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Preliminary Study: Glycemic Index of Brown and White Rice Variant IR64 in Healthy Adult Men

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Objective: To measure the glycemic index of brown and white rice in healthy adult men. Methods: The study was conducted in April 2010 at Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Subjects of 21 healthy male students were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were given white bread (WB), white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). Results: The results show that the highest and lowest average values of the blood glucose response was in the WR group at 30 minutes (126.9 mg/dL) and at 120 minutes (87.4 mg/dL), respectively. The glycemic index of brown rice (97.28) was lower compared to the white rice (99.26). Conclusions: Both WR and BR are classified as high glycemic index food. The higher glycemic index of brown rice, compared to the index found in other literatures, may be caused by differences in variant and/or production process. This study suggested the importance of evaluation of local products before promoting it to the community.
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Internaonal Journal of Integrated Health Sciences. 2013;1(1) 37
Correspondence:
Aly Diana, Department of Medical Nutrion, Faculty of
Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran
Jl. Eijkman No. 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
e-mail: diana.aly@gmail.com
Preliminary Study: Glycemic Index of Brown and White Rice Variant IR64 in
Healthy Adult Men
Nur Irika bin Idril,
1
Aly Diana,
2
Abdullah Firmansyah Wargahadibrata
2
1
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran
2
Department of Medical Nutrion, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran
:37–41
Abstract Objecve: To measure the glycemic index of brown and white rice in healthy
adult men.
Methods: The study was conducted in April 2010 at Universitas Padjadjaran,
Janangor. Subjects of 21 healthy male students were randomly divided into 3
groups, which were given white bread (WB), white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR).
Results: The results show that the highest and lowest average values of the blood
glucose response was in the WR group at 30 minutes (126.9 mg/dL) and at 120
minutes (87.4 mg/dL), respecvely. The glycemic index of brown rice (97.28) was
lower compared to the white rice (99.26).
Conclusions: Both WR and BR are classied as high glycemic index food. The higher
glycemic index of brown rice, compared to the index found in other literatures,
may be caused by dierences in variant and/or producon process. This study
suggested the importance of evaluaon of local products before promong it to
the community.
Keywords: Blood glucose level, brown rice, glycemic index
IJIHS. 2013;1(1):37–41
Introducon
In most countries, especially in many developing
countries, have undergone the dual burdens of
disease. The prevalence of non-communicable
and degenerave diseases has increased while
the prevalence of communicable diseases is sll
high.
1,2
A lot of studies indicated that most of
the degenerave diseases are related to current
lifestyle, especially the nutrion intake related to
high glycemic index.
3,4
This fact has urged other
studies to nd alternave food which provide
less risk and can add benets to health.
Since rice is the major source of carbohydrate
in most Asian populaons, including Indonesia,
nding beer alternave types of rice is essenal.
Many studies have explained the health benets
of brown rice (BR), including its advantages for
diabec paents.
5,6
Brown rice sll has its bran
layers, which make the BR an excellent source of
magnesium, iron, selenium, manganese, vitamins
B1, B2, B3 and B6, dietary ber, and protein.
5
The dietary ber in bran layer traps nutrients,
delaying their transit through gastrointesnal
tract which leads to slower glucose absorpon.
As a result, the glycemic index of BR is lower
than white rice (WR).
5-7
Consequently, BR is
considered as a healthier and safer substute for
WR. Nevertheless, the posive eect of BR (IR64
variant) which is locally produced and commonly
consumed in Indonesia, on blood glucose level of
the adult populaon is unknown. Therefore, this
study aims to measure glycemic index of BR and
WR aer consumpon in healthy adult men.
Methods
This study was an experimental study. Men, 19–
24 years old with normal body mass index (18.5–
22.9), waist circumference of ≤90 cm, no history
of chronic disease, and were not on medicaon,
were included as the subjects for the study. They
also had normal fasng blood glucose level.
The study was conducted in April 2010. The
number of subjects in this study was 21 men,
picked randomly from the populaon of medical
students in Universitas Padjadjaran. They were
Received:
January 3, 2013
Revised:
March 11, 2013
Accepted:
May 21, 2013
Original Arcle
38 Internaonal Journal of Integrated Health Sciences. 2013;1(1)
further divided into 3 groups. White bread (WB)
group was the standard group, which was given
108 gram WB and water. The WR group was the
control group, which was given 113 gram WR of
IR64 variant and water. The BR group was the
intervenon group, which was given 123 gram
BR of IR64 variant and water. The amount of the
food given was dierent, but they all contained
50 gram of carbohydrate. Both WR and BR were
recently cooked and the subjects had to nish
the food within 10 minutes.
The independent variables included WR and
BR, while the dependent variable was glycemic
index. The BR glycemic index was lower (97.28)
compared to that of WR (99.26) (Table 2). WR
in this study was the IR64 variant which was
polished unl its color became white. Brown rice
was the IR64 variant that was undergone several
processes, including removal of the husk part.
However, the bran layer is sll intact because
there was no polishing process performed. The
glycemic index is the area under the blood glucose
curve aer consuming 50 gram of carbohydrate.
The curve was calculated for each type of food
by taking blood samples from parcipants at
0 minute (fasng blood glucose) and every 30
minutes aer consumpon for two hours. The
analysis was conducted to compare the glycemic
index of WR and BR by using the glycemic index
of bread as the standard measurement. The
Pleliminary Study: Glycemic Index of Brown and White Rice Variant IR64 aer Consumpon
in Healthy Adult Men
Table 1 Mean of Blood Glucose Response in WB, WR, and BR Groups
Type of food Sample
Time
30 min 60 min 90 min 120 min
WB 1 85 102 88 91
2 116 81 118 95
3 108 96 108 106
4 111 86 87 87
5 91 109 105 100
6 136 135 101 99
7 129 114 111 98
Mean±SD 110.9±18.5 103.3±18.3 102.6±11.6 96.6±6.2
WR 1 130 97 93 84
2 125 107 104 100
3 119 91 88 87
4 153 107 76 87
5 98 105 102 80
6 120 100 98 84
7 143 121 112 90
Mean±SD 126.9±17.9 104.0±6.4 96.1±10.4 87.4±6.9
BR 1 114 118 119 99
2 111 105 91 96
3 147 81 113 107
4 117 77 99 84
5 140 124 95 92
6 102 91 86 83
7 93 87 87 85
Mean+SD 117.7±19.5 97.6±18.4 98.6±12.8 92.3±9.0
SD: Standard Deviaon
:37–41
Internaonal Journal of Integrated Health Sciences. 2013;1(1) 39
confounding factors, i.e. age, gender, BMI, and
waist circumference were controlled through the
inclusion criteria. Therefore, these factors were
not taken into account in the analysis.
Table 2 Glycemic Index of Both BR and WR
Type of
food
Increment area
under the curve
(IAUC)
Glycemic index
(GI)
WB 9287.14 100.00
WR 9218.57 99.26
BR 9034.29 97.28
Results
The lowest and highest average values of the
blood glucose response were found in the WR
group at 120 minutes (87.4 mg/dL) and at 30
minutes (126.9 mg/dL), respecvely. There was
no signicant dierence in mean and median
of each group (Table 1). The glycemic index was
then calculated using the trapezoidal method
to measure the increment area under the curve
(IAUC) and the formula below:
8
IAUC for blood glucose
response for a type of food
Glycemic Index = x 100
Corresponding area aer
equicarbohydrate poron
of reference food
Discussion
The blood glucose increment in BR group was
lower than WR group in the rst 30 minutes in
this study. However, the blood glucose level
in WR group seemed to decrease to a lower
level compared to the blood glucose level in BR
group. Blood glucose level in BR group was seen
at a higher level, which was sustained unl 120
minutes.
Various literatures consist of grey literatures
and clinical studies
7, 9–11
suggest that BR has lower
glycemic index and can be classied as food with
Day 1
Explanation of study procedure and informed consent
Recording of personal data
Waist circumference, weight, height and BMI measurement
History taking of disease history, medication and supplement intake
Physical examination
Screening of blood glucose level
Day 3
All subjects ate dinner normally at about 8 pm and began fasting for 8 hours
Day 4
Measurement of fasting blood glucose (0 minute)
Subjects (21 adult males) randomly divided into 3 groups
Group A
White Bread
Group B
White Rice
Group C
Brown Rice
Blood glucose level measurement at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes
Plotting the glucose response curve
Calculating glycemic index
Analyzing data and making conclusion
Fig. 1 Experimental Procedure Scheme
Nur Irika bin Idril, Aly Diana, et al.
:37–41
40 Internaonal Journal of Integrated Health Sciences. 2013;1(1)
moderate glycemic index (55–70). However, our
experiment shows that although the glycemic
index of BR is lower than WR, both BR and WR
glycemic index is classied as high (70–100).
The study in Japan stated that the glycemic
index of BR is 61.5, lower than the nding in
this experiment.
7
These dierent results may be
related to the variant or species of rice used in
the study. In the previous study in Japan, the type
of BR tested was the short grain rice (Japonica)
produced in Hokkaido, Japan. Meanwhile, the BR
variant used in this study is IR64. The IR64 variant
was used because it is considered the type of rice
most commonly consumed in Indonesia.
The dierent variant may inuence the starch
content in the rice. Although it was not tested in
this experiment, the IR64 BR might have a higher
starch content compared to Japonica variant.
The dierent variants may have dierent ber
content in the bran layer. The Japonica variant
might have higher ber content than the IR64
which making it more resistant to the α-amylase
acvity and slowing down the absorpon process
in the intesne. The WR from Japonica variant
has moderate glycemic index.
11
The parcipant individual dierences may
also aect the glycemic index of the BR and WR.
These dierences may be due to the race or the
rice consumpon habit of the parcipants.
12
Frequent rice consumpon might have inuenced
the digeson or digesve enzymes by increasing
the ecacy of the digesve enzymes. This
leads to faster and more ecient carbohydrate
absorpon that triggers a higher blood glucose
response.
13
There are several limitaons in this study. First,
the study was only performed in 1 day whereas
in a previous similar study, the measurement was
performed aer the parcipants consumed both
BR and WR for several days. The second limitaon
is that the measurement of carbohydrate in the
food given to all parcipants is done based on
the food composion table (Daar Komposisi
Bahan Makanan, DKBM).
14
DKBM is the standard
food reference table in Indonesia. However, the
DKBM values may not be accurate as food may
vary depending on the method of producon,
the species or variant of rice, and other factors.
Despite the limitaons, this study showed
that rice variant and producon method may
impact the glycemic index. Therefore, this result
also suggested the importance of local product
evaluaon. This is especially important for food
products that are not only aected by geographic
condions (soil contains, environment factors)
but also the variant and the processes from the
producon to consumpon.
13
An experimental
study that addressed all of these contribung
factors should be conducted before a decision
to encourage or discourage promoon of BR as
a beer substute for WR to public in Indonesia
is made.
Pleliminary Study: Glycemic Index of Brown and White Rice Variant IR64 aer Consumpon
in Healthy Adult Men
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To examine longitudinal differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black veterans with type 2 diabetes. Retrospective cohort study. VA facility in the Southeastern United States. A 3-month person-period dataset was created for 8813 veterans with type 2 diabetes between June 1997 and May 2006. Primary outcome was mean change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. Secondary outcome was the odds of poor glycemic control over time (HbA1c >8%). For the primary outcome, a linear mixed model (LMM) approach was used to model the relationship of HbA1c levels and race/ethnicity over time. For the secondary outcome, generalized LMMs were used to assess whether glycemic control changed over time and whether change in glycemic control varied by racial/ethnic group. Mean age was 66.3 years, 36% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), 98% were male, 65% were married, and 50% were unemployed. Mean follow-up time was 4.4 years. Least square mean HbA1c levels from LMM adjusted for time and relevant confounders showed that NHBs had higher HbA1c values over time (mean difference of 0.54% [P < 0.001]). The final model with poor versus good glycemic control as the dependent variable, race/ethnicity as primary independent variable adjusted for time, and relevant confounders showed that NHBs were likely to have poor control compared with NHWs (OR: 1.8, 95% CI, 1.7; 2.0, P < 0.0001). NHB veterans were more likely to have higher mean HbA1c values and less likely to have good glycemic control over time compared with NHW veterans.
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Aim: The intent of this review is to critically analyze the scientific evidence on the role of the glycemic index in chronic Western disease and to discuss the utility of the glycemic index in the prevention and management of these disease states. Background: The glycemic index ranks foods based on their postprandial blood glucose response. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as well as their determinants (eg high energy intake, obesity, lack of physical activity) have been implicated in the etiology of diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Recently, among dietary factors, carbohydrates have attracted much attention as a significant culprit, however, different types of carbohydrate produce varying glycemic and insulinemic responses. Low glycemic index foods, characterized by slowly absorbed carbohydrates, have been shown in some studies to produce beneficial effects on glucose control, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, blood lipids and satiety. Method: Studies on the short and long-term metabolic effects of diets with different glycemic indices will be presented and discussed. The review will focus primarily on clinical and epidemiological data, and will briefly discuss in vitro and animal studies related to possible mechanisms by which the glycemic index may influence chronic disease.
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The objectives were to examine the feasibility of using white rice as a reference food in the study of glycemic index (GI) and to examine the GI values of both single and mixed meal foods among rice species, processed rice products, beans, and dairy products. Subjects were served with 50 g carbohydrate content of white rice at least two times (maximum three times) and test food once after separate overnight fasts. Capillary blood glucose measurements were carried out before and during 120 min after each food load. The study was carried out in an outpatient setting. A total of 58 (38 females and 20 males) nondiseased subjects, mean aged 37 y and mean BMI 22 kg/m(2) were included. The correlation between incremental area under curve of white rice and glucose was r=0.853 (n=10, P <0.0001) and white rice was considered suitable to be used as a reference food. Among mixed meal foods, the combination of carbohydrate foods with vinegar, dairy products, and bean products significantly decreased the GI value of white rice of 20-40%. The reduction of GI occurred whether the foods were taken together, before or after rice intake. GI of noodles such as udon, soba, and spaghetti showed low GI values. White rice could be used as a reference food in determining GI values of foods. A total of 32 single and mixed meal Japanese common food products were examined for their GI values.
Article
Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.