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Sport in prison: Exploring the role of physical activity in correctional settings

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Abstract

This is the first book to explore the role of sport in prisons and its subsequent impact on rehabilitation and behavioural change. The book draws on research literature on the beneficial role of sport in community settings and on prison cultures and regimes, across disciplines including criminology, psychology, sociology and sport studies, as well as original qualitative and quantitative data gathered from research in prisons. It unpacks the meanings that prisoners and staff attach to sport participation and interventions in order to understand how to promote behavioural change through sport most effectively, while identifying and tackling the key emerging issues and challenges.

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... An important consideration in many studies is whether sport and physical activity participation can provide prisoners with post-release skills. Meek (2014) and Meek andLewis (2014a, 2014b), in studies of British prisons, argued that carefully structured sport programs can ease prisoners' reintegration and reduce their likelihood of reoffending. Other research suggests that leisure programs can facilitate positive relationships that help with inmates' reintegration into the community (Yuen et al., 2012), and that sport activities may teach skills that could help prisoners avoid reoffending (Gallant et al., 2015). ...
... An important consideration in many studies is whether sport and physical activity participation can provide prisoners with post-release skills. Meek (2014) and Meek andLewis (2014a, 2014b), in studies of British prisons, argued that carefully structured sport programs can ease prisoners' reintegration and reduce their likelihood of reoffending. Other research suggests that leisure programs can facilitate positive relationships that help with inmates' reintegration into the community (Yuen et al., 2012), and that sport activities may teach skills that could help prisoners avoid reoffending (Gallant et al., 2015). ...
... Such findings, however, must be considered in light of the many structural barriers facing released prisoners (Yuen et al., 2012). Studies also suggest that physical activity can be an important resource for improving mental health and coping with incarceration (Gallant et al., 2015;Martos-García et al., 2009;Meek, 2014;Meek andLewis, 2014a, 2014b;Norman, 2015;Ronel et al., 2013;Sabo, 2001). This can occur because various activities may allow positive social interaction with outside volunteers or staff (Meek and Lewis, 2014a;Ronel et al., 2013), the construction of alternative social spaces in the prison (Norman, 2015;Ronel et al., 2013), meaningful physical and mental challenges (Ronel et al., 2013), or simply opportunities to reduce stress through physical exertion (Martos-Garcia et al., 2009;Meek, 2014;Meek and Lewis, 2014a;Sabo, 2001). ...
Article
While it is clear from a small body of scholarly literature that sport and physical activity play important roles in the daily lives of many inmates in diverse prison contexts around the world, there remains relatively little research that sociologically explores the significance of these physical practices in correctional environments. This paper helps to address this gap by examining one of the key tensions in prison sport: its deployment by corrections policymakers and administrators as a form of social control and its simultaneous use by prisoners as a vehicle for resistance and subversion. Situating the research in Goffman’s concept of the total institution, the paper explores how prisoners, though stripped of many resources for self presentation and collective subversion, refashion sport activities, materials, and spaces to their own purposes – and, in doing so, how they resist, in a limited fashion, the prison’s social control aims. More broadly, these findings point to the potential social significance of sport and physical activity as vehicles for the limited expression of agency in situations of extreme deprivation or imposing disciplinary regimes.
... Motor behaviors performed by practitioners while practicing sport activities-in a systemic and multifactorial approachenable practitioners to reach objectives such as socialization, integration, insertion, and improvement of health, among others (Bordes et al., 2007). Introducing sports in detention may help prison inmates deal with anxiety and stress (Nelson et al., 2006;Buckaloo et al., 2009;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009), prevent depression (Cashin et al., 2008), adapt and improve their behavior in prison to reduce norm and rule-breaking behaviors (Bushway et al., 2003;Nelson et al., 2006;Meek, 2014;Meek and Lewis, 2014) and decrease aggressiveness, anger, violence, and prison incidents (Wagner et al., 1999;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009). While the practice of sports in prison is a very efficient tool to improve prison inmate health and promote social rehabilitation (DeMaeyer, 2009;Gallant et al., 2015), methods and education programs are necessary to achieve that goal, and the sport should not be practiced solely for the only purpose of physical activity, which could be counterproductive . ...
... Without this ability, karate would not encourage cohabitation. Indeed, the practice of sports in prison may lead to violent and antisocial behaviors (Otto, 2009), especially if management and educational purposes are lacking where rehabilitation is identified as a goal (Coalter, 2007;Meek, 2014). It may also lead to physical injuries in prison inmates (Meek and Lewis, 2012). ...
... The practice of sports in prison can provide effective results on the possible adjustment, treatment and regulation of anxiety and stress (Nelson et al., 2006;Buckaloo et al., 2009;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009), depression (Cashin et al., 2008), behavior adaptation (Bushway et al., 2003;Nelson et al., 2006;Meek, 2014;Meek and Lewis, 2014), aggressiveness, anger, violence control, and a reduction in prison incidents (Wagner et al., 1999;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009). The present study's results converge with those mentioned above, although we must remain cautious because some of the samples of this study are small (prison inmate colored belts, black belts), the size effects of launched actions and kiais are very small for male participants and null to very small for launched actions for all types of belts, and the bow size effect is null for black belts. ...
Article
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Karate is known to enhance cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and self-regulation and to contribute to an overall behavior rehabilitation process. However, few data are available on the impact of practicing karate in adult prison inmates. The main objective of this research was to evaluate aggressive behavior, comparing prison inmates and club practitioners during karate practice. The level of aggressiveness was rated by observers during defined elements and training situations in karate classes held in France. Data were collected during 77 observations of 75 prison inmates (55 male and 20 female) in a prison setting, and 188 observations of 117 club practitioners (80 male and 37 female) in a club setting over a period of 26 months. Licit aggressiveness was graded by observers during launched actions, kiais, and bows, and the practice level (belts) was also considered. Interrater reliability of the observational measure was highly acceptable (Cohen κ = 1). Comparisons between female and male prison inmates and club practitioners were made using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. The results revealed that a higher level of aggressiveness was observed in both male and female club practitioners during launched actions and kiais than in prison inmate practitioners (p < 0.001, small effect size). However, prison inmates (of both genders) showed a higher level of aggressiveness during bows (p < 0.001, medium effect size). While the analyses showed no significant differences between genders, the level of karate practice was associated with distinct changes. Significant differences in observed aggressiveness were present only in beginners and in those with a low level of karate practice, whereas no differences in aggressiveness between prison or club practitioners were observed during karate practice in those with a high level of karate practice (black belt). However, these results must be interpreted with caution as there was no way to control the multiple factors that might also affect inmate behaviors in a correctional setting. We suggest that karate practice in prison may positively contribute to interactional behaviors.
... International research on sports in correctional institutions is rather scarce and has focused predominantly on the benefits of participation (Meek, 2014). First, doing exercise improves physical health (Gallant, Sherry, & Nicholson, 2015;Nelson, Specian, Tracy, & DeMello, 2006;Vaiciulis, Kavaliauskas, & Radisauskas, 2011) and psychological functioning (Cooper & Berwick, 2001;Martos-García, Devís-Devís, & Sparkes, 2009). ...
... There are only a limited number of scholars who focus explicitly on prisoner perceived barriers to participation in sport activities. For instance, Meek (2014) and Meek and Lewis (2014b) investigate the barriers among female prisoners. While they divided the barriers into those internal and external to an individual, we use a broader ecological model (i.e., intrapersonal, institutional, situational, etc.) to present their findings. ...
... Other reasons are having negative attitudes toward sports (intrapersonal), considering these activities as a form of punishment (intrapersonal), or being unaware of the activities offered (informational). Furthermore, the following practical barriers (institutional) are reported: insufficient time, no timely release from cells for participation, banishment from participation (e.g., being temporarily segregated), and scheduling of activities at the same time (Meek, 2014;Meek & Lewis, 2014b). Other researchers do not explicitly focus on hindrances, but implicitly mention some barriers for older prisoners. ...
Article
This study investigates the barriers and the predictors of these barriers that impede prisoners’ participation in sport activities. Data are derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N = 486). Findings indicate that prisoners have strong preferences for other activities (e.g., work, visiting), as well as experiencing institutional barriers to sport activity. Findings show that age and time served, in particular, have an influence on the experience of the different types of barriers. Based on the research findings, the article concludes by discussing paths for further research and implications for policy and practice.
... These are useful values in any environment, but especially in prisons. In addition, specialist literature emphasizes the need for such programs to be carried out in partnership with sports organisations and clubs from outside the prison [23], which is the case of the RMF. Moreover, it is important to explore inmates' perceptions of sports programs, in order to assess their potential and impact [9,23]. ...
... In addition, specialist literature emphasizes the need for such programs to be carried out in partnership with sports organisations and clubs from outside the prison [23], which is the case of the RMF. Moreover, it is important to explore inmates' perceptions of sports programs, in order to assess their potential and impact [9,23]. ...
... In this sense, coinciding with data obtained by Castillo-Algarra [4] and Psychou et al. [26], inmates stated that their participation in the program had had a favorable effect on their life in prison. They considered that it had influenced their relationships with other inmates, their physical and bodily state, and their mental and emotional state, which is consistent with other research [7][8][9]14,23,[27][28][29]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze the implementation of a sports-educational program in prisons where the Real Madrid Foundation’s Social-Sports Program is carried out. For that purpose, a survey of 468 inmates was conducted at 21 prisons in Spain where the Real Madrid Foundation implements its program (441 men (94.23%) and 27 women (5.77%)). Inmates stated that the program had had a favorable influence on their life in prison and considered that their participation in the program might have a significant influence on the likelihood of them continuing to play sports when they are released. In addition, inmates felt that they had learned a great deal about the contents relating to football and the values they had worked on, and that the program had had a very positive effect on their overall development as a person.
... Unlike SfD, prison sport is not institutionalized-rather, its form and availability will vary widely depending on the jurisdiction, the type and security level of confinement, and the prisoner subculture in specific institutions (Norman, 2018a). Further, although some youth custody institutions provide sport initiatives that are, like much SfD programming, explicitly linked with specific social or pedagogical outcomes (Meek, 2014;Meek & Lewis, 2014;Norman, Ricciardelli, & Sonoda, 2020), in adult institutions activities are often detached from such intentions and are viewed by staff a way for prisoners to expend aggression and thus be more docile (Martos-García, Devís-Devís, & Sparkes, 2009;Norman, 2017). Indeed, there is scant reference to prison sport in the SfD literature. ...
... Whereas SfD is a burgeoning realm of research (Schulenkorf et al., 2016), socio-cultural research on sport in prisons remains relatively limited. Among the major sociological themes in the existing literature are the contributions of sport to: constructions of hegemonic masculinity in male prisons (Andrews & Andrews, 2003;Sabo, 2001), the control and management of prison populations (Martos-García et al., 2009;Norman, 2017) and prisoners' micro-resistances to these regimes of social control (Martinez-Merino, Martos-García, Lozano-Sufrategui, Martín-González, & Usabiaga, 2019;Norman, 2017;Norman & Andrews, 2019), and the likelihood of prisoners desisting from crime after being released into the community (Meek, 2014;Meek & Lewis, 2014). A new vein of recent research (Gacek, 2017;Norman, 2019;Norman & Andrews, 2019), which this article builds upon, explicitly engages with theoretical developments in carceral geography to consider the spatial significance of sport in prisons. ...
... Carceral spaces, both compact and diffuse, are characterized by "the deployment of a new range of strategies of social control and coercion" . Prison sport studies (Martos-García et al., 2009;Meek, 2014;Norman, 2015Norman, , 2017 have found that prison administrators may view sport as a means for diverting prisoners' energy and attention away from their punitive conditions of confinement, making sport participation a short-term management tool "with no implications for the long-term development of the prisoner in terms of their rehabilitation into…society at the end of their sentence" (Martos-García et al., 2009, p. 86). Further, the opportunity to engage in certain forms of sport (and the possibility of this privilege being withdrawn) may be used as an incentive to induce particular forms of behaviour (Meek, 2014;Norman, 2017), while the instrumental rationales underpinning sport provision may contribute to a broader correctional philosophy that sees individual choice, rather than structural factors, as the sole cause of criminal behaviour (Norman, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a rapid expansion in research on Sport for Development (SfD), there remain numerous untapped veins of exploration. This article makes a novel argument for increasing the theoretical and substantive depth of SfD research by linking it to the relatively small, yet developing, body of literature on sport and incarceration. Drawing from the emergent field of carceral geography and the literature on prison sport, this article provides critical theoretical considerations for SfD programs that occur in ‘compact’ sites of confinement, such as prisons or refugee camps, or are enmeshed in ‘diffuse’ manifestations of carcerality. Given the structures of inequality that have led to the confinement of more than 13 million people in prisons, refugee camps, and migrant detention centres across the globe, as well as the multitude of ways that groups and individuals are criminalized and stigmatized in community settings, there are compelling reasons for SfD research to more deeply engage with concerns of space and carcerality as they relate to sport. As such, this article provides an important foundation for future analyses of SfD and carcerality, and signposts some potential ways forward for a deepening of theoretical perspectives in SfD research.
... It can simply be a positive, cost-effective and healthy leisure activity, and even a distraction from anti-social behaviour. Participating in sport can represent an alternative to offending which not only has intrinsic value but also provides a relatively easy way to establish a more positive self-identity (Meek, 2014). Also of relevance here is the abundant psychological and educational evidence of the importance of play in healthy child development (see for example, Frost, Wortham & Reifel, 2007), particularly when working with those who have experienced trauma and neglect, as we know that so many of the people we detain in custody have. ...
... Having established a research profile in this field, in 2017 I was invited by the office of Dr Phillip Lee MP, then the Under Secretary for Justice, to meet with the Minister in order to talk about the body of work I have produced over the last decade on the role of sport in prison settings, which has encompassed a number of prison sports evaluations as well as my Sport in Prison monograph (Meek, 2014), and engagement with a wide range of voluntary and community organisations in the sports for development sector. As a GP with an interest in sport, Dr Lee was aware of the health and wider benefits of physical activity, and as a Minister with responsibility for, amongst other things, youth prisons, women in prison and prison healthcare, he wanted to get a sense of the research evidence for the role of physical activity within his remit, as well as a better idea of current practice and future opportunities in this area. ...
... Official data verifies that women in prison are significantly less likely to participate in sport and physical activity than their male counterparts, and that participation among female prisoners is not only lower than that of male prisoners (Meek, 2014), but also lower than that of non-incarcerated females (Herbert, Plugge, Foster & Doll, 2012;Plugge, Foster, Yudkin & Douglas, 2009). In community settings, in spite of the proliferation of national (Sport England, 2012England, , 2015 and international (International Working Group on Women and Sport, 1994) campaigns and initiatives that have aimed to increase women's participation in sport, a longstanding gender disparity in sports participation has remained, a disparity which is amplified in our custodial settings, where the majority of women in British prisons are insufficiently active to benefit their health (Plugge et al., 2009). ...
Book
Making an Impact on Policing and Crime: Psychological Research, Policy and Practice applies a range of case studies and examples of psychological research by international, leading researchers to tackle real-world issues within the field of crime and policing. Making an Impact on Policing and Crime documents the application of cutting-edge research to real-world policing and explains how psychologists’ insights have been adapted and developed to offer effective solutions across the criminal justice system. The experts featured in this collection cover a range of psychological topics surrounding the field, including the prevention and reduction of sexual offending and reoffending, the use of CCTV and ‘super-recognisers’, forensic questioning of vulnerable witnesses, the accuracy of nonverbal and verbal lie detection interview techniques, psychological ‘drivers’ of political violence, theoretical models of police–community relations, and the social and political significance of urban ‘riots’. This collection is a vital resource for practitioners in policing fields and the court system and professionals working with offenders, as well as students and researchers in related disciplines.
... Motor behaviors performed by practitioners while practicing sport activities-in a systemic and multifactorial approachenable practitioners to reach objectives such as socialization, integration, insertion, and improvement of health, among others (Bordes et al., 2007). Introducing sports in detention may help prison inmates deal with anxiety and stress (Nelson et al., 2006;Buckaloo et al., 2009;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009), prevent depression (Cashin et al., 2008), adapt and improve their behavior in prison to reduce norm and rule-breaking behaviors (Bushway et al., 2003;Nelson et al., 2006;Meek, 2014;Meek and Lewis, 2014) and decrease aggressiveness, anger, violence, and prison incidents (Wagner et al., 1999;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009). While the practice of sports in prison is a very efficient tool to improve prison inmate health and promote social rehabilitation (DeMaeyer, 2009;Gallant et al., 2015), methods and education programs are necessary to achieve that goal, and the sport should not be practiced solely for the only purpose of physical activity, which could be counterproductive . ...
... Without this ability, karate would not encourage cohabitation. Indeed, the practice of sports in prison may lead to violent and antisocial behaviors (Otto, 2009), especially if management and educational purposes are lacking where rehabilitation is identified as a goal (Coalter, 2007;Meek, 2014). It may also lead to physical injuries in prison inmates (Meek and Lewis, 2012). ...
... The practice of sports in prison can provide effective results on the possible adjustment, treatment and regulation of anxiety and stress (Nelson et al., 2006;Buckaloo et al., 2009;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009), depression (Cashin et al., 2008), behavior adaptation (Bushway et al., 2003;Nelson et al., 2006;Meek, 2014;Meek and Lewis, 2014), aggressiveness, anger, violence control, and a reduction in prison incidents (Wagner et al., 1999;Martos-Garcia et al., 2009). The present study's results converge with those mentioned above, although we must remain cautious because some of the samples of this study are small (prison inmate colored belts, black belts), the size effects of launched actions and kiais are very small for male participants and null to very small for launched actions for all types of belts, and the bow size effect is null for black belts. ...
... Sport can play an important role in the rehabilitation and reintegration of detained youth. Studies show that sport within youth institutional settings can be beneficial or problematic depending on how it is structured, delivered and, ultimately, experienced by young people (Andrews and Andrews 2003;Meek 2014;Parker, Meek, and Lewis 2014). In order for sport to have an impact on wider social outcomes such as crime desistance or developing prosocial skills, research indicates that specific pedagogical approaches and competencies are needed (see Haudenhuyse, Theeboom, and Skille 2014). ...
... A growing body of mainly interventional research has drawn attention to the potential benefits of sport within various criminal justice settings for young adults and juvenilesincluding youth prisons , closed institutions for juveniles (Andrews and Andrews 2003), and probation or re-entry programs (Van Hout and Phelan 2014). Such benefits include formation of prosocial identities; socio-emotional development; coping with boredom and other negative aspects of institutionalisation; improving relations between residents and personnel; and, more generally, a structured alternative to criminal or risky behaviour (Andrews and Andrews 2003;Meek 2012Meek , 2014Meek and Lewis 2014;Nichols 2007;Parker, Meek, and Lewis 2014;Van Hout and Phelan 2014;Williams, Strean, and Bengoechea 2002). This body of research tends to focus on 'outcomes' , where sport in an almost evangelical sense (Coalter 2013) is taken to have nearly intrinsic properties that are instrumental in creating the desired outcomes. ...
... Sport's contribution to rehabilitating detained youth is often framed as initiating a developmental process, starting with a 'hook' for motivating 'hard-to-engage' youth-particularly males (Meek 2014;Meek and Lewis 2014;Nichols 2007). Secondly, research highlights that sport can provide a context in which detained youth are able to develop socially and emotionally, and build self-confidence and optimism for a better future-one that may include crime desistance (Parker et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Studies indicate that sport within youth institutional settings can be beneficial (e.g. learning social skills) or problematic (e.g. social exclusion) depending on how they are structured, delivered and, ultimately, experienced by students. In this article, we examine the experiences of students and staff in an educational sport program at a Swedish all-male youth detention home (ages 16–20) in order to increase understanding of the pedagogical approach of a sports-based program for detained youth. Drawing on interviews with both students and staff, we identify and elaborate four aspects of the program—building a pedagogical platform, ‘seeing’ and meeting students, creating a supportive environment, and thinking beyond the institution—that were collectively represented to initiate and guide a process of growth and change for students. We discuss how these aspects of the program’s pedagogical approach, in contrast to deficiency-based approaches, can provide a useful framework for delivering sport in ways that can benefit detained youth and other young people in socially vulnerable situations.
... Increasingly, youth justice and compulsory care systems have taken interest in sport-based interventions as an innovative way to engage with and facilitate pro-social development for placed youth (see Meek 2014;Morgan et al. 2019). Recent research suggests numerous benefits for educational sport in youth justice contexts, including crime reduction, pro-social identity formation, the development of self-confidence and socio-emotional skills, improvement in mental and physical health, and, more generally, optimism and hope for the future (Meek 2014;Meek and Lewis 2014;Parker, Meek, and Lewis 2014;Roe, Hugo, and Larsson 2019). ...
... Increasingly, youth justice and compulsory care systems have taken interest in sport-based interventions as an innovative way to engage with and facilitate pro-social development for placed youth (see Meek 2014;Morgan et al. 2019). Recent research suggests numerous benefits for educational sport in youth justice contexts, including crime reduction, pro-social identity formation, the development of self-confidence and socio-emotional skills, improvement in mental and physical health, and, more generally, optimism and hope for the future (Meek 2014;Meek and Lewis 2014;Parker, Meek, and Lewis 2014;Roe, Hugo, and Larsson 2019). However, while such benefits are attributed to socio-pedagogical processes of sport, rather than participation in itself (Meek 2014;Morgan et al. 2019;Roe et al. 2019), studies have paid little attention to pedagogies of sport in youth detention, that is, how sport is conceived, delivered, and experienced. ...
... Recent research suggests numerous benefits for educational sport in youth justice contexts, including crime reduction, pro-social identity formation, the development of self-confidence and socio-emotional skills, improvement in mental and physical health, and, more generally, optimism and hope for the future (Meek 2014;Meek and Lewis 2014;Parker, Meek, and Lewis 2014;Roe, Hugo, and Larsson 2019). However, while such benefits are attributed to socio-pedagogical processes of sport, rather than participation in itself (Meek 2014;Morgan et al. 2019;Roe et al. 2019), studies have paid little attention to pedagogies of sport in youth detention, that is, how sport is conceived, delivered, and experienced. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines pedagogies of sport in youth detention, drawing on ethnography (primarily participatory observations and interviews) at two all-male youth detention homes in Sweden. Focusing on youths’ experiences situated in discourse and practice, three pedagogies of doing sport in youth detention are described: withholding sport, busying with sport, and sport as developmental community. The young men in this study experienced mixed messages through sport, revealing how rehabilitation through sport was obscured by predominant pedagogies of withholding sport (i.e., punishment or correction) and busying with sport (i.e., containment or filling the time). Yet there were glimpses of another pedagogy, sport as developmental community, and the experiences and pedagogical work underpinning this endeavor are highlighted. This study illustrates how competing functions of youth justice—punishment, containment, and development—are accomplished, and experienced, through (sport) pedagogical practice.
... The average length between admission and interview was 5.0 ± 8.3 years team sports in prison. In addition to being an effective tool against weight gain, team sports can also reduce re-offense rates, by offering an alternative means of excitement and risk taking (Meek 2014). Team sports can also provide an alternative social network and more positive role models for inmates during incarceration (Meek 2014). ...
... In addition to being an effective tool against weight gain, team sports can also reduce re-offense rates, by offering an alternative means of excitement and risk taking (Meek 2014). Team sports can also provide an alternative social network and more positive role models for inmates during incarceration (Meek 2014). Furthermore, a study showed that inmates required less healthcare services when following an exercise program in prison, thus making these exercise programs financially beneficial given the reduction in required care (Cashin et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Objective Recent research found that inmates experience undesirable and rapid weight gain during incarceration in Canadian federal penitentiaries. However, little is known about what factors and daily movement behaviours (e.g., physical activity, screen time, and sleep) influence weight gain during incarceration. This study examines how these 24-h movement/non-movement behaviours contribute to weight gain during incarceration. Methods This retrospective cohort study explored how weight change outcomes during incarceration (weight change, body mass index (BMI) change, and yearly weight gain) were influenced by physical activity, screen time, and sleep in a convenience sample of 754 inmates. The outcome measures were taken twice, once from participants’ medical chart at admission and again during a face-to-face follow-up interview (conducted in 2016–2017; mean follow-up time of 5.0 ± 8.3 years). Physical activity, screen time, and sleep were self-reported. The statistical analysis was chi-square testing, non-parametric median comparison testing, and regression analysis to control for confounders. Results Inmates who engaged in at least 60 min of daily physical activities gained less weight (4.5 kg) compared to inmates who reported not exercising (8.3 kg). Different types of exercise (cardiovascular exercises, weight lifting, and team sports) were helpful at limiting weight gain, but playing sports was the most effective. Screen time and sleep were not associated with weight gain outcomes. Conclusion Among the behaviours examined, physical inactivity was significantly associated with higher weight gain during incarceration. However, even high levels of physical activity (> 60 min/day) were not sufficient to eliminate weight gain during incarceration in Canada.
... Another potential factor contributing to weight gain in prisons is the limited opportunity for physical activity, which has been documented in the literature. Several studies indicate that a substantial proportion of prisoners spend most of their time sedentary (locked down) and spend only a very limited amount of time out in the open air (46). Based on their experience in prisons within the Rhode Island Area, Kuester et al. also indicated that limitation of space makes group exercise extremely difficult and that staffing shortages can lead to frequent lockdowns, with a use of television as a way to keep prisoners occupied resulting in long periods of sedentariness (42). ...
... Indeed, the inverse association between physical activity and mental health problems has been widely accepted (62,63). The promotion of physical activity to improve social contact and social cohesion within prisons has also been advocated for (46), and a positive impact on quality of life has been documented (64). ...
Article
Background: Existing evidence suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among prisoners in different settings is high. Evaluating weight change during incarceration would allow for the investigation of whether the prison environment indeed contributes to unfavourable weight changes. Objectives: This study aimed to do a systematic review and a meta-analysis of existing evidence regarding weight change during incarceration. Methods and results: We conducted a systematic literature search by using five different online databases and included grey literature. A total of 16 studies, all conducted in developed countries, were identified. Weight change was computed in 11 of these studies and was self-reported in five studies. Only two studies included youth. In all but 1 of the 11 studies using actual assessment of weight change, there was an increase in body weight or body mass index on average or weight gain occurred among a significant proportion of participants. A meta-analysis of eight of these studies showed an average weight gain of 0.43 (95% CI 0.14, 0.72) lb/week. In all studies including perceived weight change, a high proportion (43% to 73%) of participants reported weight gain during incarceration. Conclusion: Health promotion activities within prisons should incorporate initiatives aimed at combating unhealthy weight developments.
... As regards male inmates, since the time when Clarke, Haag and Owen (1986) announced the improved state of health that prisoners perceived thanks to a fitness programme in Australia, and Hagan (1989) revealed the potential of motor activities with therapeutic aims in view, a succession of many of the new benefits or roles that physical activities foster among prisoners has been presented, also in the United Kingdom (Meek, 2014). Such as, fomenting socialization and communicative skills (Lleix a & R ıos, 2015), supplementing the social inclusion process (Nelson, Specian, Tracy, & DeMello, 2006), raising self-esteem levels (Vaiciulis, Kavaliauska, & Radisauskas, 2011) and enhancing masculinity (Sabo, 2001). ...
... Our analysis from the results of the SR reveal that allegedly benefits constitute one of the most recurring themes (3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31 and 33), in consonance with those obtained in other studies on male prisoners, such as those which allude to improved quality of life (Hagan, 1989), those which contend that the practice of SPAs facilitates future inclusion into society (Meek, 2014) and helps make serving sentence more bearable (Murtaza et al., 2011), and those which regards SPAs as a useful means toward socialization and communicative skills (Lleix a & R ıos, 2015). Likewise, they verify, as Nelson et al. (2006) did in the past, that SPAs may make a major contribution to relinquishing drug consumption (7, 13, 21 and 25). ...
Article
Our aim doing this systematic review was to identify and analyze studies about women prison inmates' engagement in sport and physical activities. The review was conducted in three areas -sport and physical activities, prison and women- and based on information obtained from different databases. Through a selection process we singled out 33 empirical and review studies, the quality of which was analysed. From our analysis we learn that the benefits women prison inmates derive from sport and physical activities are considerable, although they also reveal that obstacles exist to be overcome if their levels of participation are to rise.
... According to the standards introduced by the Council of Europe, the enforcement of custodial sentences requires the opportunity for all prisoners to do physical exercises daily (Council ofEurope, 2006). Skillful use of sport in provoking changes interactions can bring many benefits ultimately resulting in a positive change of prisoners' behavior and their better adaptation to social life (Meek 2014). However, there is lot of controversy in taking up strength training by prisoners (Poklek, 2008;Todd, 1995). ...
... According to the standards introduced by the Council of Europe, the enforcement of custodial sentences requires the opportunity for all prisoners to do physical exercises daily (Council of Europe, 2006). Skillful use of sport in provoking changes interactions can bring many benefits ultimately resulting in a positive change of prisoners' behavior and their better adaptation to social life (Meek 2014). However, there is lot of controversy in taking up strength training by prisoners (Poklek, 2008;Todd, 1995). ...
Article
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Aim: Without taking into consideration the pedagogical justification for doing the strength training by prisoners, the authors of this study discuss the problem of the consequences of allowing prisoners to do the strength training freely. The study was conducted to determine the frequency and the location of the overload changes in the musculoskeletal system of prisoners who do the strength training as well as the presumable reasons for such changes. Methods: The study was conducted with the use of an interview technique among 44 men, repeat offenders serving a sentence of imprisonment in a prison in Inowrocław, regularly engaged in strength training in their free time. Results: The respondents trained quite often (more than 5 times a week), slightly more than a half of them started the training with the warm up, and 64% did not do any stretching exercises after the training. The overload changes associated with strength training affected 30% of the respondents. Conclusion: The high level of injury among prisoners who do the strength training is due to: too many sessions a week, the lack of warm up and stretching exercises, as well as the insufficient level of knowledge on the prevention from sports injuries.
... Na uspołecznia-* Autor korespondencyjny 1 Przykładem może być program "W zdrowym ciele nowy Ja" autorstwa Grzegorza Terlikowskiego, który otrzymał wyróżnienie w 2015 r. w konkur-jące walory kultury fizycznej i sportowej uwagę zwracali twórcy podstaw polskiej myśli resocjalizacyjnej, w tym Stanisław Jedlewski oraz Czesław Czapów (Czapów, 1978;Czapów i Jedlewski, 1971). Stanowią one także obszar rozważań współczesnych teoretyków resocjalizacji oraz penitencjarystów (Dobrzeniecki, 1998;Konopczyński, 2014;Meek, 2014;Pytka, 2008). ...
Article
Background. The article is an attempt to present the risk of overloading the motor system in prisoners who practice physical activity in their leisure time. Material and methods. The study was conducted among 50 imprisoned people taking up strength training in circumstances allowing them to decide about the frequency and course of particular sessions, and the size of the applied loads. The research tool was an interview based on the standardized Recovery Scoring Guide questionnaire by Kenttä and Hassmén, evaluating activities that reduce the risk of overload. The interview was extended by a short questionnaire interview of the researchers’ design. Results and conclusions. Only 12% of the responders performed activities reducing the risk of the motor system overload in a way not requiring any modification; 56% practiced the activities incorrectly, with a need for some changes. The authors suggest implementing organizational and educational interventions in prisons in order to reduce the risk of overloading the locomotor system among prisoners who practice strength training in their spare time.
... proliferation of violent behavior. [6] In addition to that, reporting wars taking place in different Arab countries with vivid images of murders of children and women reinforces the violent behaviors already acquired. [7] Playing video games is another factor that contributes in increasing teenagers' violence. ...
Article
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Aim: The aim of this research was discovering the role that sports activities play in reducing the adolescents' violence and aggressive behavior. Methods: The researcher used the experimental method with two groups; each on is made of thirty players (30 players of experimental sample, 30 players of control sample) Belonging in psychological counseling Municipal Association Mostaganem. Tested based on Scale designed by Eman Gamal El-Din 2008.[1] Its validity in the present study was calculated by Cronbach Alpha, which recorded a significant value of 0.80 more desirable in psychometric tests. Results: Based on the independent t-test, the results obtained show the fact that the players show an immense desire in practicing sport which in its turn inculcates in them values such patience and strong will. Furthermore, they manage to have control over themselves when they are angry for instance. Conclusions: No room is left to deny the positive impact on diminishing the vehement or violent attitudes of teenagers.
... Within the microcosm of sport there are also, encouragingly, a number of practical initiatives with a Christian underpinning that have a specific vision to address father absence and to bring life, hope and God's love to children. Of course, the utilisation of 'mentoring' in sport through coaching and teaching (regardless of affiliation, or not, to a religious group), is a well-documented method via which to inculcate desirable character attributes and to promote healthy civil engagement, in particular, with vulnerable and disadvantaged groups(Gravelling, Collins & Parker, 2014;Meek, 2013;Crabbe, 2009;McCloskey & Bailes, 2005). But my focus here is on the response of the Christian community (individuals and organisations alike) to the problem of fatherless, and how sport can act as vehicle for mentoring / fathering. ...
Chapter
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Sport chaplaincy in the western world is practiced in a socio-cultural context that is often characterised by wide-spread family breakdown and dysfunction. Social scientists and Christian commentators have described the era following the Second World War (1939-1945) as a ‘fatherless generation’, in which moral and social ills have exponentially increased due to the absence of good father-figures (Sowers, 2010; Blankenhorn, 1995). Millions of those people participating in sport (from grass roots to professional level), have experienced fatherlessness in some way, that is, they have a ‘deficit of love and affirmation’ due to a ‘physically’ or ‘emotionally’ absent father. Therefore, whether they are conscious of the fact or not (these emotional and spiritual wounds are often buried in the unconscious), arguably they would benefit from the ‘soul care’, or ‘fathering’ of a significant other. Chaplains who work in sport offer this service, and herein lies the rationale for providing an analysis of the wider socio-cultural and spiritual context in which sport chaplaincy occurs. This exploratory chapter examines the socio-cultural and spiritual context in which sports chaplaincy (in professional sport) is practiced, in light of the pandemic of fatherlessness in modern western culture. The chapter is structured around four thematic sections which were identified in a recent review of literature on sports and Christianity (Watson and Parker, 2014). These compromise: (i) a biblical overview of fatherlessness and fatherhood (ii) fatherlessness in the modern era (iii) social, political and Christian initiatives to combat fatherlessness (in, and through sports), and (iv) the role of sport chaplains in the ‘soul-care’ of the fatherless. In conclusion, I reflect upon the ‘central calling’ of sports chaplains with regard to how they might deal with fatherlessness, as and when it arises as an underlying issue in the course of their everyday work.
... Indispensable as visuality is to criminological critique, this article turns to the comparatively understated performative aspects of the representation of penal suffering. The importance of performance is recognized in the burgeoning criminological literature on prisons as sites of unique aesthetic, ritualistic or sensual properties, as soundscapes (Rice, 2016), and loci for sport (Meek, 2013), music and the performing arts. That scholarship gives further substance to the value of the performative as a vital extension of cultural production 'whose temporal duration (in both physical presence and cultural resonance) fluctuates according to both specific social contexts of production and reception' (Hallam and Hockey, 2001: 51). ...
Article
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The spectacle of the body in pain has long functioned heuristically in crime and justice. Within this phenomenon sits a counter-cultural tradition of re-enacting outrages in public view to rally against injustices. This article starts from the established claim that bodily suffering comprises a core matter of humanitarian campaigning. However, if ‘spectacular suffering’ has predominantly been discussed as a visual experience, this article examines its performative aspects. Transgressive performance is evident in demonstrations of forced-feeding, hunger strikes, self-immolation and lip-sewing carried out by prisoners or by their intermediaries with a view to publicizing their cause. During such exhibitions, the body in pain becomes a heuristic device for converting suffering into a medium for public consumption. However, tropes of corporal suffering are susceptible to cultural contestation and resistance from spectators. These possibilities call the publicity of suffering into question as an inherently progressive strategy.
... Although the authors of these works have chosen not to draw on Goffman's (1961) theories, these studies nonetheless highlight the diverse range of physical cultural settings that share similarities with those classified as total institutions. Such notable work includes research on sport in British prisons ( Meek 2014) and youth detention centres ( Andrews andAndrews 2003, Parker et al. 2014); physical activity programming in prisons in Australia ( Gallant et al. 2015) and Spain ( Martos-Garcia et al. 2009); and historical analysis of the social meaning of sport and play in Nazi concentration camps ( Eisen 1990, Lipoński 2012) and Canadian residential schools (Forsyth 2013). Furthermore, the literature on sport for development and peace makes it clear that sport programmes are offered in refugee camps in diverse locations around the globe ( Kidd 2008, Hayhurst 2011). ...
Article
This paper reflects on the methodological challenges faced during a qualitative research project on sport and physical culture in the Canadian federal prison system, during which the author tried and failed to gain access to observe sport programming and conduct interviews in two prisons. The paper has three principal aims. Firstly, to self-reflexively analyse the experience of failing to gain access to a research site and the subsequent methodological adaptations undertaken. Secondly, to assess the difficulties for scholars of sport and physical culture of researching in a ‘total institution’. And thirdly, to advocate for the use of bricolage in sports studies, as both a methodological tactic for researching difficult-to-access sites or subcultures and an interpretive analytical tool. This paper fills a unique void in the literature on sport research in total institutions, offering a critical and reflexive methodological examination of the barriers to qualitative research at such sites. It will be of particular interest to researchers of sport and physical culture who must find creative methodological solutions to research barriers, particularly in sites, subcultures and organisations to which access is severely restricted.
... Estos requisitos son válidos igualmente para un programa deportivo en prisión, sumándose otros factores que contribuyen a su éxito: 1. produce efectos más positivos si es impartido por personal " de la calle " (Boice, 1972;Morohoshi, 1976;Castillo, 2005;Meek, 2014tados negativos; poniendo de manifiesto que existen prisiones en las que la práctica deportiva no tiene como objetivo contribuir al proceso de reinserción social de los internos, siendo un claro ejemplo de un uso perverso del deporte en un ámbito penitenciario; 2. o que sí los cumplan. Esto refutaría las teorías que defienden el potencial educativo del deporte y el resultado de las investigaciones que constatan los beneficios del deporte en prisión. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Since in 1986 the first investigation was published in Spain of the effects a program of physical education and sports has in penitentiary population, different studies have been published on this topic and analyze it from different scientific disciplines. These investigations have come to contradictory conclusions about those effects, creating a disconcerting panorama: What results have the sports programs which are being held in Spanish prisons? Re-education, mere fun, social control? On the other hand, numerous international researches about the consequences of practising sports in inmates have been taking place from the seventies. Which are these studies results? Is there also disparity be
... Cognitive behavioral training and support for prison staff regarding anger, stress management, and coping strategies may help to decrease abuse by correctional officers (COs) and boost staff's ability to create and sustain a safe environment. Similarly, mental health counseling, conflict resolution, team work opportunities, and other clinical programs to increase communication skills among incarcerated people could reduce inmate-CO conflicts and inmate-on-inmate violence ( Appelbaum, Hickey, & Packer, Confining Legitimacy 267 2001;Finn, 2000;Godin, Gagnon, Alary, Noël, & Morissette, 2001;Meek, 2013;Parker, 2009;Schaufeli & Peeters, 2000). In their practice with formerly incarcerated people, social workers may find it productive to address their clients' negative experiences while incarcerated and perceptions of criminal justice legitimacy, as both of these factors may impact willingness and ability to successfully engage in care. ...
Article
There are currently 2 million people incarcerated in the United States. For social workers whose practice includes people who have experienced confinement, building knowledge about the impact of the incarceration on individual lives is critical. Understanding how the prison experience shapes perceptions of self and others can inform the design of case management plans and program interventions that respond to clients’ needs. This article expands understanding about the prison experience by exploring the impact of this experience on perceptions of criminal justice legitimacy.
... En el análisis de la metamorfosis de la pena, Foucault (1990) apunta cómo, tras los disfraces, el castigo sigue siendo corporal y la intención punitiva es la de fabricar cuerpos dóciles. En este escenario, las Actividades Físico-Deportivas (AFD) aparecen como un medio para atenuar los efectos nocivos del encierro y mejorar la salud de las personas presas (Meek, 2014). Así, recientemente diferentes experiencias han venido a relacionar la práctica de AFD con la salud física y mental (Ionescu, Parisot, & Irode, 2010), el abandono de drogas , los aspectos comunicativos y de socialización (Lleixà & Ríos, 2015), o la inclusión social (Williams, Collingwood, Coles, & Schmeer, 2015). ...
Article
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Resumen. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar los beneficios y las barreras que perciben las mujeres encarceladas durante la práctica de actividades físico-deportivas. La búsqueda se realizó partiendo de tres áreas-actividades físico-deportivas, prisión y mujer-la cual finalizó con 33 estudios de los cuales se seleccionaron 27 que analizaban los beneficios y/o las barreras de las presas, mediante un análisis de contenido. Los datos muestran cómo la práctica física les resulta beneficiosa tanto para su salud mental y física, como para resistir ante la condena. A la vez, ciertos estudios revisados apuntan que las actividades físico-deportivas pueden ser beneficiosas para la futura inclusión social. Por otra parte, los estudios evidencian obstáculos entre los cuales destaca el propio régimen penitenciario. Aunque sean realidades dispares se han encontrado similitudes entre ciertos beneficios y barreras de las mujeres en libertad y las reclusas, como la influencia del patriarcado. Los resultados constatan la necesidad de promover, mejorar y crear programas de actividad físico-deportivas pensados con y para las presas.
... One of the main reasons why sporting activities are so favoured by the prison management as well as by inmates is its positive impact on physical as well as mental health and well-being of the inmates. (Meek 2014) Regular sporting activities contribute to good physical health by reducing health risks linked to imprisonment (Meek -Lewis 2012), while they reduce stress and create a platform for meeting fellow inmates and maintaining social contacts. They also enhance cohesion within a community, thus contributing to mental equilibrium of the inmates. ...
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The text focuses on the relationship inmates have to their bodies during imprisonment. The data presented in this study are based on ethnographic research carried out in Czech men's high security prisons. The data set consists of interviews with partakers from the “world of prisoners”, observations from prisons and analysis of documents relating to Czech prison service. The analysis shows there is a strong relationship between the physical body and the process of constructing manhood/masculinity in the population of inmates. The physical body is one of crucial components of the masculine/macho prison code/culture. The attitude inmates have to their bodies seems to be altering, depending on the stage of imprisonment in which they currently are. For the description of this alteration I use the concept of the body as a project, which may serve as one of the possible ways of understanding the importance of the physical body to inmates during their imprisonment and changing motivations to its further development.
... In support of that statement, correctional staff, who hear the chatter in prison halls confirm that inmates are often discussing their previous meal or anticipating their next one [1]. As author Rosie Meek wrote, many experts from the correctional service world agree: "There are three things you need to get right in prison: the food, the visits and the gym" [2]. ...
Article
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Background: Canadian penitentiaries have recently been shown to be obesogenic. However, little is known about the eating habits of inmates who gained weight while living in the prison environment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study examined the reported food intake of inmates during incarceration in federal penitentiaries. During a face to face interview, anthropometric measures (2016-2017) were taken and compared to anthropometric data at the beginning of incarceration (mean follow-up of 5.0 ± 8.3 years). Self-reported data on food intake were collected via a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Inmates who gained the most weight (15.7 kg) during incarceration reported not eating vegetables. They were followed by inmates who gained 14.3 kg and reported not eating fruit. Other inmates who gained a significant amount of weight reported not eating cereal, dairy or legumes. Moreover, inmates' weight gain was also assessed by special diets: inmates following a religious diet (4.5 kg) or a diet of conscience (-0.3 kg) gained less weight than inmates not following a diet (5.8 kg). In comparison to other types of diets, inmates on a medical diet gained the most weight (7.5 kg). Furthermore, inmates who gained significant weight (8.0 kg) also reported not purchasing healthy foods from the commissary store (or "canteen"), whereas inmates who gained less weight (4.8 kg) reported purchasing healthy foods from the commissary store (or "canteen"). The observed weight gain was positively associated with food purchased from the commissary store (or "canteen"), but was not associated with the feeding system of the penitentiary (tray, cafeteria or meal plan). Discussion: Food intake during incarceration is a modifiable risk factor that could be the target of weight management interventions with inmates. Our findings suggest that inmates who gained the most weight also reported having low intake of foods deemed healthy (vegetables, fruit, cereal, dairy and legumes) from food services and from the commissary store (or "canteen") purchases.
... Ook het informeel leren heeft zijn plaats in een gevangenis. Zo heeft internationaal onderzoek aangetoond dat sportactiviteiten gedetineerden kunnen empoweren (MEEK, 2014;OZANO, 2008). Dat gebeurt door bijvoorbeeld gedetineerden te betrekken in het begeleiden van sportactiviteiten en hen zo de mogelijkheid te geven om inzicht te krijgen in hun eigen competenties. ...
Article
On 17 July 2015, the Flemish government approved the first strategic plan for the period 2015-2020 in relation to the social aid and assistance for detainees in prisons in Flanders and Brussels. This plan follows Flemish law of 2013 on the organisation of social aid and services which provides the drafting of such a strategic plan for each legislature. In this article we focus on the historical evolution of the forms of social aid and services in Flemish and Brussels prisons, and also outline the context in which the current social aid and services takes place. Then we will discuss a number of strategic options for the future which are included in this new strategic plan 2015-2020 and focus on more overarching themes namely (1) the bridge between inside and outside prison, (2) the growing participation and involvement of prisoners and (3) health care for certain prisoners with specific needs.
... On the one hand, evaluations should follow certain standards and should whenever possible use at least some kind of control group for assessment (e.g., Feddes & Gallucci, 2015). For example, Meek (2014) used at least national figures as comparison to examine the effect of sports programs on crime rates. An improvement to this method is seen in the work from Kovalsky et al. (2021) who assessed the influence of Yoga on recidivism and were able to conduct a propensity score matching, which is also becoming increasingly popular and beneficial to evaluation research (see Lösel, Link et al., 2020). ...
Thesis
The threat of extremist violence has led to an increase in research and preventive measures against radicalization in recent years. However, despite the large number of prevention programs, little is known regarding their effectiveness. For successful prevention, knowledge on which protective factors strengthen resilience is also necessary. Therefore, this dissertation sets out to analyze if and how prevention programs work, and which protective factors can be found in the context of radicalization in general and more specifically in a largely understudied field in radicalization research: left-wing extremism. Additionally, the dissertation takes into special consideration whether sports programs, which are a popular tool to prevent crime as well as promote positive development, are successful and which mechanisms enable the effects. The dissertation includes three main articles complemented by additional work on the topic. One methodological focus of the dissertation comprises systematic reviews and meta-analyses, although it offers a methodological variety by also drawing on primary data for left-wing extremist violence. Overall, the meta-analyses revealed positive effects for prevention programs on radicalization as well as sports programs for crime prevention. However, both reviews showed the need for more empirically sound evaluation research as well as longitudinal designs. A similar finding was made for protective factors, which are often examined with cross-sectional designs only. Furthermore, the study found certain overlaps between protective factors against radicalization and general crime and delinquency but also context-specific effects. The analysis on left-wing extremism showed the importance of extremist networks and violence legitimating attitudes as risk factors for committing violence as well as the protective influence of perceived legitimacy and procedural justice especially exhibited by the police. Implications of the findings as well as limitations of the presented research are discussed.
... As regards male inmates, since the time when Adrienne Clarke, Kevin Haag and Neville Owen (1986) announced the improved state of health that prisoners perceived thanks to a fitness programme in Australia, and John Hagan (1989) revealed the potential of motor activities with therapeutic aims in view, a succession of many of the new benefits or roles that physical activities foster among prisoners has been presented, also in the UK (Meek, 2014). Such as, fomenting socialisation and communicative skills (Lleixà & Ríos, 2015), among male inmates-, to date we have not found any SR in scientific literature that compiles studies on the SPAs practiced by women who have been deprived of freedom. ...
Thesis
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The aim of the present doctoral dissertation, characterized as a papers compilation, is to understand and analyse the meanings of sport and physical activity of incarcerated women. Using a qualitative methodology and different research techniques, we try to get a better understanding of the subject of study. The first study focuses on the role of sport and physical activity. Through in-depth interviews, we find that it has a positive effect on the quality of life of incarcerated women, and significantly, fulfils at least three different roles; help these women fill the time, flee from the prison routine and provide a support mechanism persevere. In the second study, we conduct a systematic review and a content analysis of the subject of study. The results show the diversity of the sport and physical activity and some barriers and benefits also emerge from the selected papers. In the third study, we comprehensively review the benefits and barriers incarcerated women experience based on investigations from the systematic review. We conclude that sport and physical activity can be beneficial at different levels but is full of barriers. Apart from the penitentiary regime, being the gender discrimination ¿because of the androcentric characteristic of prison¿ one of the principal barriers highlighted. One of the benefits that emerges is the opportunity to act as a micro-resistance. In the fourth study, through in-depth interviews we conclude that sport and physical activity can confront power relationships and social control of the prison, and improve inmates autonomy and identity. Finally, even if for some incarcerated women sport and physical activity can be a significant activity, they were in the lowest participant level of the penitentiary population. The results of this research confirm the need to create, improve and promote sport and physical activities programs, with and for female prisoners.
... Resilience-or the capacity to respond positively to adversity, uncertainty, failure and/or overwhelming change (Kossek and Perrigino 2016;Luthans and Youssef 2004;Masten and Reed 2002;Skodol 2010;Zautra, Stuart Hall, and Murray 2010;Zimmermann and Brenner 2010)-characterizes the final element of positive psychological capital. For populations who experience social exclusion, enhancing resilience has emerged as a key factor within initiatives which support the progression of skills necessary for education, employment and training (Meek 2013;Phillips 2010). While definitions of resilience vary, Skodol (2010) has offered insight into the psychological traits of the 'resilient personality' (p. ...
Article
(Re-)Engagement with education and employment is a common objective within interventions designed to enhance social inclusion through sport participation. Consequently, the acquisition of capital to expedite the (re)engagement process has become a familiar theme. Literature has examined how various forms of capital may be accumulated through participation in sport. However, competing literature has explored how participation may enable positive psychological capital—which comprises personal qualities such as resilience, hope, optimism and self-efficacy—to be developed. This article adds to this work, by providing insights from a sports-based project which aimed to develop social inclusion among marginalized youth in three regions of the UK. Utilizing data from semi-structured interviews, we highlight how participation enabled young people to enhance the components of positive psychological capital, and offer a further theoretical vantage point from which to understand and debate the relationship between participation in sport and social inclusion.
... We will consider in a comparative way the realities of social reintegration of prisoners, be they juveniles or adults, helping them to structure themselves and reassert themselves as individuals (Esposito, 2012;Meek, 2014). ...
... La idoneidad de la práctica de AFD en prisión viene avalada por multitud de investigaciones, también en el plano internacional. Así, recientes trabajos recalcan los beneficios que aportan las AFD, por ejemplo, en la mejora de la salud en su plano físico, la disminución del estrés, el combate contra el aburrimiento o el alejamiento de las drogas (Gallant, Sherry y Nicholson, 2015;Meek, 2014;Norman, 2017;Sabo, 2001). En este sentido, hemos de constatar cómo este aumento en el número de investigaciones preocupadas por la relación entre la práctica de AFD y los beneficios que ello reporta, ha conllevado cierta atención a la población reclusa femenina. ...
Article
Resumen La literatura científica ha relacionado en los últimos años la práctica de actividades físicas y deportivas con varios beneficios a nivel físico, psicológico o social y emocional entre los presos, pero existen menos evidencias en cuanto a las presas. Además, esta relación no detalla el tipo de prácticas físicas, lo que evidencia una laguna obvia para nuestra área de conocimiento. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer datos en este sentido a tenor de las interpretaciones de una presa, madre, drogadicta y deportista a la cual hemos entrevistado en tres ocasio-nes a lo largo de casi 5 años. Los datos aluden a su relación con la droga, el papel del ejercicio en esta relación y las posibilidades de reinserción en función del tipo de práctica realizada. Según los datos, las actividades psicomotoras se asocian a un significado terapéutico, pues parecen combatir la adicción a la droga al suplir sus efectos placenteros, mientras que las actividades sociomotrices crean lazos de amistad y redes de 'iguales' que facilitan su interpretación como una estrategia de reinserción social. Palabras clave: Prisión, actividades físicas y deportivas, mujer, reinserción, droga. Abstract In the last few years, scientific literature has linked the practice of physical and sporting activities with various benefits such as physical, psychological or social and emotional among prisoners, but there is less evidence when we come to female prisoners. In addition to this, we have not got a range of evidences about the type of physical practices they were carrying out thus, there is an obvious gap in this area of knowledge. In order to fill that gap, the objective of this article is to provide data based on the interpretations of an inmate, mother, drug addict and sportswoman whom we have interviewed on three occasions over almost 5 years. The data refer to her drug dependence, the effect of the exercise in this relationship and the possibilities of reintegration depending on the type of physical activity they carry out. According to the data, psychomotor activities combat drug addiction and may replace the peak moments, while sociomotor activities create bonds of friendship between 'equals', networks that make easier the social reintegration.
... As recent as the last decade, sport has been proposed as one high impact practice within the prison setting (Meek, 2013). However, while the use of sport in adult prisons has steadily gained momentum. ...
Article
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The use of sport as a developmental tool for youth has been widely studied. However, one important segment of the population that has been largely overlooked in this work, likely due to its restrictive and hard to access nature, is youth from juvenile detention centers. Incarcerated youth represent at least 1% of all children in the United States who are faced with a complex set of psychological, physical, and social needs. In recent years, the rehabilitative role of sport within prison has been explored; however, limited research in this area exists. One critical line of investigation is to explore programs leaders’ experiences leading sport-based programs in the prison setting in order to inform how to tailor instructor training programs and inevitability foster better program quality and youth outcomes. Therefore, this study examined four graduate students’ self-efficacy beliefs for leading a leadership and life skills sports program within a youth prison. Data included weekly voice reflections and periodic interviews across a two-year program span. Deductive analyses indicated participants’ beliefs were influenced by Bandura’s (1977) four sources of self-efficacy with corresponding subthemes describing their nerves, highs and lows, good days, growth overtime, shared identities, observations of prison staff, and support from others. The current study offers insight on how individuals perceive their competencies for leading a sport program within a highly volatile environment. Suggestions for enhancing self-efficacy beliefs in order to better foster positive developmental youth outcomes are discussed.
... Another aspect of prison life often reported as positive for people in custody are opportunities for exercise and sport (M Maycock, 2018;Meek, 2014;Pérez-Moreno et al., 2007), education (Coates, 2016) and various programmes (for example, including those focused on offending behaviour, rehabilitation and substance misuse (Behan, 2014;Hollin & Palmer, 2006;Mahoney, Chouliara, & Karatzias, 2015;McGuire, 2006;Sapouna, Bisset, & Conlong, 2011)), all of which were paused as a result of the lockdown across the Scottish prison estate. As a consequence, the group of questions below were focused on these areas of out of cell activity:  When will night-time exercise start? ...
Article
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The Covid-19 pandemic and lockdown represents a significant challenge for qualitative researchers due to social distancing measures restricting face to face data collection. At the time of ethical approval (early April 2020) all face-to-face research projects facilitated by the Scottish Prison Service (SPS) and most prison jurisdictions were paused. In response to these methodological challenges, a participatory action correspondence methodology was designed in order for people in custody to influence the direction of this project by suggesting research questions and themes. This article analyses the potential of this approach, what this illuminated and critically engages with the challenges of implementing this qualitative methodology. Eight participants were selected due to previous participation in a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project at one Scottish prison. After consent was given via post, eight letters were sent to the participants. This paper analyses the questions relating to, and aspects of Covid-19 that were important to the participants, in the hope that these insights will influence other qualitative research on the impacts of Covid-19 within prison settings. Methodologically and theoretically, this paper illustrates the potential and challenges relating to using a qualitative correspondence method to facilitate unique insights into life in custody during what emerges as a particularly challenging time in prison settings. More widely the paper reiterates and restates the importance of qualitative research methods as methods that provide unique and rich insights into the Covid-19 pandemic.
... However, this result should be interpreted with caution since anabolic steroid use is common among male prisoner populations with an explicit intent of building muscle body mass. 31,32 Regarding data-linkage studies between surveys and clinical records, the authors are only aware of one previous such prison-based study in which comparative statistics for agreement were reported. Conducted in the US among 679 inmates from one male and one female maximum-security prison, findings concurred with the findings from the present study; namely, good to very good agreement for diabetes, asthma, and hypertension. ...
Article
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Background: The size and mean age of the prison population has increased rapidly in recent years. Prisoners are a vulnerable group who, compared with the general population, experience poorer health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research quantifying the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among prisoner populations. Aim: To explore both the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors. Design & setting: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken that was compared with clinical records in two male prisons in the north of England. Method: Self-report surveys were completed by 199 prisoners to assess sociodemographic characteristics, general health, NCD prevalence, and risk factor prevalence. Data were checked against that retrieved from prison clinical records. Results: It was found that 46% reported at least one NCD and 26% reported at least one physical health NCD. The most common self-reported NCD was 'anxiety and depression' (34%), followed by 'respiratory disease' (17%), and 'hypertension' (10%). Having a physical health NCD was independently associated with increasing age or drug dependence.The level of agreement between clinical records and self-report ranged from 'fair' for alcohol dependence (kappa 0.38; P<0.001) to 'very good' for diabetes (kappa 0.86; P<0.001). Conclusion: Compared with mainstream populations and despite high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs physical illness NCDs, with the exception of respiratory disease, are less common. However, poor mental health is more common. These differences are possibly owing to the younger average age of prison populations, since prevalence of risk factors was reported as high.Secondary data analysis of clinical records is a more methodologically robust way of monitoring trends in prisoner population disease prevalence.
... The benefits of physical activity in both community settings and prison populations are well established (Meek, 2014; but traditionally such activity has been provided through access to the prison gym or exercise yard, with a focus on weight lifting and team sports. For example, the National Audit Office (2006) report on prisoner diet and exercise failed to consider the wider benefits of gardening as either a form of exercise or a way to address heavy reliance on convenience foods. ...
... Ο αθλητισμός εκτιμάται ότι βοηθά τους νεαρούς εγκλείστους να βελτιώσουν την επίδοσή τους στα αθλήματα, να υπακούν σε κανόνες, να ζουν με άλλους ως μέλη μιας ομάδας, να μαθαίνουν και την ήττα, να εξασκούνται στον αυτοέλεγχο, να αντιμετωπίζουν τυχόν επιθετικότητά τους και να έχουν ένα κίνητρο συνέχισης της σωματικής άσκησης σε κάποιον αθλητικό φορέα μετά την απόλυση (Council of Europe, 1990). Η φυσική άσκηση στη φυλακή έχει θεωρηθεί τόσο σημαντική όσο η διατροφή ή η επαφή με τους αγαπημένα πρόσωπα (Meek, 2014). ...
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Αγγελάκη, Ρ. (2021). «Η Βυζαντινή Κύπρος μέσα από την πληροφοριακή και αισθητική ανάγνωση λέξεων & εικόνων στο πραγματογνωστικό παιδικό βιβλίο γνώσεων». Στο Ε. Κανταρτζή, Γ. Παπαδημητρίου & Χ. Κωσταρής (Επιμ.) Πρακτικά 5ου Πανελλήνιου Συνεδρίου «Εκπαίδευση στον 21ο αιώνα: ανάπτυξη της κριτικής σκέψης, της δημιουργικότητας και της καινοτομίας», Τόμ. Α΄ (σσ.92-99). Αθήνα: Μουσείο Σχολικής Ζωής και Εκπαίδευσης του ΕΚΕΔΙΣΥ, Παιδαγωγική Εταιρεία Ελλάδος, Κολλέγιο Αθηνών.
Article
Zusammenfassung Basierend auf einer systematischen Literaturrecherche über den Sport im Strafvollzug geht das Review der Frage nach, wie die Inhaftierten den Gefängnissport erfahren und reflektieren. Gestützt auf zehn qualitative Studien werden die zentralen Bedeutungsfacetten des Sports in der Haft herausgearbeitet. Grundsätzlich wird darauf verwiesen, dass der Sport für die Häftlinge ein wichtiges Medium bei der Bewältigung der mit der Inhaftierung typischerweise einhergehenden negativen Begleiterscheinungen ist: Die Teilnahme am Sport ermöglicht es ihnen, die Monotonie und Langeweile des Gefängnisalltags aufzubrechen, Stress abzubauen und das Gefühl von sozialer Isolation zu reduzieren. Darüber hinaus bietet der Gefängnissport in einer totalitären Institution eine der wenigen Nischen, in denen sich die (männlichen) Gefangenen temporär als selbstbestimmte Subjekte erfahren können. Negative Einflüsse des Sports werden in bisherigen Studien kaum thematisiert, ebenso wenig wird Sport als Mittel der Resozialisierung gesehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden Forschungslücken und Perspektiven für zukünftige Studien aufgezeigt.
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Corrections is one of the five pillars of the Criminal Justice System. The study aimed to assess the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) towards the inmates of the jails located in the Province of Agusan del Norte. The study used a descriptive method of research. The survey was given to the 317 inmates. The findings revealed that in the jails under the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, the majority of the inmates’ responses were slightly dissatisfied. In addition, the food budget of the inmates in the province of Agusan del Norte is not sufficient to provide a complete set of utensils and diet that would provide better nourishment to the inmates. The regular doctor is also not available to provide the regular evaluation of the inmates’ physical and other conditions. The nurse personnel is available but can’t cater to all the inmates’ needs towards emergency cases. Moreover, the Alternative learning system is inaccessible because the budget for school supplies and reading materials is insufficient. It was recommended that the National Government was comprised of the Executive, Legislative, and Judiciary must provide the budget for the creation of additional courts, appointed judges, public prosecutor, public lawyers, and Jail officers. The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology administration should seek a plan and intervention programs that enhance the Bureau’s current services.
Book
This book constitutes the first publication to utilise a range of social science methodologies to illuminate diverse and new aspects of health research in prison settings. Prison contexts often have profound implications for the health of the people who live and work within them. Despite these settings often housing people from extremely disadvantaged and deprived communities, many with multiple and complex health needs, health research is generally neglected within both criminology and medical sociology. Through the fourteen chapters of this book, a range of issues emerge that the authors of each contribution reflect upon. The ethical concerns that emerge as a consequence of undertaking prison health research are not ignored, indeed these lie at the heart of this book and resonate across all the chapters. Foregrounding these issues necessarily forms a significant focus of this introductory chapter. Alongside explicitly considering emerging ethical issues, our contributing authors also have considered diverse aspects of innovation in research methodologies within the context of prison health research. Many of the chapters are innovative through the methodologies that were used, often adapting and utilising research methods rarely used within prison settings. The book brings together chapters from students, scholars, practitioners and service users from a range of disciplines (including medical sociology, medical anthropology, criminology, psychology and public health).
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This chapter considers the topic of leisure within the distinctive socio-spatial context of both youth and adult custodial institutions. While the study of leisure is predominantly concerned with how individuals spend their ‘free’ time, leisure within prisons poses a number of different issues and questions. As this chapter demonstrates ‘prison leisure’ is often geared towards ‘killing time’, thereby posing challenges to the association of leisure with ideas of voluntarism. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to critically assess the appeal—and subversion—of the deviant leisure perspective within the unique social world of a prison. This chapter draws on an extensive and ongoing multi-site ethnographic study to explore the ways in which prisoners use the large amounts of empty, unstructured time to create and pursue opportunities for forms of leisure which mirror and reproduce leisure pursuits and activities enjoyed in the community, recategorised here for the prison context as cellular leisure, regulated leisure and institutionalised leisure.
Article
Sport is often framed as a panacea for social disharmony, especially within the context of marginalised youth populations, and is widely promoted as a mechanism through which a multiplicity of social policy objectives can be achieved. Yet while political rhetoric has long pointed towards sport’s transformative abilities, the basis for such claims remains unproven. Theory-based approaches to evaluation have been posited as a useful device to explore the impact of specific initiatives and indicate where best practice may operate. The aim of this paper is to highlight one such theory-based framework that has been devised by practitioners in recent years around the operationalisation and evaluation of sporting interventions in criminal justice settings and which has come to be adopted as the dominant ‘theory of change’ across sport and criminal justice practitioner settings in the UK, but has, as yet, eluded academic scrutiny. To address this omission, the present discussion offers an in-depth analysis of this framework with the aim of discerning more clearly ‘what might work’ within sport and criminal justice contexts. In turn, the paper aims to stimulate further academic debate around the instrumental role of sport within criminal justice and the value of such frameworks for both policy and practice.
Article
en Sport and exercise are prominent activities in the daily routines of prisoners around the world, yet the spatial significance of these activities in carceral environments has not been deeply investigated. With a focus on the experiences of former federal prisoners in Canada, this paper addresses this scholarly gap by bringing together emerging trends in the literatures on sociology of sport, sports geography, and carceral geography to investigate the complex social meanings of prison sport and exercise. Specifically, we explore the folding of sports space into carceral space, often with the effect of reinforcing violent and exclusionary situations, but which also helps construct alternative spatial and temporal realities. Indeed, our overarching theoretical analysis considers how prisoners use sport to produce space in ways that assert a limited degree of agency over their daily lives and temporarily transcend their unpleasant conditions of confinement. By drawing from diverse theoretical frameworks and literatures, we advance novel arguments about the socio‐spatial significance of sport in prisons and raise some important questions for further research. L'intégration de l'espace sportif dans l'espace carcéral : la construction des expériences des prisonniers et leurs vécus fr Le sport et l'exercice sont des activités primordiales dans la routine quotidienne des prisonniers partout dans le monde. Pourtant l'importance spatiale de ces activités dans les milieux carcéraux n'a pas fait l'objet d’études approfondies. Mettant l'accent sur les expériences d'ex‐prisonniers fédéraux au Canada, la présente recherche vise à combler cette lacune dans les connaissances en établissant des liens dans les nouvelles tendances des écrits sur la sociologie des sports, la géographie des sports et la géographie carcérale, le tout dans le but d’étudier la signification sociale complexe du sport et de l'exercice en prison. Nous examinons plus particulièrement l'intégration des espaces sportifs dans l'espace carcéral, lesquels espaces ont souvent pour effet de renforcer les situations de violence et d'exclusion. Toutefois, ceux‐ci contribuent également à la construction de réalités spatiales et temporelles alternatives. En effet, notre analyse théorique globale tient compte de la façon dont les prisonniers utilisent le sport pour produire de l'espace de manière à maintenir une certaine marge de manœuvre dans leur vie quotidienne, ce qui transcende temporairement des condition de détention difficiles. En nous inspirant de divers cadres et documents théoriques, nous faisons valoir de nouveaux arguments au sujet de l'importance sociospatiale du sport dans les prisons et nous soulevons des questions primordiales pour les recherches ultérieures.
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The development process of the muscle strength is a priority of physical education and sports activities, along all training cycles, due to the importance that the motor skills, the strength – with its forms of manifestation and combinations with other skills – has in the manifestation of students’ motor potential. Special education in prison regime –which took place in the experimental study – imposes distinct measures of approaching the teaching process, due to the peculiarities of these students, by comparison with the subjects of the same cycle/gymnasium, but enrolled in classical education units. The much higher chronological average age of these special groups, cumulated with superior somatic-functional availabilities, involve higher performance standards/scales, as well as the use of tasks which exceed by far the average of physical demands at puberty, fitted in the effort of potential which is characteristic of teenagers and youth/ high school or post-secondary stage. The performances of both lots – experimental and control – highlights superior progress regarding accumulations on the line of muscle strength, identifying and verifying more viable methods, with respect to the development of strength, the conditional motor skill.
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Sport plays a key role within discourses of masculinity in Western contemporary culture. Throughout mainstream prison research, the male offender is recognised (or perhaps unrecognised) as the non-gendered offender. However, contemporary researchers are beginning to acknowledge the omission of their predecessors to treat the gender of male subjects as problematic (Morgan, 1986; Newton, 1994). Nonetheless, this explicit recognition remains relatively unusual in academia, as within the prison walls there still exists an apparent silence around gender and masculinity (Sabo, 2000). Johnsen’s ethnographic study of sport, masculinities and power relations in a Norwegian prison revealed that few male prisoners view themselves as gendered men or have a “conscious relationship to the concept of masculinity” (Johnsen 2001, p. 108), instead appearing more at ease discussing femininity and their gender in relation to women (Johnsen 2001). So, although research is now serving to objectify male prisoners as gendered subjects, for the most part male prisoners seem to be subjectively unaware of their gender, except perhaps, in the context of sport. When referring to young offenders (aged 15–21 years old), it is also important to consider that adolescent boys may experience masculinity in a somewhat different manner to adults, particularly in British society where masculinities of young men are often presented as being problematic (Frosh, 2001). The criminality of young offenders suggests that their experience of masculinities has been more negative than most, leading them to construct a masculinity which conflicts with social norms and laws. Although there is limited research which focuses on the role of sport in debates of masculinity in prison, this chapter will consider literature on sporting masculinities across the community and the prison estate where possible, in the context of both adult prisoners and young offenders, making inferences where research does not exist.
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Therefore, the primary purpose of this paper is to analysis a sport-based intervention on the psychological well-being of the prisoners living in the prison of Cassino (Italy). The study has in particular three aims and two hypotheses: aims To determine the impact of the program on prisoners’ personal development, emotional health, resilience, social inclusion, peer relationships and other ‘life skills’. To determine the impact of the program on social cohesion in prison community. To investigate issues arising from the implementation of the program. Hypotheses 1. Participants in the program will have significantly better emotional health, peer relationships and feelings of social inclusion if compared with those who do not participate at all or who only participate minimally in the program; 2. The program will contribute to the education and rehabilitation process of the prisoners.
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This chapter considers how the prison environment impacts women’s mental health during their incarceration. Through interviews with women living on the housing block of a closed Female Training Prison in England, the experience of imprisonment is considered to have substantial impact on mental health through lack of social support from others, uncertainty around punishment and a lack of opportunities to engage in meaningful activity in order to promote mental health. Behaviours to overcome these feelings were not necessarily about promoting mental health, but emerged as a result of the need to cope with the prison environment. The findings are discussed in relation to the broader literature and policy surrounding health and health promotion in prisons.
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Aim. Muscle strength development is a priority of physical education and sports activities for all training cycles, due to the importance that the motor skills, strength – with its forms of manifestation and combinations with other skills – has in the manifestation of students’ motor potential. The aim of our research was to study strength – with its forms of manifestation and combinations with other skills in special education in prison regime, which imposes distinct measures of approaching to educational process. Materials and methods. The study took place at Tichilesti Special Secondary School (Braila County) with prison regime for minors and youth, during the school year 2016–2017, for both semesters. The study was divided into two distinct stages, differentiated in two main learning units, i.e. in the first semester – 18 lessons and in the second semester – 8 lessons. Results. The statistical processing of the results – obtained by the students from the experimental group – highlights a strong and significant progress for all used tests, which confirms the statistic hypothesis and strengthens the privileged position that the work in circuit method holds in school physical education, in order to optimize the muscle strength. Conclusion. The results obtained through the implementation of the experimental curriculum confirm its importance and viability but the fact that the control group achieves significant and similar performance leaps to the experimental group, demonstrates that the other traditional methods of muscle strength education are useful and that they cannot be removed from the training process.
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This chapter deals with the question if, and how, the older prisoner is able to survive the experience of imprisonment. It takes into account both the existential process of growing older and the existential dimensions of being imprisoned. It attempts to examine the older prisoner’s response to imprisonment by drawing on ethnographical data.
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Much research indicates that a major source of influence on the display of moral behavior is the social context within which behavior is to be emitted. The purpose of this study was to test the generality of this finding with respect to one specific type of sportsmanship behavior, namely concern for the opponent. Two elements of the social context were assessed, namely the subjective expected utilities (or anticipated consequences) associated with performing the sportsmanship behavior and whether athletes were engaged in individual or team sports. Male and female athletes (N-528) from team and individual sports were asked to indicate the extent to which they would display behavior in line with a concern for the opponent in two situations. In the first situation, utilities for displaying concern for the opponent were low (displaying concern for the opponent would entail losing the match). In the second situation, utilities for displaying concern for the opponent were moderate (displaying concern for the opponent prevented a win but did not assure a loss). Results revealed the presence of utilities and types of sports main effects. These main effects were superseded by a utilities X types of sport interaction. This interaction revealed that team-sport athletes showed low levels of concern for the opponent irrespective of the situation. On the other hand, individual-sport athletes (although showing more concern for the opponent than team-sport athletes in both utilities situations) showed significantly more concern for the opponent in the moderate than in the low utilities situation. The present findings underscore the fundamental importance of the social context in sportsmanship behavior.
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This study uses Stein and Markus’ (1996) self-concept and behavior change framework to examine youth offenders’ responses to individual-level treatment in a residential correctional facility. The authors analysed transcripts collected from 10 male offenders, aged 15-17, who were interviewed at least three times over a period of four to six months. Results showed that while many offenders were able to identify negative trends in their life that led to their criminal behavior, other cognitively filtered out self-defeating information and did not identify troubling life patterns. Offenders also articulated visions of hoped for selves that were anchored in their lived experiences with positive role models and feared the selves that they might become if they continued down a criminal path. However, nearly all of the offenders had loosely organized or vague strategies for achieving their hoped for or idealized selves. Based on these findings, the authors pose implications for self-concept theory and for treatment practices with this population group.
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This study analyses new data on the service demands of gender and age subpopulations of occasional and frequent offenders shared by health, social care and criminal justice agencies in the UK. Using a case-linkage methodology borrowed from health studies, we tracked the population of offenders across multiple agencies within a Health Authority jurisdiction in an English county over a three-year period. We show that offenders and frequent offenders demanded services in larger proportions than non-offenders and occasional offenders, particularly drug and alcohol services. We find that overrepresentations of males and youngsters among offenders were more marked among frequent offenders. Using categorical principal component analyses, we identify three typologies of frequent offenders making heavy demands on public services, and detect key discrepancies between their problems and levels of service provision. Our findings indicate the need to devise inter-agency strategies for the treatment and care of different groups of offenders, while providing useful data on their characteristics so as to make these strategies more effective.
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This article explores the overrepresentation of management-level corporate participants in Discovery Channel Eco-Challenge (DCEC) as a suggestion of the emergence of a new class — or social group — habitus common to both `new' corporate culture and the adventure racing (AR) field. The current analysis, which examines the parallels between conceptualizations, perceptions and judgements of practice embedded in AR and `new' corporate discourses, has two aims: first, to uncover the practice-generating principle(s) (habitus) in the AR field; second, to explore the relationship between the AR and `new' corporate habitus through AR's purported benefit of `transferability'. Our qualitative analysis is based on participant observation and on 37 semi-structured interviews with AR participants.
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In addressing the wider issue of the Black experience in sport, this study provides an avenue of research into perceived discriminatory practices against Black semiprofessional soccer players and how such practices are dealt with by the players. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Black players to document their related experiences. Analysis of common emergent themes from the data reveal that the continued existence of stereotypical attitudes toward Black players limit their opportunities within the game, while spectator racial abuse, particularly outside London, is a frequent occurrence. The findings are located within the tenets of race, identity, and mainstream cultural practice within present British society, and the interaction that occurs between them. It is anticipated that despite respondent optimism, progress through, and elevation within, the semiprofessional game for Blacks continues to be slow and uneven.
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Sport, particularly football, is increasingly recognized as a means for promoting social inclusion. Yet rigorous evaluations of football-based social inclusion projects are rarely carried out. This paper explains the importance of evaluation and proposes the use of realist evaluation as a framework for developing theory, informing social policy and improving project design. It also aims to develop a workable template for small-scale project evaluation. The paper draws a series of conclusions on how rigorous evaluation of football-based social inclusion projects can benefit participants, practitioners and policy makers, as well as football clubs and the communities they serve.
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This article explores the notion of so-called ‘strengths-based’ offender reintegration for prisoners returning to the community. First, we briefly explore the normative and empirical theory underlying this approach. Next, we present evidence from a case study the authors have undertaken on a particularly interesting example of strengths-based resettlement in action. It illustrates the tensions that occur when risk-based policies collide with strengthsbased opportunities. The lessons learned in this case study are then used to develop further the theoretical understanding behind a strengths-based resettlement approach.
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Findings are presented of a qualitative exploration of offenders' accounts of themselves, their lives and their offending behaviour. Participants were nine male and nine female offenders, aged 19 to 50 years. A model of crime as described by these individuals was developed. Gendered meanings were explored in both men's and women's accounts. Pathways into crime described by the participants were shaped by a range of personal and social background influences and by processes related to negative social relations, positive evaluations of crime, and crime orientation. Changes in the same influences and processes, with a greater emphasis on the personal level, were apparent in participants' descriptions of their pathways out of crime.
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Recent sport psychology research addressing athletic aggression has tended to focus either on the moral or the motivational dimensions of aggressive behavior. The current study utilized both moral and motivational constructs to investigate aggression in young soccer participants (N = 212) from two different age-group leagues: under 12 and under 14. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that players who described themselves as more likely to aggress against an opponent also were more likely to (a) identify a larger number of teammates who would aggress in a similar situation, (b) perceive their coach as placing greater importance on ego-oriented goals, and (c) choose situations featuring preconventional rather than conventional moral motives as more tempting for aggressive action. These results suggest that young athletes' aggressive behavior is related to their team's "moral atmosphere," including team aggressive norms, players' perceptions of these team norms and coach characteristics, and players' moral motives for behavior.
Article
Recent research has explored the relationship between sports participation in high school and the sexual and reproductive behavior of females. Evidence has accumulated that playing sports is associated with a lowered risk of pregnancy among adolescents and positively associated with the use of contraceptives, but little evidence has been uncovered as to whether such associations endure into young adulthood. Using data from a representative community sample, we examined whether differences in high school sports participation has an association with the sexual and reproductive activities of young adult women after high school (n = 679). Results of multivariate analyses suggest that high school sports involvement is a predictor of the likelihood of childbirth outside of marriage and lifetime number of sex partners but is not a predictor of condom use during sex.
Article
Despite widespread recognition of the importance of sport in diverting people from criminal behaviour in community settings (Nichols, 2007) the potential benefits of sport in prison settings have only recently become the focus of academic attention (see Lewis and Meek, 2012). In the UK, current policy stipulates a statutory requirement that all prisoners across the secure estate have the opportunity to participate in a minimum of one hour (or two hours on average for those under 21) of physical education per week. The Prison Service's Physical Education Instruction advocates sporting activities that also fulfil wider resettlement policy agendas, incorporating education, training and employment and attitudes, thinking and behaviour. In spite of such ambitious objectives and the routine delivery of physical education in prisons, there has been no exploration to date of whether participation is equitable across diverse offender populations, or the extent to which current practices are congruent with existing policy.
Article
Recent policy documents have promoted partnership working between criminal justice agencies and third sector organizations (TSOs) as a means to tackle re-offending. However, the context in which such partnership working takes place has received little attention despite the fact that relationships between frontline criminal justice staff and TSOs are likely to be crucial to successful initiatives. This article draws on qualitative interviews with prison staff and representatives from TSOs in eight prisons to examine relations between the two groups and to consider whether TSOs are treated as partners, guests or competitors in prisons.
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Drawing on a qualitative study conducted in England, this article argues that targeted youth projects often benefit participants, but over-stating their ability to prevent crime and ‘anti-social behaviour’ can be problematic. Voluntary services with limited resources ultimately focus on receptive young people, but pressure to justify funding encourages practitioners, programme managers and policy-makers to highlight the ‘riskiness’ of participants and publicize the most striking successes. Such practices can serve to consolidate negative representations of the risk posed by young people (or ‘define deviance up’) and give credence to the notions of choice and intractability that underpin punitive policies. Meanwhile, alternative justifications for youth provision are silenced.
Article
This study tests a model specifying that girls' precollege participation in sporting activities will foster positive body images, enhanced perceptions of physical competence, and more flexible gender identities, which, in turn, predict higher college self-esteem. A sample of 220 college females (mean age = 19.65 years) provided retrospective reports of their precollege sport involvement and contemporaneous assessments of body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables. Consistent with prior reports on male and mixed-gender samples, greater precollege sport participation predicted higher self-esteem in this exclusively female sample. Follow-up path analyses and tests for mediation revealed that the model's intervening variables totally mediated the sport participation/self-esteem relationship. The patterning of these data implies that participating in sports promotes females' self-worth by fostering physical competencies, favorable body images, and gender flexibility, and, in the absence of any such psychosocial benefits, participation in sports has little salutary effect on and can even undermine self-esteem.
Article
Young men in prison constitute a unique population living with a dichotomous identity. Inside the prison, and from a dominant cultural perspective, the young men are criminals. In their communities, they are the “homeboys.” This essay explores the complications of identity in the context of a communication education course in performing personal narratives. The naming of the criminal, the criminal body as a site of punishment, urban mythology, and language are issues addressed. The analysis is based in principles of labeling, class struggle, and corporal punishment. The essay argues for the construction of personal narratives that are based in the identity of the story teller as a homeboy rather than a criminal.
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Obtaining social support is an important aspect of managing stress. Within the unit management model, prison officers provide supportive assistance to prisoners and provide access to other sources of support. Officers' capacity to fulfill these aspects of their duties relies, in part, upon prisoners' willingness to approach officers for support. Data from 187 prisoners in a male maximum-security prison indicated that they would rarely approach prison officers for support, although this varied according to the type of problem encountered. Prisoners reported a greater willingness to seek practical help than emotional support from prison officers. There were no differences between those prisoners who reported a history of self-harm and those who did not. The data suggest if prisoners' only access to support is through prison officers, then prisoners in need would be reluctant to seek help. Moreover, if efforts to identify prisoners at risk of self-harm were reliant on prisoners' self-disclosure of distress then these efforts would not be effective.
Article
A person's identity—both in his own eyes and in the eyes o f others—is very often tied to his occupation. One's job may determine to a large extent the kind and quality of life one leads. In penology and correction, therefore, as in perhaps all the social sciences, the function and availability of employ ment are o f great concern. According to some analysts, gain ful employment is perhaps the most important ingredient needed to help ex-offenders pursue law-abiding, productive lives; unemployment is one of the principal causes of recidi vism among adult male offenders. Yet, despite popular sentiment regarding the desirability o f giving "a second chance" to the person with a criminal re cord, socially imposed and almost insurmountable barriers prevent him from obtaining productive and rehabilitative employment. Employers resist hiring ex-offenders because of perceived security risks that are often more imaginary than real. More often than not, an ex-offender cannot be bonded by the private bonding industry. Under the terms of a standard "blanket" bond—the only type of bonding appropriate to many large operations and available at a price the employer can afford—an employer's insurance coverage is specifically voided if he knowingly hires any person having a criminal record. Finally, under misguided statutes ostensibly enacted to protect the public from criminal depredations, ex-offenders may be excluded from service in government and a myriad of "licensed occupations." This paper discusses these so-called "legal" barriers to the employment of ex-offenders. Its conclusion is that the attempt to protect against crime by denying ex-offenders gainful employment not only makes a mockery o f the concept of equal opportunity for all but costs us dearly in recidivist crime.
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A decade ago, dozens of American cities began to organize late-night basketball leagues for young men in mostly minority, inner-city neighborhoods. These so-called midnight basketball leagues initially enjoyed widespread public support; however, in the mid-1990s, they became the focus of intense controversy and debate. This article offers a grounded, critical overview. Midnight basketball is first described as part of the “social problems industry” that emerged in public recreation provision in the 1990s. The author then suggests that these programs are best understood in the context of contemporary political discourse and public policy regarding at-risk urban youth, and crime, delinquency, and public safety more generally. Midnight basketball’s racial roots and contours become central with respect both to the ideological consensus underlying contemporary American conceptions of crime and risk as well as the multiple and competing visions of cause and intervention. The article concludes by noting the starkly different perceptions of program participants themselves.
Article
This paper offers a critical re-examination of the prevalent notion of sport as a panacea for juvenile delinquency. By examining the structural and phenomenological set ting of delinquency, the authors suggest that since most conventional sports are institu tional replicas of mainstream society, they are of little value as alternative systems to the delinquent subculture. On the other hand less conventional sport forms falling under the broad rubric Outward Bound because they provide alternative coping strategies to prob lems of personal adjustment and identity, may be a more effective means of reaching and helping delinquent and predelinquent children.
Article
It is a cherished belief within physical education and sport communities that participation in sport/physical activity has the potential to offer young people a range of physical, psychological and social benefits. More recently in the UK, this belief has become prominent in government policies that, among other things, are seeking to re‐engage disaffected young people in order to increase their life chances and minimise the impact of anti‐social behaviours upon others. Yet, the link between physical activity interventions and developing pro‐social behaviours is not straightforward, and there is a lack of credible research evidence to support many of the claims made for physical activity to or to inform decisions about effective intervention design. This paper reviews key literature, focusing particularly on disaffected young people and physical activity interventions in the school context, and identifies six key issues that, we would argue, warrant consideration when planning physical activity programmes to re‐engage disaffected young people. In particular, it is argued that the unprecedented levels of public and private funding available for physical activity related programmes in the UK, and the high expectations placed upon them to deliver specific measurable outcomes, mean that the need for credible monitoring and evaluation is pressing.
Article
Drawing on data generated by a 3-year study, informed by ethnographic principles, of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in the South West of England, this article focuses specifically on the experiences of young Gypsy males [1]. The manner in which they perform specific forms of masculine identity though business skills and dealing, fighting, and sex talk are considered. Tensions are highlighted regarding the ways in which these performances are valued in different communities of practice, and how this operates to maintain an atmosphere of suspicion regarding the educational system.
Article
This study identifies the typical stressors affecting individuals working in the prison system in Israel and assesses the outcomes resulting from these stressors. A representative sample of Israel Prison Service employees (N = 496) participate in the study. Participants complete questionnaires designed to assess the stressors in their work and their levels of stress and burnout, and 11% of them are interviewed in-depth. Results show that prison employees experience high levels of stress and burnout in their work. In addition, significant differences in stress reactions are found among different sectors (security, administration, and treatment) and among employees differing in rank and seniority. The most stressful factors were working extra shifts without compensation, low salary, and heavy workload. Recommendations are offered focusing on ways to prevent and reduce stress and burnout among prison personnel.
Article
Juvenile delinquents, identified by their scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) received training under one of three different protocols for 1 hour three times weekly for a period of 6 months. Group I students received training in the traditional Korean Martial Art of Tae Kwon Do, Group II students received training in a “modern” version of the martial art which did not emphasize the psychological/philosophical aspects of the sport as the Korean version did, and group III students served as a control group for contact with the instructor and physical activity. Group I students showed decreased aggressiveness, lowered anxiety, increased selfesteem, increased social adroitness, and an increase in value orthodoxy, as indicated by before-and-after scores on the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI), in addition to normal MMPI scores at the completion of the study. Group II students showed an even greater tendency toward delinquency on the MMPI than they did at the beginning of the study, a large increase in aggressiveness, and generally opposite effects of Group I on the JPL Group Ill students showed no notable differences on any of the personality measures. These data suggest that training in the traditional martial art of Tae Kwon Do is effective in reducing juvenile delinquent tendencies.
Article
In this report, the author advances the hypothesis that sport activities could compromise a therapeutic alliance in the case of psychiatric follow-ups. The approach is a phenomenological, clinical and anthropological one based on three clinical situations. This hypothesis was verified but has not been applicable to the whole population of prisoners. If psychiatric and psychotherapic follow-ups can not be positively correlated with the notion of therapeutic alliance, there is a risk factor and therefore a predictability of relapse for bipolar disorders and for clinical decompensation whether auto- or heteroaggressive. Finally, the components of the universe of the exercise grounds and of psychopathology in the prison society of the Fleury-Mérogis prison are psychiatry, sports, stimulating and sedative substances. The hypothesis was confirmed by facts, as follow-ups are not frequent due to « too much sport », and to patients « sinking » into a psychopathological process. The following other variables were analysed: sex, age, personal health antecedents and justice antecedents. The three patients studied had a criminal past consisting of sexual assault, murders or drug dealing. Based on available data, the analysis indicates that the three prisoners decompensate along same mode: bipolar disorders followed by immediate admission in a psychiatric hospital, which in turn entails a change in the initial punishment.
Article
The role of sport in prison life is examined using questionnaire data from a survey of 1770 inmates of a state prison system. These inmates were asked questions concerning the extent of participation in various leisure and sport activities while in prison. The analysis seeks to determine some of the impacts of this participation on prison life. Leisure participation was grouped into active and passive categories and then correlated with background factor and with problems the respondent experienced in daily prison life such as boredom, fighting, sexual assaults, temper flare-ups, and difficulties with correctional personnel. The place of leisure activity in tension management is examined in this study, one of a few that investigates the role of leisure in prison settings.
Article
The present study was designed to determine the temperament of persons who engage regularly in strenuous sports, specifically, running, weightlifting, and aerobics. The large sample of subjects represented both sexes and a wide diversity in age. A three-dimensional temperament framework and its associated measures of trait pleasure-displeasure, trait arousability, and trait dominance-submissiveness was used to review and investigate distinctive personality characteristics of athletes. Sports participants differing in type of sport, marital status, number of regular active sports (a measure of general physical exertion in sports), and physical effort per sport session did not differ significantly in temperament. As a group, however, all subjects in the present sample, selected because they were regular participants in strenuous sports, exhibited significantly higher levels of trait dominance and trait pleasure in comparison with general population norms; they did not differ significantly from population norms in trait arousability. Dominance and pleasantness when combined with high arousability define exuberance (e.g., extroversion, arousal-seeking, affiliation) and when combined with low arousability define relaxation (the opposite of trait anxiety and neurosis). Thus, one important implication of the present and related reviewed findings is that those who participate in strenuous sports regularly and intensively are healthier psychologically than the general population.
Article
The purpose of this article is to discuss, from a feminist perspective, the interconnected nature of homophobia and sexism in women's sport. After a brief description of the early 20th-century origins of the lesbian stereotype and the political function of homophobia in a sexist and heterosexist culture, manifestations of homophobia in women's sport are discussed: silence, denial, apology, promotion of a heterosexy image, attacks on lesbians, and preference for male coaches. The underlying beliefs that support homophobia in women's sport are described, and several strategies for confronting homophobia in women's sport are suggested.
Article
Participation in sport remains an activity dominated by a particular form of masculinity based on competitiveness, aggression and elements of traditional understandings of the sporting male. At the same time, contemporary society continues to ascribe greater cultural capital to those who display evidence of this in their bodily practices. Those who approach sport have to negotiate these elements and it is their relationship to this particular understanding which influences their level of participation. Gender, sexuality, age and physical ability are foremost in creating bridges or barriers to achieving individual bodily expression through organized sport There is a need to assess the nature of sport participation in contemporary culture and highlight the task of academic research to become more active in confronting the wider social issues which invariably exclude a large number of the population from enjoying sport and their bodies. The arguments developed in this chapter have been drawn from research conducted among male participants of sports clubs (gay and straight) in the South East of England. Using oral accounts and observation, the nature of gender performance within the sports field is assessed in relation to the wider inequalities faced by various sections of society. Feminist research and the more recent branches of research found in Sociology and Cultural Studies have highlighted the disadvantages experienced by women in general, but at the same time prevalent forms of what I term ‘exclusive masculinity’ remain to an extent unchallenged and this is particularly evident within sport.
Article
Programmes that seek to reduce criminal behaviour amongst young people through the medium of sports activities have been both criticised and advocated. The arguments used have drawn more on value judgements than on evidence. This article identifies the difficulties of producing such evidence, and relates these to the lack of a well developed rationale for such programmes. It reviews some of the evidence that contributes to such a rationale, including a recently conducted evaluation of a sports counselling programme [Nichols, G. and Taylor, P. (1996) West Yorkshire sports counselling, Final Evaluation Report, West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Association, Castleford].
Article
Over the last 20 yrs the word "character" has generally lost its currency in the literature on personality and social psychology yet the assumption that sport builds character is still held, at least privately, by many people. This investigation attempted to reconsider the "character" construct, to isolate its social elements, and to establish its susceptibility in childhood to the influence of organized sport experience. Using prosocial behavior as one manifestation of evolved social character, the influence of organized sport was assessed in a field experiment with 54 4th and 5th grade children. Although the general assumption that "sport builds character" was neither refuted nor strongly supported in this investigation, some evidence, at least with males, showed that prosocial behavior may be inhibited by sport experience. Implications are drawn for facilitating prosocial behavior in children's sports. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory fitness, levels of obesity, daily levels of physical activity and barriers to a physically active lifestyle in a group of 24 adults with mild and moderate learning disabilities (aged 23–47 years, mean age 34). The efficacy of two community-based exercise intervention programmes for the group was also evaluated. The results showed that overall 50% of the men and 70% of the women were overweight, of whom 57% of the men and 100% of the women were obese. Mean cardiorespiratory fitness levels were 20% to 28% lower for the men and 42% lower for the women compared with average values for the general population. Physical activity profiles indicated that 22 of the participants were below recognised minimum levels of physical activity. Barriers to physical activity specific to the learning disability population included transport needs, staffing ratios, financial resources and unclear policy guidelines for day and residential service provision.
Article
This study describes behaviors generally recognised as bullying among male and female prisoners, with a subsidiary aim of comparing adult and young offenders. The study also describes the different groups involved in bullying and provides a description of the ways in which victims react to their victimization. It was predicted that gender and prison category differences would be found across the different types of bullying, with females reporting more indirect forms than males, who would report more direct forms. It was also predicted that young offenders would report more bullying than adults. The sample consisted of 98 young offenders (21 female and 77 male) and 211 adult offenders (53 female and 158 male). Inmates were surveyed via a self-report behavior checklist (Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist: DIPC). More than half of the sample reported being bullied and more than half reported to have “bullied others” at least once in the past week. Males and young offenders were more likely to report bullying others than females and adults, respectively. Males were more likely than females to report bullying others both directly and indirectly. Four different groups of inmates were identified: bullies, bully/victims, pure victims, and not involved. These categories varied in different gender and prison status groups. Victims reported reacting predominantly by crying, staying in their cell when they could be out, and trying to get moved. Aggr. Behav. 25:161–178, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The relationship between possible selves and boredom in juvenile delinquency was examined in 418 high school students. The construct Possible Selves refers to the representation of the self that each person would like to become, could become, and is afraid of becoming. Participants who acknowledged high levels of delinquent behaviors reported more negative possible selves, a higher tendency to experience boredom, and fewer positive possible selves than did adolescents who engaged in lower levels of delinquent behaviors. Also, the number of negative possible selves, the number of positive possible selves, boredom proneness, and gender accounted for 32% of the variance in juvenile delinquency. Overall, the results provide evidence that boredom and a negative view of one's future play a significant role in adolescent delinquent behavior.
Article
The relationship between the content of goals and well-being depends both on whether goals are congruent with inner psychological needs (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996a) and whether goals are supported in one's environment. The current study examines how the pursuit of 6 different goals relates to the psychological well-being of maximum security prisoners. The relative centrality of goals supported in prison, such as physical health, was generally positively related to well-being, whereas the pursuit of goals not supported in prison, such as self-acceptance and affiliation, was negatively related to well-being. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering goals in the context of people's environment.
Article
In the course of social development, family influences seem to become partly internalized and transformed into personality characteristics that regulate behavior outside the family sphere. In a longitudinal study of 81 boys and their families, we hypothesized that individual differences in boys' self-restraint would serve as a mediator between family factors in preadolescence and sons' delinquent behavior 4 years later. Measures were derived from principal components analyses of multiple indices of each construct as assessed by multiple informants. As expected, parenting practices measured at both pre- and mid-adolescence predicted delinquent acts only indirectly via their association with boys' self-restraint. In addition, general family functioning at preadolescence, independent of other scores, predicted boys' levels of self-restraint 4 years later. There was no evidence that boys' self-restraint at preadolescence systematically affected the quality of parenting that they subsequently received. Parents' and families' role in children's development of self-regulatory skills may be a primary vehicle by which they ultimately influence adolescents' problem behaviors.