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Teaching and researching motivation, second edition

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Abstract

Cultivating motivation is crucial to a language learner's success - and therefore crucial for the language teacher and researcher to understand. This fully revised edition of a groundbreaking work reflects the dramatic changes the field of motivation research has undergone in recent years, including the impact of language globalisation and various dynamic and relational research methodologies, and offers ways in which this research can be put to practical use in the classroom and in research.

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... Many recent other studies focus on language learning motivation among young learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) (Altiner, 2018;Nikolov, 1999;Salayo & Amarles, 2020;Wallace & Leong, 2020); teaching and researching motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2010); students' confidence, motivation, and ability in EFL class (Wu et al., 2010); attitudes and motivation of Chadian Learners (Safotso & Tompte, 2018); motivation and demotivation of English language learners in Japan (Kikuchi, 2019); motivation, language proficiency, and academic skills (Rose et al. 2019); motivation, anxiety and students' performance (Ahmetović et al., 2020); gender differences in motivation and academic achievement (Naz et al., 2020); and motivation, metacognitive awareness, and listening skills (Bourdeaud'hui et al. 2021). However, little empirical research is conducted regarding students' motivation and interest in their English learning outcomes in the university context. ...
... Motivation has been considered a significant factor in student success. According to Dörnyei and Ushioda (2010), motivation explains why people decide to do things, how long they are disposed to continue that act, and how ambitiously they engage in it. Motivation can be classified as intrinsic or extrinsic (Djamarah, 2008), and research has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation significantly influence students' English results (Ahmetović et al., 2020). ...
... Data for this research were gathered through questionnaires and tests. The researcher constructed and developed questionnaires based on the literature (Dörnyei et al., 2010) and designed tests based on the material given to the students during the course. Validity of the instruments was checked prior to their use in this study. ...
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This correlation study examined the effect of motivation and interest on students' learning outcomes at the university level. Data were collected from 125 university students through questionnaires and tests, and t-test, ANOVA, and R-Square were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that motivation in learning English did not influence students' learning outcomes, nor did interest. Moreover, there was a negative connection between motivation and interest and students' learning outcomes. This study enriches the research on motivation and interest in English learning outcomes. Furthermore, it reveals an insight that motivation and interest are not the factors that cause students to succeed in English courses. Resumen Este estudio de correlación examinó el efecto de la motivación y el interés en los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes a nivel universitario. Se recopilaron datos de 125 estudiantes universitarios a través de cuestionarios y exámenes, y se utilizaron pruebas t, ANOVA y R-Cuadrado para analizar los datos. Los resultados indicaron que la motivación por aprender inglés no influyó en los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, y el interés tampoco. Además, hubo una conexión negativa entre la motivación y el interés y los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Este estudio enriquece la investigación sobre la motivación y el interés en los resultados del aprendizaje del inglés. Además, revela una idea de que la motivación y el interés no son los factores que hacen que los estudiantes tengan éxito en los cursos de inglés.
... The approach to teacher motivation research has traditionally focused on either a precedent or a result of learner motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). The recent growth of interest in teacher motivation, however, has been witnessed in a number of studies on general education (Bae et al., 2019;Chiong et al., 2017;Richardson et al., 2014) as well as in the L2 context (Hiver, 2017;Hiver et al., 2018;Sahakyan et al., 2018;Sampson, 2016). ...
... This chapter attempts to comprehensively illuminate L2 teacher motivation and L2 teacher autonomy in the context of EFL high schools in East Asia. The complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) is adopted as a research theory that may offer a practical standpoint in examining how teachers and students interact dynamically (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). ...
... In adopting CDST to motivational studies, one way to define L2 teacher motivation is to focus on the attractor state where the focus teacher is located and the extent to which its attractor basin is deep (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). In Waninge's (2015) implementation of this strategy, she took the interview data of 56 participants. ...
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L2 teacher motivation is an area that merits much more attention, and many scholars have started to seek out a better understanding of the dynamics of teacher motivation. Investigating teachers’ personal and contextual perspectives by using a longitudinal, ethnographic research design is one approach to exploring L2 teacher motivation. In this chapter, I use complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) as a basis to investigate the L2 teacher motivation of three EFL teachers in conjunction with their L2 teacher autonomy. Classroom observations were carried out in three different countries in East Asia for timescales of 10 months to 9 years. The qualitative data analysis demonstrates that even in similar socio/cultural classroom contexts in East Asia, each English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher’s L2 teacher motivation transitions within their attractor states, crossing different systems and following a unique trajectory. I also document each EFL teacher’s L2 teacher autonomy in each attractor state. Findings suggest future research directions to establish further the relevance of CDST for L2 teacher motivation studies.
... The last six decades have witnessed growing attention on motivation due to its vital role in second language (L2) acquisition (see Al-Hoorie and MacIntyre 2019). Despite the flourishing in motivation theories and impressive bodies of research (Dörnyei and Ushioda 2021), the theorisation of L2 motivation has been overwhelmingly based on learning L2 English in diverse social, political, and educational contexts (Boo, Dörnyei, and Ryan 2015;Dörnyei and Al-Hoorie 2017). This phenomenon has been attributed to globalisation, which increased the dominance of English as a global language or lingua franca and the difficulties for education institutions to entice students to learn languages other than English (LOTEs), especially in English-speaking countries (Busse and Walter 2013;Dörnyei 2020;Dörnyei and Csizér, 2002;Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2021;Ushioda, 2017). ...
... Despite the flourishing in motivation theories and impressive bodies of research (Dörnyei and Ushioda 2021), the theorisation of L2 motivation has been overwhelmingly based on learning L2 English in diverse social, political, and educational contexts (Boo, Dörnyei, and Ryan 2015;Dörnyei and Al-Hoorie 2017). This phenomenon has been attributed to globalisation, which increased the dominance of English as a global language or lingua franca and the difficulties for education institutions to entice students to learn languages other than English (LOTEs), especially in English-speaking countries (Busse and Walter 2013;Dörnyei 2020;Dörnyei and Csizér, 2002;Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2021;Ushioda, 2017). Even within the recent 'multilingual turn' (May, 2014) (i.e. ...
... global citizens should use more than one language to communicate and choose their preferred additional languages to study), motivation to learn LOTEs is still overshadowed by the motivation to learn global English (Dörnyei and Al-Hoorie, 2017). Such a predominant focus on L2 English learning inevitably limits the theoretical scope to what is relevant to account for L2 motivation (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2021;Fraschini and Caruso, 2019). Furthermore, compared to the abundant research on L2 English learning motivation, global English speakers' motivation to learn LOTEs remains elusive. ...
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This study investigated English first language (L1) speakers’ motivation for learning Chinese as a second language (L2) in Australia and the links of underlying motivational components to learner sociobiographical (e.g. gender and reasons for learning) and language learning variables (i.e. experience abroad, hours of self-study, and speaking with Chinese L1 speakers). A total of 164 Australian university students participated in the study. The findings show that instrumentality (e.g. employment and travel) tops their orientations to learn L2 Chinese, followed by integrative orientations (e.g. interest in the Chinese language and culture and desire to communicate with the Chinese people), with mandatory requirements as the least agreed reason. Statistical analyses reveal that the underlying structure of their motivation consists of six components: intrinsic motivation, orientation, anxiety, integrativeness, instrumentality, and sociality. Some of them are linked to certain learner background variables. Females demonstrated stronger instrumental orientation than their male counterparts. Visiting China and self-study hours have positive connections with intrinsic motivation. The findings shed light on the complexities and multifaceted characteristics of motivation and their links with learner sociobiographical and learning variables by providing evidence for global language speakers’ motivation to learn other languages.
... Một số kết quả nghiên cứu trong nước cũng đã cho thấy rằng người học chưa hiểu hoàn toàn về chuẩn đầu ra mà họ phải đạt được; cụ thể là các đặc tả đích của các kỹ năng ngôn ngữ mà người học đạt bậc 3 phải có được khi sử dụng ngôn ngữ, là sự liên kết giữa việc học và kiểm tra đánh giá hướng đến chuẩn đầu ra, hay là khả năng tự duy trì năng lực ngôn ngữ lâu dài [2,14] và các nhóm kỹ năng và kiến thức cần được xác định ngay từ đầu để có định hướng cụ thể hơn trong quá trình học nhằm đạt chuẩn đầu ra [11]. Cụ thể là kết quả trong các nghiên cứu của Chuẩn đầu ra thường được mô tả gói gọn lại trong điểm số mà người học đạt được sau khi được kiểm tra đánh giá vào cuối mỗi quá trình học; tuy nhiên, kết quả thông qua điểm số đôi khi không thể phản ánh được chính xác những gì giáo viên định dạy và sinh viên muốn học [22 -24]. ...
... Các nghiên cứu về việc học của sinh viên cho thấy phương pháp học tập phù hợp sẽ giúp sinh viên đạt kết quả học tập tốt và quyết định đến chất lượng của chuẩn đầu ra [7,22]. Ngoài ra, động cơ học tập gồm nhu cầu được học và thái độ tích cực đối với việc học [11,12,17] cũng được xem là những yếu tố tích cực góp phần dẫn đến sự thành công cho người học [14]. Sự hài lòng về môi trường học tập sẽ hình thành động cơ học tập trong mỗi cá nhân và từ đó là nhân tố quan trọng hướng sinh viên đến đạt chuẩn đầu ra [13]. ...
... Nội dung mà em được kiểm tra ở bài thi kết thúc học phần không giống như nội dung mà em đã học trên lớp (SV7). Động cơ học tập được xem là yếu tố tích cực góp phần vào sự thành công của sinh viên trong quá trình học [11,25], nhưng động cơ học tập không đủ mạnh lại là khó khăn cuối cùng được liệt kê bởi các sinh viên tham gia nghiên cứu. Các sinh viên đề cập: ...
Article
Trên cơ sở thực hiện mục tiêu của Đề án ngoại ngữ Quốc gia "Dạy và học ngoại ngữ trong hệ thống giáo dục quốc dân giai đoạn 2008 - 2020", nay được mở rộng đến năm 2025 trong đổi mới toàn diện việc dạy và học ngoại ngữ, chương trình dạy và học ngoại ngữ mới được triển khai ở các cấp học với nhiều mục tiêu cụ thể mà trong đó chuẩn đầu ra bậc 3/6 theo khung năng lực ngoại ngữ dành cho Việt Nam (B1 – CEFR) được đặt ra cho nhóm sinh viên ngoại ngữ không chuyên Đại học Huế như là điều kiện để nhận bằng tốt nghiệp. Bài báo này trình bày những kết quả ban đầu thông qua bảng hỏi và phỏng vấn trong nghiên cứu về nhận thức của sinh viên không chuyên ngữ về chuẩn đầu ra năng lực tiếng Anh cũng như những khó khăn sinh viên gặp phải để đạt được chuẩn đầu ra này. Kết quả cho thấy sinh viên về cơ bản nhận thức rằng chuẩn đầu ra bậc 3/6 được thể hiện qua các kết quả kiểm tra đánh giá hơn là qua các đặc tả cụ thể trong từng nhóm kỹ năng ngôn ngữ. Đồng thời, nghiên cứu cũng đưa ra những khó khăn mà sinh viên gặp phải trong quá trình học để đạt chuẩn đầu ra và từ đó đưa ra đề xuất nhằm hỗ trợ sinh viên khắc phục những khó khăn đó.
... In regards to motivation, several aspects can diminish it. One of those aspects is demotivation which Dörnyei and Ushioda (2013) define as the slow diminishment of motivation. When students are demotivated, they will not be able to sustain their interests in language learning (Vibuphol, 2016). ...
... While demotivation refers to the diminution of motivation, amotivation is losing motivation entirely. The latter happens as learners feel incompetent to learn the target language or feel that their efforts are useless (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). Unlike amotivation, which is resulted from unrealistic expectations of learners (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013), demotivation can be defined as numerous extrinsic factors which might decline the learners ' willingness to learn the target language (Dörnyei in Li, 2021). ...
... The latter happens as learners feel incompetent to learn the target language or feel that their efforts are useless (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). Unlike amotivation, which is resulted from unrealistic expectations of learners (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013), demotivation can be defined as numerous extrinsic factors which might decline the learners ' willingness to learn the target language (Dörnyei in Li, 2021). Besides dividing demotivation and amotivation, internal factors are likely to influence demotivation based on the latter view. ...
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It has been argued that demotivation can negatively affect learners ' interests in language learning. Thus, teaching strategies need to be performed in order to prevent or overcome demotivation. In this regard, using technology improves learners' motivation and reduces demotivation. As a part of technology integration into language classrooms, digital storytelling can be one of the strategies taken to reduce learners ' demotivation. The present study is a conceptual study that aims to describe the potential benefits of integrating digital storytelling in EFL classrooms in trying times such as the Covid-19 pandemic. Besides discussing the merits of technology integration, especially digital storytelling in language classrooms, the present study will suggest strategies to integrate digital storytelling to increase motivation and decrease demotivation. The present study may merit educators and researchers interested in the discussions about using technology to minimize demotivation during challenging times such as the Covid-19 pandemic.
... On the other hand, amotivation is regarded as the loss of motivation because learner feel incompetence and helpless toward language learning activities. In addition, while unrealistic expectations of results caused amotivation, demotivation is caused by external factors such as teachers or learning environment (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). It can be said that demotivation is a unique concept which is unlike amotivation. ...
... It has been argued that poor test results can only cause demotivation among less motivated learners ). However, both more and less motivated might be prone to demotivation due to poor test results (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). It can be said that poor test results can lead to demotivation toward more and less motivated learners. ...
... In addition, remark that teachers' attitudes such biased behavior, indifference, and unintelligible teaching methods can lead to students' demotivation (Hassaskhah et al., 2015). Therefore, it seems important for teachers to commit toward their teaching so that it can imbue same feelings in students (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013) as teachers' motivation can improve learners' efforts (Çankaya, 2018). Besides that, teachers should be provided with in-service trainings to develop their competence (Quadir, 2017). ...
Article
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Covid-19 pandemic may pose a factor that reduces learners’ motivation. The present study aims to investigate the differences between demotivation factors of public and private high school EFL learners during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study applies a quantitative method to obtain its data by distributing a set of questionnaires adapted from Sakai and Kikuchi (2009) to 61 high school students from public and private high schools. The findings indicate that both groups of learners are mostly demotivated by inadequate school facilities, test scores, and teachers’ competence and teaching styles. It can be said that despite the differences in teaching location, learners may be demotivated by the same variables. Therefore, it seems imperative for teachers and teaching institutions to provide better school facilities, reduce learners’ anxiety during tests, and improve teachers’ competence and teaching styles to overcome students’ demotivation. DOI: 10.26905/enjourme.v6i2.6519
... According to Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), such competence is subjective, meaning that it is certainly not what a person knows or can do but what he or she thinks he or she knows and can do. Therefore, feedback should contain information that is firmly convincing to the students that they are competent enough to complete their task if they put more effort and show them some positive examples that the task itself can be achieved within their resources (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Further, feedback should be given regularly (Dörnyei, 2001) and delivered in a kind manner by, for example, beginning with the good points before pointing out what needs to be improved (Filgona et al., 2020). ...
... In addition to praise, some sort of reward can also help maintain students' motivation. Thus, to avoid negative impacts on students' motivation, teachers should offer such incentives when students have accomplished a difficult assignment rather than just doing it for their sake (Schunk et al., 2014) or participating in the activity (Dörnyei, 2001;Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Brophy (2010) and Schunk et al. (2014) advised that giving rewards should be associated and provided with informative feedback on students' progress and improvement in the language, ensuring that students witness their language development. ...
... The study plan can act as a self-motivating language learning strategy that helps students to accomplish their goals. It is important to note that some students, even without their teacher's assistance, still strive for their goals more than others (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). The reason behind this is self-motivation which refers to an effective and meaningful positive thought about the learning experience, learning goals, and personal control of one's engagement in learning (Ushioda, 1997, as cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011. ...
Article
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Motivation has been considered one of the main contributing factors to academic success, particularly in foreign language learning classes where there is little contact with the target language community. This is because highly motivated students tend to be ready to learn and engage themselves in the lesson, which allows them to receive more input that will help them to succeed in language learning. Hence, motivation is regarded as an internal power that drives students' abilities to perform well. However, it is worth noting that motivation in foreign language learning is complicated as every language student walks into the class with different levels of motivation, requiring teachers to be creative in designing the lesson to help them meet their needs and goals. This article discusses common types of motivation and their importance, as well as ways to sustain students' motivation in language learning. The article concludes with a variety of classroom tips that can be useful in keeping students motivated in learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... According to Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), such competence is subjective, meaning that it is certainly not what a person knows or can do but what he or she thinks he or she knows and can do. Therefore, feedback should contain information that is firmly convincing to the students that they are competent enough to complete their task if they put more effort and show them some positive examples that the task itself can be achieved within their resources (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Further, feedback should be given regularly (Dörnyei, 2001) and delivered in a kind manner by, for example, beginning with the good points before pointing out what needs to be improved (Filgona et al., 2020). ...
... In addition to praise, some sort of reward can also help maintain students' motivation. Thus, to avoid negative impacts on students' motivation, teachers should offer such incentives when students have accomplished a difficult assignment rather than just doing it for their sake (Schunk et al., 2014) or participating in the activity (Dörnyei, 2001;Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Brophy (2010) and Schunk et al. (2014) advised that giving rewards should be associated and provided with informative feedback on students' progress and improvement in the language, ensuring that students witness their language development. ...
... The study plan can act as a self-motivating language learning strategy that helps students to accomplish their goals. It is important to note that some students, even without their teacher's assistance, still strive for their goals more than others (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). The reason behind this is self-motivation which refers to an effective and meaningful positive thought about the learning experience, learning goals, and personal control of one's engagement in learning (Ushioda, 1997, as cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011. ...
Book
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The Cambodian Journal of Educational Research (CJER) is a peer-reviewed academic journal initiated and managed by the Cambodian Education Forum (CEF). CJER publishes English manuscripts in the field of education, which would be of interest to Cambodian or international readership. All manuscripts must be original and have not been previously published or currently under publication consideration elsewhere. All manuscripts submitted to CJER will go through an initial screening by the CJER editorial team. The editorial team will then decide whether or not to send a manuscript for a blind peer review by two invited reviewers. CJER publishes two issues annually (the first issue will be published in June and the second issue in December). Submissions to CJER can be made throughout the year following the CJER submission guidelines. Accepted manuscripts will be published online first and will later be included in one of the two issues.
... In other words, students are expected to be actively, authentically, and intrinsically engaged in learning. Improving learners' engagement during language learning tasks can facilitate language awareness (e.g., Ahn, 2016), motivation (e.g., Oga-Baldwin & Nakata, 2017) and ultimately, language achievement (e.g., Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). ...
... The premise of generating positive effects is that students must actively engage themselves in completing the tasks (e.g., Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), referring to task engagement (Philp & Duchesne, 2016). This concept guides our work to explore the language learning tasks that Chinese EFL students and teachers prefer. ...
Article
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Drawing upon self-determination theory, flow theory, and the engagement literature, this study explored language tasks that English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and teachers preferred within their language classrooms and identified common conditions underlying these tasks that could facilitate learners’ engagement. With qualitative survey data collected from 392 Chinese college students and 54 English language teachers, this study confirmed the six principle task engagement conditions, namely, authenticity, social interaction, challenge, autonomy, learning support, and interest, and further extended the conceptualization with Chinese EFL population. In particular, both students and teachers perceived social interaction and interest as the most important task conditions in support of engagement; however, they perceived challenge and autonomy as less important. Divergences emerge, with regard to the perceptions towards authenticity and learning support. These findings provide EFL teachers with insights on how to interpret and incorporate these conditions into task designs so as to enhance engagement.
... Therefore, strategies to influence learners' motivation are commonly sought after as they make up the core of professional repertoires of practitioners who aim at implementing learner-centered pedagogy and attaining a high degree of learner participation in language programs (e.g., Hadfield & Dörnyei, 2013). But, motivational strategies are various and varied, and they are not encapsulated in a coherent theory (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011); also, unlike some other teaching techniques or activities, they are not primed for instant application to a classroom setting. ...
... A question arises whether EAL learners can be motivated at all, as and when desired. After a glance at the complex literature on this subject in the field of EAL education, it is safe to surmise that learner motivation can be enhanced in the short or long term by virtue of practitioners' (micro)strategies (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011;Lamb, 2007). But the selection of these strategies is determined by the sociocultural dynamics of instructional settings and practitioners need to respond to contextual exigencies and validate pertinent motivational strategies. ...
Chapter
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Although a comprehensive theory of learner motivation is still lacking, its predominant features are widely agreed upon and can be translated into action in a motivational pedagogy. To generate and sustain learner motivation, extensive taxonomies of motivational strategies, which are highly context-specific, are accessible to language practitioners. Teacher-afforded motivational strategies promote self-regulation and autonomy in order to assist learners to exploit self as motivational resource.
... The word motivation is derived from the Latin verb movere, which means "to move, " and it means what moves a person to make certain choices. Motivation is considered an interesting and popular topic for research, but also to be difficult because, as a concept, it has too broad a meaning (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013). ...
... Motivation is a crucial part of language learning (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013;Baxriddinovna and Guzaloy, 2022). In language learning, motivation can be the reason why we learn a foreign language or to what degree we work hard during the learning process. ...
Article
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Within the context of China, this study seeks to examine the relationship between English language proficiency, the native dialect of the learner, and the learner’s reason, or motivation for learning English. English language proficiency can be an important vehicle for accessing high quality higher education, for interacting with non-Chinese, and for enhancing employment and career opportunities Data was gathered through an online survey with 985 usable responses recorded. Respondents included a distribution of speakers from five of the major distinct dialects of China. The analysis provides empirical evidence of a diversity of propensities and motivations for English language acquisition among learners from different regions and native dialects. Access to international higher education as a type of motivation is found to have a moderating effect on English proficiency. Other findings suggest that learners in regions with more historic exposure to foreign interaction are more likely to be motivated for social reasons, those from regions with export focused commerce will be motivated for business related reasons. The results of this study may be of interest to policy makers, linguists, educators, and those with an interest in socioeconomic sustainability through language acquisition and education as a method of socioeconomic mobility.
... Bu nedenle öğretme motivasyonuyla ilgili yapılacak araştırmalar öğretimin kalitesinin artırılması açısından etkili olabilir. Alanyazın incelendiğinde öğretme motivasyonuyla ilgili sınırlı sayıda çalışmaya (Dörnyei ve Ushioda, 2021;Gün ve Turabik, 2019;Güzel-Candan ve Evin-Gencel, 2015;İhtiyaroğlu, 2017;Kauffman vd., 2011) rastlanılmıştır. Bu çalışmalardan bazıları (İhtiyaroğlu, 2017;Gün & Turabik, 2019) nicel yöntem kullanılarak desenlendiği, bazılarının ise (Ada, Akan, Ayık, Yıldırım & Yalçın, 2013) nitel yöntem kullanılarak yürütüldüğü söylenebilir. ...
... Teaching motivation is an important factor in terms of the effectiveness and efficiency of the teaching process (Gün & Turabik, 2019). It can be said that a limited number of studies (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2021;Gün & Turabik, 2019;Güzel-Candan & Evin-Gencel, 2015;İhtiyaroğlu, 2017;Kauffman, Yılmaz Soylu & Duke, 2011) have been conducted on teaching motivation in the literature. While some of these studies (İhtiyaroğlu, 2017;Gün & Turabik, 2019) are based on quantitative methods, some (Ada, Akan, Ayık, Yıldırım, & Yalçın, 2013) use qualitative methods. ...
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The aim of this study is to determine the teacher candidates' teaching motivation. In accordance with the nature of the study, the research was carried out according to the mixed method in which quantitative and qualitative data tools were used together. The research was carried out in an explanatory sequential design as a way of mixed methods. While the quantitative method of the research was designed according to the survey model, the phenomenology design was used in the qualitative method. While the quantitative dimension of the study was carried out with 329 pre-service teachers studying at the Education Faculty of a university in Turkey, the qualitative dimension was carried out with 15 pre-service teachers who were determined with the maximum sampling of diversity from this sample. The Teaching Motivation Scale, developed by Kauffman, Yılmaz-Soylu, and Duke (2011), adapted to Turkish by Güzel-Candan and Evin-Gencel (2015), was used to collect the quantitative data of the study. In addition, the personal information form developed by the researcher was used to collect the demographic characteristics of the participants in the study. In the qualitative part of the study, a semi-structured interview form was used to determine the factors affecting teacher candidates' teaching motivation. The quantitative findings of the study showed that teacher candidates' teaching motivation was at a high level. İn addition, it was determined that teacher candidates' teaching motivations differed significantly according to their gender, the programs they studied, and the class level. The qualitative results of the study showed that the positive factors affecting the teaching motivation of the teacher candidates were more than the negative ones. In this regard, it can be said that the quantitative and qualitative findings overlap. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations for future research were presented.
... DST recommends exploring the interactive relationship between systemic development and situational context from a non-linear lens (Larsen-Freeman, 2015;Hiver and Papi, 2019). This suggestion echoes the person-in-context position that L2 motivation should be understood in tandem with specific situations (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011). However, the present effort to explore L2 motivation from the DST perspective is mainly at a theoretical level and inadequate in empirical studies (Waninge et al., 2014). ...
... Research on L2 motivation has mainly followed a sociodynamic approach over the past two decades (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011). This perspective examines L2 motivation from a number of theories, such as L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2005(Dörnyei, , 2009. ...
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This article reports on a study that took a Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) perspective to second language (L2) motivational self system (L2MSS). More specifically, it investigated the influence of an Intensive English Reading course based on the Production-Oriented Approach (POA) upon the L2MSS of Chinese university English majorsfrom the DST perspective. To this end, two intact classes composed of 50 students were assigned into experimental group (EG) ( N = 23) and control group (CG) ( N = 27), who responded to an L2MSS scale before and after the one-semester intervention. Eight and five students were respectively selected using the purposive sampling method from the experimental and control groups for follow-up semi-structured interviews. The quantitative results revealed that the overall and dimensional (Ideal L2 Self and L2 Learning Experience) levels of L2MSS were significantly strengthened over time in the EG while kept stable in the CG. The qualitative results suggested that the enhanced Ideal L2 Self of the participants stemmed from an attractor basin that was deepened by a number of attractors encompassing Output Tasks and Peer Performance . The interview results also showed that the increased L2 Learning Experience of the participants pertained to an attractor basin that was consolidated by an array of attractors containing Output Tasks , Teacher Guidance , Group Discussion , and Peer Assessment . The findings indicated that the attractors at the subjective and social dimensions in the POA-based course collectively worked together to cause changes in L2MSS among the participants. The implications for intervening L2 motivation from a POA approach in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms were discussed.
... As explained in the introduction, a self-setting goal is their ideal self that is a part of the L2 motivational self system. Tilfarlioglu and Cinkara's study aligns with other research works in applied linguistics and social psychology, supporting the causal relationship between self-efficacy and motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013;Piniel & Csizér, 2014;Yusuf, 2011). ...
... In total, the researcher recruited 12 students for the group interview. The rationale behind the division was to reduce any effects of language performance on self-efficacy and the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013;Jaekel, 2020). ...
... The succeeding scholars identified three or four phases ofresearch on L2 motivation. Dörnyei and Ushioda (2011) identified 4 phases of research on motivation: ...
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The growing interest in the research on L2 motivation in Saudi Arabia in the recent years has necessitated a research to create the big picture. The present research unifies the results of the previous studies on L2 motivation to identify the trends and slants. The present research bases its findings on102 published research papers and chapters of edited books published from 2009 to 2021. The theory of motivation, paradigm of research, research methodology, gender of the respondents, institutions, tools used in the research, year of publication etc. have been taken into account for all the samples. The present research is a critique on the available research on motivation in Saudi Arabian context. The results of this study show the complex nature of motivation in Saudi learners and recommends a path for the future research. Most of the sample studies used in the present research claim that learners are motivated intrinsically, extrinsically and integratively. The study also finds that the L2 Motivational Self System was tested and validated in Saudi context. However, there is a need to conduct more longitudinal studies, especially with school learners to gauge the level and intensity of motivation.
... However, the person-in-context approach revealed two limitations of the conceptualisation of the ideal L2 self. First, the concept of the ideal L2 self is mainly characterised by integrative and long-term instrumental orientations with implicit consideration for intrinsic orientations (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Nevertheless, Julie feels 'happy' and 'meaningful' when using accurate formulaic phrases with a 'native-like' accent that creates a 'sense of achievement' which makes her 'feel better'. ...
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This study is an endeavour to explicate the dissonance of the linguistic quality outcome of study abroad (SA) experiences by exploring the second language (L2) motivation of six academic sojourners in Manchester. A person-in-context approach revealed that developing intimate relationships with ‘native-speakers’, providing L2-mediated interaction opportunities with international students, and social approval were key determinants of the extent to which SA students were invested in social practices. Such social engagements were found to stem from second language motivation that is part of identity construction process. In addition, the thematic analysis of the narrative inquiries suggests that the global status of the English language defies the traditional conceptualisations of L2 motivation as most participants’ motivations were formed despite their negative or neutral attitudes towards the English community. The findings also endorse the role of the other as a robust motivational source by which learners can replenish their motivation stream, leading to social identity investment to construct their ideological selves. The paper concludes with a recommendation to re-interpret the conceptualisation of the Ideal L2 Self system because ‘native-speakers’ are rarely the closest parallels to L2 learners, and it should incorporate explicit intrinsic orientations. Furthermore, language institutions in SA contexts should direct their focus on establishing conversation clubs and hosting social events for SA students to provide a safe space for their identities to be developed, enacted and reconstructed.
... Most learners, particularly adult learners, have certain beliefs about what is worth learning, how the instruction should be delivered and why they are devoted to certain learning activity (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013;Lightbown and Spada, 2013). Understanding these beliefs helps to account for learners' learning motivation behavior (Alhamami, 2018). ...
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It can be a great challenge for second language (L2) learners to comprehend meanings that are implied in utterances rather than the surface meaning of what was said. Moreover, L2 learners’ attitudes toward pragmatic learning are unknown. This mixed-methods study investigates L2 learners’ ability to comprehend conversational implicatures. It also explores their beliefs about and intentions to develop this ability using Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB). A total of 498 freshmen from a public university in China participated in the study. Data were collected using a web-based test, stimulated recall tasks and semi-structured interviews. Results show that the participants differed in recognizing the intended meanings. Complicated factors account for the variations. In addition to the types of implicature, learners’ beliefs about developing pragmatic comprehension also influence their learning intention, and subsequent performance. These beliefs include learners’ multi-layered, complex attitudes toward the outcomes of pragmatic learning, perceived self-efficacy beliefs regarding language proficiency and L2 cultural knowledge, actual behavioral control over opportunities and resources for pragmatic learning, and perceptions of less social pressure on pragmatic learning. The use of TPB may help language teachers and test designers to understand learners’ beliefs about L2 pragmatic learning in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Understanding the factors influencing learners’ intention will help design more effective teaching curricula that may integrate pragmatic instruction and testing in the future.
... Environment-related factors include learning environmentrelated factors and social environment-related factors. Learning environment-related factors mainly include the hardware (Dörnyei, 1998;Sakai and Kikuchi, 2009;Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011) and the class teaching environment (Unal and Yanpar Yelken, 2016;Karaca and Inan, 2020;Wu et al., 2020). Lack of hardware facilities will restrict teachers from adopting advanced teaching methods (Ushioda, 1998). ...
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In the last 20 years, much attention has been paid to learners’ demotivation. Researchers have conducted many studies on second/foreign language learning demotivation from the perspectives of social culture, social psychology, and so forth. In China, related studies have mainly focused on college students’ demotivation; scant attention has been paid to senior high school students. Regarding scale development, although much progress has been made, there remains a need for a scale with high reliability and validity that is suitable for students in the basic education stage. Therefore, based on previous studies and choosing Chinese senior high school students as participants, this research study developed a scale with 55 items, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to develop a 28-item scale with six dimensions. The six-dimensional construct encompasses teacher knowledge, important others, teacher responsibility, learner-related factors, learning contents, and critical incidents, which are the key factors leading to English learners’ demotivation. Among them, the factor of critical incidents is new and has been overlooked by other researchers. Moreover, the descriptive analysis demonstrated the degree to which the demotivators influence learners, and the independent samples t -test found a significant difference in the impact of critical incidents in terms of the students’ language proficiency. Ultimately, four suggestions are put forward to remotivate and sustain learners’ motivation.
... Demotivation for Learning Dörnyei & Ushioda (2013) defined demotivation as a drop or decrease in level of motivation. Demotivation does not result from a regular loss of interest across a period of time, internal trigger or distractions of a more attractive choice. ...
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Motivation in learning is somehow very important in most subjects that involve a high degree of interaction. These are relevant to subjects such as Social Marketing that rely on group projects and involvement between learners and people, especially in communicating their messages on campaigns on social issues. Compared to the scenario before the pandemic which the learning process was conducted through a formal one-to-one classroom, however, the pandemic has given both teachers and students teaching/learning to accept online learning as the new norm. Though this new environment somehow affects their motivation to learn. Understanding the both contexts of teachers and learners is crucial in making sure they are able to play their different roles to make the lessons successful and meaningful. This quantitative study is done to investigate how is learner's motivation online learning presence is influenced by learners' motives to study a Social Marketing subject. 89 respondents were purposely chosen from learners who took the course. The survey used has 24 items using 5-Likert scales. Findings revealed that the most satisfying thing among students in this program is trying to understand the content of the courses. Learners aim to get a good grade in the classes and that is among the most satisfying things for them. Expectancy components revealed students' perception of self-efficacy in which they believe they will receive excellent results and the belief they had control beliefs for learning. As for affective components, the study revealed that students feel their heart beating fast when they take an exam.
... Motivation has occupied one of the central places in the theory of language acquisition (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Different models have been developed to measure its presence among language learners, but this study will rely on the one developed by Schmidt and Watanabe (2001), which aimed to illustrate the multidimensional character of motivation. ...
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The importance of applying cooperative learning and aiming toward an increase in motivation to maximize the effectiveness of the learning process has not sparked an intense research interest in the Bosnian EFL context. Thus, the current study, conducted among 211 high-school participants, explores the impact of gender and grade level on students’ cooperative learning and motivation for EFL learning and aims to determine whether any cooperative learning components are significant predictors of students’ motivation and their EFL achievement. The findings showed no significant gender and grade level differences in cooperative learning and motivation. Additionally, the results revealed that individual accountability and interpersonal skills are significant predictors of participants’ motivation and that promotive interaction and interpersonal skills are significant predictors of their EFL achievement. The research points to the importance of incorporating cooperative learning strategies and motivation-strengthening activities into EFL teaching, which will eventually lead to the improvement in students’ EFL achievements.
... Motivation has occupied one of the central places in the theory of language acquisition (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Different models have been developed to measure its presence among language learners, but this study will rely on the one developed by Schmidt and Watanabe (2001), which aimed to illustrate the multidimensional character of motivation. ...
... These participants felt that they had benefited from this programme. This was in line with the idea of several authors that students who have high motivation have the energy needed to overcome learning challenges and tend to get better learning outcomes (Dornyei & Ushioda, 2011). ...
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The community service programme was conducted in the form of an English Club intended for high school students. The high school partner was SMA Immanuel Kalasan, Sleman, Yogyakarta Special Regency. A total of 13 students participated in this extracurricular activity. There were six online, synchronous meetings conducted once a week. Themed "Going Global", the programme aimed to not only facilitate the student participants to improve their English language but also to facilitate them to possess intercultural competence. It was hoped that they would consider globalisation era an opportunity to understand one another and to collaborate to achieve goals together. In practice, each meeting used the combination of a 60-90 minute synchronous Zoom session and asynchronous activities through tasks that should be completed and submitted before the next synchronous meeting. Seen from the indicators of attendance and submission of tasks, it could be stated that several participants were not very motivated to actively participate in the programme. However, seen from the qualitative testimonies of several participants, the programme was engaging and could provide them with meaningful learning. Based on the evaluation of the degree of success of the programme, several conclusions were suggested along with suggestions for future programmes’ improvements.
... According to Dörnyei (2001a), motivation determines why individuals undertake something and how long and hard they will work to achieve it. According to Dörnyei (2001b), no other component alone can guarantee students' accomplishment if there is insufficient motivation. ...
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This study presents an overview of a survey on Cambodian Buddhist monk students' motivation in learning English at Hun Neng Buddhist Primary School, Kampong Cham Town. The study employed a quantitative method. The study aimed to examine the motivation levels of the participants and the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels. 93 Buddhist monk students participated in the study. The findings show that the Buddhist monk students were highly motivated to learn English, and it was also reported that they were more extrinsically motivated than intrinsically motivated. The study also recommends that motivation inside and outside the classroom be carefully considered. It is also recommended that future research be conducted with a larger sample size using other statistical analyses at other educational institutions. Qualitative and mixed-methods designs are also recommended.
... It has been studied extensively in a variety of domains of applied linguistics, including sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and the social psychology of second language acquisition (Csizér & Kormos, 2009). In L2 motivation research, it was a component in a variety of models (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). ...
... Motivation is responsible for why people decide to do something, how long they are willing to sustain the activity, and how hard they are going to pursue it (Dörnyei, 2001a). It is believed that without sufficient motivation no other factor on its own can ensure student achievement (Dörnyei, 2001b). and Vietnam have all gained more than seven points in the past seven years, some of the fastest improvement in the world. ...
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This research report presents an overview of current research on Cambodian students’ motivation towards English language learning: The Case of Hun Neng Buddhist Primary School, Kampong Cham Town. The data was collected by employing a quantitative method. The aims of the study were to examine the motivation levels of the participants and the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels. 93 Buddhist monk students participated in the study. The findings show that the Buddhist monk students were highly motivated toward learning English, and it was also reported that those Buddhist monk students were more extrinsically motivated than intrinsically. The study also recommends that motivation inside and outside the classroom should be incurred. It is also recommended that future research be conducted with a large sample size using other statistical analysis at other educational institutions. Qualitative and mixed-methods design are also recommended.
... Metacognitive skills of assessing one's own performance, as well as beliefs about one's abilities and characteristics in various activities are formed latercloser to 6 years of age (Chatzipanteli et al., 2014). At the same time, the child's learning motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013) and learning strategies (Appleton et al., 2008) begin to form based on his or her experiences, beliefs, and reactions of adults. Further, learning motivation plays an important role in learning engagement and influences the child's academic growth trajectories at different stages of learning (Appleton et al., 2008;Bulotsky-Shearer & Fantuzzo, 2011;Li-Grining et al., 2010). ...
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The current study aimed to validate the Russian version of the Child Behaviour Motivation Scale (CBeMO), examine gender differences in motivational tendencies, and explore the impact of executive functions on learning motivation tendencies among children. The sample consisted of 434 typically developing 5-6 years old children. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that according to the evaluation criteria, the model is poorly fitted to the data. However, internal consistency analysis confirmed acceptable levels of reliability and unidimensionality of the CBeMO scales. The identified internal structure of CBeMO indicates an overlap between CBeMO items related to task avoidance and social dependence on the Russian sample. The study revealed differences between girls and boys in all three CBeMO scales. Concerning executive functioning, it was revealed that motor persistence skills and working memory have an impact on the learning motivation tendencies among children, when controlling for group size, age, gender and non-verbal intelligence.
Article
The learning environment is an important factor in both learner motivation and learning outcomes. As second language (L2) classrooms frequently employ group work, clarifying the environmental effects in group work settings is important to improve pedagogical application in this context. This study examined the cross-sectional structural relations among the factors of work environment, motivation, and learning outcomes for L2 learners at various English proficiency levels. Japanese university students (N = 200) were engaged in group work activities for one semester. Self-reported data on motivation, the group work environment, course grades, and standardized English proficiency test scores were analyzed using path and moderation models. Results revealed that the group work environment significantly affected motivation. Learners who perceived stronger group cohesion and greater group engagement were likely to find learning more enjoyable and were less prone to amotivation. However, those perceiving weaker group cohesion and lesser group engagement tended to display the opposite motivational pattern. Further, this environmental effect on motivation was evident regardless of English proficiency level. Results further showed that motivation was significantly associated with achievement, thereby indicating that the group work environment indirectly influenced learning outcomes via motivation.
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Motivational strategies comprise all activities that teachers undertake in order to moti�vate students. Research in the field (Dörnyei and Csizér, 1998; Cheng and Dörnyei, 2007) has confirmed the effectiveness of such strategies. Teacher behaviour is considered to be the most important motivational tool in the classroom, which is why teachers’ projection of enthusiasm, dedication to teaching, and good rapport with students are crucial. Besi�des the teacher, one of the most important motivational factors is the pleasant atmosp�here in the classroom. Since there is a lack of research on motivational strategies in Cro�atian as a foreign language (CFL), the aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of motivational strategies in the CFL classroom context. The participants in the study were seventeen lectors of CFL, who completed a questionnaire from Cheng and Dörnyei (2007). Results indicate that lectors of CFL, based to their own estimate, most frequently use motivational strategies that encourage and recognize students’ effort, and they pay par�ticular attention to their own behavior (by setting an example to students) and create a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom. The least frequently used strategies are those that promote students’ autonomy and strategies that promote group-cohesiveness or require thorough language knowledge.
Chapter
Highlighting recent work in motivational research, this chapter discusses the need to develop approaches and understandings that help transfer theory into practice, homing in on the pedagogical implications and applications of motivational theories. Resisting universalising tendencies that imply a one-fit-for-all model, the chapter stresses the need to consider specific learning contexts and learners, and to develop strategies that consider and respect these specificities. The chapter discusses the shift away from positivist-quantitative approaches to more qualitative methods, and highlights the benefits of including motivational research in teacher training programmes. Research questions are presented which could be developed by researchers and teachers alike. Furthermore, and as discussed within the chapter, teachers could work alongside their learners to explore these questions together, or to develop their own questions and ideas aimed at boosting and maintaining motivation within their own contexts.
Chapter
The term “task” in general can be understood to mean an activity that has clear goals and a specific beginning and end; for language tasks, the definition includes that language use is necessary. Task “engagement” is commonly recognized as a learner’s involvement during a task.
Research Proposal
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Practitioner narrative inquiry alongside reflexive thematic analysis (TA), exploring ways forward, could redevelop the ought-to self construct, offering a different, useful conceptualization of L2 identity.
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As the education world revolves to Education 4.0, flipped classroom is seen to be one of the learning approaches that best described the future learning. This research investigated the effects of flipped classroom approach on students English writing performance, the effects of flipped classroom approach on students’ motivation in English writing; and the correlation between students’ English writing performance and motivation. This study employed quasi-experimental approach to control group and experimental group. The instruments used in this study are reliable tests and validated questionnaire. The findings show that flipped classroom had positive effects on primary students’ English writing performance and motivation, as the evidence shows that the experimental group who experienced flipped classroom had a better writing performance and motivation compared to control group. However, the correlation between students’ English writing performance and motivation is uncertain.
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Role models and motivators can influence young people in a general sense and have a significant effect on their values and beliefs. As part of a larger project, we investigated the presence of L2 (second language) role models and motivators among 12 Japanese high school students (aged between 15 and 18), who took part in one-to-one interviews with the researcher. A thematic analysis of their responses was conducted to examine the extent to which the role models and motivators they mentioned had an influence on their L2 motivation. The results showed that parents were salient L2 motivators, although they did not, for the most part, act as L2 role models in a linguistic sense, as many of them did not speak English. On the other hand, teachers, famous people, and peers were shown to have a more important role, in terms of actual language acquisition, over the participants’ motivation in relation to English language learning in the school context. Finally, we propose a pedagogy that utilizes the influence of L2 role models and motivators in the classroom and highlight areas for future research in this area.
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Research Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine the underlying reasons behind the man-agement's tax compliance and non-compliance decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This study employed a mixed-method research approach in which the scale observations of taxpayers' tax compliance practices and the taxpayers' lived experiences and perspectives about tax where integrated. The quantitative approach utilized binary logistic regression , and the qualitative approach used thematic and joint-result analyses. Research Findings: The integration of the two research methods revealed three distinct types of taxpayers: impulsive, reflective, and active. The result indicates that the taxpayer's compliance behavior may have an effect on the sustainability of the country's firms, implying that the taxpayer's compliance behavior may manifest in management practices and governance. Theoretical Contribution/Originality: The study's development adds to the body of knowledge of the three types of taxpayers who rationalize their tax compliance and non-compliance. These taxpayers' characteristics are a meta-inference of the effect of tax filing experience and tax morale, and the taxpayers' emerged attitudes substantiated by their perspective on tax. Managerial Implications in the Southeast Asian context: Tax evasion may be a symptom of a larger issue with public finance, law enforcement, organizational architecture, or an organization's ethical standards. A complying owner or management exhibits ethical ideals in their business practices. Taxpayers' ability and willingness to comply with tax regulations will afford management with more opportunities to attract more investors and partners because of ethical and good governance practices. Research limitations and implications:The mixed-method approach elucidates why taxpayers have diverse motivations for tax compliance. This study adds to the literature a new perspective on tax compliance.
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The rich multimedia-enhanced language content offered by modern commercial off-the-shelf games and students’ interest in playing such games has motivated efforts for seeking effective means to integrate them into the curriculum to enrich and enhance foreign language learning. Despite the general interest and appeal of game-enhanced learning in foreign language learning, there is a need for strategies for effective curriculum integration and empirical studies to test the effects of such interventions systematically. This study aims to contribute to this need by investigating the effectiveness of a ten-week-long game-enhanced language learning intervention on English foreign language learning. The study employed an embedded mixed methods design, including a controlled experiment and semi-structured interviews. The experiment group (n = 38) participated in a game-enhanced language learning program that was designed based on the Play Curricular activity Reflection Discussion (PCaRD) framework, whereas the control group (n = 38) received conventional instruction. Students took the TOEFL-ITP and L2 motivational self-system questionnaire before and after the intervention, whereas qualitative data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that both groups had significantly improved their scores, yet no significant differences were found in their post-test scores. The motivation questionnaire revealed a significant difference in cultural interest and attitudes to target community dimensions in favor of the game-enhanced condition. Moreover, the interview results indicated that participants had positive attitudes towards integrating commercial games into their language classrooms. Although the experimental group did not significantly outperform the control group, the game-enhanced intervention provided an equally effective learning experience with improved motivational attributes.
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Since motivation determines progress in the class, it has a significant role in the field of learning English as a foreign language (EFL), contributing to a successful learning process. Therefore, teachers need to motivate learners to achieve their learning goals and provide them with a meaningful learning process in stressful situations. Two factors are required to successfully overcome challenges in scholastic circumstances, such as academic buoyancy and social support. The former can be a significant element in a psycho-educational setting that helps learners with academic difficulties and the latter is another term that is deemed as an important predictor of academic motivation even when considering perceived support from teachers and peers. The functions of academic buoyancy and social support factors in the process of learning and their association with students’ motivation have not been taken into account so far. As a result, this review has implications for scholars, theorists, and practitioners in quest of better investigating and addressing the roles of buoyancy and social support on students’ motivation.
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The current study attempts to reveal what motivates SFL learners the most and the least, and what is the effect of duration of learning an FL on the motivation types.
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Teacher pedagogical knowledge base (PKB) has secured a notable position in research on teacher cognition. One obvious gap in this strand of research concerns variations in teachers’ thought processes in relation to individual difference variables despite indications that PKB is likely to differ across individual differences. To fill part of the void, this study investigated how teachers’ PKB—conceptualized as the frequency and dominance of pedagogical thought units/categories—vary as a function of teachers’ levels of grit. To this end, eight EFL teachers (four High-Grit and four Low-Grit) were chosen to participate in the study. Stimulated recall interviews were used to explore the pedagogical thought units that underlie the teachers’ instruction. The thought units of the two groups were then identified by segmenting, coding and categorizing them. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups of teachers in the number and list of dominant pedagogical thought categories. Language Management, Procedure Check, Affective, Self-Reflection, Progress Review, Beliefs, and Problem Check constituted the list of dominant PTCs of High-Grit teachers, whereas Low-Grit teachers’ dominant thought categories included Language Management, Procedure Check, Time Check, Progress Review, and Problem Check. The results advance the scholarship on teachers’ PKB by extending the findings to individual differences.
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In today's learning, the development of artificial intelligence designs is a necessity to support the education system. The involvement of artificial intelligence will help students more easily understand lessons in class and facilitate interaction between students and teachers. Through the development of design concepts and learning pelatihans, it is expected to be able to encourage the participation of students and teachers to be able to support the learning system in order to obtain better educational outputs through the use of appropriate technology. There are three learning platforms that are used as learning media, including Duolingo, Khan Academy, and Kejarcita. During the implementation of the activity, it was found that students tend to learn faster and enjoy exploring new things. It is hoped that the artificial intelligence learning design through these three applications can help the learning process during the Covid-19 pandemic which requires school from home to continue and run smoothly.
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Land recovery is a compulsory land transfer. The State’s recovery of land for socio-economic development is very necessary. There are many cases where the land users in the recovered land are adversely affected, but there are also many cases enjoying the additional land value that can be generated by planning, implementing the investment project or an administrative decision of the State; and this is the difference of land rent value not created by the land users. On the other hand, the reality is that every time a road is widened in big cities, many super-thin and super-small houses appear, causing an ugly image for the modern city. The solution to these problems is that when implementing technical infrastructure, construction and urban embellishment projects, it is necessary to determine the location and area of land to be recovered in the vicinity to auction land use rights and carry out commercial projects. This article presents relevant legal regulations and proposals for improvement. (Thu hồi đất là chuyển dịch đất đai bắt buộc. Nhà nước thu hồi đất để phát triển kinh tế xã hội là rất cần thiết. Có nhiều trường hợp các chủ thể sử dụng đất trong vùng có đất bị thu hồi chịu ảnh hưởng bất lợi nhưng cũng có nhiều trường hợp được hưởng phần giá trị đất đai tăng thêm có thể tạo ra do quy hoạch, thực hiện dự án đầu tư hoặc một quyết định hành chính của Nhà nước và đây chính là giá trị địa tô chênh lệch không do chủ sử dụng đất tạo nên. Mặt khác, có thực trạng là mỗi khi mở rộng một con đường ở các thành phố lớn thì xuất hiện nhiều căn nhà siêu mỏng, siêu nhỏ gây hình ảnh xấu xí cho đô thị hiện đại. Giải pháp cho các vấn đề này là khi thực hiện các dự án hạ tầng kỹ thuật, xây dựng, chỉnh trang đô thị thì cần xác định vị trí, diện tích đất thu hồi đất trong vùng phụ cận để đấu giá quyền sử dụng đất thực hiện các dự án thương mại. Bài viết này trình bày quy định pháp luật liên quan và kiến nghị hoàn thiện).
Chapter
This chapter explores how self-regulation strategy intervention affects students’ use of SRL strategies, their perceived motivational beliefs and self-efficacy as well as writing performance. This quasi-experimental research employed a mixed-methods approach to elicit in-depth information about the effectiveness of the self-regulation strategy instruction. Data were collected from 80 English-major students who were enrolled in a writing course in a medium-ranking university in China. All participants were invited to complete pre-, post- and delayed post-writing tests along with self-report questionnaires at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The experimental group received self-regulation strategy instruction, which comprised 16 sessions (1.5 h per week) to implement four types of SRL strategies (e.g., text processing, idea planning, goal-oriented monitoring and peer learning). At the same time, the control group received only the regular writing classes of the same length. Follow-up case studies were conducted with two students voluntarily recruited from the experimental group. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to investigate the developmental trajectories of two cases in terms of their perceptions of the writing intervention, use of SRL strategies and psychological conditions. Findings collected from the two cases will be reported in Chap. 8. Quantitative data collected from writing tests and self-report questionnaires revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the post- and delayed post-writing tests with a decreased effect size. They became more active in using an array of SRL strategies (e.g., metacognitive strategies, social behaviour strategies and motivational regulation strategies); they also had higher levels of perceived writing self-efficacy (performance self-efficacy) and motivational beliefs (extrinsic goal orientation and task value) than those in the control group.
Article
This study aims to explore non-English speaking major student's perceptions of Motivation and Grit and the relationship between these two factors and students' English language performance at a public university in China. The research was conducted by quantitative research design to collect 624 non-English speaking Major students' answers to multiple questionnaires at a public university in China. Data analysis is used by SPSS and AMOS. The study shows that Motivation and Grit all have a positive correlation with English language performance. One major conclusion of this study is Grit has the most significant effect on the English language performance of non-English speaking major students in multiple regression analysis and is also the best predictor of the relationship between these two factors and English language performance in the path analysis in Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The finding also revealed that male students' perception of motivation and grit is slightly stronger than that of female students. These findings highlight the need for English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher to understand students' affective factors in learning English, and hence help them utilize different teaching methods to enhance students' English learning and promote sustainable development of English learning in a public Chinese university.
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This study examined the relationships between teacher motivation (TM) and perceived burnout of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teachers in Chile. A particular focus was given to demotivators and their impact on TM and burnout. The impact of COVID-19 was considered. Given that EFL teachers tend to be second language (L2) learners of English themselves, the study also investigated how TM and L2 motivation interact with each other. The participants were 154 school-level teachers with a range of backgrounds (teaching experience, geographic areas, and school sectors). In the questionnaire, four scales were included: (a) autonomous motivation for teaching; (b) demotivators; (c) perceived burnout; and (d) L2 motivation. Fifteen teachers were interviewed in order to triangulate the survey results. Structural equation modeling showed that TM negatively predicted perceived burnout, suggesting that it can counter teachers' emotional exhaustion and their perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Demotivators predicted TM positively, albeit weakly. L2 motivation was found to be only weakly related to TM. Qualitative findings indicated that teaching experience mediated the role that demotivators played in relation to TM. Experienced teachers, especially those who held intrinsic motivation to teach, channeled the impact of demotivators, including those relating to the pandemic, to a positive motivational force to teach. The study implies the importance of considering teachers as agents and devising an educational system in which their mental health is prioritized.
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The pivotal role of communication in second language (L2) learning has triggered plethoric research to identify factors that may influence learners’ willingness to communicate (L2 WTC). However, there is a dearth of comparative research on L2 WTC, especially among EFL learners studying English at different educational institutions. To this end, the present study investigates the role of ‘grit’ and ‘classroom enjoyment’ (CE) in learners’ L2 WTC in two different educational settings of public schools and private language institutes. Grit includes two lower-order constructs, namely perseverance of effort (POE) and consistency of interest (COI), which were examined separately in this study. A total of 269 Iranian students from both public schools and private institutes completed an online survey. What was revealed from the data analysis through the Mann–Whitney u-test, Spearman’s rho, and multiple regression analysis is that private institute learners enjoyed higher levels of WTC compared to public school students. While POE and CE exerted a significant effect on L2 WTC in both educational settings, COI failed to do so. The findings of this study are discussed from a socio-educational perspective with regard to the difference between these two educational contexts.
Article
This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), foreign language anxiety (FLA), and demotivational factors (DF) at a foundation university in Istanbul, Turkey. 148 B1 (intermediate level) students enrolled in the English preparatory school participated in this study. Data were collected from the Turkish-adapted version of the Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), the translated version of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), and the Turkish preparatory school university student demotivational factors towards learning English scale. The findings revealed that the participants were moderately anxious and demotivated in foreign language learning. Moreover, a positive significant correlation was found among EI, FLA, and DF. This study provides pedagogical implications and suggestions for addressing EI, FLA, and DF in English language preparatory programs.
Article
This study investigated the relationships between struggling writers’ motivation (i.e., interest, self-efficacy, and growth mindset) and their use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies (i.e., planning, text-generating, self-monitoring, and collaborative learning) and writing competence in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Participants were 368 primary students in Hong Kong who scored 15 or less out of 48 marks in a writing test. They reported a generally moderate level of motivation and lower medium level of SRL strategy use. Especially, the participants reported a low level of interest. Results of structural equation modelling (SEM) suggested that growth mindset had the strongest positive correlations with the struggling EFL writers’ use of SRL strategies. Both self-efficacy and interest also had positive correlations with the students’ SRL strategy use, but only self-efficacy had significant and positive relations with their writing competence. Implications for English teachers to improve instruction for struggling EFL writers’ in order to promote their motivation and SRL strategy use are provided and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
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Possible selves are visions of the self in a future state; like guideposts, possible selves can orient cur­ rent choices and behavior. Envisioning ones' future "healthy self," the self who can take the stairs without becoming breathless, or ones' future "unhealthy, smoking self," the self who can no longer do so, can make current choices-refraining from buying a new package of cigarettes, or going to the gym-feel meaningful rather than simply painful. Yet, people do not always act in ways that enhance their chances of attaining their positive and avoiding their negative possible selves. They push the button and wait for the elevator instead of taking the stairs and do not pass on the second dessert or third roll. Why not? We suggest three factors that may increase the likelihood of discrepancies between possible selves and self-regulatory behaviors: (mis)match, (no) gap, and (mis)interpretation of subjective experience. Discrepancies may arise when there is a mismatch between possible selves and what is cued or made accessible and salient in social context, when no gap is perceived between current effort and what is needed to attain the possible self, and when subjective affective experience (e.g., difficulty) is interpreted as meaning that the possible self is too hard to attain or that enough effort has already been expended. Conversely, self-regulatory behaviors are cued when possible selves match or feel congruent with other aspects of self-concept, when relevant gaps-between one's current situation and future goal and between one's current level of effort and the effort required to attain this goal-are salient and when subjective experience is interpreted to mean that effort is needed (e.g., "This is hard work.... This goal must be really important to me"). To make the case for this model, we synthesize a possible self-approach with other self-regulation and motivation perspectives to suggest how and when possible selves are likely to be effective self-regulators.
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A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this articulation extend, what is the nature of the future that individuals articulate for themselves, what is the relationship between future time perspective and other important psychological processes such as motivation and self-regulation, what is the relationship of future time perspective to gender, culture, and socioeconomic status, and how does future time perspective change over time as individuals grow and develop intellectually and socially? These key questions are fundamental to understanding the relevance and usefulness of future time perspective for interpreting and explaining variations in educational achievement across diverse group of learners internationally.
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The rationale for this chapter is closely linked to the context of foreign language learning in English secondary schools, a context in which motivation to learn languages is recognised as being in need of development (Nuffield Languages Inquiry 2000; King 2003). Research shows that languages are increasingly becoming an elite subject, with fewer children from poorer families choosing to continue to learn them (Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research, Association for Language Learning and University Council of Modern Languages 2003). Problems of motivation can lead to disappointing standards of achievement or, at worst, disruptive behaviour in the classroom, truancy and exclusion from school (Social Exclusion Unit 1998; Department for Education and Skills 2003, 2004). Faced with such problems, many teachers believe it is important to 'tighten up' classroom discipline in an attempt to control the pupils' behaviour. In this chapter, I will suggest, however, that teachers' attempts to increase control may be counterproductive and themselves lead to higher levels of disaffection. Drawing on research into learners' constructions of language learning, I explore why there is an urgent need for teachers to consider the links between learner autonomy and motivation theory in order to find ways of transferring control to the learners. I take the position that locating the problem of poor motivation in learners themselves is socially unjust. Blaming the learners or their families for underachievement or lack of motivation is problematic especially given the differential levels of achievement and engagement between children of different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds (Gillborn & Mirza 2000; Department for Education and Skills 2002). Rejection of such deficit theories leads to a more critical perspective, in which the education system itself (curriculum, structures, etc.) is construed as the problem, clearly failing particular sections of the population. Drawing on urban education theory and research from a critical theory perspective, I have previously reconceptualised disaffection as a search for a voice in a context of disenfranchisement (Lamb 2000). Here I develop this reconceptualisation further by reporting on a broader ethnographic research project designed to privilege young learners' voices, and position them as experts in their own learning. These expert voices belong to children aged 14 to 15 (i.e. in Year 9 of compulsory education), learning French or German in a secondary school in a northern English city, where several years earlier a number of language teachers had introduced flexible learning, a system of classroom organisation which involved learners in making choices of learning activities from a bank of resources according to their own individual needs (Lamb 2003). I accessed the voices of these teenagers by means of focused group conversations (FGCs) (Lamb 2005), specifically designed as a tool which would offer young learners an inclusive and supportive framework for constructing and articulating difficult constructs. Four groups of six learners were involved in the research, with the groups organised according to levels of achievement and motivation (A1: low achievers, motivated; A2: low achievers, less motivated; B1: high achievers, motivated; B2: high achievers, less motivated). I transcribed the focus group conversations as accurately as possible in the local dialect, though for the purpose of comprehensibility by an international audience I am reporting them here in a slightly amended form. My main intention in this research was not to make generalised statements about the ways in which motivated and unmotivated learners construe learning (though interestingly there were broad differences between the groups in many of the conversations). Rather, I wanted to offer an environment in which young learners could feel comfortable about expressing their thoughts about language learning, suspending as far as possible the usual power relationships between adult and children. This was achieved by means of carefully devised FGC protocols influenced by a range of questioning techniques (Holstein and Gubrium's [1995] 'active interviewing', Tomlinson's [1989] 'hierarchical focusing', and Roy's [1991] work on cognitive interviewing); varied activities such as 'concept mapping' (Powney & Watts 1987: 30), projective techniques (LeCompte & Preissle 1993: 164), drawing and self-rating scales; as well as critical consideration of my persona and role in the group, and attention to environment and atmosphere (Lamb 2005: 184-212). In the rest of this chapter, I will focus on issues of control which emerged in the focus group conversations and which are specifically related to motivational beliefs. Here I will make particular connections to general motivation theory rather than to the social-psychological approaches of Gardner and Lambert (e.g. 1972) which are specific to language learning. In doing so, I am building on the paradigm shift in motivation research in language learning triggered by Crookes and Schmidt's (1991) encouragement to re-examine the direction which had been taken by research in this field. An important feature of this shift is that it encouraged a greater focus on the practical implications of motivation research for the classroom (Dörnyei 1994, 1996; Oxford & Shearin 1994, 1996; Williams & Burden 1997). It also ushered in aspects of general motivation theory which relate to autonomy, such as in the work of Dickinson (1995), Ushioda (1994, 1996) and Dörnyei (1998). Of course, motivation is contextualised (Dörnyei 1994, 2001b; Vallerand 1997), and learner autonomy is similarly 'situated' (Murphey 2003), which means that my arguments in this chapter need to be understood within the specific context in which the research was carried out. Nevertheless, I hope that it is possible to reflect on the implications for any context, be it teaching English or other languages to children or adults. © 2009 by Hong Kong University Press, HKU. All rights reserved.
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Group ‘vitality’ was recently proposed as a framework for objectively categorizing ethnolinguistic groups in terms of their ability to behave as distinctive collective entities in intergroup settings (Giles, Bourhis & Taylor, 1977). ‘Objective’ accounts of group vitality using status, demographic and institutional support data gathered from secondary sources appear a useful tool for comparing ethnolinguistic groups in cross‐cultural research. This article describes a new questionnaire designed to assess how group members subjectively perceive their owngroup position relative to salient outgroups on important ‘vitality’ dimensions. Group members’ ‘subjective’ vitality perceptions may be as important in determining interethnic behaviours as the Group's objectively assessed vitality. The article includes a discussion of how ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ vitality information can be combined to better account for the dynamics of interethnic relations in multilingual and multicultural settings.
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This paper examines teachers' perceptions of their students' motivation and engagement and their enjoyment of and confidence in teaching. Drawing on Martin's Student Motivation and Engagement Scale, 10 facets of motivation and engagement were explored amongst a sample of 1,019 teachers. These facets comprised three adaptive cognitive dimensions of motivation (self‐efficacy, valuing of school, mastery orientation), three adaptive behavioural dimensions (planning, study management, persistence), two impeding dimensions (anxiety, failure avoidance), and two maladaptive dimensions (uncertain control, self‐handicapping). Male teachers tended to report significantly higher student motivation and engagement than female teachers (though effect sizes were small) and primary school teachers reported significantly higher student motivation and engagement than high school teachers (effect sizes were moderate). Adaptive dimensions were more strongly associated with enjoyment and confidence in teaching than impeding and maladaptive dimensions. Of the adaptive dimensions, students' mastery orientation was the strongest correlate of teachers' enjoyment of teaching and students' persistence and students' planning were the strongest correlates of teachers' confidence in teaching. These associations were more marked for male teachers and relatively independent of years spent teaching. Implications for teacher education and professional development are discussed.
Book
Language learning strategies have been a topic of research for roughly three decades. Broadly speaking, that research has focused on classroom tuition, predominantly at secondary level. Increasingly, however, language learning occurs in independent settings, whether at distance, on Institution-Wide Language Programmes (IWLPs), or in virtual environments. Success in independent language learning is achieved by autonomous individuals with a capacity for self-regulation. Yet we still know relatively little about the specific means they use to learn effectively, whether in terms of the affective strategies they employ to sustain motivation, the metacognitive strategies required for planning, monitoring and evaluating their learning, or the specific cognitive strategies applied to difficult learning tasks. These are all discussed and evaluated in Language Learning Strategies in Independent Settings. © 2008 Stella Hurd, Tim Lewis and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
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In recent years there has been a wealth of new research in cognition, particularly in relation to supporting theoretical constructs about how cognitions are formed, processed, reinforced, and how they then affect behavior. Many of these theories have arisen and been tested in geographic isolation. It remains to be seen whether theories that purport to describe cognition in one culture will equally prove true in other cultures. The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition Across Cultures is the first book to look at these theories specifically with culture in mind. The book investigates universal truths about motivation and cognition across culture, relative to theories and findings indicating cultural differences. Coverage includes the most widely cited researchers in cognition and their theories- as seen through the looking glass of culture. The chapters include self-regulation by Tory Higgins, unconscious thought by John Bargh, attribution theory by Bernie Weiner, and self-verification by Bill Swann, among others. The book additionally includes some of the best new researchers in cross-cultural psychology, with contributors from Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, and Australia. In the future, culture may be the litmus test of a theory before it is accepted, and this book brings this question to the forefront of cognition research. Includes contributions from researchers from Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, and Australia for a cross-cultural panel Provides a unique perspective on the affect of culture on scientific theories and data.
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In the first part of this chapter, I show how the notion of autonomy has spread into language pedagogy in the past 10 years and how this mainstreaming has been accompanied by conceptual distortions and discursive dissonances. Such dissonances can be located in the contradictions between the discourses of individual personal autonomy and of critical socially situated autonomy. I argue that we are at a crossroads and that if we take the notion of social learning seriously, opting for the road of individual personal autonomy is not sufficient. We need to take a whole-community approach to autonomy and reassert the critical dimension originally associated with autonomy and foreign language learning. This redirection will help us engage in a new research agenda in the years to come. © 2009 by Hong Kong University Press, HKU. All rights reserved.
Article
This chapter explains the longitudinal research methods. Longitudinal research studies, that is, investigations conducted over time, are of growing importance in the social and the behavioral sciences and, in particular, in the field of education. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the problems associated with the design of longitudinal research studies and the strategies used in the analysis of the data collected, as well as with the sources of bias that could invalidate the findings. Educational research is concerned with the processes of change, and the study of change requires that observations are made for at least two points in time. It is important to recognize that, while longitudinal methods are frequently contrasted with cross-sectional methods, a detailed comparison between the two methods is largely inappropriate because constancy and change can only be examined through repeated observation, which is the key characteristic of the longitudinal method. In longitudinal research, the costs of carrying out the processes of data collection and maintaining contact with the sample under survey are so great that, in general, there is little to be gained by collecting data on only one criterion measure. Longitudinal research has an important role to play in this regard within the field of educational research.
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An alternative approach to assessing possible selves is introduced, the Anticipated Life History (ALH), which prompts 18 year old participants to describe in realistic, plausible terms, the course of their future lives from their 21st birthday to their death. The ALH narratives are coded for social cognitive qualities (psychological complexity, life role complexity, mutuality of relationships, resolution of conflicts, and altruism) as well as projective qualities (narrative integrity, depression, fantasy distortion, impulsivity, and malevolence). A sample of 409 participants completed the ALH as well as an extensive battery of convergent instruments assessing mood, quality of life satisfaction, life event history and early memories. This database has produced series of studies examining the impact of early experience, gender, social class and current mood on the imagining of future possible selves (Segal, DeMeis, Wood, and Smith, 2001; Segal, Wood, DeMeis, and Smith, 2003). In this chapter, the ALH database is used to explore the reliance on fantasy in the construction of future possible selves. Those participants who wrote future life narratives filled with fantasy elements tended to be more depressed, less satisfied with the qualities of their lives, yet reported " earliest " memories with lower negative scores than those whose ALH narratives were more realistic. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of these findings for possible selves as well as for research into the imagination and the creative process.The contents of an individual's possible selves are frequently hidden and protected from the scrutiny of others, if not from their influence and they represent the creative productive efforts of the self-system. ... For this reason, positive possible selves can be exceedingly liberating because they foster hope that the present self is not immutable. At the same time, negative possible selves can be powerfully imprisoning because their associated affect and expectations may stifle attempts to change or develop. Positive and negative possible selves are alike, however, in that they often make it difficult for an observer to fully understand another person's behavior.-- Markus and Nurius explaining possible selves to us (1986)Get thee to a nunnery. Why, wouldst thou be a breeder of sinners? I am myself indifferent honest, but yet I could accuse me of such things that it were better my mother had not borne me. I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious, with more offences at my beck than I have thoughts to put them in, imagination to give them shape, or time to act them in. What should such fellows as I do crawling between heaven and earth?-- Hamlet explaining his possible selves to Ophelia (Act 3, scene I).
Article
This chapter presents the evolution of motivation and cognition across cultures through different time periods. In the 1970s, a major shift in emphasis began occurring in social psychology; cognition emerged as the dominant force, and motivation declined to a secondary element. The notion of motivational influences on perception and cognition was highly discussed, though always controversial in perception. In the early 1980s, people came to realize that motivation and cognition were important to the study of cross-cultural research in the context of both differences and similarities.
Article
It almost goes without saying that good language learners are motivated. Common sense and everyday experience suggest that the high achievers of this world have motivation, a word which derives from the Latin verb movere meaning to move. Thus, simply defined, we might say that motivation concerns what moves a person to make certain choices, to engage in action, and to persist in action. The need for personal motivation is a message that resonates across so many stories of major and minor human endeavor, whether in the single-minded dedication of an athlete pursuing an Olympic dream, the drive and ambition of a young executive aiming for the top of the corporate ladder, or the willpower and self-discipline of someone determined to lose weight or to give up smoking. Without motivation, success will be hard to come by, and the case of learning a second or foreign language is little different. Motivation is listed by Rubin (1975) among the three essential variables on which good language learning depends. As Corder (1967, p. 164) famously put it forty years ago, “Let us say that, given motivation, it is inevitable that a human being will learn a second language if he is exposed to the language data.” Yet however commonsensical this general observation might be, the pursuit of its empirical verification has exercised language acquisition scholars for decades and generated an enormous amount of research.
Article
In a longitudinal study of children at ages 9 and 10 years, the role of parental motivational practices in children's academic intrinsic motivation and achievement was tested. Two types of motivational practices were assessed: mothers' encouragement of children's task endogeny and provision of task-extrinsic consequences. Structural equations path models for general-verbal and math academic areas supported the 2 predictions that children's academic intrinsic motivation is positively related to encouragement of task endogeny and negatively related to provision of task-extrinsic consequences. Academic intrinsic motivation at age 9 years predicted motivation and achievement at age 10 years. Moreover, through age 9 year motivation, the motivational practices indirectly affected age 10 year motivation and achievement. Findings provide ecological validity for the role of parental motivational practices in children's academic intrinsic motivation and achievement.
Motivational flow is the experience of intrinsic motivation, which is in turn the result of the levels of challenge and skill involvement for a particular task. The level of flow is predictive of the amount of time a person will spend in that task, and it is thought to form a basis for an individual's time allocation between occupational and leisure activities. In this study, 28 university students, many of whom were employed, completed a 7-day log of their daily activities, their duration, and provided ratings of the level of skills and challenges inherent in the task. The logs provided a time series of several hundred points for each participant, which were each subjected to nonlinear dynamical analysis through nonlinear regression. Principal results were: (1) Flow was chaotic for all subjects. (2) The average R 2 for the nonlinear models was .22, compared to .02 for the linear counterpart. (3) R 2 was higher for people who spent more time at paying jobs. Evidence for individual differences in dynamical character were uncovered.
Article
This article discusses certain influences on second and foreign language (S/FL) teachers and their teaching. I take the social contexts of teaching in schools as of primary concern because despite claims that teaching is a profession, its members often operate under conditions of far less autonomy than many of those in more prestigious professions. I go on to consider both the negative and positive aspects of the role of administrations on S/FL teachers and suggest administrative support for teacher development as an important means to improvement. The article also discusses FL teacher education and research in light of various criticisms that have been levelled at it and introduces the additional perspective of critical applied linguistics, which, I argue, may help to rectify some of the problems.
Article
Cooperative learning (CL) has been found to be a highly effective instructional approach in education in general and this has been confirmed with regard to second language (L2) learning as well. This article investigates reasons for the success of CL from a psychological perspective, focusing on two interrelated processes: the unique group dynamics of CL classes and the motivational system generated by peer cooperation. It is argued that the affective domain of CL plays a crucial role in the educational potential of the method. This paper summarizes the specific factors that contribute to the promotion of learning gains. While the analysis concerns cooperatively structured learning only, it is assumed that the processes described have a broader relevance to understanding the success of peer collaboration in general.
This article builds on what the author has, elsewhere, identified as a ‘fifth level of understanding or elucidation’ in relation to what influences three specific work-related attitudes; morale, job satisfaction and motivation. It picks up the ‘story so far’ of what researchinformed analyses reveal as morale-, job-satisfaction- and motivation-influencing factors.Taking this as a starting point, it applies a comparative analysis of findings from two studies using different categories of research subjects—schoolteachers and academics—to delve deeper into examining what, fundamentally, affects job-related attitudes among education professionals. In particular, the extent and nature of the influence of leadership on morale,job satisfaction and motivation are examined. Finally, implications of these findings for education leadership policy and practice are discussed.
Article
This article describes a small-scale study into learners’ attributions for success and failure in learning French. The study investigated the way in which learners conceptualise the notion of doing well, together with their perceived reasons for their successes and failures. Interviews were conducted with students from 10 to 15 years of age who were learning French in the Southwest of England. The results indicated that most of these learners tended to judge their success by external factors such as teacher approval, marks, or grades, and that the range of attributions increased with age. Many of the attributions mentioned, however, were superficial in nature. It appears that the teacher plays a significant role in the development of students’ attributions. Implications are drawn with regard to language teaching and to the nature of the learning environment.
Article
In the light of recent debates on the declining take-up of languages in English schools, and on pupils' motivation towards language learning, this article furthers discussion and asks broader questions. Is there a coincidence between trends in British attitudes to Europe and the growing or waning enthusiasm for language learning across all sectors? What role is played – and what attitudes revealed – by the pronouncements and actions of British politicians when they are not specifically addressing language issues? Is public xenophobia echoed or shaped by the printed and broadcast media? And when so many initiatives are seeking to address British insularity and monolingualism, is there more that can be done?
Article
The present study was designed to investigate teacher misbehaviors as learning demotivators across four cultures: the U.S., China, Germany, and Japan. Three major findings were reported: (1) teachers across cultures all were perceived to misbehave infrequently, with only slight variations found across cultures; (2) teachers across cultures were perceived to engage in similar misbehavior tendencies. Overall, incompetence was the most common form of teacher misbehaviors, and some of the most frequently reported teacher misbehaviors were similar across cultures; and (3) teacher misbehaviors were associated with learning demotivators pan-culturally and within each culture, but they differed in the magnitude as predictors, explaining 8%-39% of the variance in student demotivation across cultures. Among the three dimensions of teacher misbehaviors, incompetence was the greatest source of demotivation within and across cultures.
Article
Research into teacher effectiveness has traditionally attempted to uncover generic characteristics of effective teachers. However, recently the realisation that teacher effectiveness may be differentiated across different domains has gained recognition. In this article, we propose that researchers and policy-makers develop more differentiated models of teacher effectiveness. An overview of research is given that looks at whether there is evidence for differentiated effectiveness in four areas: different subject and curriculum areas, pupil background and ability, pupils' personal characteristics, and different teacher roles.