Nail polishes and nail polish removers as sources of volatile organic compound emissions

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Compounds which have an effect on indoor air quality may be emitted from different household products. Cosmetics are one of this group of products. The content ofVolatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in nail polishes and nail polish removers available on the Polish market was determined using gas chromatography. In the nail polish removers analyzed, acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl and butyl acetates were present. In the analyzed nail polishes aliphatic esters, aliphatic alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons were identified. The total VOCs emission intensity was determined using the gravimetric method. In order to evaluate indoor air quality, the concentrations ofVOCs in a standard room were calculated and the inhalation exposure to VOCs was estimated.

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To identify household products that may be potential sources of indoor air pollution, the chemical composition emitted from the products should be surveyed. Although this kind of survey has been conducted by certain research groups in Western Europe and the USA, there is still limited information in scientific literature. Moreover, chemical components and their proportions of household products are suspected to be different with different manufacturers. Consequently, the current study evaluated the emission composition for 42 liquid household products sold in Korea, focusing on five product classes (deodorizers, household cleaners, color removers, pesticides, and polishes). The present study included two phase experiments. First, the chemical components and their proportions in household products were determined using a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer system. For the 19 target compounds screened by the first phase of the experiment and other selection criteria, the second phase was done to identify their proportions in the purged-gas phase. The number of chemicals in the household products surveyed ranged from 9 to 113. Eight (product class of pesticides) to 17 (product class of cleaning products) compounds were detected in the purged-gas phase of each product class. Several compounds were identified in more than one product class. Six chemicals (acetone, ethanol, limonene, perchloroethylene (PCE), phenol, and 1-propanol) were identified in all five product classes. There were 13 analytes occurring with a frequency of more than 10% in the household products: limonene (76.2%), ethanol (71.4%), PCE (66.7%), phenol (40.5%), 1-propanol (35.7%), decane (33%), acetone (28.6%), toluene (19.0%), 2-butoxy ethanol (16.7%), o-xylene (16.7%), chlorobenzene (14.3%), ethylbenzene (11.9%), and hexane (11.9%). All of the 42 household products analyzed were found to contain one or more of the 19 compounds. The chemical composition varied broadly along with the product classes or product categories, and it was different from that reported in other studies abroad, although certain target chemicals were identified in both studies. This finding supports an assertion that chemical components emitted from household products may be different in different products and with different manufacturers. The chlorinated pollutants identified in the present study have not been reported to be components of cleaning products in papers published since the early 1990s. Limonene was identified as having the highest occurrence in the household products in the present study, although it was not detected in any of 67 household products sold in the U.S. The emission composition of selected household products was successfully examined by purge-and-trap analysis. Along with other exposure information such as use pattern of household products and the indoor climate, this composition data can be used to estimate personal exposure levels of building occupants. This exposure data can be employed to link environmental exposure to health risk. It is noteworthy that many liquid household products sold in Korea emitted several toxic aromatic and chlorinated organic compounds. Moreover, the current finding suggests that product types and manufacturers should be considered, when evaluating building occupants' exposure to chemical components emitted from household products. The current findings can provide valuable information for the semiquantitative estimation of the population inhalation exposure to these compounds in indoor environments and for the selection of safer household products. However, although the chemical composition is known, the emissions of household products might include compounds formed during the use of the product or compounds not identified as ingredients by this study. Accordingly, further studies are required, and testing must be done to determine the actual composition being emitted. Similar to eco-labeling of shampoos, shower gels, and foam baths proposed by a previous study, eco-labeling of other household products is suggested.
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Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan.
This chapter provides an overview of the types, sources and current techniques for characterising volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in nonindustrial indoor environments. It reviews current knowledge on the levels of VOCs in indoor environments, discusses concepts for regulating indoor levels of VOCs and appraises current efforts to understand the links between VOCs and building-related health/sensory effects. It also provides an up-to-date outline of new trends in and perspectives for indoor air VOC research.
A labeling system for building materials' primary emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) according to their impact on comfort and health has been developed and introduced in Denmark. The system unifies chemical emission testing over time (months), modeling (including a standard room and mathematical modeling of the emission profile, when necessary), and health evaluation. As a first step, the Danish system focuses on comfort, i.e. odor annoyance and mucous membrane irritation, because of their preponderance in the sick building syndrome reporting and the absence of other relevant data on indoor air related health effects. Two design criteria have been set: the labeling system shall be easily comprehensible and at the same time operational and dynamic. The principle is to determine the time value, t(Cm), required to reach the relevant indoor air value, Cm (presently, based on odor and mucous membrane irritation thresholds), in a standard room. Odor thresholds are used because they generally are at least one order of magnitude lower than mucous membrane irritation thresholds. t(Cm) is a measure of the period of time during which a new building material may cause indoor air quality problems, unless special precautions are made. The system may also be used for singular VOCs of which a specific health endpoint has been reported. The Danish labeling system is illustrated with the emission testing and comfort evaluation of two sealants using the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC)
Consumer products are important sources of human exposure to certain chemicals. Recent regulatory requirements for assessing human exposure to three glycol ethers, namely 2-methoxyethanol (ME), 2-ethoxyethanol (EE) and 2-butoxyethanol (BE), have prompted the investigation of these chemicals in consumer products and their emission characteristics. Thirteen products were selected for investigation based on their potential of containing the chemicals. Headspace results indicated that ME and EE were not present in any of the 13 selected products, while BE was detected in the headspace samples of seven products, of which five were household cleaning agents. Other related compounds such as 2-hexyloxyethanol (HE) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE) were also detected in the headspace samples of some products. BE emissions from five cleaning related products were measured using a field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) with its subunit to provide emission data for inhalation exposure assessment purposes. These products had initial emission factors ranging from 145 to 938 mg m(-2) h(-1) under the experimental conditions. It was found that the emission factor of BE was inversely proportional to the dilution factor of the products. A good relationship was established between the emission factor of BE and its concentrations in water-based products. Based on product use scenarios developed by US EPA and an assumed "standard room," average daily inhalation exposure levels of a resident as a result of performing cleaning tasks were estimated to be 0.075 and 0.186 mg (kg b.w.)(-1) day(-1) for two all-purpose spray cleaners, and 0.004 and 0.006 mg (kg b.w.)(-1) day(-1) for two-spray glass cleaners, respectively.
The present study investigated the emission composition for 59 household products currently sold in Korea, using a headspace analysis. The chemical composition and concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) broadly varied along with products, even within the same product category. Up to 1-17 organic compounds were detected in the headspace gas phase of any one of the products. The chemical composition of certain household products determined in the current study was different from that of other studies from other countries. Between 4 and 37 compounds were detected in the headspace gas phase of each product class. Several compounds were identified in more than one product class. Of the 59 household products analyzed, 58 emitted one or more of the 72 compounds at chromatographic peak areas above 10(4). There were 11 analytes which occurred with a frequency of more than 10%: limonene (44.2%), ethanol (30.5%), acetone (18.6%), alpha-pinene (18.6%), o,m,p-xylenes (18.6%), decane (17.0%), toluene (17.0%), beta-myrcene (11.9%), ammonia (10.2%), ethylbenzene (10.2%), and hexane (10.2%).
Indoor Air Pollution by Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from flooring material in a Technical University in Switzerland
  • F Englund
  • L E Harderup
  • P Gaca
  • A Dziewanowska-Pudliszak
  • H Guo
  • S C Lee
  • N H Kwok
  • F Maupetit
  • O Ramalho
  • A Mienne
  • P O Kelly
  • C Yrieix