Article

Nusikaltimų erdvinės struktūros Klaipėdoje ir jų vertinimas socialiniu geografiniu požiūriu

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This chapter examines the relationships among place, space and the specific situations of Chicago taverns and liquor stores and crimes in those places, and suggests applications of these findings for crime preven- tion. With a GeoArchive data set of police, census and liquor license informa- tion from January to June 1993, we identify the densest concentrations (Hot Spot Areas) of places, events occurring at those places, and incidents occurring in the surrounding,areas; compare,place and space attributes of the 49 high-incident places,to a sample,of 49 low-incident places; and examine,the relationship between places and incidents in two police districts. Three types of places emerged, each of which had a different relationship to crime attraction, generation, and control and each of which would require different strategies for intervention. The high-crime levels at these places reflect the general crime pattern of the area. A program of intensive police and citizen patrols to reduce street crime in such an area is currently being evaluated. It is increasingly common,for investigators of crime patterns to take a
Article
Full-text available
The explanation of crime has been preoccupied with individuals and communities as units of analysis. Recent work on offender decision making (Cornish and Clarke, 1986), situations (Clarke, 1983, 1992), envi- ronments (Brantingham and Brantingham 1981, 1993), routine activities (Cohen and Felson, 1979; Felson, 1994), and the spatial organization of drug dealing in the U.S. suggest a new unit of analysis: places. Crime is concen- trated heavily in a Jew "hot spots" of crime (Sherman et aL 1989). The concentration of crime among repeat places is more intensive than it is among repeat offenders (Spelman and Eck, 1989). The components of this concen- tration are analogous to the components of the criminal careers of persons: onset, desistance, continuance, specialization, and desistance. The theoret- ical explanationfor variance in these components is also stronger at the level of places than it is for individuals. These facts suggest a need for rethinking theories of crime, as well as a new approach to theorizing about crime for public policy.
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the difficulties of transforming theoretical definitions of place into operational terms, where the rigid boundaries of place in the abstract conflict with the more fluid social definitions of place. The process ofoperationalizing computer-constructed hot spots for the 1988- 89 Minneapolis Hot Spots of Crime Experiment (Sherman and Weisburd, 1995) provides examples of the mutual effects between experimental design requirements and practical concerns of both field research and operational policy. The Hot Spots of Crime Experiment (hereafter referred to as Hot Spots) suggests that there are at least three different points of decision at which abstract concepts of space ("location," "place," or slightly larger aggregates like hot spots) must be negotiated in operational terms: (1) in the nature of the human techniques and practices that assign activities to particular addresses in official records; (2) in the attribution of public space (which has no "address") to private property (which has, or is, an address); and (3) in the conflict over the nature of boundaries, which are distinct and
Article
Full-text available
While links between social and physical disorder, crime, and the fear of crime have long been areas of research interest, few studies have looked at these links from a spatiotemporal viewpoint. This is somewhat surprising, as many of the factors associated with disorder, crime, and fear are known to vary over time and space. This paper uses GISystems to investigate potential spatiotemporal links between these areas in Wollongong, New South Wales, with specific focus on links between graffiti and the fear of crime. The results reveal that the distribution of fear of crime varies considerably over time and is often spatially coincident with concentrations of disorder. Graffiti was found to be one of the most prevalent types of physical disorder. The results are discussed in the context of the “broken windows” thesis and strategic intervention at the community level.
Article
Full-text available
Developed, modern cities throughout the world are facing population declines at an unprecedented scale. Over the last fifty years, 370 cities throughout the world with populations over 100,000 have shrunk by at least 10% (Oswalt and Rieniets 2007). Wide swaths of the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Japan are projecting double-digit declines in population in the coming decades. Internationally, scholars and practitioners of the built environment have responded to this crisis by reconceptualizing decline as shrinkage and have begun to explore creative and innovative ways for cities to successfully shrink (Stohr 2004; Swope 2006). Historically, planners have responded to population decline by instigating economic development strategies, but this conventional approach has failed in scores of places. This emerging new approach to rethinking decline provides a non-economic view of responding to depopulation.
Article
Full-text available
The possibility that homicides can spread from one geographic area toanother has been entertained for some time by social scientists, yetsystematic efforts to demonstrate the existence, or estimate the strength,of such a diffusion process are just beginning. This paper uses exploratoryspatial data analysis (ESDA) to examine the distribution of homicides in 78counties in, or around, the St. Louis metropolitan area for two timeperiods: a period of relatively stable homicide (1984–1988) and aperiod of generally increasing homicide (1988–1993). The findingsreveal that homicides are distributed nonrandomly, suggestive of positivespatial autocorrelation. Moreover, changes over time in the distribution ofhomicides suggest the possible diffusion of lethal violence out of onecounty containing a medium-sized city (Macon County) into two nearbycounties (Morgan and Sangamon Counties) located to the west. Althoughtraditional correlates of homicide do not account for its nonrandom spatialdistribution across counties, we find some evidence that more affluentareas, or those more rural or agricultural areas, serve as barriers againstthe diffusion of homicides. The patterns of spatial distribution revealedthrough ESDA provide an empirical foundation for the specification ofmultivariate models which can provide formal tests for diffusion processes.
Chapter
Full-text available
While the geography of crime has been a focal concern in criminology from the very start of the discipline, the development and use of statistical methods specifically designed for spatially referenced data has evolved more recently. This chapter gives an overview of the application of such methods in research on crime and criminal justice, and provides references to the general literature on geospatial statistics, and to instructive and innovative applications in the crime and criminal justice literature.The chapter consists of three sections. The first section introduces the subject matter and delineates it from descriptive spatial statistics and from visualization techniques (“crime mapping.”) It discusses the relevance of spatial analysis, the nature of spatial data, and the issues of sampling and choosing a spatial unit of analysis. The second section deals with the analysis of spatial distributions. We discuss the specification of spatial structure, address spatial autocorrelation, and review a variety of spatially informed regression models and their applications. The third section addresses the analysis of movement, including spatial interaction models, spatial choice models, and the analysis of mobility triads, in the field of crime and criminal justice.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the progress that has been made towards developing a GIS-based crime analysis and mapping system for used in the analysis of crime incident data recorded by the Merseyside Police force in north-west England. The system has been developed using resources from the British Urban Crime Fund; a spatially targeted anti-crime initiative aimed at reducing vehicle crime, domestic burglaries, drugs-related crime and public disorder in inner city areas. Discussion is focused on how a subset of GIS functions supported in the PC Arc View module can be employed to provide a convenient and immediately accessible means of highlighting patterns in crime statistics and the socio-demographic characteristics of areas with high levels of criminal activity.
Article
Full-text available
Regional planners, policy makers and policing agencies all recognize the importance of better understanding the dynamics of crime. Theoretical and application-oriented approaches which provide insights into why and where crimes take place are much sought after. Geographic information systems and spatial analysis techniques, in particular, are proving to be essential for studying criminal activity. However, the capabilities of these quantitative methods continue to evolve. This paper explores the use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis approaches for examining crime occurrence in Brisbane, Australia. The analysis highlights novel capabilities for the analysis of crime in urban regions.
Article
During the nineties important challenges to cartography will be related to mapping spatial data’s multi-dimensional and temporal component. From a cartographic point of view it is necessary to look at the implications of the use of animated maps. The paper concentrates on communicative aspects of the spatio-temporal map. In order to obtain some concrete evidence of the response of users to spatio- temporal map displays a map user test was carried out. Animated maps and the respective static ones depicting the same subjects were presented to the users and questions were asked. The results indicate that although the correctness of answers is not influenced by the type of map (i.e. static or animated), the users perceive faster from animated map displays.
Article
Crime maps have only recently begun to emerge as a significant tool in crime and justice. Until a decade ago, few criminal justice agencies had any capability for creating crime maps, and few investigators had the resources or patience to examine the spatial distribution of crime. Today, however, crime mapping is experiencing what might be termed an explosion of interest among both scholars and practitioners. This introduction begins by examining some early examples of mapping of crime, focusing in particular on factors that inhibited the widespread integration of mapping into crime prevention research and practice in the past. It then turns to innovations in mapping technologies and crime prevention theory that have recently brought crime mapping to the center of trends in crime prevention. The final section introduces the contributions that follow and discusses how they illustrate the many uses of mapping in crime prevention. It examines the pitfalls and problems that researchers and practitioners are likely to encounter in developing and analyzing maps, and the potential advances in crime mapping we might expect in coming decades.
Article
The paper summarizes the results of geographic research into events registered by police in Vilnius City in 2010 and 2011, performed in Vilnius University in 2011-2012. All registered events that amount to 100,000 per year have been localised by their street addresses and categorised by type. Various spatial analysis methods and ArcGIS 10 tools have been applied for analysis of distribution of the events in space and time. Temporal analysis showed that most of the events in the city are registered after dark though before late night, only thefts and robberies mostly take place during day time. Precise maps of events density have been compiled. They clearly show high concentration zones in the city centre and in the flat block districts around some shopping and entertainment centres. The concentration zones in 2010 and in 2011 have the same shape though a general number of events is significantly higher in 2011. Two types of crimes: thefts and robberies and violent crimes have been analyzed separately as they tend to have different spatial patterns. Thefts and robberies comprise the biggest percent of events in Šnipiškės, Verkiai and Žvėrynas whereas violent crimes prevail in Paneriai and Rasos. Event maps allow for beter understanding of the trends of criminality in the city in general and by type. They can greatly facilitate observation and prevention planning. The maps will be made publicly available in the Lithuanian spatial information portal www.geoportal.lt.
Article
Recent developments in computer-based data visualization permit the creation of dynamic displays that incorporate several kinds of temporal variation. It is essential that the nature and role of such variations be fully understood in order to design effective dynamic visualization of geographical data. To this end, a classification of time-varying behaviour is proposed, suggestions are made on how the conventional graphic sign system may be extended into the temporal domain, and some design rules are identified for the optimal deployment of temporal variation in dynamic visualizations. -Author
Article
The intraurban distribution of crime, and attempts to explain its patterns, are becoming increasingly important topics for Urban Geographers. This study plots the rates of major types of crime for the city of San Bernardino. Variables which measure the socioeconomic status of census tracts are analyzed so as to classify neighborhoods within the city. The patterns of violent and general crime are compared to each other, and to the distri­ bution of neighborhood types. Regression analysis is used to test the relationship between crime rates and various factors hypothesized to be associated with crime generation. Results agree with parts of previous studies done for much larger urban areas. Crime in San Bernardino is divided spatially between general and violent types. However, both occur closely spaced in specific high crime areas. The general pattern for San Bernar­ dino indicates a strong relationship between business areas and crime rates. No strong spatial correlation occurs between high crime rates and low income neighborhoods unless these neighbor­ hoods have significant business districts. Several studies have been made of urban crime patterns in which various socioeconomic variables were related to criminality and delinquency. 1 Much of the major work stems from the analysis of juvenile delinquency done for Chicago by Shaw, and later by 2 Shaw and McKay. In his earlier work Shaw points out the impor-tance of studying the spatial distribution of delinquency which he found to be closely related to low socioeconomic status. Geographically the highest concentration of delinquency occurred in the central business district and there was a progressive 3 downward slope in rates away from the C.B.D.
Article
This paper examines the spatial dynamics of suburban crime. Four hypotheses are developed postulating a decreasing central city-suburb disparity in crime rates, persistence in the relative crime rates of individual suburbs, a growing heterogeneity in the levels of crime faced by individual suburbs, and an increasing regionalization of suburban crime. The hypotheses are tested through a case study of the Chicago metropolitan area. Property and violent crime rates are studied separately, and the time frame is 1972 to 1981. Central city and suburban crime rates are found to be converging in Chicago and the United States as a whole. Persistence in the relative crime rates of individual Chicago suburbs is significant but weak. Socioeconomic status dominates the process of change in the relative safety of suburbs-not suburban age, as anticipated. Low status suburbs tend to have high-crime rates, and their relative security is worsening over time; the opposite is true of high-status jurisdictions. This process of consolidated advantage is also occurring in a spatial sense; over time, suburban regions with initially safe environments appear able to reinforce their early advantage.
Article
Twitter is used extensively in the United States as well as globally, creating many opportunities to augment decision support systems with Twitter-driven predictive analytics. Twitter is an ideal data source for decision support: its users, who number in the millions, publicly discuss events, emotions, and innumerable other topics; its content is authored and distributed in real time at no charge; and individual messages (also known as tweets) are often tagged with precise spatial and temporal coordinates. This article presents research investigating the use of spatiotemporally tagged tweets for crime prediction. We use Twitter-specific linguistic analysis and statistical topic modeling to automatically identify discussion topics across a major city in the United States. We then incorporate these topics into a crime prediction model and show that, for 19 of the 25 crime types we studied, the addition of Twitter data improves crime prediction performance versus a standard approach based on kernel density estimation. We identify a number of performance bottlenecks that could impact the use of Twitter in an actual decision support system. We also point out important areas of future work for this research, including deeper semantic analysis of message content, temporal modeling, and incorporation of auxiliary data sources. This research has implications specifically for criminal justice decision makers in charge of resource allocation for crime prevention. More generally, this research has implications for decision makers concerned with geographic spaces occupied by Twitter-using individuals.
Article
Crime is both a factual and perceptual component of the urban landscape, seemingly both a societal pathology and the consequence of economic disparity between social groups. Crime has a spatial structure that can be revealed by mapping. Urban crime has a spatial multiplier effect that changes the values and perceptions of how people see urban space, and which jeopardizes the quality of life of a city's inhabitants. In this research we examine the question of whether the geography of actual criminal acts is echoed by peoples' perceptions of crime, what might be termed their “spaces of fear”. We ask how the fear of crime is associated with reported urban crime. Urban crime incidents have been increasing in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We assembled crime information about Viçosa from two sources: first, crime as reported to the police and second, crime as perceived by city residents and measured by surveys and interviews. Reported criminal acts reveal a clustered geography, focusing particularly on the Downtown area, where there is a concentration of urban wealth and potential victims are more numerous. Offenses against property were focused on Downtown, while offenses against the person were located mostly in peripheral areas. The widespread feeling of insecurity in the city's neighborhoods, reflecting the fear of becoming a victim of violence and crime, was common throughout the city. Results confirmed the conclusion of past studies showing that the fear of violence and crime are not directly related to increasing numbers of criminal reports. Sites with higher incidence of crimes are not places with higher levels of fear. Rather than being geographically explainable “spaces of fear”, the spatial distribution of the fear of violence and crime appears to be unrelated in Viçosa, and neither is clustered or dispersed in any measurable way.
Article
Crime mapping has established central tendencies, e.g., that crime trips tend to be certain lengths. But this is only one-half of the convergence that leads to a crime. Crime mobility research, however, considers the simultaneous movements of both offenders and victims. In this paper, we consider the geodiversity of crime mobility: there are variations in the amount of area covered by various crimes depending on the variations of criminal opportunity. Extending the crime mobility research to consider co-offending, co-victimization, and area covered rather than typologies, we find strong evidence for geodiversity in crime. This geodiversity varies across crime types within a single municipality as well as across municipalities within a single crime type.
Article
Land use change, in the form of urbanization, is one of the most significant forms of global change, and most cities are experiencing a rapid increase in population and infrastructure growth. However, a subset of cities is experiencing a decline in population, which often manifests in the abandonment of residential structures. These vacant and abandoned structures pose a land use challenge to urban planners, and a key question has been how to manage these properties. Often times land use management of these structures takes the form of demolition, but the elimination of infrastructures and can have unknown and sometimes unintended effects on the human–environment interactions in urban areas. This paper examines the association between demolitions and crime, a human–environment interaction that is fostered by vacant and abandoned properties, through a comparative statistical analysis. A cluster analysis is performed to identify high and low hot spots of demolition and crime activity, specifically assault, drug arrests, and prostitution, over a 5-year period. Results show that there is an association between the area targeted for significant demolition activity and the migration of spatial patterns of certain crimes. The direction of crime movement toward the edges of the city limits and in the direction of the first ring suburbs highlights the importance of regional planning when implementing land use policies for smart decline in shrinking cities.
Article
Urban experts have long recognised crime and fear of crime as dominant challenges to sustainable cities. A sustainable community is a place free from the fear of crime, where a feeling of security underpins a wider sense of place attachment and place attractiveness. In this article, we follow the recent strand of Western research and suggest a framework for assessing safety, which includes the analysis of the geography of crime, fear of crime and crime prevention. Empirical evidence is based on Vilnius, Lithuania. Findings show that whilst Vilnius’ geography of crime shows patterns similar to those found in Western cities, fear of crime shows a complex pattern, playing a minor role when citizens judge their residential quality. Crime prevention incorporates top-down features as well as approaches previously adopted by Western cities. The article concludes with an assessment of the proposed framework and directions for future work.
Article
The objective of this article is to characterise the criminogenic conditions of an eastern European city experiencing the transition from a planned to a market-oriented economy. Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has been chosen as the case study. The article first describes the various levels of a set of expressive and acquisitive offences in Tallinn and then assesses whether patterns of crime in Tallinn are caused by underlying processes similar to the ones indicated in the Western literature of urban criminology. The study identifies variables that most significantly contribute to the variation of crime ratios using regression models, GIS and spatial statistical techniques. Findings suggest that, although there is no dramatic difference between the geography of crimes in Tallinn and those found in western European and North American cities, some of the explanatory variables function in ways which would not be predicted by Western literature.
Article
The European Union (EU) has expanded its membership significantly in recent years to include Central and Eastern European countries. These countries are at significantly different levels of economic development than the other member states of the EU and are expected to undergo an economic adjustment to their new social, political, and economic reality. This paper investigates the effects on property crime of this economic adjustment to accession to the EU, using Lithuania as a case study. Using Lithuanian municipalities and fixed-effects estimation for 2001—6, the statistical results indicate that accession to the EU has led to a significant increase in theft, burglary, and juvenile delinquency.
Article
Burglary and robbery rates in St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated as functions of census unemployment levels taken in 1970 and 1980 for twelve yearly cross sections of crime rates, with all rates aggregated to the level of census tracts for analyses. The relationship of burglary and robbery rates to unemployment is found to be positive, and the interactive (logged) model is found to be the one most consistent with theory as well as the best predictive model. The magnitude of unemployment effects is large, and the policy implication is that urban areas fighting crime would benefit substantially from successfully targeted employment programs.
Article
During the nineties important challenges to cartography will be related to mapping spatial data's multi-dimensional and temporal component. From a cartographic point of view it is necessary to look at the implications of the use of animated maps. The paper concentrates on communicative aspects of the spatio-temporal map. In order to obtain some concrete evidence of the response of users to spatio-temporal map displays a map user test was carried out. Animated maps and the respective static ones depicting the same subjects were presented to the users and questions were asked. The results indicate that although the correctness of answers is not influenced by the type of map (i.e. static or animated), the users perceive faster from animated map displays.
Article
This article presents trends in expressive crimes in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from 1993 to 2000 and examines how demographic, socio‐economic, land use, and institutional factors relate to their geography in 2000. Geographical Information System (GIS) and spatial regression models are employed in the study, which make use of country regions as the unit of analysis. Issues concerning crime data availability and quality are discussed. While police official statistics show a significant rise in rates of expressive crime in the Baltic countries during the 1990s (with the exception of homicide), victimization crime surveys indicate that there have been no significant changes in crime levels and composition. Results also show that indicators of regions' social structure, such as divorce rate, more strongly predict the variation of 2000's expressive crime ratios than other indicators, such as land use and economic covariates. Most of these covariates function in ways which are predicted by Western literature on crime geography.
Article
Economic decline has led to a new wave of population decline throughout the US, meaning more and more cities are shrinking. Growing interest in using smart decline principles to respond to shrinkage has been met with controversy in cities such as Detroit and Cleveland. This paper advances a foundational theory of smart decline that takes as its starting point discussions of ethics, equity, and social justice in the planning and political theory literature, but is well grounded in observations of successful smart decline practice.
Article
One of the most problematic aspects of predatory violent crime is the volume of tips and suspects generated through their investigation. Traditional police methods are not always sufficient and detectives need alternative tactics to assist them in these types of cases. Geographic profiling, a strategic information management system designed to support investigative efforts in cases of serial murder, rape and arson, is one such approach. Other topics discussed include: introduction; investigative difficulties; geographic profiling; and conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article we analyze gated communities as a nexus of social and spatial relations within the context of urban inequality. We apply Tickamyer's (2000) sociological framework for incorporating space into the study of inequality, which allows us to substantiate the arguments that the process of gating increases urban inequality. The contributions of this article are three: (1) We generate a new systematic theoretical approach toward the study of gated communities, which we consider as middle range theory; (2) We argue that gated communities reproduce the existing levels of social stratification and that they also define a new, permanent differentiation order in the spatial organization of cities in the United States (in this respect we also arrive at six hypotheses, which can be tested in future research); (3) We introduce the term “gating machine,” where the combination of the interests and actions of local governments, real estate developers, the media, and consumers suggest that prevailing structural conditions assure the future proliferation of gated communities.
Article
Previous research exploring space–time patterns has focused on the relative merits and drawbacks of the effectiveness of static maps vis-à-vis interactive dynamic visualisation techniques. In particular, they have tended to concentrate on the role of animation in interpretation of patterns and the understanding of underlying factors influencing such patterns. The aim of this paper is to broaden this debate out to consider the effectiveness of a wider range of visualisation techniques in permitting an understanding of spatio-temporal trends. The merits of three visualisation techniques, (map animation, the comap and the isosurface) are evaluated on their ability to assist in the exploration of space–time patterns of crime disturbance data. We conclude that each technique has some merit for crime analysts charged with studying such trends but that further research is needed to apply the techniques to other sources of crime data (and to other sectors such as health) to permit a comprehensive evaluation of their respective strengths and limitations as exploratory visualisation tools.
Article
Police departments, city officials and policy makers all recognize the importance of a better understanding of the dynamics of crime. Both theoretical and applied approaches, or combinations of the two, which provide insight into why and where crime takes place are much in demand. Macrolevel analysis helps to identify problem neighborhoods. Microlevel analysis helps to isolate precise trouble spots within neighborhoods and, as a result, allows for better evaluation of crime and specific socioeconomic, demographic, land use and environmental characteristics associated with these trouble spots. This paper details a framework for better understanding the spatial characteristics of crime based upon the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and quantitative techniques. Lima, Ohio, provides a case study for a number of reasons. Many smaller communities have serious crime problems, so the study of crime in these communities is much needed. Lima (population 40,263) has violent crime rates well above average for its size, experiencing rates of violent crime equal to or above larger cities such as Columbus, Cincinnati and Toledo. Also, crime has an inordinately strong influence in the social and economic performance of small cities and hinders economic recovery efforts. The establishment of an analytical and theoretical framework for evaluating the relationship between aspects of place and the clustering of crime will undoubtedly lead to enhanced crime prevention strategies.
Article
Current software tools for visualization of spatio-temporal data, on the one hand, utilize the opportunities provided by modern computer technologies, on the other hand, incorporate the legacy from the conventional cartography. We have considered existing visualization-based techniques for exploratory analysis of spatio-temporal data from two perspectives: (1) what types of spatio-temporal data they are applicable to; (2) what exploratory tasks they can potentially support.The technique investigation has been based on an operational typology of spatio-temporal data and analytical tasks we specially devised for this purpose. The result of the study is a structured inventory of existing exploratory techniques related to the types of data and tasks they are appropriate for. This result is potentially helpful for data analysts—users of geovisualization tools: it provides guidelines for selection of proper exploratory techniques depending on the characteristics of data to analyze and the goals of analysis. At the same time the inventory as well as the suggested typology of tasks could be useful for tool designers and developers of various domain-specific geovisualization applications. The designers can, on the one hand, see what task types are insufficiently supported by the existing tools and direct their creative activities towards filling the gaps, on the other hand, use the techniques described as basic elements for building new, more sophisticated ones. The application developers can, on the one hand, use the task and data typology in the analysis of potential user needs, on the other hand, appropriately select and combine existing tools in order to satisfy these needs.
Article
Crime varies greatly by hour of day—more than by any other variable. Yet numbers of cases declines greatly when fragmented into hourly counts. Summary indicators are needed to conserve degrees of freedom, while making hourly information available for description and analysis. This paper describes some new indicators that summarize hour-of-day variations. A basic decision is to pick the first hour of the day, after which summary indicators are easily defined. These include the median hour of crime, crime quartile minutes, crime's daily timespan, and the 5-to-5 share of criminal activity; namely, that occurring between 5:00 AM and 4:59 PM. Each summary indicator conserves cases while offering something suitable to forecast.
Article
A salient characteristic of the geography of crime in the US is the presence of extremely sharp geographic variations. These variations may be significant indicators of local environmental inequalities and may have implications for fear of crime and crime contagion, and may also be indicators of potential or actual neighborhood instability. Such micro-level variations are not generally apparent on small scale maps of urban crime. Previously, micro-level analysis of this gradient phenomenon has been inhibited by the confluence of large volumes of data over large areas, a plethora of possible boundaries that might be used for the purpose of data aggregation, and practical difficulties in the identification of gradients in the context of small units of analysis. The present study attempts to identify steep crime gradients and to characterize the physical and social circumstances under which they occur. Analysis was based on 97,880 geocodable incidents reported in 2000 in Baltimore County, Maryland. Crime densities were calculated for 5324 census blocks that experienced at least one crime incident. A steep gradient for the purpose of this research was the juxtaposition of blocks in the highest and lowest quintiles in terms of crime density. Using residential and commercial land uses as a filter, some 259 blocks satisfied the gradient criterion. Further analysis linked these blocks to their parent block groups for the purpose of identifying their social attributes. In addition, six clusters of blocks were investigated in the field. A typology of adjacencies identified six categories.
Article
In this paper, we test hypotheses about the spatial variation in rates of robbery in West and East European cities (Cologne, Germany and Tallinn, Estonia). This comparison represents an interesting case study because Tallinn is an example of former socialist cities which have undergone a period of profound political and socio-economic change since the country’s independence in the early 1990s (including EU membership). These changes are expected to have implications for the level and composition of offences as well as their geographies. Using cross-sectional datasets, we examine whether or not levels and patterns of robbery in Tallinn follow similar processes to the ones found in Cologne applying GIS (Geographical Information System) and spatial statistical techniques. Findings show that although levels of robberies (rates) are higher in Tallinn than in Cologne, their geography (ratios) follows the same overlapping components of social contexts, as social disorganization and, particularly, routine activities.
Article
This paper employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore regional and national variations in residential gating and enclosure as a first step in developing an integrated theory of urban fragmentation. Utilizing data from the urban and suburban United States, Latin America and China, a series of dimensions are compared: 1) domestic architecture, 2) urban/suburban settlement pattern, 3) the role of the state, 4) governance, 5) citizenship, 6) cultural meaning, 7) identity, 8) provision of goods and services, 9) taxation, 10) degree of privatization, 11) cultural pattern of social sanction, and 12) fear of crime and others. This comparative analysis locates culturally meaningful and theoretically significant distinctions among the regions and provides data for the development of explanatory models in which each region varies along a dimensional continuum. At the macro-level of analysis, the impact of globalization and flexible accumulation with increased local heterogeneity, increases in inequality and changes in perceived crime rate emerge as the major underlying factors in the fear of crime and others found in all three regions. At a micro-level, differences in cultural meanings are explained by local social and political contexts, while provision of goods and services and governance depend on club realm economic explanations.
The Process of Criminality in Klaipėda in 1990-2000: the Ratio of Culture and Crime
  • A Acus
Acus A. The Process of Criminality in Klaipėda in 1990-2000: the Ratio of Culture and Crime. Tiltai/Bridges/Bruecken, vol. 4 (57), Klaipėda University, 2011, p. 13-25.
Socio-Cultural Discourse of the Criminality Trends in Klaipėda in 2000-2010
  • A Acus
  • L Kraniauskas
Acus A., Kraniauskas L. Socio-Cultural Discourse of the Criminality Trends in Klaipėda in 2000-2010. Tiltai/Bridges/Bruecken, vol. 1 (58), Klaipėda University, 2012, p. 105-130.
Criminological analysis of the main statistical indicators of criminal victimisation in Lithuania
  • G Babachinaitė
Babachinaitė G. (2011). Criminological analysis of the main statistical indicators of criminal victimisation in Lithuania, Jurisprudence, 2011, vol. 18 (3), p. 1163-1176.
Crime occupation, and economic specialization In Crime: a Spatial Perspective
  • P J Brantingham
  • P L D E Brantingham
  • K D George-Abeyie
  • Harries
Brantingham P.J., Brantingham P.L. Crime occupation, and economic specialization. In Crime: a Spatial Perspective/Ed. D.E. George-Abeyie, K.D. Harries, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Neighborhoods and Crime
  • . R J Bursik
  • H Grasmick
Bursik Jr.R.J, Grasmick H.G. Neighborhoods and Crime. New York: Lexington Books, 1993.