ArticlePDF Available

Precision livestock farming: Precision feeding technologies and sustainable livestock production

Article

Precision livestock farming: Precision feeding technologies and sustainable livestock production

Abstract and Figures

In order to be able to produce safe, uniform, cheap, environmentally- and welfare-friendly food products and market these products in an increasingly complex international agricultural market, livestock producers must have access to timely production related information. Especially the information related to feeding/nutritional issues is important, as feeding related costs are always significant part of variables costs for all types of livestock production. Therefore, automating the collection, analysis and use of production related information on livestock farms will be essential for improving livestock productivity in the future. Electronically-controlled livestock production systems with an information and communication technology (ICT) focus are required to ensure that information is collected in a cost effective and timely manner and readily acted upon on farms. New electronic and ICT related technologies introduced on farms as part of Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) systems will facilitate livestock management methods that are more responsive to market signals. The PLF technologies encompass methods for electronically measuring the critical components of the production system that indicate the efficiency of resource use, interpreting the information captured and controlling processes to ensure optimum efficiency of both resource use and livestock productivity. These envisaged real-time monitoring and control systems could dramatically improve production efficiency of livestock enterprises. However, further research and development is required, as some of the components of PLF systems are in different stages of development. In addition, an overall strategy for the adoption and commercial exploitation of PLF systems needs to be developed in collaboration with private companies. This article outlines the potential role PLF can play in ensuring that the best possible management processes are implemented on farms to improve farm profitability, quality of products, welfare of livestock and sustainability of the farm environment, especially as it related to intensive livestock species.
Content may be subject to copyright.
20th Int. Symp. “Animal Science Days”, Kranjska gora, Slovenia, Sept. 19th−21st, 2012.
Acta argiculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3, 9–15, Ljubljana 2012
Invited lecture
COBISS: 1.06
Agris category code: L01
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AS A TECHNOLOGICAL AND
SOCIAL CHALLENGE  EMPHASIS ON SUSTAINABILITY
AND PRECISION NUTRITION
Csaba SZABÓ 1, Veronika HALAS 1
1 Kaposvár Univ., Guba Sándor út 40, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
ABSTRACT
Feeding the world’s growing population is one of the biggest challenges in the 21st century. As our natural resources
are depleting and our nature changing due to the human activity – sustainability is an emerging issue. In short sustain-
able agriculture means a system which preserves the basis of life of future generations. In the case of animal production
this includes the following key areas: providing sustainable feed base, reducing environmental impact, feed and food
safety and sustainable intensication. Animal production systems can be intensied throughout the application of preci-
sion livestock farming (PLF) systems. As the majority of production expenses related to feed, precision nutrition is a key
component in PLF systems. Precision nutrition includes the following principles: use of precise nutrient requirement
matrix, use of precise ingredient matrix, proper use of modiers and feed processing technologies and adjustment of
nutrient supply to match requirements of livestock. e aim of this paper is to highlight the current standing and future
perspectives of sustainable animal production and precision nutrition.
Key words: animal production / sustainability / precision nutrition
1 INTRODUCTION
Animal agriculture is facing a huge challenge in the
21st century. e world’s population is estimated to reach
10 billion by the end of the century. However, not only
the rise of the population, but also the improving living
standards in fast developing countries like China and In-
dia increases the demand of food. e average increment
rate of animal production is 1.6%/year (FAO, 2010) and
by 2016 the demand for animal feed will be increased by
more than 50% compared to 2006 (Farrell, 2009). Never-
theless, animal production also threatens our life on the
Earth. We are competing for food and the excretion of ni-
trogen, phosphorous and methane contributes to damag-
ing our nature. erefore, sustainability is a key question
in future animal production system.
In agriculture the rst green revolution lasted be-
tween 1930–1970 aiming the revolutionary improve-
ment of productivity (capacity and eciency). Nowadays
many speak about the second green revolution. However
it has a dierent meaning depending on which country
is considered. For countries with less developed agri-
culture it means improvement of yield and technology,
while for countries with developed agricultural produc-
tion it aims to achieve sustainable production. Sustain-
ability can be termed dierently and it has many aspects.
At the Earth summit in 1992 the UN Food and Agricul-
ture Organization (FAO) dened sustainable agriculture
and rural development as follows: “Sustainable develop-
ment is the management and conservation of the natural
resource base and the orientation of technological and
institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the at-
tainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for
present and future generations.Such sustainable devel-
opment conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic
resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically
appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.
As the demand for food is increasing and the area of ar-
able land decreases we continuously have to improve the
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
10
C. SZABÓ and V. HALAS
eciency of animal production. For that purpose one of
the possibilities is applying precision livestock farming.
erefore the aim of our paper is to highlight the
current standing and future perspectives of sustainable
animal production and precision nutrition.
2 SUSTAINABLE ANIMAL PRODUCTION
When we are talking about the sustainability of ani-
mal production in terms of preserving the basis of life
for future generations the following key areas have to be
considered:
providing sustainable feed base
reducing environmental impact
feed and food safety
sustainable intensication
2.1 PROVIDING SUSTAINABLE FEED BASE
Some news reported last summer that for the rst
time in history the US ethanol industry used more corn
than consumed by animals. is clearly shows the situ-
ation that how big is the competition for feed materials
which also suitable for both human consumption and
industrial utilization. Aer industrial processing of the
feedstus, usually a feedable by-product formed. Produc-
ers usually term these by-products as co-product and this
slight dierence reects in the pricing. While in the past
by-products were associated with low prices and were
a means to reduce feed costs, nowadays their prices are
tending to be similar to grains or even higher. However
their nutritional value is usually lower (mainly due to the
higher bre and lower energy content) and the properties
are dierent compared to the original raw material. Also,
about 30–40% is “lost” in amount of available feed base
compared to the weight of the raw materials. erefore
intensive research is needed to reveal all aspects of the
ecient use of these co-products.
Due to the foreseen increased demand for com-
pound feed we will face with shortage in protein sources
as well. Due to the overshing, the supply of shmeal
as the primary protein source of aquaculture industry
is already questionable. However, there is a huge feed
and food-production potential in the aquatic cultures.
Various algae are considered to be seaweeds, but these
plants contain high level of oil, which makes them a
good raw material for biofuel production. e remaining
co product or even the whole algae meal can be a good
feed source for ruminants, monogastric species and sh
and therefore intensive research is carried out (Carillo et
al., 2012; Angell et al., 2012; Toral et al., 2012). Fraser
omson representative of the McKinsey Global institute
told at the AquaVision 2012 (Stavanger) conference, that
aquaculture can potentially increase to meet the protein
needs of 500 million more people. To achieve that we
certainly have to change our eating habit as well. e im-
proved utilization of sea water aquaculture will preserve
our freshwater reserves.
e meat and bone meal had been banned from
the diets of farm animals due to the bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) disease. is caused less available
protein feedstus, and an increased production cost.
Unfortunately, the decision makers did not make dis-
tinction between the dierent products, as the conven-
tionally treated (solvent defatted, autoclaved and dried)
meal did not cause any proven BSE case. Nowadays the
EU is reconsidering to allow the cross species usage of
meat and bone meal. In that case we could have a dietary
2.5–3 percent good and price competitive alternative to
soybean meal.
A new possible future protein source is the earth-
worm (Ebadi, 2009) and insects. e advantage is that
agricultural and food wastes which cannot be used di-
rectly as feedstus can be turned into a valuable protein
source. e major obstacle is the legislation and scaling
up production to provide a competitive feed component.
ese were only examples of possible contributors
to have sustainable feed resources. ere is certainly
more opportunity we just have to walk with open eye and
be receptive to new ideas.
2.2 REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Manure disposal is a major problem in highly inten-
sive farm animal production areas because of water and
air pollution. Among farm animals the monogastric spe-
cies excrete most of the nitrogen and phosphorus, due to
the digestibility properties, protein and amino acid sup-
ply and improper manure handling. For instance sows,
weaners and slaughter pigs excrete approximately 75%,
45% and 70% of the nitrogen, and 75%, 40% and 60%
of the phosphorus consumed, respectively. In the case of
Hungary about 34000 tons of N and 8000 tons of P can
potentially pollute the environment yearly from the pig
and poultry sector. is is about 5.0 kg of N and 1.1 kg
of P per ha of arable land. ese values are far below the
legislation in France, Denmark and e Netherlands
(Jongbloed et al., 1999). However, by improper manure
and slurry handling the regional emission can be higher.
Using dietary nutrient recommendations based on ileal
digestible amino acids, ideal protein concept and digest-
ible phosphorus can result about 20–30 percentage re-
duction in N and P excretion. Shiing recommendation
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 11
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AS A TECHNOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGE  EMPHASIS ... AND PRECISION NUTRITION
from total P to digestible P will not reduce signicantly
the P emission in countries where the P emission per ha
is quite low and legislation is not foreseen. e dietary
inclusion of microbial phytase depends on economic
considerations. We should not forgot, that the manure is
a valuable natural fertilizer to the soil. It degrades gradu-
ally down in 4–5 years and provides not only the major
elements to the plants, but the trace elements as well. e
problem is that farms are specializing more and more,
and the animal production is separated from plant pro-
duction. us, the utilization of the manure as a valuable
co-product is not solved in many places. More integrated
agricultural systems or better co-operations with special-
ized farms (plant/crop and animal producers) has to be
in order to use the resources eciently and thus to re-
duce the ecological footprint of agriculture.
2.3 FEED AND FOOD SAFETY
During the past years we have experienced several
food and feed safety scandals. By the continuous im-
provement of the eld to fork chain traceability, these
problems can be treated quite in time in Europe. Never-
theless, we are importing signicant amount of feedstu
and food from third parties with less developed feed and
food safety systems. Due to the globalisation where even
a simple carrot travels thousands of kilometres from the
producer to the consumer this can be a real source of
danger.
However, the hottest issue nowadays is the usage of
genetically modied organisms. ese plants and ani-
mals oer advantages to the producer: tolerance to her-
bicides in order to improve the eciency of weed control,
protection against the damage of insects to save soil ferti-
lization cost, improve the phosphorous digestibility, etc.
At rst sight these organisms has no adverse eect on nu-
tritive value, animal performance or human health. ey
might not have; however, we need some caution based on
earlier experiences with excellent solutions. Let’s cite the
story of antibiotics. Concerns about antibiotic resistance,
especially associated with antibiotics that were used both
in human patients and as growth promoters in livestock,
led to the Swann Report (Swann et al., 1969). In the re-
port it was recommended that antibiotics used in human
medicine should not be used as growth promoters. It is
believed that by separating the human and animal anti-
biotics we will solve the problem of transborder resist-
ance. But in about thirty years we have learned a new
term – cross resistance. ere is even a concern, that an-
tibacterial agents used in households, food industry and
in hospitals may play a role in the emergence of bacteria
resistant to antibiotics. So what can we learnt from that?
Not everything is gold that shines. Last year a Bt-corn-
eld (insecticide sweet corn) was completely damaged in
the USA by the western corn rootworm which gets ac-
customed to the poison in the plant. Ermakova (2005)
reported reduced growth of rats ospring and more than
50% mortality among pups which mother fed GM soy-
bean based diet. Earlier Ewen and Pusztai (1999) dem-
onstrated reduced growth and damaged immune system
of rats fed GM potatoes. Domingo (2000) summarized
our knowledge in the eld of GM safety: many opinions,
but few data. Despite these and other cautionary results
still insucient attention is paid to this potential danger.
erefore it is needful to carry out long term studies and
have experiences on using GM products as animal feed-
ing and GM products have to be considered as not the
only one solution on the feed and food source problem.
2.4 SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION
To full the world’s increasing demand of food we
have to intensify the production systems. is does not
mean that there is no room for extensive production,
but extensive systems require more land and we have
limitations in that. Our resources have to be utilized on a
proper way; therefore a further intensication of the con-
centrated farms is necessary. By concentration of animal
farms and the advances in technology farmer can have
such amount of information, which cannot be handled
manually. is needs a special information intensive
management system so called precision livestock farm-
ing. Precision livestock farming is an integrated approach
of animal production aiming to improve the eciency
of use of resources, as well as to enhance animal health
and welfare, and thus contributes to sustainable animal
production systems. It adopts research and development
focusing on technological innovations based on increas-
ingly specialized tools that go beyond human mind pow-
er, and are related to the acquisition, access, and process-
ing of the huge number of data (Mollo et al., 2009).
3 PRECISION NUTRITION
A prerequisite for precision livestock farming is to
feed the animals in a way that precisely full their nutri-
ent requirement. Considering that 60–70% of the total
cost of production attributes to feeding cost therefore the
nutrient supply is the most critical element of economic
animal farming. Precision livestock farming requires
precision nutrition that is by denition an “information
intensive nutrition, the actual nutrient supply is adjusted
to the real-time data on the animal and its production
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
12
C. SZABÓ and V. HALAS
level. It means not only oering proportional feed rations
but supplying continuously changed “tailor made” diets
for individual animals. For that reason the animals has
to be identied and feed individually according to their
actual requirement. But how can be precision nutrition
achieved in practice?
According to Sifri (1997) and Pomar et al. (2009)
the principals of precision nutrition are the followings:
Use of precise nutrient requirement matrix
Use of precise ingredient matrix
Proper use of modiers and feed processing tech-
nologies
Adjustment of nutrient supply to match require-
ments of livestock
3.1 USE OF PRECISE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT
MATRIX
It is well known that the actual nutrient require-
ment depends on animal factors (production level, ge-
netic potential, gender, age and body weight, and health
status), environmental factors (ambient temperature and
humidity, space allowance, number of stress factors, etc.),
as well as on nutritional factors (nutrient composition
and ratios, digestibility of nutrients, and level of anti-
nutritive factors). e nutrient requirement can be well
established/estimated with mathematical models. An
example is given in Fig. 1 showing how digestible lysine
requirement of pigs with dierent genotype changes dur-
ing the growing and fattening period (adopted from van
Milgen et al., 2008). e simulated genotypes have the
same average daily gain (762 g/d) and daily feed intake
(2.24 kg/d); however, the growth curves of them dier
gaining 758 vs. 766 g/d in growing (30–65 kg) and 812
vs. 700 g/d in fattening period (65–115 kg), respectively.
e digestible lysine requirement certainly diers and
the genotypes have to be fed dierently according to the
dynamics of their growth otherwise the genetic potential
cannot be realized and likely the slaughter quality is de-
teriorated. e advantage of using such models instead
of table values is that the model can predict the nutri-
ent requirement at any time point and not only in certain
time period and thus the number of phases used during
the pig production is a professional decision supported
by well predicted data.
In order to be able to adjust the daily nutrition to
the actual requirement of livestock the animals has to
be checked by real-time body weight control. e body
weight can be determined daily by a weighing adapter
or by body shape analyser (Banhazi et al., 2009). All the
factors that inuence production and therefore nutrient
requirement should be controlled. In precision livestock
farming the technology and housing conditions are op-
timized, however, if it is needed the nutrient supply can
also be adjusted according to the changed environmen-
tal factors. e health and wellbeing control (behaviour
and sound analysis, collecting physiological parameters
like deep body temperature, respiratory rates) is also very
useful; in case of conrming any disorder the problem
can be xed immediately.
3.2 USE OF PRECISE INGREDIENT MATRIX
e principal of precise formulation is to be able to
evaluate properly the nutritional potential of the com-
pound feed. e progression of the characterization of
Figure 1: Simulated digestible lysine requirements for two pigs having same average daily gain and feed intake but dierent shapes of
growth curve (van Milgen et al., 2008)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 13
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AS A TECHNOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGE  EMPHASIS ... AND PRECISION NUTRITION
nutritional potential of feedstus and animal require-
ments from a total to a digestible basis, and then to an
available or net basis, allows for the formulation of di-
ets with nutrient levels that are closer to the animals’ re-
quirements without the use of excessive safety margins
(Pomar et al., 2009). It is worth by theory, but protein
and even the energy evaluation are dierent in dierent
countries. In pigs for instance the net energy is the most
reliable energy evaluation system particularly if bre rich
feedstus – like dierent by-products – are used in diet
formulation. However, there are only a few countries
using net energy system in practical swine feeding. e
protein evaluation in monogastrics feeding should be
based on amino acid content of ingredients with consid-
eration on the ileal digestibility. For the sake of precise
diet formulation dietary ileal digestible amino acid con-
tent should be expressed in standardized or true digest-
ibility (SID or TID, respectively) rather than apparent
digestibility (AID) bases, considering that unlike appar-
ent values both SID and TID content of feedstus are
additive (Stein et al., 2007). Table values for net energy
and dietary SID, TID amino acid of dierent feedstus
are available; however, due to the fact that the nutrient
content is determined by several conditions (soil, pre-
cipitation, cultivation, etc.) there might be big variance
in nutrient content of feedstus originated from dierent
region or batches. erefore for precision nutrition na-
tional dataset or rather reliable prediction equations are
required to be able to determine the bioavailability of en-
ergy and amino acids of feedstus and compound feeds.
In practice the feeds are usually overformulated by
even 7.5% to ensure that no more than 20% of the batches
of feed produced are nutritionally inadequate (van Kem-
pen and Simmins, 1997). e safety of margin can be re-
duced if reliable and actual chemical composition is used
in diet formulation. By using prompt assay such as near
infrared reectance spectroscopy (NIRS) the diet formu-
lation is adjusted according to real-time analysis of the
feed ingredients to reduce variation in nutrient delivery
to the livestock. In addition to determination chemical
composition modern scanning NIR spectrophotometers
and associated analysis soware present the potential for
simultaneous prediction of available energy and amino
acids in feed ingredients for all livestock (van Barneveld,
2003). In this way the overformulation can be reduced to
zero that is desirable from both economic and environ-
mental point of view.
3.3 PROPER USE OF MODIFIERS AND FEED PRO
CESSING TECHNOLOGIES
Dierent feed additives are used in compound feed
production for purposes of improving the quality and
storage life of feed, to improve the animals’ perform-
ance and health. Feed processing technologies are usu-
ally aiming to increase the bioavailability, particularly the
digestibility of dietary nutrients and energy. erefore
use of modiers and processing technologies improve
the nutritive value of the compound feed that has to be
considered in precision feeding. Fig. 1 shows how the
proper/optimal protein supply changes with increasing
bioavailability (digestibility and/or availability) of amino
acids. According to the linear-plateau concept the rela-
tionship between the protein intake and protein deposi-
tion is described by a two-phase-graph being composed
Figure 2: Example of level of incorporation of the initial (A) and nal (B) premixes or feeds in blend feeding systems (Feddes et al., 2000)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
14
C. SZABÓ and V. HALAS
of a regression line and a constant phase. e optimal
dietary protein intake is at the point when the function
reaches  rst its maximum value (A, B, C). However, exact
in ection point depends on the slope of the regression
line phase that is certainly determined by the bioavail-
ability of amino acids.  e impact of the modi ers there-
fore should be quantify in order to evaluate precisely the
nutritional potential of feed ingredients and thus to avoid
overformulation of the diets.
3.4 ADJUSTMENT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLY TO
MATCH REQUIREMENTS OF LIVESTOCK
Due to individual variance the nutrient supply that
is ful l the requirement of the maximal growth of a herd
is not exactly the optimum for each individual animal
within the herd. Hauschild et al. (2010) showed that sup-
plying a feed with Lys:NE ratio according to the arith-
metic mean of the requirement of pigs is insu cient for
the maximal growth of the herd.  e growth response
reached its maximum when 82% of the animals were fed
above their requirement. Actually the di erences in indi-
vidual nutrient requirement increase with the degree of
heterogeneity of the population, which is determined by
genetic, environmental or management factors (Pomar et
al., 2003). Feeding pigs individually according to genet-
ics, gender and actual feed intake and growth patterns
can help to simplify the estimation of nutrient require-
ments (Pomar et al., 2009). In this way the homogeneity
of the herd is de nitely be under the level of group-fed
livestock.
Special individual feeders are available (Feddes et
al., 2000; Bánházi et al., 2009, Pomar et al., 2009) driven
by computerized data process to provide a “tailor made
diet for each animals.  e intelligent system use di erent
pre-mixed feeds to adjust the nutrient supply to the ac-
tually fed animal. Considering that the optimal nutrient
concentration related to dietary energy content progres-
sively decrease (NRC, 1998) the feeds have to be mixed
with a non-linear algorithms (Fig. 2).
Such a system allows a daily adjusted feeding pat-
tern for individual animal, therefore the oversupply at-
tributed to phase feeding can be avoided. In this way the
excess nutrients are reduced to zero and the e ciency of
production is maximal (Pomar et al., 2011). Fig. 3 repre-
sents the integrated management system for pig produc-
tion in which all the data are collected by the computer
and processed with a Decision Making System. e sug-
gested system integration approach would also mean that
where it is possible the utilization of existing hardware
and so ware components/products need to be consid-
ered. If system components are independently developed
and the components compete with existing products; it
is likely that precision nutrition and livestock farming
(PN&LF) developments and implementation on farms
will fail (Bánházi et al., 2009).
Determining and o ering the optimal nutrient sup-
ply for individual animals at any circumstances is very
complex in practice. Companies and research groups all
over the word are involved with developing commer-
cially sound PN&LF components; however, a few groups
have attempted to combine these components into one
system, because of the technical/operational di cul-
ties involved. Nonetheless, business opportunities for a
PN&LF package development (including the provision of
complete systems, expert advice, training, backup analy-
sis and general support) do exist, but very few companies
have taken advantage of such opportunities (Bánházi et
al., 2009).
Figure 3: Schematic representation of an integrated system in pig production (Banhazi et al., 2009)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 15
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AS A TECHNOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGE  EMPHASIS ... AND PRECISION NUTRITION
4 CONCLUSIONS
It is likely that sustainable intensication of agricul-
tural production will be one of the key issues in the com-
ing years. However, if we could make rm conclusions
regarding to the future, it would presume that we have
a time machine. Instead of that we can phrase a wish:
be the force with us, to give right answers in time to the
challenges we are facing with.
5 REFERENCES
Angell A.R., Pirozzi I., de Nys R., Paul N.A. 2012. Feeding
Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae
for the Abalone Haliotis asinina. PLoS ONE, 7, 6: e38857.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038857
Banhazi T., Babinszky L., Halas V., Tscharke M., Lewis B. 2009.
Precision nutrition and smart farming developments for
sustainable agriculture production. In: Proceedings of
the14th International Symposium on Animal Nutrition,
Kaposvár, Hungary, October 6, 2009. Kaposvár, University
Press. 83–95
Carillo S., Rios V.H., Calvo C., Carranco M.E., Casas M., Pérez-
Gil F. 2012. n-3 Fatty acid content in eggs laid by hens fed
with marine algae and sardine oil and stored at dierent
times and temperatures. Journal of Applied Phycology, 24:
593–599
Domingo J.L. 2000. Health risks of genetically modied foods:
Many opinions but few data. Science, 288: 1748–1749
Ebadi Z. 2009. Study on earthworm production using dier-
ent agricultural wastes for animal feed. Karaj (Iran). Report
No.: 31661. Animal Science Research Institute – ASRI: 60 p.
Ermakova I. 2005. Inuence of genetically modied organ-
isms on posterity of rats: preliminary studies. Food
Standards Agency.
http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/acnfp_74_8.pdf
(3 Aug. 2012)
Ewen S.W., Pusztai A. 1999. Eect of diets containing geneti-
cally modied potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin
on rat small intestine. Lancet, 354: 1353–1354
FAO. 2010. Food and agriculture organization of the United
Nations statistical databases.
http://faostat.fao.org/
Farrell D. 2009. Feeding the future. Livestock Research for Ru-
ral Development, Volume 21, Article #219.
http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd21/12/farr21219.htm (3 Aug. 2012)
Feddes J.J.R., Ouellette C.A., Leonard J.J. 2000. A system for
providing protein for pigs in intermediately sized grower/
nisher barns. Canadian Agricultural Engineering, 42:
209–213
Hauschild L., Pomar C., Lovatto P.A. 2010. Systematic compari-
son of the empirical and factorial methods used to estimate
the nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Animal, 4, 5:
714–723
Jongbloed A.W., Poulsen H.D., Dourmad J.Y., van der Peet-
Schwering C.M.C. 1999. Environmental and legislative
aspects of pig production in e Netherlands, France and
Denmark. Livestock Production Science, 58: 243–249
Mollo M.N., Vendrametto O., Okano M.T. 2009. Precision Live-
stock Tools to Improve Products and Processes in Broiler
Production: A Review. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science,
11, 4: 211–218
NRC 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th ed. National
Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA
Pomar C., Kyriazakis I., Emmans G.C., Knap P.W. 2003. Model-
ing stochasticity: dealing with populations rather than indi-
vidual pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 178–186
Pomar C., Hauschild L., Zhang G.H., Pomar J., Lovat-
to P.A. 2009. Applying precision feeding techniques
in growing-nishing pig operations. Revista Brasileira
de Zootecnia, 38: 226–237.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbz/v38nspe/v38nspea23.pdf
Pomar C., Hauschild L., Zhang G.H., Pomar J., Lovatto P.A.
2011. Precision feeding can signicantly reduce feeding
cost and nutrient excretion in growing animals. In: Mod-
elling nutrient digestion and utilisation in farm animals
Sauvant D. van Milgen J., Faverdin P., Friggens N. (eds.).
Wageningen Academic Publishers: 327–334
Sifri M. 1997. Precision nutrition for poultry. Journal of Ap-
plied Poultry Research, 6, 4: 461
Stein H.H., Se`ve B., Fuller M.F., Moughan P.G., de Lange
C.F.M. 2007. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and
digestibility in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and appli-
cation. Journal of Animal Science, 85: 172–180
Swann M.M., Baxter K.L., Field H.I. 1969. Report of the Joint
Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry
and Veterinary Medicine. Place of the publisher, HMSO
Toral P.G., Belenguer A., Shingeld K.J., Hervas G., Toivonen
V., Frutos P. 2012. Fatty acid composition and bacterial
community changes in the rumen uid of lactating sheep
fed sunower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.
Journal of Dairy Science, 95,2: 794–806
van Barneveld R.J. 2003. Prospects for predicting feed
quality for monogastrics by near infrared spectrosco-
py pre-delivery.
http://www.cdesign.com.au/proceedings_abts2003/
papers/129vanBarneveld.pdf (3 Aug. 2012)
van Kempen T., Simmins T.O. 1997. Near-Infrared Reectance
Spectroscopy in Precision Feed Formulation. Journal of
Applied Poultry Resesearch, 6,4: 471–477
van Milgen J., Valancogne A., Dubois S., Dourmad J.Y., Sève B.,
Noblet J. 2008. InraPorc: A model and decision support tool
for the nutrition of growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and
Technology, 143: 387–405
... Yet, what exactly PLF means and what the use of PLF technology to farm animals implies is still subject to interpretation, and therefore the developmental pathways PLF will follow are not yet settled (Bos et al., 2018). Proponents see PLF as a way to use real-time, continuous data collection from individual animals to ensure animal health and welfare while efficiently and economically producing food (Banhazi et al., 2012). Opponents, however, see PLF as a continuation of the mechanization of animal husbandry in industrial animal farming, further disruption of human-animal relationships, more replacement of human labour with technology, and greater disconnect between animals and those who consume them -all of which further objectify animals and perhaps farmers as well (Anthony, 2012;Bos et al., 2018;Thompson, 2006;Werkheiser, 2018). ...
... When the feeding process could be optimized, the financial impact could be significant. When the collection and analysis of useful information is made available to farmers and integrated within their farm information management systems, productivity could become higher (Banhazi et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Applications of data analytics, and recently machine learning, in pig farming have been investigated in literature and the results indicate great potential for data-driven decision support at various scales of the sector—from farm to the management of entire supply chains. However, there is insufficient overview of the studies conducted so far. Particularly, there is little insight into the extent of studies conducted in the context of actual business cases. In this study we conducted a systematic literature review to shed light on the state-of-the-art knowledge about data-driven decision making in the pig sector. In order to cover both classical data analysis techniques and machine learning, we used two separate search strings to search the literature. The results show that the various attributes of live pigs and slaughter data are used in analytics. Most studies focus on the occurrence and prevention of diseases, followed by DNA-related analysis and the effect of feeding strategies on growth. Among the studies we analysed, there was a large variation in herd size under study. Most studies used a selected group of pigs in an experimental environment; fewer studies used a larger number of pigs. Notably, all studies except two focussed on real-life business contexts where real-time data is used. The application of machine learning, mainly the use of random forest and neural network algorithms, took off since 2018. Current studies focus on isolated and one-off problems, and we suggest future research to consider the complexity encountered in real-life business circumstances and routine decision making through the integration of data analytics within farm information management systems.
... Here, Precision feeding is cost-effective only for intensive upland systems with higher output, achieving an average abatement of 0.03 kg of CO 2 e per kg of milk. Banhazi et al. (2012) claim that current dissemination of various precision livestock technologies is fragmented and producers require additional services related to installation and maintenance of software, and the interpretation of data. Further, a study conducted by Gargiulo et al. (2018) on the adoption of current precision technologies by Australian dairy farmers found that larger dairy farmers, with herd sizes exceeding 500 dairy cows, were most likely to adopt precision technologies. ...
Article
This study utilises data collected from Costa Rican dairy farmers to conduct a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment and the first Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) for dairy production in Latin America. Ninety dairy farms across five farm typologies were assessed, reflecting Costa Rica’s diverse agroclimatic zones and varying degrees of dairy/beef specialisation. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of specific mitigation measures depend on farm typology, but several promising technologies are identified that increase efficiency whilst substantially reducing emissions across most farms – in particular, measures that improve animal health and increase pasture quality. Pasture measures are synergistic with silvopastoral practises and are highly effective at emission mitigation, although relatively expensive. The replacement of lower quality by-product feeds with high quality concentrate feed is a cost-effective mitigation measure at farm level, but emission reductions could be negated by indirect land use change outside the scope of the MACC analyses. Achieving carbon neutrality at farm level is not likely to be possible for most farms, with the exception of extensive farm typologies. Not all measures are suitable in every context, and additional policy support will be needed to offset financial and technical challenges related to adoption. Results of this first tropical dairy MACC study are constrained by lack of high-resolution data, but they highlight the need for farm-typology-specific mitigation recommendations. Overall, there is a high potential for pasture improvement and silvopastoral measures to mitigate the globally significant contribution of Latin American livestock production to climate change.
... V ứu này đ ại kịp thời điều chỉnh từ xa các chế độ chăm sóc, khẩu phần ăn sao cho ph ương pháp ứng d ương c ệc lắp đặt vị trí camera rất quan trọng để sao cho thu đ ng. Ngoài ra s ợc sắp xếp xa nhau trong các không gian ri ứu, xây dựng mô h ệc giám sát nhiều thông số ưa ra các gi ững chỉ dẫn, cảnh báo cho ng ện trong s ên liệu khi vận h Ứng dụng công nghệ xử lý ảnh trong việc tự động đánh giá thang điểm ạng nuôi ệ xử lý ấp ở lợn bằng hệ thống phân ờng (nhiệt độ, độ ẩm,ánh sáng, ại chăn nuôi gia súc gia cầm bằng mạng ần tuổi) bằng công nghệ ều khiển ở các nông trang bằng các cảm biến nhận dạng đối [22] Xây dựng, phát triển mô hình trang trại thông minh [23] Phát triển thiết bị cảm biến để phát hiện hormone sinh dục progesterone [24] Tự động phát hiện và nhận biết các bệnh suy yếu mạn tính trên lợn sử dụng dữ liệu âm thanh trong các hệ thống giám sát âm thanh vật nuôi [25] Tự động phát hiện hiện tượng động dục trên bò bằng hệ thống giám sát âm thanh [26] Phát triển hệ thống không dây để phát hiện sớm trạng thai ở bò bằng việc đo sự thay đổi nhiệt độ thân nhiệt của vật nuôi [27] Phát hiện và phân loại độ stress trên gà đẻ bằng hệ thống phân tích âm thanh [28] Phát triển hệ thống phân tính tiếng kêu của lợn nhằm phát hiện các trạng thái bất thường của sức khỏe vật nuôi [29] Phát triển cảm biến không dây để phát hiện hiện tượng động dục trên bò [30] Ước lượng trọng lượng của lợn nuôi bằng thiết bị thị giác Việc ứng dụng công nghệ thông minh trong các quá trình chăm sóc gia súc, gia cầm đã thể hiện được những ưu thế vượt trội so với các phương pháp chăn nuôi truyền thống. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ngành chăn nuôi Việt Nam có vai trò rất quan trọng trong sản xuất nông nghiệp, nó có thể chiếm tỷ trọng cao (tới 35% trong năm 2016) tổng sản phẩm quốc nội mà ngành nông nghiệp đạt được. Tuy nhiên, ngành chăn nuôi Việt Nam đang phải đối mặt với nhiều dịch bệnh nguy hiểm trên vật nuôi. Để giảm thiểu nguy cơ dịch bệnh và phát hiện sớm các triệu chứng nhiễm bệnh, kịp thời đưa ra biện pháp điều trị cho vật nuôi, các nước có nền chăn nuôi phát triển như Nhật Bản, Hàn Quốc, Hà Lan, Bỉ, Hoa Kỳ,… đã đang ứng dụng nhiều công nghệ thông minh và hiệu quả (như công nghệ y sinh, công nghệ Internet vạn vật (IoT), công nghệ xử lý ảnh) vào các quá trình chăm sóc, giám sát vật nuôi. Trong giới hạn bài viết này, chúng tôi phân tích một số thành tựu cơ bản trong việc việc ứng dụng công nghệ xử lý ảnh và IoT trong việc tự động giám sát điều khiển các quá trình chăn nuôi gia súc gia cầm. Chúng tôi cũng đưa ra những phân tích việc ứng dụng công nghệ xử lý ảnh dựa trên ảnh thân nhiệt vật nuôi để giám sát sức khỏe với những ưu nhược điểm của từng phương pháp cụ thể.
Chapter
Livestock farming forms an important economic activity throughout the globe. In particular, they play a crucial role in the socio-economic prosperity of the developing and least developed countries by providing major support to rural livelihood. Pig farming is a viable and profitable enterprise that can be easily adopted and adapted by smallholder farming systems. Pigs can be easily integrated into small- and marginal-scale farming systems and can be fed with by-products from crops that cannot be consumed or used more efficiently by small-scale farmers. In the developing nations, the piggery sector directly empowers the rural poor, precisely the women and tribal population. Besides providing nutrition, pig farming acts as insurance to the weaker section of the society against agricultural failures and loss of labour through sale of pig and pig products. Nevertheless, this sector is still in its developing stage in India and agripreneurs have started taking interest in pig rearing. There are many bottlenecks in its advancement to full capacity, which need to be addressed. Scientific interventions and extension activities aimed to mobilize pig resources towards the empowerment of weaker sections of society can lead to their better livelihood and provide nutritional security as well.
Article
Low-field NMR sensor technology is proposed for accurate and operationally simple on-farm or laboratory determination of protein and phosphorus constituents in livestock feed. The total phosphorus content is determined directly on the native sample, while quantification of digestible protein involves enzymatic digestion here adapted to provide the total protein content. Comparison with traditional laboratory reference analysis for the total protein and phosphorus contents of 31 feed samples (including various grains, feed mixtures, and commercial feed products for cattle, pigs, horses, poultry, and sheep) demonstrate the feasibility and good accuracy of the NMR measurements.
Chapter
The livestock sector is a significant contributor to the livelihoods of the world's poor and is the fastest-growing field of agricultural output worldwide. Food based on livestock is complete in all respects, being rich in calories, proteins, and lipids that are essential for the ideal growth of the human body. Even now, a heavy emphasis needs to be put on the quality control and well-being of these products. This can be done effectively by growing knowledge among livestock farmers of good management practices (GMPs) and good farming practices (GHPs) that will eventually lead to clean, healthy, and balanced food production. Food security can be accomplished by narrowing “yield gaps,” growing the productivity of crop and livestock, eliminating waste in the food supply chain, diversification and incorporation of crops and livestock, maintaining agrobiodiversity, and introducing greenhouse gas management and advanced production technology in the agriculture and livestock sectors. A sustainable rise in livestock production is a requirement for fulfilling the future demand for livestock products. As a consequence of climate change and market factors, food security policies would need to be complex and compatible with increasing livestock production practices.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to determine the behaviour of 'Danlas' grapevines conducted under plastic cover, near atlantic coast, known for its early table grape production. Measurements included climatic conditions, leaf water potential, canopy temperature and production components. The use of plastic cover resulted in an increase of midday ambient temperature and vapor pressure deficit, with a maximum of 5.7°C and 1.28 kPa, respectively. Midday canopy temperature under field conditions were lower than ambient temperature by an average of 2.5°C. The most negative leaf water potential values were receded for grapevines under plastic cover relatively to field conditions, ranging from -7.2 to -17.0 bars and from -7.0 to -14.0 bars, respectively. Harvest date was advanced by more than one month after the use of plastic cover. Results showed that crop weight, cluster weight and number per vine were not significantly affected. However, the number of berries per cluster was significantly reduced. Plastic cover promoted fruit quality, berry weight and soluble solids concentration were increased by 2.23 g and 1.0° Brix, respectively. While titratable acidity was decreased by 1.20 g/l.
Article
Full-text available
Damage and capacity to recover of photosystem II (PSII) from long exposures to heat stress were investigated in grapes using chlorophyll fluorescence. Two wine grapes, Vitis aestivalis Michx. cv. 'Cynthiana' and French-American hybrid 'Vignoles' (Vitis L. hybrid), were exposed to a sudden heat shock (SHS) and a gradual heat shock (GHS) at 40/35°C. After heat stress, plants were moved to a greenhouse to allow PSII to recover from heat treatments. Changes in maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, indicated by the ratio of variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), were observed after 3, 6, and 12 days of heat stress and after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days recovery periods of damage to PSII. Total leaf area (LA) and leaf, shoot, and root biomass were determined at the end of the experiment. Regardless of the heat treatment, increasing duration of exposure to high temperature caused a decline in Fv/Fm in both cultivars. Heat stress treatments also caused a progressive decline in LA as well as leaf and shoot biomass. Maximum quantum efficiency of PSII was observed after 3 days of exposure in both cultivars, regardless of the heat stress treatment. 'Vignoles', however, showed higher PSII photochemical efficiency 12 days after heat exposure. GHS was less detrimental to PSII compared with SHS heat treatment. The damaged PSII of 'Vignoles' recovered faster than that of 'Cynthiana'. A positive relationship was observed between Fv/Fm and LA of plants exposed to heat treatments. Based on Fv/Fm values, this study indicates that PSII of 'Vignoles' is more thermostable and can recover faster than that of 'Cynthiana' leaves, regardless of the heat treatment. These results suggest that 'Vignoles' is generally more heat-tolerant than 'Cynthiana' and changes in Fv/Fm ratio under heat stress conditions could be a good indicator for screening heat-resistant grape cultivars.
Article
Full-text available
A comparative study on adaptive responses to water deficit was conducted on 8-year old vines of the cultivars Grenache, of Mediterranean origin, and Syrah of mesic origin, grown side by side in a commercial vineyard near Montpellier, France. Maximum stomatal conductance (gmax) and maximum photosynthesis (Amax) of Grenache were more sensitive to water deficit (expressed as pre-dawn leaf water potential, PD) than g max and Amax of Syrah. Intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g) increased with decreasing PD but more so for Grenache than Syrah. Water stressed Syrah vines matured fruit to similar sugar concentration and colour densities than the irrigated control, despite reaching PDS of up to-1.4 MPa. Ururrigated Grenache vines failed to ripen fruit adequately, yet reached only minimal PD values of-0.85 MPa. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence indicated a pronounced down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity under high light at high leaf temperatures during the water stress for Grenache but not for Syrah. Leaf water potential isotherms showed that Syrah had a higher leaf elasticity, lower turgid to dry weight ratio, and lower osmotic potential than Grenache. Therefore, turgor loss occurred at lower relative water contents in Syrah, which may allow this cultivar to maintain stomatal opening at lower water potentials and to better exploit the soil water reserves.
Article
Full-text available
A device was constructed to heat and cool grape clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) in the vineyard as part of a larger study on sunscald and color development in wine grapes (cv. Merlot). Selected sunlit clusters were cooled to the temperature of shaded clusters; likewise, several shaded clusters were heated to the temperature of sunlit clusters. Cooling was achieved by forced convection via a 1525-W, commercially available air conditioner. Hot air was generated using 1.4-Ω (100-W) resistance elements. Heated or cooled air was blown across fruit clusters at about 1.9 m.s1 producing up to a 10°C change in cluster temperature. Cluster temperatures were interrogated every five seconds to activate or deactivate heaters and/or cooling fans as needed. The temperatures of sunlit and shaded clusters were used as set-points for the heated and chilled clusters, respectively. The cooling system kept clusters within 2°C of their desired target temperatures 99% of the time. Heaters achieved the same performance 97% of the time. The maximum observed increase of berry temperature above ambient air temperature (2 m above canopy) was 15.9°C for the sun-exposed side of a west-facing cluster. The control system operated continuously for 60 days between bunch closure and harvest. This heating and cooling technique can provide in-situ replicated measurements of berry and cluster temperatures in the field for physiological studies of ripening and ripening disorders without changing other aspects of the cluster microclimate, an unavoidable consequence of chambers or enclosures.
Article
'Candy Sunblaze' and 'Red Sunblaze' miniature roses (Rosa L. sp.), were grown at several temperatures. The phenologieal events of budbreak (BB), visible flower bud (VB), and open flower (OF) were recorded daily. Based on these events, phenophases from BB to VB (BB:VB), from VB to OF (VB:OF), and from BB to OF (VB:OF) were defined. Daily rates of development to complete a phenophase increased with temperature between 13.6 and 27°C. For 'Candy Sunblaze', the rate of increase changed to a smaller slope beyond 25°C. A piecewise linear regression change point model was fitted to each dataset. The base temperature (Th) and the temperature at which the nonlinearity (Ti) occurred could then be determined. Tb for the phenophase BB:OF was 9.5°C for 'Candy Sunblaze' and 8.1°C for 'Red Sunblaze'. Ti for 'Candy Sunblaze' was 24.9°C for BB:VB and 25.6°C for the phenophase BB:OF. The resulting point of change in rate of development prompted a modification of the traditional thermal unit formula. To complete the phenophase BB:OF using the modified formula, 479 degree days (°Cd) were predicted necessary for 'Candy Sunblaze' and 589°Cd for 'Red Sunblaze'. Predicted time of events was compared with observed values. Subdividing BB:OF into BB:VB and VB:OF and using their respective Tb and thermal units summations (TU) reduced the average prediction error from 1.9 to 1.8 days for 'Candy Sunblaze' and from 2.4 to 1.5 days for 'Red Sunblaze'. In addition to single plant observations, phenological observations and thermal units were determined for pots with four plants to simulate commercial greenhouse crop production. Subdividing BB:OF into BB:VB and VB:OF and using their respective Tb and TU accumulations, reduced OF prediction errors on a crop basis for 'Red Sunblaze', but was ineffective for 'Candy Sunblaze'.
Article
High temperature adversely affects photosynthetic rates and thylakoid activities in many species, but photosynthesis response to heat stress is not well defined in grapes (Vitis L.). Genotypes within species respond differently to high temperatures, indicating a genetic variability for the trait. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological responses of two grape species to high temperature, at the whole-plant level and at the cellular level. Gas exchange, relative chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves and thermostability of extracted thylakoids of the American (V. aestivalis Michx.) 'Cynthiana' and European (V. vinifera L.) 'Semillon', 'Pinot Noir', 'Chardonnay', and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' wine grapes were evaluated. One-year-old vines were placed in controlled environmental chamber held at 20/15, 30/25, or 40/35 °C day/night for 4 weeks. Net CO2 assimilation (A) rate, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) rate, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves were measured at weekly intervals. Chlorophyll fluorescence of thylakoids extracted from V. aestivalis 'Cynthiana' and V. vinifera 'Pinot Noir' subjected to temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 °C was measured. Optimal temperatures for photosynthesis were 20/15 °C for 'Cynthiana' and 'Semillon' and 30/25 °C for the other three V. vinifera cultivars. The A, gs, E, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence values at 40/35 °C were lower in 'Cynthiana' than 'Pinot Noir'. In general, reduction of A coincided with decline in gs in 'Cynthiana', whereas no strong relationship between A and gs was observed in V. vinifera cultivars. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of intact leaves for all the cultivars decreased at 40/35 °C, with severe decline in 'Cynthiana' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon,' moderate decline in 'Semillon' and 'Chardonnay', and slight decline in 'Pinot Noir'. A distinct effect of high temperature on Fv and Fv/Fm of 'Cynthiana' was exerted after 2 weeks of exposure. Prolonged-exposure to 40/35 °C led to 78% decrease in Fv/Fm in 'Cynthiana', compared with 8% decrease in 'Pinot Noir'. In general, Fv and Fv/Fm of extracted thylakoids declined as temperature increased, with more decline in 'Cynthiana' than in 'Pinot Noir'. Based on A rates and Fv/Fm ratios, results showed that 'Cynthiana' has lower optimal temperature for photosynthesis (20/15 °C) than 'Pinot Noir' (30/25 °C). Chlorophyll fluorescence responses of intact leaves and extracted thylakoids to high temperatures indicate that 'Pinot Noir' possess higher photosynthetic activity than 'Cynthiana'. Results of this work could be used in selection programs for the development of heat resistant cultivars in the warmest regions.