshold. An experiment suggested that the critical frequency was quite high: over 80%. A case history illustrates how the new concept of visual character could greatly increase the efficiency and accuracy of actual planning decisions.
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Attempts to link general theories of urban development and morphology to the particular circumstances of the USA, using a political economy framework. Part one outlines the subject of urban geography and sets out the framework of the American political and economic environment. Part two treats the urban system as a whole, analyzing such topics as urban sizes, locations and functions. The urban system is seen as a product of historical and economic circumstances and a historical chronology of the developing urban pattern is presented. Part three examines the internal structure of urban areas and the spatial patterns within individual cities, stressing the relationships between economic trends and their spatial manifestations, as well as certain features of capitalism like class conflict. Separate chapters deal with the social, economic and political geography of US cities. Finally, part four examines the urban crisis, concluding with attempts to cure these problems, and their potential for success. The book is intended as an introductory text that can be used as basic background reading for an undergraduate course on urban geography.-R.House
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This paper introduces a method for measuring the physical complexity of street-scapes. The objective is to perationalize the term "complexity," thus enabling urban designers and urban design review boards to specify a desired complexity value for a building or a number of buildings. Moreover, such a measure - which is performance-based - will allow architects to develop buildings that do not imitate the surroundings but are equivalent, lower, or higher than the established complexity value of the surrounding context. The measurement instrument is based on the Gestalt laws of visual organization and builds on previous findings in the field of experimental aesthetics in order to accommodate the nature of architectural organization principles. The usage of the instrument is illustrated through an application in a selected setting. Its validity is tested by conducting an experiment with 33 subjects. The results were encouraging and showed a high correlation between the instrument measures and the subjects' perception of complexity. However, several limitations are present in the instrument and are discussed in the paper.
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Fake historic architecture is being constructed in many tourist-oriented cities and New Urbanist communities. Although critics claim it degrades history, design review boards may inadvertently encourage fake historic architecture because of their emphasis on contextualism. This research examines the factors that encourage the construction of fake historic architecture, the public's perceptions and attitudes toward this type of architecture, and the impact it has on attitudes toward historic preservation. The results demonstrate that people can discriminate between historic and fake historic architecture, that they view fake historic architecture as attractive, and that fake historic architecture does not reduce support for historic preservation. Copyright © 2005, Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Despite its widespread use as a downtown development strategy, little research has been conducted on the Main Street Approach established by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Through the use of a national survey of Main Street programs and site visits to four downtowns (Tupelo, Mississippi; Danville, Kentucky; Cushing, Oklahoma; and St. Charles, Illinois), this article reports on how communities actually apply the elements of the four-point Main Street Approach — organization, promotion, design, and economic restructuring — and discusses factors contributing to their usage and effectiveness. The article concludes with a discussion of the relevance of the Main Street Approach to members of the planning and design professions.
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A major goal in contemporary urban design is to encourage pedestrian activity. Questions regarding the effectiveness of some pedestrian-oriented design proposals illustrate a need for more research in the pedestrian experience of urban places. In order to continue a constructive discussion of this topic, historically persistent, picturesque concepts of urban form were combined with recent ideas of environmental aesthetics from several disciplines in the form of a 'theory'. Once developed, the theory was explored through field studies incorporating the reactions and reflections of several individuals in a selective variety of urban settings in Dresden, Germany. The reactions and reflections were recorded through a combination of cognitive mapping and on-site interviews. The results, though limited, are supportive of some aspects of urban design aesthetics, but raise questions regarding the relationship of aesthetics and pedestrian behaviour.
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Many people have discussed architectural detail, but there have been few experimental studies on just what design features influence impressions of how detailed a building facade is. This article investigated how well subjective impressions of amount of detail could be predicted by an objective measurement based solely on physical properties of environments. Detail was defined as visual elements with sizes in the third Van der Laan septave (7−2–7−3 of the overall size of the facade). This article also investigated the relative effects on subjective impressions of detail for three design components: trim, ornament, and texture. The results suggest that a very simple physical measurement (percentage of pixels covered by small elements) predicts subjective impressions of architectural detail very well. Other results were that trim was the most influential design component, and texture was the least influential design component.
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The aim is to review the strategy of urban tourism, and its effectiveness. Most of the discussion will relate to the situation in Britain and North America. It will focus on cities of over 250 000 population which until recently were not popularly recognised as tourist centres. After examining the strategy of urban tourism, I will discuss evaluation and consider the topic via themes, namely attractions, conferences and exhibitions, the arts, sports, special events and general economic impact. Urban tourism is still in its early days and many cities are still getting their tourism strategy and promotional organisation into place, so that it is too early to make a final evaluation of their programmes. In any case, as this paper has shown, relatively few studies have been made of the impact of tourism on cities, so that evaluation is difficult. It will never be easy to make a full evaluation of urban tourism because of the numerous and diverse objectives. These show that the promotion of tourism is inextricably bound up with growth strategies, image and making a city a good place to live in, as well as the obvious one of increasing the number of visitors. -from Author
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Design reviewers make judgments based on their opinion of how physical features influence the evaluative quality of the building and its surroundings. What features evoke favorable evaluative responses? Although some people may view aesthetics as qualitative and idiosyncratic, researchers have continued in their search for general principles. This article reviews that research, with particular attention to building exteriors. The article defines and examines three kinds of aesthetic variables-formal, symbolic, and schemas. It highlights the importance of enclosure, complexity, and order as formal variables, of style as a symbolic variable, and of atypicality in relation to schemas. It discusses the relationship of these variables to evaluative response. As different kinds of evaluative responses may be appropriate and desirable for different kinds of places, this article considers the dimensions of evaluative response. The analysis suggests that design review seeking pleasantness should encourage order, moderate complexity, and elements of "popular" styles; design review seeking excitement should encourage high complexity, atypicality, and low order; and design review seeking calmness should encourage high order and naturalness. Acknowledging potential variability across contexts, this article offers aesthetic programming and evaluation as alternate ways to develop and refine guidelines for design review.
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Consistent with previous theorizing, two forms of social organization exist at the local level in metropolitan Seattle: the "urban village," which rests on a foundation of close primary relationships, and the "community of limited liability," which is composed of less intimate social relations. l he thirst torm of organization most often appears in areas of low residential and functional mobility, while the second type is concentrated in higher-status and childbearing areas. Other dimensions of lifestyle and behavior are also found to vary between the two types of locality. In general, those areas that approximate the urban village model engender relatively strong emotional feelings of attachment, while the limited liability areas are more frequently perceived as "nice" places in which to live.
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The environment has a definite structure, made up of discrete clusters of attributes. The shape and composition of these mental pictures depends on the nature and context of environmental experience. While language (semantic response) at times reinforces experiences, at others the two are opposed. These differences are discussed and analyzed based on controlled experiments. (BL)
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This paper explores the interdependence between urban design and the social construction of place. Following the recent contribution to the discussion of sense of place, authenticity and character by Jivén & Larkham (Journal of Urban Design, vol. 8, 200330. Jivén , G and Larkham , PJ . 2003 . Sense of place, authenticity and character: a commentary . Journal of Urban Design , 8 : 67 – 81 . [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references, pp. 67–81), it is suggested that architects, planners and urban designers should be attentive to the theoretical underpinnings that are relevant to place-making. The emphasis here is on the relationships between the pace of life and the capacity of urban settings to facilitate the routine encounters and shared experiences that underpin the intersubjectivity that, in turn, leads to the social construction of place. These issues are placed in the context of the ‘fast world’ of globalization and of grass-roots reaction to its consequences, as illustrated by the Slow City movement.
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This paper reports on a research project into city identity, city marketing and the implications for urban design. Identity can refer to those aspects which make a place identifiable, or unique but can also refer to the way individuals or groups identify with a place. A common view today is that uniform concepts of planning and development together with the ‘commodification’ of places has led to the loss of localized identity. However, it now appears that the increased pressure on city managers to compete for investment and ‘market’ their locality has led to a renewed interest in local difference. Creating a sense of identity is essential for successfully generating economic activity and urban marketing. The act of identification of and identification with a new place and new life style are important expectations of new and existing residents. Despite this the promotional material produced by various cities is remarkably similar and demonstrates a desegregated and thematic attitude to place. The images exhibited in this material suggest diversity within rather than between cities. The logic of urban marketing describes the city as a series of themed attributes each offering a particular amenity with an associated image and urban form. As urban management moves closer to urban marketing the city will become increasingly fragmented into discrete stereotypical pieces with a thematic rather than spatial relationship.
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Demonstrated the usefulness of personal construct theory and its associated repertory grid test in measuring urban environment images. Study 1 measured the general image of Bath (England) held by 20 female residents. Study 2 detailed the images of their business environments among 49 retailers of shops in Bristol and in Yate (England). Each study involved a similar interview method. The data were combined in a variety of ways, and were analyzed using P. Slater's principal components approach. The resulting image maps were sophisticated. In Study 2, the structure of images varied with personal characteristics and with shop location. Results also suggest there may be significant links between images of, and behavior in, the urban environment. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Pairwise similarity-dissimilarity ratings of 20 slides of buildings representing major architectural styles were subjected to an INDSCAL analysis. Four major similarity dimensions were identified. Subsequently, the stimuli were rated on two batteries of scales: (1) collative and affective ratings, and (2) stylistic and technical ratings. Canonical correlations and redundancy indices revealed close relations between the multidimensional stimulus locations and the scale and factor spaces. The findings of the three experiments suggest that the four principal dimensions in the perception of architecture appear to be (1)Clarity, (2)Hedonic Tone/Arousal, (3) Uncertainty, and (4) Familiarity.
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