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Precision livestock farming: Precision feeding technologies and sustainable livestock production


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In order to be able to produce safe, uniform, cheap, environmentally- and welfare-friendly food products and market these products in an increasingly complex international agricultural market, livestock producers must have access to timely production related information. Especially the information related to feeding/nutritional issues is important, as feeding related costs are always significant part of variables costs for all types of livestock production. Therefore, automating the collection, analysis and use of production related information on livestock farms will be essential for improving livestock productivity in the future. Electronically-controlled livestock production systems with an information and communication technology (ICT) focus are required to ensure that information is collected in a cost effective and timely manner and readily acted upon on farms. New electronic and ICT related technologies introduced on farms as part of Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) systems will facilitate livestock management methods that are more responsive to market signals. The PLF technologies encompass methods for electronically measuring the critical components of the production system that indicate the efficiency of resource use, interpreting the information captured and controlling processes to ensure optimum efficiency of both resource use and livestock productivity. These envisaged real-time monitoring and control systems could dramatically improve production efficiency of livestock enterprises. However, further research and development is required, as some of the components of PLF systems are in different stages of development. In addition, an overall strategy for the adoption and commercial exploitation of PLF systems needs to be developed in collaboration with private companies. This article outlines the potential role PLF can play in ensuring that the best possible management processes are implemented on farms to improve farm profitability, quality of products, welfare of livestock and sustainability of the farm environment, especially as it related to intensive livestock species.
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20th Int. Symp. “Animal Science Days”, Kranjska gora, Slovenia, Sept. 19th−21st, 2012.
Acta argiculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3, 9–15, Ljubljana 2012
Invited lecture
COBISS: 1.06
Agris category code: L01
Csaba SZABÓ 1, Veronika HALAS 1
1 Kaposvár Univ., Guba Sándor út 40, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
Feeding the world’s growing population is one of the biggest challenges in the 21st century. As our natural resources
are depleting and our nature changing due to the human activity – sustainability is an emerging issue. In short sustain-
able agriculture means a system which preserves the basis of life of future generations. In the case of animal production
this includes the following key areas: providing sustainable feed base, reducing environmental impact, feed and food
safety and sustainable intensication. Animal production systems can be intensied throughout the application of preci-
sion livestock farming (PLF) systems. As the majority of production expenses related to feed, precision nutrition is a key
component in PLF systems. Precision nutrition includes the following principles: use of precise nutrient requirement
matrix, use of precise ingredient matrix, proper use of modiers and feed processing technologies and adjustment of
nutrient supply to match requirements of livestock. e aim of this paper is to highlight the current standing and future
perspectives of sustainable animal production and precision nutrition.
Key words: animal production / sustainability / precision nutrition
Animal agriculture is facing a huge challenge in the
21st century. e world’s population is estimated to reach
10 billion by the end of the century. However, not only
the rise of the population, but also the improving living
standards in fast developing countries like China and In-
dia increases the demand of food. e average increment
rate of animal production is 1.6%/year (FAO, 2010) and
by 2016 the demand for animal feed will be increased by
more than 50% compared to 2006 (Farrell, 2009). Never-
theless, animal production also threatens our life on the
Earth. We are competing for food and the excretion of ni-
trogen, phosphorous and methane contributes to damag-
ing our nature. erefore, sustainability is a key question
in future animal production system.
In agriculture the rst green revolution lasted be-
tween 1930–1970 aiming the revolutionary improve-
ment of productivity (capacity and eciency). Nowadays
many speak about the second green revolution. However
it has a dierent meaning depending on which country
is considered. For countries with less developed agri-
culture it means improvement of yield and technology,
while for countries with developed agricultural produc-
tion it aims to achieve sustainable production. Sustain-
ability can be termed dierently and it has many aspects.
At the Earth summit in 1992 the UN Food and Agricul-
ture Organization (FAO) dened sustainable agriculture
and rural development as follows: “Sustainable develop-
ment is the management and conservation of the natural
resource base and the orientation of technological and
institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the at-
tainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for
present and future generations.Such sustainable devel-
opment conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic
resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically
appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.
As the demand for food is increasing and the area of ar-
able land decreases we continuously have to improve the
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
eciency of animal production. For that purpose one of
the possibilities is applying precision livestock farming.
erefore the aim of our paper is to highlight the
current standing and future perspectives of sustainable
animal production and precision nutrition.
When we are talking about the sustainability of ani-
mal production in terms of preserving the basis of life
for future generations the following key areas have to be
providing sustainable feed base
reducing environmental impact
feed and food safety
sustainable intensication
Some news reported last summer that for the rst
time in history the US ethanol industry used more corn
than consumed by animals. is clearly shows the situ-
ation that how big is the competition for feed materials
which also suitable for both human consumption and
industrial utilization. Aer industrial processing of the
feedstus, usually a feedable by-product formed. Produc-
ers usually term these by-products as co-product and this
slight dierence reects in the pricing. While in the past
by-products were associated with low prices and were
a means to reduce feed costs, nowadays their prices are
tending to be similar to grains or even higher. However
their nutritional value is usually lower (mainly due to the
higher bre and lower energy content) and the properties
are dierent compared to the original raw material. Also,
about 30–40% is “lost” in amount of available feed base
compared to the weight of the raw materials. erefore
intensive research is needed to reveal all aspects of the
ecient use of these co-products.
Due to the foreseen increased demand for com-
pound feed we will face with shortage in protein sources
as well. Due to the overshing, the supply of shmeal
as the primary protein source of aquaculture industry
is already questionable. However, there is a huge feed
and food-production potential in the aquatic cultures.
Various algae are considered to be seaweeds, but these
plants contain high level of oil, which makes them a
good raw material for biofuel production. e remaining
co product or even the whole algae meal can be a good
feed source for ruminants, monogastric species and sh
and therefore intensive research is carried out (Carillo et
al., 2012; Angell et al., 2012; Toral et al., 2012). Fraser
omson representative of the McKinsey Global institute
told at the AquaVision 2012 (Stavanger) conference, that
aquaculture can potentially increase to meet the protein
needs of 500 million more people. To achieve that we
certainly have to change our eating habit as well. e im-
proved utilization of sea water aquaculture will preserve
our freshwater reserves.
e meat and bone meal had been banned from
the diets of farm animals due to the bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) disease. is caused less available
protein feedstus, and an increased production cost.
Unfortunately, the decision makers did not make dis-
tinction between the dierent products, as the conven-
tionally treated (solvent defatted, autoclaved and dried)
meal did not cause any proven BSE case. Nowadays the
EU is reconsidering to allow the cross species usage of
meat and bone meal. In that case we could have a dietary
2.5–3 percent good and price competitive alternative to
soybean meal.
A new possible future protein source is the earth-
worm (Ebadi, 2009) and insects. e advantage is that
agricultural and food wastes which cannot be used di-
rectly as feedstus can be turned into a valuable protein
source. e major obstacle is the legislation and scaling
up production to provide a competitive feed component.
ese were only examples of possible contributors
to have sustainable feed resources. ere is certainly
more opportunity we just have to walk with open eye and
be receptive to new ideas.
Manure disposal is a major problem in highly inten-
sive farm animal production areas because of water and
air pollution. Among farm animals the monogastric spe-
cies excrete most of the nitrogen and phosphorus, due to
the digestibility properties, protein and amino acid sup-
ply and improper manure handling. For instance sows,
weaners and slaughter pigs excrete approximately 75%,
45% and 70% of the nitrogen, and 75%, 40% and 60%
of the phosphorus consumed, respectively. In the case of
Hungary about 34000 tons of N and 8000 tons of P can
potentially pollute the environment yearly from the pig
and poultry sector. is is about 5.0 kg of N and 1.1 kg
of P per ha of arable land. ese values are far below the
legislation in France, Denmark and e Netherlands
(Jongbloed et al., 1999). However, by improper manure
and slurry handling the regional emission can be higher.
Using dietary nutrient recommendations based on ileal
digestible amino acids, ideal protein concept and digest-
ible phosphorus can result about 20–30 percentage re-
duction in N and P excretion. Shiing recommendation
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 11
from total P to digestible P will not reduce signicantly
the P emission in countries where the P emission per ha
is quite low and legislation is not foreseen. e dietary
inclusion of microbial phytase depends on economic
considerations. We should not forgot, that the manure is
a valuable natural fertilizer to the soil. It degrades gradu-
ally down in 4–5 years and provides not only the major
elements to the plants, but the trace elements as well. e
problem is that farms are specializing more and more,
and the animal production is separated from plant pro-
duction. us, the utilization of the manure as a valuable
co-product is not solved in many places. More integrated
agricultural systems or better co-operations with special-
ized farms (plant/crop and animal producers) has to be
in order to use the resources eciently and thus to re-
duce the ecological footprint of agriculture.
During the past years we have experienced several
food and feed safety scandals. By the continuous im-
provement of the eld to fork chain traceability, these
problems can be treated quite in time in Europe. Never-
theless, we are importing signicant amount of feedstu
and food from third parties with less developed feed and
food safety systems. Due to the globalisation where even
a simple carrot travels thousands of kilometres from the
producer to the consumer this can be a real source of
However, the hottest issue nowadays is the usage of
genetically modied organisms. ese plants and ani-
mals oer advantages to the producer: tolerance to her-
bicides in order to improve the eciency of weed control,
protection against the damage of insects to save soil ferti-
lization cost, improve the phosphorous digestibility, etc.
At rst sight these organisms has no adverse eect on nu-
tritive value, animal performance or human health. ey
might not have; however, we need some caution based on
earlier experiences with excellent solutions. Let’s cite the
story of antibiotics. Concerns about antibiotic resistance,
especially associated with antibiotics that were used both
in human patients and as growth promoters in livestock,
led to the Swann Report (Swann et al., 1969). In the re-
port it was recommended that antibiotics used in human
medicine should not be used as growth promoters. It is
believed that by separating the human and animal anti-
biotics we will solve the problem of transborder resist-
ance. But in about thirty years we have learned a new
term – cross resistance. ere is even a concern, that an-
tibacterial agents used in households, food industry and
in hospitals may play a role in the emergence of bacteria
resistant to antibiotics. So what can we learnt from that?
Not everything is gold that shines. Last year a Bt-corn-
eld (insecticide sweet corn) was completely damaged in
the USA by the western corn rootworm which gets ac-
customed to the poison in the plant. Ermakova (2005)
reported reduced growth of rats ospring and more than
50% mortality among pups which mother fed GM soy-
bean based diet. Earlier Ewen and Pusztai (1999) dem-
onstrated reduced growth and damaged immune system
of rats fed GM potatoes. Domingo (2000) summarized
our knowledge in the eld of GM safety: many opinions,
but few data. Despite these and other cautionary results
still insucient attention is paid to this potential danger.
erefore it is needful to carry out long term studies and
have experiences on using GM products as animal feed-
ing and GM products have to be considered as not the
only one solution on the feed and food source problem.
To full the world’s increasing demand of food we
have to intensify the production systems. is does not
mean that there is no room for extensive production,
but extensive systems require more land and we have
limitations in that. Our resources have to be utilized on a
proper way; therefore a further intensication of the con-
centrated farms is necessary. By concentration of animal
farms and the advances in technology farmer can have
such amount of information, which cannot be handled
manually. is needs a special information intensive
management system so called precision livestock farm-
ing. Precision livestock farming is an integrated approach
of animal production aiming to improve the eciency
of use of resources, as well as to enhance animal health
and welfare, and thus contributes to sustainable animal
production systems. It adopts research and development
focusing on technological innovations based on increas-
ingly specialized tools that go beyond human mind pow-
er, and are related to the acquisition, access, and process-
ing of the huge number of data (Mollo et al., 2009).
A prerequisite for precision livestock farming is to
feed the animals in a way that precisely full their nutri-
ent requirement. Considering that 60–70% of the total
cost of production attributes to feeding cost therefore the
nutrient supply is the most critical element of economic
animal farming. Precision livestock farming requires
precision nutrition that is by denition an “information
intensive nutrition, the actual nutrient supply is adjusted
to the real-time data on the animal and its production
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
level. It means not only oering proportional feed rations
but supplying continuously changed “tailor made” diets
for individual animals. For that reason the animals has
to be identied and feed individually according to their
actual requirement. But how can be precision nutrition
achieved in practice?
According to Sifri (1997) and Pomar et al. (2009)
the principals of precision nutrition are the followings:
Use of precise nutrient requirement matrix
Use of precise ingredient matrix
Proper use of modiers and feed processing tech-
Adjustment of nutrient supply to match require-
ments of livestock
It is well known that the actual nutrient require-
ment depends on animal factors (production level, ge-
netic potential, gender, age and body weight, and health
status), environmental factors (ambient temperature and
humidity, space allowance, number of stress factors, etc.),
as well as on nutritional factors (nutrient composition
and ratios, digestibility of nutrients, and level of anti-
nutritive factors). e nutrient requirement can be well
established/estimated with mathematical models. An
example is given in Fig. 1 showing how digestible lysine
requirement of pigs with dierent genotype changes dur-
ing the growing and fattening period (adopted from van
Milgen et al., 2008). e simulated genotypes have the
same average daily gain (762 g/d) and daily feed intake
(2.24 kg/d); however, the growth curves of them dier
gaining 758 vs. 766 g/d in growing (30–65 kg) and 812
vs. 700 g/d in fattening period (65–115 kg), respectively.
e digestible lysine requirement certainly diers and
the genotypes have to be fed dierently according to the
dynamics of their growth otherwise the genetic potential
cannot be realized and likely the slaughter quality is de-
teriorated. e advantage of using such models instead
of table values is that the model can predict the nutri-
ent requirement at any time point and not only in certain
time period and thus the number of phases used during
the pig production is a professional decision supported
by well predicted data.
In order to be able to adjust the daily nutrition to
the actual requirement of livestock the animals has to
be checked by real-time body weight control. e body
weight can be determined daily by a weighing adapter
or by body shape analyser (Banhazi et al., 2009). All the
factors that inuence production and therefore nutrient
requirement should be controlled. In precision livestock
farming the technology and housing conditions are op-
timized, however, if it is needed the nutrient supply can
also be adjusted according to the changed environmen-
tal factors. e health and wellbeing control (behaviour
and sound analysis, collecting physiological parameters
like deep body temperature, respiratory rates) is also very
useful; in case of conrming any disorder the problem
can be xed immediately.
e principal of precise formulation is to be able to
evaluate properly the nutritional potential of the com-
pound feed. e progression of the characterization of
Figure 1: Simulated digestible lysine requirements for two pigs having same average daily gain and feed intake but dierent shapes of
growth curve (van Milgen et al., 2008)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 13
nutritional potential of feedstus and animal require-
ments from a total to a digestible basis, and then to an
available or net basis, allows for the formulation of di-
ets with nutrient levels that are closer to the animals’ re-
quirements without the use of excessive safety margins
(Pomar et al., 2009). It is worth by theory, but protein
and even the energy evaluation are dierent in dierent
countries. In pigs for instance the net energy is the most
reliable energy evaluation system particularly if bre rich
feedstus – like dierent by-products – are used in diet
formulation. However, there are only a few countries
using net energy system in practical swine feeding. e
protein evaluation in monogastrics feeding should be
based on amino acid content of ingredients with consid-
eration on the ileal digestibility. For the sake of precise
diet formulation dietary ileal digestible amino acid con-
tent should be expressed in standardized or true digest-
ibility (SID or TID, respectively) rather than apparent
digestibility (AID) bases, considering that unlike appar-
ent values both SID and TID content of feedstus are
additive (Stein et al., 2007). Table values for net energy
and dietary SID, TID amino acid of dierent feedstus
are available; however, due to the fact that the nutrient
content is determined by several conditions (soil, pre-
cipitation, cultivation, etc.) there might be big variance
in nutrient content of feedstus originated from dierent
region or batches. erefore for precision nutrition na-
tional dataset or rather reliable prediction equations are
required to be able to determine the bioavailability of en-
ergy and amino acids of feedstus and compound feeds.
In practice the feeds are usually overformulated by
even 7.5% to ensure that no more than 20% of the batches
of feed produced are nutritionally inadequate (van Kem-
pen and Simmins, 1997). e safety of margin can be re-
duced if reliable and actual chemical composition is used
in diet formulation. By using prompt assay such as near
infrared reectance spectroscopy (NIRS) the diet formu-
lation is adjusted according to real-time analysis of the
feed ingredients to reduce variation in nutrient delivery
to the livestock. In addition to determination chemical
composition modern scanning NIR spectrophotometers
and associated analysis soware present the potential for
simultaneous prediction of available energy and amino
acids in feed ingredients for all livestock (van Barneveld,
2003). In this way the overformulation can be reduced to
zero that is desirable from both economic and environ-
mental point of view.
Dierent feed additives are used in compound feed
production for purposes of improving the quality and
storage life of feed, to improve the animals’ perform-
ance and health. Feed processing technologies are usu-
ally aiming to increase the bioavailability, particularly the
digestibility of dietary nutrients and energy. erefore
use of modiers and processing technologies improve
the nutritive value of the compound feed that has to be
considered in precision feeding. Fig. 1 shows how the
proper/optimal protein supply changes with increasing
bioavailability (digestibility and/or availability) of amino
acids. According to the linear-plateau concept the rela-
tionship between the protein intake and protein deposi-
tion is described by a two-phase-graph being composed
Figure 2: Example of level of incorporation of the initial (A) and nal (B) premixes or feeds in blend feeding systems (Feddes et al., 2000)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012
of a regression line and a constant phase. e optimal
dietary protein intake is at the point when the function
reaches  rst its maximum value (A, B, C). However, exact
in ection point depends on the slope of the regression
line phase that is certainly determined by the bioavail-
ability of amino acids.  e impact of the modi ers there-
fore should be quantify in order to evaluate precisely the
nutritional potential of feed ingredients and thus to avoid
overformulation of the diets.
Due to individual variance the nutrient supply that
is ful l the requirement of the maximal growth of a herd
is not exactly the optimum for each individual animal
within the herd. Hauschild et al. (2010) showed that sup-
plying a feed with Lys:NE ratio according to the arith-
metic mean of the requirement of pigs is insu cient for
the maximal growth of the herd.  e growth response
reached its maximum when 82% of the animals were fed
above their requirement. Actually the di erences in indi-
vidual nutrient requirement increase with the degree of
heterogeneity of the population, which is determined by
genetic, environmental or management factors (Pomar et
al., 2003). Feeding pigs individually according to genet-
ics, gender and actual feed intake and growth patterns
can help to simplify the estimation of nutrient require-
ments (Pomar et al., 2009). In this way the homogeneity
of the herd is de nitely be under the level of group-fed
Special individual feeders are available (Feddes et
al., 2000; Bánházi et al., 2009, Pomar et al., 2009) driven
by computerized data process to provide a “tailor made
diet for each animals.  e intelligent system use di erent
pre-mixed feeds to adjust the nutrient supply to the ac-
tually fed animal. Considering that the optimal nutrient
concentration related to dietary energy content progres-
sively decrease (NRC, 1998) the feeds have to be mixed
with a non-linear algorithms (Fig. 2).
Such a system allows a daily adjusted feeding pat-
tern for individual animal, therefore the oversupply at-
tributed to phase feeding can be avoided. In this way the
excess nutrients are reduced to zero and the e ciency of
production is maximal (Pomar et al., 2011). Fig. 3 repre-
sents the integrated management system for pig produc-
tion in which all the data are collected by the computer
and processed with a Decision Making System. e sug-
gested system integration approach would also mean that
where it is possible the utilization of existing hardware
and so ware components/products need to be consid-
ered. If system components are independently developed
and the components compete with existing products; it
is likely that precision nutrition and livestock farming
(PN&LF) developments and implementation on farms
will fail (Bánházi et al., 2009).
Determining and o ering the optimal nutrient sup-
ply for individual animals at any circumstances is very
complex in practice. Companies and research groups all
over the word are involved with developing commer-
cially sound PN&LF components; however, a few groups
have attempted to combine these components into one
system, because of the technical/operational di cul-
ties involved. Nonetheless, business opportunities for a
PN&LF package development (including the provision of
complete systems, expert advice, training, backup analy-
sis and general support) do exist, but very few companies
have taken advantage of such opportunities (Bánházi et
al., 2009).
Figure 3: Schematic representation of an integrated system in pig production (Banhazi et al., 2009)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 3 – 2012 15
It is likely that sustainable intensication of agricul-
tural production will be one of the key issues in the com-
ing years. However, if we could make rm conclusions
regarding to the future, it would presume that we have
a time machine. Instead of that we can phrase a wish:
be the force with us, to give right answers in time to the
challenges we are facing with.
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... (e.g. Banhazi et al., 2012;Fischer et al., 2020;. What constitutes "Smart Animal Nutrition" has several potential definitions and perspectives on this are discussed at length throughout this book. ...
... In the case of livestock LCA this issue arises, for example, in attempts to evaluate the potential impact of newly marketed feed ingredients, such as insect meal or algae in animal diets when these ingredients are only being produced on a pilot scale (Halloran et al., 2016;Tallentire et al., 2018). Moni et al. (2020) propose nine levels of classification of "technology readiness levels" and strategies for dealing Precision feeding is a technology that is viewed as having the potential to mitigate environmental impacts from pig and poultry production systems while also delivering economic benefits Banhazi et al., 2012;Andretta et al., 2017;Tullo et al., 2019;Misiura et al., 2021a). Precision feeding differs from traditional (phase) feed formulation strategies where all the animals within a population receive the same diet throughout the entire feeding phase (e.g. using the mean of the population to define the nutrient requirements and thus diet specifications (Symeou et al., 2015). ...
... Generally, in pig and poultry systems the most practical way of tailoring diets for individuals is to deliver a mix of two (or in some recent cases more) pre-formulated feeds to meet a bespoke set of nutritional requirements based on these measurements. There have been several examples of precision feeding systems for pig and poultry production presented in scientific literature in recent years Banhazi et al., 2012;Remus, 2018;. ...
Pig farming systems face an increasingly diversified challenge to consider simultaneously the economic, environmental, and social pillars of sustain ability. For animal nutrition, this requires the development of smart feeding strategies able to integrate these different dimensions in a dynamic way and to be adapted as much as possible to each individual animal. These developments can be supported by digital technologies including data collection and processing, decision making and automation of applications. Classical traits such as feed intake and growth benefit from new technologies that can be measured more frequently. New sensors can be indicative for other traits related to body composition, physiological status, activity, feed efficiency, or rearing environment. A challenge for data collection is to obtain information on a large number of animals and with sufficient frequency, quality, and precision and use it cost-effectively. Another challenge is to analyse the ever-increasing volume of data and use it in decision-making. Nutritional models for pigs and sows, classically mechanistic, have to evolve to integrate real-time data. With the development of data-driven modelling methods (e.g., machine-learning or deep-learning), a synergy between mechanistic models and data-driven approaches is required in smart pig nutrition. Moreover, the practical application of smart pig nutrition must consider the evolution in pig farming systems towards increased diversity in terms of size, space allowance, and outdoor access, and return on investment. Finally, the transition of pig nutrition in the digital era must consider the social acceptance of an increasing role of digital technologies in animal production systems.KeywordsActivityArtificial intelligenceAutomatonConcept-driven modellingData collectionData-driven modellingData processingDecision support systemFattening pigsFeed efficiencyFeed intakeGestating sowHealth statusLactating sowMineralNutritionNutritional requirementsPerformancePhysiological statusPig farming systemPrecision feedingRearing environmentSensors
... Livestock farming is a crucial component of agriculture because its growth is directly linked to the availability of livestock feed. This branch of agriculture includes a variety of specializations, including cattle, sheep, poultry, horse, and fish breeding, as well as beekeeping and fur farming [7]. Agriculture has several distinct features, the first being the seasonal nature of production. ...
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Agriculture is a set of interdependent industries mainly specialized in the production of raw materials for the food and processing industries. This review explores the correlation between agriculture and the environment, spanning the practices of hunting and gathering to contemporary agricultural methods, while addressing the significant issues encountered within this pivotal domain. Plant and animal farming is affected by seasonal and environmental changes. Land is both a tool and a target for work in agriculture, and soil conditions greatly affect crop production. Intensive and wide cultivation is considered to meet the rising food demand. Intensive farming uses contemporary technology, high crop yields, and fertilizer, whereas extensive farming uses less labor and capital per unit of land. This study examines trade trends in agricultural export and import countries. It highlights the specialization of countries in agricultural products as a function of natural resources and economic choices. It also examines environmental issues linked to agriculture, such as soil erosion, surface water contamination, and water use. Sustainable agriculture and water resource management are essential for solving these problems. The research recommends coordinated management of soil, water, plants, and nutrients to conserve agricultural water. Emphasis is placed on demand-responsive irrigation, optimizing irrigation scheduling, and reducing evaporation losses. Nuclear and isotopic technologies can improve agricultural water management. These technologies include water isotope signatures, soil moisture, nitrogen fertilizer monitoring, and landscape water flows.
... One of the most important factors in livestock business is feed management or animal feed management (Banhazi, 2012). However, there are still many breeders who do not understand good feed for livestock, especially beef cattle. ...
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Feed is a very important factor in the world of animal husbandry. Subang Regency is one of the beef cattle breeding centers in West Java and even in Indonesia and occupies the top 5 beef cattle populations in Indonesia. In Subang Regency, 1,500 families depend on beef cattle and other livestock businesses for their income, with an average of 3 to 4 livestock per family. but breeders in Subang Regency only focus on conventional livestock production processes and have not touched modern livestock. so that the level of welfare of farmers in Subang Regency is still not optimal. The biggest cost for livestock in Subang Regency is still the high price of concentrate and forage feed. This research aims to increase the knowledge of beef cattle breeders through counseling and coaching regarding the management of beef cattle in terms of improving the quality of feed so that it has added value. The research was carried out in Cibogo District, Subang Regency from July to November 2022 using the focus group discussion, training and monev methods. The results of this study are that the feed problem at the smallholder farmer level is the poor quality of the feed due to the lack of knowledge of breeders on how to process and store feed. Processing and storage are applied at the farmer level, namely storing forage fodder using the silage method and increasing knowledge of feed management. Breeders who are members of a group of beef cattle and are able to develop institutional management with standards for the production and management of feed in the group. There is a positive and significant influence between the provision of assistance in making feed on increasing the welfare of farmers.
... Thus, the scientific community must develop ways to increase production while maintaining or improving profitability and sustainability concurrently (Tedeschi and Beauchemin, 2023). Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) systems, incorporating a wide range of sensors to access production-related information, can potentially aid livestock producers' livestock management (Banhazi et al., 2012). ...
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There is a need for cost-effective and non-invasive methods of monitoring feeding behavior in livestock operations, considering the significant impact of feed costs on economic efficiency and assisting in detecting health issues of group-fed animals. This paper proposes using deep learning-based computer vision techniques to detect pen-fed beef cattle feeding behavior using Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (RCNN). A deep learning model was pre-trained on the Common Objects in Context (COCO) dataset to generate cattle instance segmentation. Manually defined feed bunk polygons are compared with these segmentation masks to derive feeding time for each bunk. A full day’s worth of video data and the corresponding physical sensor data are collected for the experiment. By benchmarking the computer vision detected data with physical ground truth over random time segments from morning to evening (thus various lighting conditions), the optimal thresholds for Mask RCNN are determined to be 0.7 for bounding boxes and 0.1 for masks. Using these parameters. The reports suggest that the computer vision system achieved a precision of 87.2% and a recall of 89.1%, signifying precise detection of feeding events. Our study, to the best of our knowledge, was one of the first investigations of instance segmentation on feeding time sense, which combines deep learning methods with traditional computer vision logistics, reporting on feeding time data collection and processing, camera testing and adjustment, and performance evaluation. Future research directions include computer vision applied in feed grading and animal re-identification for individual production analysis.
... However, there are some problems such as complex network topology and low reasoning speed [17][18][19] . In this study, nutrient requirements and physiological characteristics of feeding behavior were fully considered and an efficient expert system was developed for sow feeding amount decision support [20] . RETE network topology was optimized to reduce network complexity and raise inference speed using reused degree model. ...
... The application of ICT to support livestock activities began as a strategy to increase productivity [1,2] and reduce environmental impact. Task automation and the monitoring of the evolution of processes can reduce labor costs, allow close monitoring of electronic devices, and, consequently, impact the efficiency of livestock activities. ...
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Simple Summary Animal monitoring through electronic methods requires a continuous Internet connection to guarantee timely human intervention. Internet access depends on the coverage of the communications network, which does not always exist in agricultural and rural environments, as is the case on the slopes of the Douro River. This work documents the optimization process of a monitoring and alarm generation system and its integration with a satellite communications system to guarantee alarm messages are sent in places without Internet access coverage. The results functionally demonstrated the viability of the solution for the timely delivery of alarms with an acceptable expected operating cost. Abstract The application of IoT-based methods to support pastoralism allows the smart optimization of livestock operations and improves the efficiency of the activity. The use of autonomous animal control mechanisms frees the shepherd to carry out other tasks. However, human intervention is still needed in cases such as system failure, the bad or unpredicted behavior of the animals, or even in cases of danger, the welfare of the animal. This study documents the enhancement of an alarm generation system, initially developed within the scope of the SheepIT project, to monitor animal behavior and equipment, which warns the human operator of the occurrence of undesirable events that require intervention. Special attention was given to the use of case scenarios in places without Internet access, such as rural areas. Therefore, the system was integrated with a satellite interface, as a way of guaranteeing the timely delivery of the alarm messages. To ensure an acceptable operating cost, the system was further optimized in terms of message encoding, considering the cost of this type of communication. This study assessed the overall performance of the system, evaluated its scalability, and compared the efficiency gains from the optimization, as well as the performance of the satellite link.
Recent Trends in Livestock Innovative Technologies explores the most recent developments and developing trends in the livestock farming industry. The book delves into the application of innovative technologies in various aspects of livestock production, management, and health through edited chapters. The book starts with an outline of the difficulties the livestock sector faces and the necessity for technological solutions to these difficulties. Subsequent chapters cover innovations in this area. Key topics include: Advances in genetics and breeding methods: Contributing authors stress the possible impact of issues like marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, and gene editing on the future of animal breeding. Precision livestock farming: The use of sensor technologies, data analytics, and automation to monitor and control livestock production systems more effectively. The authors examine how these technologies enable real-time monitoring of environmental variables, animal activity, and health, which enhances production, animal welfare, and resource use. The management of feed and nutrition in livestock production: The book explores cutting-edge feed formulations, precise feeding systems, and alternative feed sources that can increase feed efficiency, lessen negative effects on the environment, and improve animal health. Fresh methods for illness prevention and management, such as the use of vaccines, diagnostics, and biosecurity measures. Social and ethical issues related to the adoption of cutting-edge livestock technologies. The authors attempt to give a fair assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of these technologies, and address concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public perception of current farming practices. Recent Trends in Livestock Innovative Technologies is an informative resource for researchers, professionals, and policymakers interested in staying up-to-date with the advancements and future directions of the livestock industry.
На основе опроса 116 специалистов управленческого и технологического звена, занятых в мясном скотоводстве и табунном животноводстве, оценен уровень готовности указанных отраслей в Казахстане к освоению технологий автоматизированного, непрерывного и преимущественно дистанционного сбора и обработки информации о состоянии объектов управления в животноводстве («умное» животноводство). Более 78% респондентов оценили уровень собственной осведомленности о технологии «умного» животноводства как средний и ниже среднего. При этом, уровень готовности к освоению данной технологии субъектов животноводства, в которых работали респонденты, как «выше среднего» и «высокий» оценили только 17.6% респондентов. Около 35% респондентов отметили наличие достаточной информации об основных элементах технологии «умного» животноводства, 32.7% респондентов указали на ограниченный характер имеющейся информации, а 21.6% респондентов указали на практическое отсутствие необходимой информации в открытом доступе. В качестве других ограничений для продвижения технологии, респонденты указали высокую стоимость необходимого оборудования, отсутствие навыков применения технологии специалистами на местах и зависимость технологии от зоны покрытия сетей и качества связи. По результатам опроса, предложен комплекс условий для продвижения технологии «умного» животноводства в Казахстане, включающий (i) расширение исследований по адаптации и практической оценке эффективности технологии в вопросах снижения расходов, повышения сохранности поголовья, улучшения качества продукции и управления ресурсами, с широким освещением полученных результатов в научных и научно-популярных источниках, включая ресурсы Интернет и средства массовой информации, (ii) расширение практики совмещения научных исследований и мероприятий по распространению знаний в рамках единых научно-технических программ и проектов, (iii) включение в образовательные программы высшего и профессионально-технического образования дисциплин по применению технологии, а также (iv) включение технологии в программы государственной поддержки субъектов животноводства с целью упрощения им доступа к необходимому финансированию.
The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the role Smart Animal Nutrition can play in improving the environmental sustainability of livestock production, focusing on the quantitative evidence presented to date of environmental impact mitigation. The modelling challenges for quantifying the potential environmental benefits of Smart Nutrition technologies are discussed first, with a focus on life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling. How LCA models treat new technologies, and the functional units by which livestock products are evaluated, are important areas for further methodological development for the evaluation of Smart Nutrition Technologies. A handful of LCA evaluations of Smart Nutrition technologies exist to date, mainly focused on precision feeding technologies in pig and poultry systems. These studies have consistently found that Smart Nutrition technologies can mitigate environmental impacts of these systems to some extent. Beyond these systematic evaluations using LCA modelling, a wider range of studies presenting important experimental evidence that Smart Nutrition can tackle vital hotspots of environmental impact from animal production such as methane emissions from ruminants are considered. Beyond the empirical evidence of mitigation potential presented to date, this chapter discusses the potential to consider directly environmental impact objectives in the application of Smart Nutrition technologies. The application of LCA modelling for this purpose with respect to breeding, feeding, and environmental management of livestock has started to be demonstrated conceptually. Novel applications of complementary modelling frameworks will be vital for livestock production as it looks to meet its key sustainability challenges.KeywordsEnvironmental impactEnvironmental impact mitigationLCALCA methodologiesLCA livestockMethaneNutrient excretionPrecision feedingSmart technologiesSmart nutritionSustainable dietsSustainable feedSustainable livestock
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The aim of this study is to determine the behaviour of 'Danlas' grapevines conducted under plastic cover, near atlantic coast, known for its early table grape production. Measurements included climatic conditions, leaf water potential, canopy temperature and production components. The use of plastic cover resulted in an increase of midday ambient temperature and vapor pressure deficit, with a maximum of 5.7°C and 1.28 kPa, respectively. Midday canopy temperature under field conditions were lower than ambient temperature by an average of 2.5°C. The most negative leaf water potential values were receded for grapevines under plastic cover relatively to field conditions, ranging from -7.2 to -17.0 bars and from -7.0 to -14.0 bars, respectively. Harvest date was advanced by more than one month after the use of plastic cover. Results showed that crop weight, cluster weight and number per vine were not significantly affected. However, the number of berries per cluster was significantly reduced. Plastic cover promoted fruit quality, berry weight and soluble solids concentration were increased by 2.23 g and 1.0° Brix, respectively. While titratable acidity was decreased by 1.20 g/l.
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Damage and capacity to recover of photosystem II (PSII) from long exposures to heat stress were investigated in grapes using chlorophyll fluorescence. Two wine grapes, Vitis aestivalis Michx. cv. 'Cynthiana' and French-American hybrid 'Vignoles' (Vitis L. hybrid), were exposed to a sudden heat shock (SHS) and a gradual heat shock (GHS) at 40/35°C. After heat stress, plants were moved to a greenhouse to allow PSII to recover from heat treatments. Changes in maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, indicated by the ratio of variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), were observed after 3, 6, and 12 days of heat stress and after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days recovery periods of damage to PSII. Total leaf area (LA) and leaf, shoot, and root biomass were determined at the end of the experiment. Regardless of the heat treatment, increasing duration of exposure to high temperature caused a decline in Fv/Fm in both cultivars. Heat stress treatments also caused a progressive decline in LA as well as leaf and shoot biomass. Maximum quantum efficiency of PSII was observed after 3 days of exposure in both cultivars, regardless of the heat stress treatment. 'Vignoles', however, showed higher PSII photochemical efficiency 12 days after heat exposure. GHS was less detrimental to PSII compared with SHS heat treatment. The damaged PSII of 'Vignoles' recovered faster than that of 'Cynthiana'. A positive relationship was observed between Fv/Fm and LA of plants exposed to heat treatments. Based on Fv/Fm values, this study indicates that PSII of 'Vignoles' is more thermostable and can recover faster than that of 'Cynthiana' leaves, regardless of the heat treatment. These results suggest that 'Vignoles' is generally more heat-tolerant than 'Cynthiana' and changes in Fv/Fm ratio under heat stress conditions could be a good indicator for screening heat-resistant grape cultivars.
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A comparative study on adaptive responses to water deficit was conducted on 8-year old vines of the cultivars Grenache, of Mediterranean origin, and Syrah of mesic origin, grown side by side in a commercial vineyard near Montpellier, France. Maximum stomatal conductance (gmax) and maximum photosynthesis (Amax) of Grenache were more sensitive to water deficit (expressed as pre-dawn leaf water potential, PD) than g max and Amax of Syrah. Intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g) increased with decreasing PD but more so for Grenache than Syrah. Water stressed Syrah vines matured fruit to similar sugar concentration and colour densities than the irrigated control, despite reaching PDS of up to-1.4 MPa. Ururrigated Grenache vines failed to ripen fruit adequately, yet reached only minimal PD values of-0.85 MPa. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence indicated a pronounced down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity under high light at high leaf temperatures during the water stress for Grenache but not for Syrah. Leaf water potential isotherms showed that Syrah had a higher leaf elasticity, lower turgid to dry weight ratio, and lower osmotic potential than Grenache. Therefore, turgor loss occurred at lower relative water contents in Syrah, which may allow this cultivar to maintain stomatal opening at lower water potentials and to better exploit the soil water reserves.
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A device was constructed to heat and cool grape clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) in the vineyard as part of a larger study on sunscald and color development in wine grapes (cv. Merlot). Selected sunlit clusters were cooled to the temperature of shaded clusters; likewise, several shaded clusters were heated to the temperature of sunlit clusters. Cooling was achieved by forced convection via a 1525-W, commercially available air conditioner. Hot air was generated using 1.4-Ω (100-W) resistance elements. Heated or cooled air was blown across fruit clusters at about 1.9 m.s1 producing up to a 10°C change in cluster temperature. Cluster temperatures were interrogated every five seconds to activate or deactivate heaters and/or cooling fans as needed. The temperatures of sunlit and shaded clusters were used as set-points for the heated and chilled clusters, respectively. The cooling system kept clusters within 2°C of their desired target temperatures 99% of the time. Heaters achieved the same performance 97% of the time. The maximum observed increase of berry temperature above ambient air temperature (2 m above canopy) was 15.9°C for the sun-exposed side of a west-facing cluster. The control system operated continuously for 60 days between bunch closure and harvest. This heating and cooling technique can provide in-situ replicated measurements of berry and cluster temperatures in the field for physiological studies of ripening and ripening disorders without changing other aspects of the cluster microclimate, an unavoidable consequence of chambers or enclosures.
'Candy Sunblaze' and 'Red Sunblaze' miniature roses (Rosa L. sp.), were grown at several temperatures. The phenologieal events of budbreak (BB), visible flower bud (VB), and open flower (OF) were recorded daily. Based on these events, phenophases from BB to VB (BB:VB), from VB to OF (VB:OF), and from BB to OF (VB:OF) were defined. Daily rates of development to complete a phenophase increased with temperature between 13.6 and 27°C. For 'Candy Sunblaze', the rate of increase changed to a smaller slope beyond 25°C. A piecewise linear regression change point model was fitted to each dataset. The base temperature (Th) and the temperature at which the nonlinearity (Ti) occurred could then be determined. Tb for the phenophase BB:OF was 9.5°C for 'Candy Sunblaze' and 8.1°C for 'Red Sunblaze'. Ti for 'Candy Sunblaze' was 24.9°C for BB:VB and 25.6°C for the phenophase BB:OF. The resulting point of change in rate of development prompted a modification of the traditional thermal unit formula. To complete the phenophase BB:OF using the modified formula, 479 degree days (°Cd) were predicted necessary for 'Candy Sunblaze' and 589°Cd for 'Red Sunblaze'. Predicted time of events was compared with observed values. Subdividing BB:OF into BB:VB and VB:OF and using their respective Tb and thermal units summations (TU) reduced the average prediction error from 1.9 to 1.8 days for 'Candy Sunblaze' and from 2.4 to 1.5 days for 'Red Sunblaze'. In addition to single plant observations, phenological observations and thermal units were determined for pots with four plants to simulate commercial greenhouse crop production. Subdividing BB:OF into BB:VB and VB:OF and using their respective Tb and TU accumulations, reduced OF prediction errors on a crop basis for 'Red Sunblaze', but was ineffective for 'Candy Sunblaze'.
High temperature adversely affects photosynthetic rates and thylakoid activities in many species, but photosynthesis response to heat stress is not well defined in grapes (Vitis L.). Genotypes within species respond differently to high temperatures, indicating a genetic variability for the trait. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological responses of two grape species to high temperature, at the whole-plant level and at the cellular level. Gas exchange, relative chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves and thermostability of extracted thylakoids of the American (V. aestivalis Michx.) 'Cynthiana' and European (V. vinifera L.) 'Semillon', 'Pinot Noir', 'Chardonnay', and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' wine grapes were evaluated. One-year-old vines were placed in controlled environmental chamber held at 20/15, 30/25, or 40/35 °C day/night for 4 weeks. Net CO2 assimilation (A) rate, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) rate, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves were measured at weekly intervals. Chlorophyll fluorescence of thylakoids extracted from V. aestivalis 'Cynthiana' and V. vinifera 'Pinot Noir' subjected to temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 °C was measured. Optimal temperatures for photosynthesis were 20/15 °C for 'Cynthiana' and 'Semillon' and 30/25 °C for the other three V. vinifera cultivars. The A, gs, E, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence values at 40/35 °C were lower in 'Cynthiana' than 'Pinot Noir'. In general, reduction of A coincided with decline in gs in 'Cynthiana', whereas no strong relationship between A and gs was observed in V. vinifera cultivars. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of intact leaves for all the cultivars decreased at 40/35 °C, with severe decline in 'Cynthiana' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon,' moderate decline in 'Semillon' and 'Chardonnay', and slight decline in 'Pinot Noir'. A distinct effect of high temperature on Fv and Fv/Fm of 'Cynthiana' was exerted after 2 weeks of exposure. Prolonged-exposure to 40/35 °C led to 78% decrease in Fv/Fm in 'Cynthiana', compared with 8% decrease in 'Pinot Noir'. In general, Fv and Fv/Fm of extracted thylakoids declined as temperature increased, with more decline in 'Cynthiana' than in 'Pinot Noir'. Based on A rates and Fv/Fm ratios, results showed that 'Cynthiana' has lower optimal temperature for photosynthesis (20/15 °C) than 'Pinot Noir' (30/25 °C). Chlorophyll fluorescence responses of intact leaves and extracted thylakoids to high temperatures indicate that 'Pinot Noir' possess higher photosynthetic activity than 'Cynthiana'. Results of this work could be used in selection programs for the development of heat resistant cultivars in the warmest regions.