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Extensive listening in the language classroom

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Abstract

This chapter discusses the role of extensive listening in foreign or second language learning and teaching. It explains the language learning benefits of extensive listening, explores the kinds of material that are suitable for extensive listening, and provides practical activities that promote extensive listening in the foreign or second language classroom.
... Instead of listening to 'artificial' texts in a laboratory-like environment, learners should be engaged in extensive listening (EL). In particular, this involves listening to any self-selected listening materials that fit to their language levels and personal interests (Renandya, 2011;Renandya & Jacobs, 2016;Waring, 2008). Through simply putting their earphones on, they can enjoy listening to their favorite stories on their smartphones while, for example, waiting for the school bus, queuing for food in the canteen, and so forth. ...
... Learning can still happen at any time whether or not they attend the class. Through practising EL, learners can develop their L2 listening fluency (Chang et al., 2019), reinforce their L2 vocabulary knowledge (Chang, 2012), develop their L2 vocabulary (Pamuji et al., 2019) and get more familiar with oral language features (Renandya, 2011;Renandya & Jacobs, 2016). ...
... Insights into the advantages of EL are mostly reported by studies carried out in higher-level settings. With its emphasis on listening for pleasure to easy and compelling listening materials (Renandya, 2011;Renandya & Jacobs, 2016;Waring, 2008), extensive listening could ideally be enjoyed by EFL learners of all levels. Especially for young learners who need ample exposure to oral input for their L2 development, listening pleasurably daily is indispensable. ...
... In the process-oriented approach of teaching listening, there should be a substantial amount of actual listening to familiarize learners with how English is actually spoken (or Englishes are spoken). This is also a pressing concern because the amount of time that EFL learners listen to English is minimal in listening classes (e.g., Renandya, 2013) and outside class (see the next section). According to Renandya: In a typical 50-minute listening lesson, students listen to a two-or three-minute passage twice or three timesa total of about nine minutes of listening, which is less than 1/5 of classroom time. ...
... Saville-Troike (2012) explains this: "[R]epetition can enhance noticing and contribute to automatization, by facilitating faster processing of input, and the ability to process longer segments in working memory". Also, as scholars (e.g., Ellis, 2002;Field, 2019;Renandya, 2013) have stated, declarative knowledge is important but when it comes to actual performance or "expertise" (Field, 2019: 289), "hundreds of hours" (Renandya, 2013: 26) or even "tens of thousands of hours" (Ellis, 2002: 175) of practice is essential. There are no shortcuts to internalizing and automatizing language knowledge other than familiarizing oneself through practice. ...
... The notion of extensive listening also facilitates vocabulary learning such as fillers or stock phrases (Renandya, 2013). With more practice, learners' confidence in listening may well increase while their listening anxiety may decrease. ...
Article
Many scholars and teachers in EFL education should agree that compared with reading and writing, listening has received much less attention. This brief article discusses important gaps existing in EFL listening and overall proficiency development. It presents the case for a greater focus on sounds and actual listening in the classroom and spoken input (SI) beyond the classroom. To facilitate the discussion, two modalities of listening, namely learning to listen and listening to learn are introduced. It is hoped that by shedding light on these substantive issues, EFL stakeholders will work towards fine-tuning listening pedagogical practices and facilitating learners' reception of more SI beyond the classroom, both of which will highly likely improve learners' listening skills, enhance their overall English proficiency, and lead to more positive EFL learning experiences.
... Recent studies in English language teaching showcased that listening skills' appropriate practices will effectively increase the learners' exposures to the diversity of English and acquire the necessary input for their L2 acquisition (Hamouda, 2013;Renandya, 2011;Rost, 2011). Besides, learning to listen to the target language does improve the language comprehension, in which, learners accustomed to the speech rate, pronunciation, rhythm, intonation, stress, or the variety of spoken and colloquial expressions used in the target language (Chang & Millet, 2013). ...
... Thus, learners are expected to manage more outclass listening practices to think about how they listen and what they could do to improve their listening skills (Gillian, 2015). EFL teachers can expose the learners to the target language through comprehensive listening practices (Renandya, 2011;Renandya & Hu, 2018). ...
... Researches in listening have also revealed that setting up the extensive listening strategy in learning to listen to the L2 is beneficial for the learners. It helps learners establish their cognitive map to obtain the fundamental knowledge related to the use of the target language (Nation & Newton, 2009, as cited in Renandya, 2011). For the lower proficiency learners, repeated listening and extensive listening practices will also help them control the speech rate in learning to interpret the diversity of spoken language. ...
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Learning English as a foreign language is very challenging for both teachers and students in Flores, East Nusa Tenggara of Indonesia. The challenges are primarily caused by their lack of exposure to the authentic environment of English. In dealing with this phenomenon, the appropriate listening practices expect to help the learners to obtain and construct their knowledge of English as well as to acquire more comprehensible input. This article reports an investigation on the EFL learners� attitudes toward the extensive listening practices. It applied mixed-method research procedures involving 55 students of the English language and education program of Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus Ruteng. The data were collected through a survey coupled with Focus Group Discussions with 15 participants. This research revealed that the learners' attitudes are identified into two main categories called positive and negative attitudes. In this case, 38 % of the participants have positive attitudes toward extensive listening practices and 62% of the participant reflected the negative attitude toward the extensive listening practices. Learners with a positive attitude had a very strong awareness of the significance of listening skills in L2 learning. To improve their listening skills, they develop their listening practices outside the classroom consistently. Meanwhile, learners with negative attitudes were categorized as dependent learners who practiced their listening skills during the listening course only. This group of learners was less aware of the significance of listening skills in L2 learning and their listening practices were highly dependent on the teachers' instruction. It showcased that both of the learners� internal and external factors were strongly contributed to this poor extensive listening practices.� The EFL teachers are then strongly suggested to strengthen the learners� awareness on the significance of Listening Skills in L2 learning as well as design more instructed extensive listening practices outside the classroom.
... Unlike other language skills, listening requires immediate understanding and processing (Vandergrift, 2004) and background knowledge of the target language culture (Vandergrift, 2007;Walker, 2014). Krashen (1985) argued that language can be acquired with comprehensible input; therefore, studies have focused on developing listening skills through both intensive and extensive listening (e.g., Chang & Read, 2006;Jones, 2008;Renandya, 2011). This paper has taken a different approach in that developing listening skills might happen through interaction where learners discuss and negotiate, and not solely through intensive input (Ellis, 1997). ...
... A diferencia de otras destrezas lingüísticas, el escuchar requiere de una comprensión y un procesamiento inmediatos (Vandergrift, 2004) y un conocimiento previo de la cultura del idioma destino (Vandergrift, 2007;Walker, 2014). Krashen (1985) sostenía que el dominio de una lengua puede adquirirse con un input comprensible; por ello, los estudios se han enfocado en el desarrollo de las habilidades de comprensión auditiva a través de la escucha intensiva y extensiva (por ejemplo, Chang y Read, 2006;Jones, 2008;Renandya, 2011). En este trabajo se ha adoptado un enfoque diferente en el sentido de que el desarrollo de las habilidades de comprensión auditiva podrían adquirirse a través de una interacción en la que los alumnos discuten y negocian, y no únicamente mediante un input intensivo (Ellis, 1997). ...
... Studies have focused on developing listening skills through both intensive and extensive listening (e.g., Chang & Read, 2006;Jones, 2008;Renandya, 2011). However, "real-life listening is interactive" (Holden, 2008, p. 301) and might require more than just "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985). ...
Chapter
Listening is often a challenge for foreign/second language learners. Unlike other language skills, listening requires immediate understanding and processing (Vandergrift, 2004) and background knowledge of the target language culture (Vandergrift, 2007; Walker, 2014). Krashen (1985) argued that language can be acquired with comprehensible input; therefore, studies have focused on developing listening skills through both intensive and extensive listening (e.g., Chang & Read, 2006; Jones, 2008; Renandya, 2011). This paper has taken a different approach in that developing listening skills might happen through interaction where learners discuss and negotiate, and not solely through intensive input (Ellis, 1997). Accordingly, the current study examines whether active learning group discussion activities help develop lower-level students' listening comprehension skills. The study creates and implements fifteen active learning group discussion activities based on insights from Elmetaher's (2021) Active Learning Checklist for a full academic term with a group of 25 L1 Japanese students enrolled in a compulsory academic listening course in a Japanese southern university. Pre-and post-listening tests were developed, administered, and showed a significant increase of the listening scores in this group. A discussion on the effectiveness of "group discussion" in developing listening skills with a newly introduced Four Questions (4Q) teaching strategy has been included.
... Firstly, learners who practice EL are not taught target words as IL practice, but they can acquire vocabulary incidentally. IL aims to teach learners new grammar and vocabulary (Chang, 2012;Renandya, 2011) while EL could help learners obtain vocabulary knowledge by meeting the word several times (Renandya, 2011). Secondly, learners listen for details in IL (Field, 2008) while they are provided lots of comprehensive inputs to foster their overall global comprehension (McDonough & Shaw, 1993, as cited in Kim, 2004) and build their listening speed (Waring, 2008). ...
... Firstly, learners who practice EL are not taught target words as IL practice, but they can acquire vocabulary incidentally. IL aims to teach learners new grammar and vocabulary (Chang, 2012;Renandya, 2011) while EL could help learners obtain vocabulary knowledge by meeting the word several times (Renandya, 2011). Secondly, learners listen for details in IL (Field, 2008) while they are provided lots of comprehensive inputs to foster their overall global comprehension (McDonough & Shaw, 1993, as cited in Kim, 2004) and build their listening speed (Waring, 2008). ...
... Then, the IL activities include pause and paraphrase, listening close, error identification, elicited repetition, word spotting, grammar processing, etc. to develop learners' listening strategies (Rost, 2011). EL provides several kinds of activities such as narrow listening, storytelling, repeated listening, dictation, etc. to focus on general understanding (Renandya, 2011(Renandya, , 2012. In brief, EL is a pleasant way to listen while IL has specific requirements. ...
Article
Nowadays, most learners, especially students at The Asian International School, have plenty of opportunities for learning English vocabulary from the earliest possible age. However, the students in general faced lots of difficulties in vocabulary learning. Thus, the study was conducted with the purpose to investigate to what extent extensive listening affected the students’ vocabulary learning and their listening habits. Eighty participants were chosen by using convenience sampling and divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. The two groups took a pretest to measure their vocabulary knowledge with Listening Vocabulary Levels Test. Then, besides studying the school’s formal English curriculum, the control group practiced intensive listening while the experimental group practiced extensive listening. All the participants were required to submit one listening journal each week to report what they have done as their listening habits. Finally, they took a posttest (Listening Vocabulary Levels Test) after 12 weeks practicing. The results showed that extensive listening could help to increase the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge significantly, including word meanings and word aural forms. Additionally, the more the participants practiced extensive listening, the higher improvement they somewhat had on receptive vocabulary knowledge. The participants tended to practice listening by using visual materials and self-selected materials in their listening habits. To sum up, extensive listening affected impressively the participants’ vocabulary learning that aspires for the study to propose suggestions for future studies so that administrators, teachers, and students could receive huge pedagogical implications of extensive listening.
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In the fall semester of 2019, 237 Japanese university students were placed into three groups, 97 in an extensive listening group, 104 in an intensive listening group, and 42 in a control group. Participants were given a 100-question TOEIC listening test to assess L2 listening proficiency, and then placed into their respective group. During the 14-week semester, students completed six listening assignments adhering to either principles of extensive or intensive listening (as well as a control group which received no L2 listening homework). At the end of the semester, students were given another 100-question TOEIC listening test. Results indicated that the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores was significantly larger for the EL group than the IL group t(193) = 2.14, p <.05. Among the suggestions for future research are a codification of EL and IL methodologies, a linkage of testing instruments to account for variability in testing conditions, and greater scrutiny of the participants' adherence to the intervention.
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As the revolutionary approach in education, the use of mobile devices for learning undoubtedly has a great influence on the students’ academic success. Many studies have found that these tools are satisfying in terms of authenticity, simplicity, and portability allowing learners to promote their learning autonomy in which they can study anywhere and anytime. Using the lens of narrative inquiry, this study explored the student's experience in using mobile devices for autonomous listening activities and investigated the benefits of these activities for her language competences. Interview and narrative frame proposed by Barkhuizen (2014) are used to answer the research questions. The findings show that the learner mostly does extensive listening activities in which she listens to a large amount of understandable and pleasurable spoken expressions through her devices. Having sophisticated software and great immersion, these tools allow the learner to have massive listening input which develops her vocabulary and basic comprehension. Different from analog tools used in her first listening experience, these tools devote thousands of listening applications and provide thousands of listening sources like live streams, English songs, news, or videos that can be accessed effortlessly. However, it is also revealed that it affects the learner's psychological factors; learning motivation, confidence, and self-efficacy.
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For many years, research effort has been devoted to understanding the nature of listening strategies and how listening strategies used by good listeners can be taught to so-called ineffective listeners. As a result of this line of research, strategy training activities have now become a standard feature of most modern listening coursebooks. However, in this article, we maintain that given the lack of evidence of success with this approach to teaching lower proficiency EFL learners and the fact that strategy training places a heavy burden on teachers, an extensive listening approach in the same vein as an extensive reading approach should be adopted. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved.
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Evidence shows that aural comprehensible input plays a critical role in the early stages of language acquisition. While uncontrolled casual conversations may be too difficult for beginning and intermediate foreign language students to comprehend, Narrow Listening, the repeated listening of several brief tape-recorded interviews of proficient speakers discussing a topic both familiar and interesting to the acquirers, offers them a valuable and rewarding alternative. In the present study, a survey of beginning and intermediate college French as a foreign language students' reactions to Narrow Listening and their assessment of its impact on their language development was conducted. Results indicate that students found Narrow Listening to be interesting, very helpful in improving listening comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary, and in increasing their confidence with French.
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This article explores the relationship between written and spoken language, and questions whether skills and strategies supposedly used in reading can be effectively transferred to listening. It suggests that in listening, working from the text, or from texts in general, may be a more productive way of approaching comprehension than working from the notion of ‘strategies’.