Article

Helicobacter pylori infection: A review of current scientific research on the efficacy or potential of herbal medicine for the treatment of H. pylori infection of the gastric mucosa

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a review of the current scientific literature on the efficacy of herbs in the treatment and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa. Methods: Research for scientific articles was obtained primarily through Medline and Google Scholar. A total of 53 scientific articles were examined, the vast majority of which were in vitro studies. Only one double blind randomised controlled study was identified involving the use of cranberry. Two controlled trials using garlic were also included. Results: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is prevalent throughout the world, especially in countries of poor socioeconomic background. Infection has been proven to be a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcers, gastritis and in some cases adeno carcinoma or lymphoma. Eradication of the bacterial infection and treatment of symptoms due to infection are primarily treated with two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor however bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is now becoming a problem. A safe and cheap alternative treatment for this widespread infection is being sought. Current research shows that the use of herbs and herbal extracts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa has great potential. Unfortunately the majority of studies are in vitro with minimal in vivo studies currently being conducted. The most promising and most researched herbs for the treatment of H. pylori infection include cranberry and garlic. Garlic demonstrates strong antibacterial and anti adhesive actions against H. pylori and appears to have a synergistic action when used in conjunction with current orthodox antibiotic therapy. Cranberry inhibits H. pylori infection by preventing adhesion of the bacteria to the gastric mucosa and by acting as a bacteriostatic. Synergism between cranberry and antibiotic therapy with a proton pump inhibitor has been demonstrated. Licorice, green tea, cinnamon, chilli and numerous culinary herbs also demonstrate significant antibacterial or anti adhesive actions. Alcoholic extracts of herbs for the treatment of H. pylori infection appear to be most effective. With regard to herbal treatment, issues that need to be resolved with in vivo studies are herb extraction method, dosage, method of administration and length of time of treatment.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Stateof-the-art studies focused on the potential of plant natural products (available in extracts or as pure compounds) as therapeutic urease inhibitors. (Abou Baker, 2020;Williams, 2011;Dı´az-Go´mez et al., 2013). The current knowledge on alleviating H. pylori infections through the use of some commonly known natural products: bench to bedside such as Syzygium aromaticum, chinese tea, green tea (catechin), matcha tea, Casearia sylvestris leaf, propolis, bulgarian propolis, curcumin and nigella (Yee & Koo, 2001;Stoicov & Houghton, 2013;Boyanova et al., 2003;Yanagawa et al., 2003;Kurauchi et al., 2019;Dı´az-Go´mez et al., 2013;Baltas et al., 2016;Vetvicka et al., 2016;Muniyappan et al., 2021;Khan et al., 2019b;Salem et al., 2010;Chahardoli et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Eco friendly and green synthetic approach for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles gained much importance in the recent era. In the present study, an environmental friendly and plant mediated synthetic approach was used for the synthesis of gold coated iron ([email protected]) nanoparticles using extract solution of olive oil, licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and coconut oil (OLC). These extracts were acted as a reducing agent during the formation of core–shell nanoparticles that provides long-time stability, lower toxicity and higher permeability to specific target cells. In order to achieve the small sized, regular spherical shaped, and homogeneous nanoparticles optimum conditions were ensured. In fact, the use of microwave irradiation was offered higher reaction rate and better product. The [email protected] have been characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution Transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), High angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), Particle-Size Distribution (PSD), and Magnetic hysteresis loops. The synthesized gold coated iron nanoparticles showed significant antioxidant potential with maximum inhibition rates, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also found effective against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcer.
Article
Full-text available
We compared use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) and therapies, Allied Health interventions (AH), and Manual Therapies (MT) in middle-aged and older Australian women. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 phase of the Longitudinal study of Aging in Women (LAW study) was analyzed. Self-reported 12-month usage patterns of CAM, AH, and MT were determined by mailed questionnaire. Results revealed that 56.2% of the middle-aged group, and 55.0% of the older group used CAM, AH, and MT services in the previous 12 months (a nonsignificant difference). In contrast, there was a highly significant difference between the overall use of CAM products by middle-aged women (88.2%) and older women (67.7%: p = .002).
Article
Full-text available
A large number of diseases are ascribed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), particularly chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Successful treatment of H. pylori infection with antimicrobial agents can lead to regression of H. pylori-associated disorders. Antibiotic resistance against H. pylori is increasing, and it is necessary to find new effective agents. Nigella sativa seed (NS), a commonly used herb, possesses in vitro anti-helicobacter activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS in eradication of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspeptic patients. The study was conducted on 88 adult patients attending King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2008, with dyspeptic symptoms and found positive for H. pylori infection by histopathology and urease test. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving i) triple therapy (TT) comprising of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole [n= 23], ii) 1 g NS + 40 mg omeprazole (OM) [n= 21], iii) 2 g NS + OM [n= 21] or iv) 3 g NS + OM [n= 23]. Negative H. pylori stool antigen test four weeks after end of treatment was considered as eradication. H. pylori eradication was 82.6, 47.6, 66.7 and 47.8% with TT, 1 g NS, 2 g NS and 3 g NS, respectively. Eradication rates with 2 g NS and TT were statistically not different from each other, whereas H. pylori eradication with other doses was significantly less than that with TT (P < 0.05). Dyspepsia symptoms improved in all groups to a similar extent. N. sativa seeds possess clinically useful anti-H. pylori activity, comparable to triple therapy. Further clinical studies combining N. sativa with antibiotics are suggested.
Article
Full-text available
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is high in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet there are limited reports on safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. Naturopathic medicine encompasses a broad range of CAM modalities and may improve quality of life in patients with MS. To assess quality of life in MS subjects who received interventions designed to "model" the "whole practice" of naturopathy. A pilot, randomized, controlled study with a 6-month intervention period. Participants who met criteria for clinically definite MS. The 3 intervention arms were usual care, naturopathic medicine plus usual care, and MS education plus usual care. The primary outcome measure was quality of life (36-item short form health survey [SF-36]). Secondary outcome measures included fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale); depression (Beck Depression Inventory); cognition battery (Stroop test and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test 3), and neurologic impairment (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite). Adverse event reporting and laboratory measures were used to assess safety. Forty-five (45) participants (15 per group) were randomized and all completed the 6-month intervention. There were no significant differences between groups on any outcome measure. There was a trend in favoring the naturopathic group in the General Health subscale of the SF-36 (p = 0.11), Timed Walk (p = 0.11), and neurologic impairment (EDSS) (p = 0.07). There was a trend favoring the Education group in the Stroop attention test (p = 0.07). There was no difference between groups in adverse events or laboratory changes. Naturopathic medicine combined with usual care for MS showed a trend in improvement in the General Health subscale of the SF-36, Timed Walk, and neurologic impairment. Evaluation of naturopathic medicine, as a multimodality regimen, warrants further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
To assess the feasibility and acceptability of studying whole systems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Naturopathic medicine (NM) in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and to determine whether there is indication to support further research. A pilot study using a randomized controlled clinical trial design of whole system TCM and NM versus state-of-the-art specialty care (SC). Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), and practitioner offices in Portland, Oregon. One hundred and sixty (160) women 25-55 years of age attending a KPNW TMD specialty clinic. Whole system TCM and NM, and KPNW TMD clinic SC; the intervention protocols were designed to model the individually tailored type of community care offered in alternative medicine practices in Portland and in the KPNW TMD clinic, using protocols that enhanced similarities among practitioners within each system and permitted full descriptions of the treatments provided. TMD was ascertained using the Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD; outcomes were self-reported worst and average facial pain and interference with activities (scaled 0-10 where 10 is worst). Of 948 consecutive eligible patients, 160 were randomized to one of three arms; 128 provided endpoint data. TCM and NM demonstrated significantly greater in-treatment reductions for worst facial pain compared to SC (adjusted regression analysis; higher negative values indicate greater improvement, = -1.11 +/- 0.43, p = 0.010 and -1.02 +/- 0.45, p = 0.025 for TCM and NM, respectively, compared to SC) and at 3 months post-treatment (-1.07 +/- 0.51, p = 0.037 and -1.27 +/- 0.54, p = 0.019 for TCM and NM versus SC, respectively). Additionally, TCM provided significantly greater decreases in average pain than SC; NM provided significantly greater decreases than SC or TCM in TMD-related psychosocial interference. These alternative medicine approaches each resulted in significantly greater reduction of pain and psychosocial interference than SC. Further research on the potential benefits of traditional whole systems of medicine for TMD appears warranted.
Article
Chinese tea has an antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria. However, its activity against Helicobacter pylori has not been reported. In this study the anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of a Chinese tea (Lung Chen tea), and two tea catechins, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were examined. The effect of Lung Chen on metronidazole resistance was also studied using the E-test. Lung Chen, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin all inhibited the growth of H. pylori. The MIC90 for Lung Chen was 0.25–0.5% (w/w) and that of epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin were 50–100 and 800–1600 μg/mL, respectively. Epigallocatechin gallate is probably the active ingredient responsible for most of the anti-H. pylori activity of Chinese tea. Lung Chen did not reverse metronidazole resistance. Chinese tea has anti-H. pylori activity in a daily consumed concentration, and epigallocatechin gallate is probably the active ingredient responsible for the action.
Clinical depression has a major impact on individuals and society, often presenting the clinician with a significant challenge. Recent evidence suggests that synthetic antidepressants- although effective in the treatment of severe depressed mood-may have only a weak effect against mild-moderate forms of depression. In such cases, nonpharmaceutical options may be indicated. Furthermore, research findings suggest that select natural products are effective adjuvants when combined with synthetic antidepressants. Research concerning the treatment of depression emphasizes individual monotherapies, which is often incongruent with clinical reality. In practice, clinicians often use a variety of interventions; however, this approach may not be systematic, and many interventions used may not be based on strong evidence. This article proposes an evidence-based prescriptive clinical model based on the biopsychosocial model to treat unipolar depression. The "Antidepressant-Lifestyle- Psychological-Social (ALPS) depression treatment model" integrates nonpharmacological interventions (such as complementary medicines, lifestyle advice, and psychosocial techniques) for use by clinicians. Initially a review of nonpharmacological mood-elevating interventions was undertaken. Evidentiary support was revealed for use of psychological techniques such as cognitive and behavioral medicine and interpersonal therapy, St John's wort, S-adenosyl methionine, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise. There were inconsistent research findings for acupuncture, omega-3 fish oils, and L-tryptophan for depressed mood. From these evidencebased interventions an integrative model was formed. Clinical recommendations in addition to a practical stepped-care decision tree are outlined. The ALPS model has the potential to improve treatment outcomes and reduce relapse rates in clinical depression and warrants research using rigorous and appropriate methodology.
Article
Calophyllum brasiliense (Camb.) is a medicinal tree that grows particularly in the hilly and forested regions of Brazil. Preparations from its stem bark are popular remedies for the treatment of chronic ulcers. Since earlier investigations on bark extracts evidenced gastroprotective and gastric acid inhibitory properties, this study evaluated the effects of hydroethanolic extract (HEECb) and the dichloromethanic fraction (DCMF), from Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark, against Helicobacter pylori, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro assays were performed using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The test substances were evaluated in vivo taking into account the delay in the gastric ulcer healing in Wistar rats, infected with Helicobacter pylori. DCMF appeared the most active and potent in vitro against Helicobacter pylori growth with an MIC of 31 microg/mL. In the in vivo assays, rats ulcerated by acetic acid, and inoculated with Helicobacter pylori showed a marked delay in ulcer healing. Treatment with HEECb (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and DCMF (100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent manner. While DCMF, at 200 mg/kg, increased the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, both HEECb and DCMF decreased the number of urease-positive animals, as confirmed by the reduction of Helicobacter pylori presence in histopathological analysis. The results suggest that the antiulcer activity of Calophyllum brasiliense is due, in part, to its anti-Helicobacter pylori action, validating the popular use of this species.
Article
Cranberry is a fruit that originated in North America, and it has been used by Native Americans for bacterial infections. Recent studies have revealed it to be effective for preventing refractory urinary infections, while also suggesting that it plays a possible role in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The H. pylori strains used in the present study were NCTC11637 and 11638. Sugar and organic acid-rich, and polyphenol-rich fractions were obtained from cranberry juice concentrate by Amberlite XAD7HP-column chromatography. The H. pylori growth inhibition was estimated by OD(660) and titration in liquid culture, and by an agar dilution plate method. The shapes of the bacteria were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Cranberry extract suppressed bacterial proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In the comparison with other juices, polyphenol-rich fruits (cranberries, blueberries, and red grapes) showed similar growth inhibitory activity, whereas polyphenol-poor fruits (oranges, pineapples, apples, and white grapes) did not show any activity. The polyphenol-rich fraction of cranberry maintained the H. pylori-growth inhibitory activity. More bacteria in a coccoid form were observed after culture with cranberry. Cranberry extract inhibited H. pylori proliferation and it is suggested that polyphenols are responsible for this action. The morphological analysis suggested that cranberry induces H. pylori to develop a coccoid form, thereby inhibiting its growth bacteriostatically. Further basic studies to clarify these mechanisms in combination with in vivo studies are needed.
Article
To compare the antimicrobial activities of Scutellaria baicalensis and Baicalin against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in vitro. The crude alcohol extraction of Scutellaria baicalensis was obtained by successive extractions with ethanol. Baicalin was extracted by using organic extraction methods and the purity was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The crude alcohol extraction of Scutellaria baicalensis and Baicalin were used in broth dilution assays to test for antibacterial properties. The content of Baicalin was 5.01 g from 100 g Scutellaria baicalensis. The purity of Baicalin was 96.8%. The crude alcohol extraction of Scutellaria baicalensis and Baicalin were tested for their ability to inhibit H. pylori in vitro by using broth dilution assays. The MIC50 and MIC90 of Baicalin against ten strains of H. pylori were 1.04 and 1.30 mg/ml respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of the crude product against ten strains of H. pylori were 2.60 and 3.26 mg/ml respectively. The Baicalin and Scutellaria baicalensis are bactericidal against H. pylori. The antimicrobial activity of Baicalin is greater than that of Scutellaria baicalensis.
Article
The biopsychosocial model has emerged from the need of a better understanding of the human being as a unit, with his biological, psychological and sociological perspectives as well as from recent research findings suggesting the difficulties of working with one of these areas without dealing with the others. Even when the need of such a model has been extensively described, the model itself and its practical applications had been poorly defined, lacking specially theoretical explanations of the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors in producing medical and psychiatric illness. The author attempts in this paper to give a theoretical explanation of the interaction of these factors by applying the concept of multicausality of illness and the concept of vulnerability of systems. The practical application of this framework is also shown in a case example.
Article
Extracts of several plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori. Among these plants thyme (aqueous extract) and cinnamon (alcoholic extract) were the most effective. Since aqueous extract of thyme is easier to produce and consume, it was further investigated. Compared with several antibacterials, the thyme extract had a significant inhibitory effect on H. pylori, reducing both its growth and potent urease activity. From the results of this study, the aqueous extract of thyme possesses a therapeutic potential which merits validation by clinical studies.
Article
We studied the inhibitory effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan on the attachment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a gastroduodenal pathogen, to human gastric cell lines. The bacterial binding in these cell lines was inhibited more by Cladosiphon fucoidan (IC50 = 16-30 mg/mL), than by the fucoidan from Fucus (IC50 > 30 mg/mL). Dextran sulfate, another sulfated polysaccharide, did not inhibit the binding at all. Pre-incubating the bacterial suspension with fucoidans reinforced the inhibitory ability of these components, and reduced the IC50 value of Cladosiphon fucoidan to approximately 1 mg/mL. However, the binding was not inhibited by pre-treatment of gastric cells with these components. It was also shown that this fucoidan blocks both Leb- and sulfatide-mediated attachment of H. pylori to gastric cells. Furthermore, fucoidan-binding proteins were found on the H. pylori cell surface by Western blot analysis. Thus, the inhibitory effect exerted by Cladosiphon fucoidan on binding between H. pylori and gastric cells might result from the coating with this component of the bacterial surface.
Article
Helicobacter pylori has been associated with the pathogenesis of antral gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reverse or prevent relapse of these diseases. Antimicrobials employed in the eradication of H. pylori are not without adverse effects. Newer treatment modalities, therefore, are required. In vitro studies have shown the effectiveness of cinnamon extract against H. pylori and its urease. In this pilot study, we tested the activity of an alcoholic extract of cinnamon in a group of patients infected with H. pylori. Fifteen patients (11 women, 4 men) aged 16 to 79 years were given 40 mg of an alcoholic cinnamon extract twice daily for 4 weeks; eight patients aged 35 to 79 (7 women, 1 man) received placebo. The amount of H. pylori colonization was measured by the 13C urea breath test before and after therapy. The mean urea breath test counts in the study and control groups before and after therapy were 22.1 and 23.9 versus 24.4 and 25.9, respectively. The cinnamon extract was well tolerated, and side effects were minimal. We concluded that cinnamon extract, at a concentration of 80 mg /day as a single agent, is ineffective in eradicating H. pylori. Combination of cinnamon with other antimicrobials, or cinnamon extract at a higher concentration, however, may prove useful.
Article
It is highly unlikely that chronic infection with H. pylori could occur in the absence of adhesin-host cell interactions. Also, there is no evidence that any of the serious outcomes of H. pylori infection such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma could occur without prior colonization of the gastric epithelium mediated by H. pylori adhesins. H. pylori is highly adaptable, as evidenced by the fact that it can occupy a single host for decades. An important facet of this adaptability is its ability to physically interact with various types of host cells and also with host mucins and extracellular matrix proteins using a number of different adhesins displaying a variety of unique receptor specificities. Thus it is highly unlikely that any one particular H. pylori adhesin will ever be proven responsible for a particular outcome such as duodenal ulcer, MALT lymphoma, or adenocarcinoma. Also, while the search for additional H. pylori adhesins should and certainly will continue, we suggest that the scope of this effort should be expanded to include investigations into the patterns of expression and interaction between individual outer membrane proteins. Which of the numerous H. pylori outer membrane proteins (OMPs) actually function as adhesins (i.e., have receptor-binding sites) and which OMPs are simply necessary for optimal display of the adhesive OMPs? There are many other important questions about H. pylori adhesins waiting to be answered. For example, which adhesins are responsible for loose adherence to host cells and which adhesins are responsible for intimate, or membrane-to-membrane, adherence, and do these adhesins normally work in concert or in a sequential fashion? Also, is a specific type of adhesin necessary for type IV protein translocation into host cells and, if so, is adhesin expression coregulated with the effector protein export?
Article
Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole is now found worldwide. Steam-distilled garlic oil has in vitro activity against H. pylori and may be a useful alternative treatment strategy. In this pilot study dyspeptic patients with positive serology for H. pylori confirmed by 13C urea breath test (UBT), at 0 and 2 weeks, were enrolled. Treatment consisted of one 4 mg garlic oil capsule with a meal four times per day for 14 days. H. pylori eradication was defined as a negative UBT at both follow-up appointments. Suppression was defined as a 50% fall in 13C excess between baseline and follow-up 1. Five patients completed the study. There was no evidence of either eradication or suppression of H. pylori or symptom improvement whilst taking garlic oil. These negative results show that, within the gastric milieu, garlic oil at this dose does not inhibit H. pylori. A higher dose administered for a longer time-period may be effective. Antibiotics are usually combined with a proton-pump inhibitor or bismuth salt, as the only antibiotic with any in vivo activity against H. pylori in monotherapy is clarithromycin. A proton pump inhibitor raises gastric pH and, by increasing bacterial division, may increase the in vivo activity of garlic oil. This may be worth pursuing in a future trial.
Article
Our first study had shown that Chinese tea has anti-Helicobacter activity. The present study investigated the relationship between patients'Helicobacter status and the history of Chinese tea consumption. Chinese patients who had their first upper endoscopy were recruited. Before the procedure, patients completed questionnaires about their current Chinese tea consumption habits and those when they were around 10-25 years old. This information was used to calculate the tea consumption indices (TCI). Gastric biopsies (two from the antrum and two from the corpus) were taken for histological examination for Helicobacter. Eighty patients were recruited. Eight patients were rejected because of either an incomplete questionnaire, absence of gastric biopsy or a suspected history of treatment for Helicobacter infection. Of the 72 patients, 42 (58.3%) were Helicobacter positive. The age, sex ratio and indications for endoscopy were similar in both Helicobacter-positive and -negative groups. Classifying patients using either current, past or total TCI, patients with high tea consumption had significantly lower Helicobacter infection rate than those with low tea consumption (45% compared to 74%, 42% compared to 67% and 40% compared to 83%, respectively). Helicobacter-negative patients had higher overall TCI than Helicobacter-positive patients (28.2:17.3). When current and previous histories were analyzed separately, Helicobacter-negative patients also had a trend towards higher TCI currently (16.6:11.0) and in their 20s (11.6:6.1). There is a significant inverse relationship between Chinese tea consumption and Helicobacter infection. Chinese tea consumption may decrease the chance of Helicobacter infection.
Article
There is increasing evidence that certain microbial agents may have an etiopathogenic role in the development of atherothrombosis. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease, has been suggested as one of the microbes involved in the development of atherothrombosis. This hypothesis is based on the following observations: a) a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular disease; b) the coincidence of Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and plasma fibrinogen; c) Helicobacter pylori seropositivity correlates with acute-phase proteins associated with higher risk of coronary disease, such as C-reactive protein, and d) controversial PCR studies indicating the presence of Helicobacter pylori in atheromas. Analysis of the scientific evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection could indirectly contribute to the development and severity of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease.
Article
Gastric cancer (GC) incidence has not declined in Mexico. We assessed whether the intake of capsaicin (CAP), the pungent compound of chili peppers, increases the risk of GC independently of H. pylori positivity (Hp). From 1994 to 1996, a hospital-based case-control study was performed in 3 areas of Mexico; 234 cases of GC and 468 matched controls were enrolled and their diet and other characteristics were inquired. Chili pepper intake was queried by interview and CAP content of chilies was determined in a separate analysis by gas chromatography to estimate CAP intake; IGg Hp serum antibodies were determined by ELISA. The risk of GC was increased (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 0.76-3.88) among high-level consumers of CAP (90-250 mg of capsaicin per day, approximately 9-25 jalapeño peppers per day) as compared to low-level consumers (0-29.9 mg of capsaicin per day, approximately 0 to less than 3 jalapeño peppers per day; p for trend p = 0.026); this effect was independent of Hp status and other potential GC determinants and was higher among diffuse GC cases (OR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.09-12.2; p for trend = 0.002) compared to intestinal GC cases (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31-5.89; p for trend = 0.493). No significant interaction was found between CAP intake and Hp on GC risk. Chili pepper consumption might be an independent determinant of GC in Mexico.
Article
The sensitivity of a large number of antibiotic-resistant and nonresistant Helicobacter pylori isolates to the antiadhesion effect of a high-molecular-mass, nondialysable constituent of cranberry juice was tested. Confluent monolayers of gastric cell line in microtiter plate wells were exposed to bacterial suspensions prepared from 83 H. pylori isolates from antibiotic-treated and untreated patients in the presence and absence of the cranberry constituent. Urease assay was used to calculate the percentage of adhesion inhibition. In two thirds of the isolates, adhesion to the gastric cells was inhibited by 0.2 mg/mL of the nondialysable material. There was no relationship between the antiadhesion effect of the cranberry material and metronidazole resistance in isolates from either treated or untreated patients (N=35). Only 13 isolates (16%) were resistant to both the nondialysable material and metronidazole, and 30 (36%) were resistant to the nondialysable material alone. There was no cross-resistance to the nondialysable material and metronidazole. These data suggest that a combination of antibiotics and a cranberry preparation may improve H. pylori eradication.
Article
It has been shown that the presence of infection by Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulceration. In western medicine, a 3-fold therapeutic regimen, emphasizing the use of antibiotics, is typically used to suppress H. pylori activity. However, antibiotic drug resistance frequently develops as a consequence of such treatment. In our previous study, 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were screened for their anti-H. pylori activities. The results revealed that Plumbago zeylanica L. had the highest inhibitory effects against H. pylori. In this study, therefore, we have focused on establishing the anti-H. pylori activities of P. zeylanica L. Water and the organic solvents ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone were used for P. zeylanica L. extraction, obtaining yields of 1.66-6.84% (w/w). Excluding the water extract, higher anti-H. pylori activity was demonstrated for all the extracts, both using the agar diffusion and dilution methods. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations against five H. pylori strains, of which ranged from 0.32 to 1.28 mg ml-1, followed, in ascending order, by the acetone, ethanol and water analogs. Bactericidal activity was determined for P. zeylanica L. extracts, with the lowest minimum bactericidal concentrations (5.12-20.48 mg ml-1) demonstrated for the ethyl acetate, followed, in ascending order, by the acetone and ethanol analogs. Bactericidal activity appeared to be in a dose-dependent manner. Through a broad pH range (2-7), bactericidal activity was not affected when extract concentrations were greater than or equal to the minimum bactericidal concentration. High stability was demonstrated for the ethyl acetate P. zeylanica L. extract within pH range of 1-7, exhibiting all pH treatments bactericidal activity.
Article
Helicobacter pylori has been known to provoke gastric inflammation, ulceration, and DNA damage, based on which WHO defined H. pylori as a class I carcinogen. Although ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess antiadhesion or antimicrobial activity against H. pylori, in this study, we examined the protective effect of red ginseng extracts (RGE) against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage. RGE significantly attenuated both H. pylori-induced DNA damage assessed by comet assay and apoptosis measured by DNA fragmentation. Inactivation of ERK1/2 signaling and attenuation of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage were revealed with RGE against H. pylori infection. RGE decreased H. pylori-stimulated IL-8 gene expression, which resulted from the transcriptional regression of NF-κB. In conclusion, RGE showed significant gastroprotective effects against H. pylori-associated gastric mucosal cell damage, suggesting that red ginseng could be used as a medicinal phytonutrient against H. pylori infection.
Article
Our recent studies documented that red ginseng extract (RGE, isolates from steamed and dried Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) can inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling with repressing either nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-DNA binding activity or releases of IL-8 and COX-2 in gastric epithelial cells (Dig Dis Sci 50:1218-1227, 2005). We extended the experiment to prove whether RGE influences 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway, thereby suppressing the biosynthesis of 5(S)-HETE. The 5-LOX enzyme activities were measured by thin layer chromatography using (14)C-labeled arachidonic acid (AA) and quantified by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells cocultured with H pylori (ATCC 43504 strain) with or without pretreatment of RGE. Western blotting analyses for MAPK signaling and 5-LOX, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for interleukin-8, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay for NF-kappaB-DNA binding were done, respectively. H pylori infection increased exclusively 5-LOX enzyme activity and RGE inhibited H pylori-stimulated 5-LOX activity, resulting in suppression of 5(S)-HETE generations from AA. RGE inactivated c-jun phosphorylation and repressed redox-sensitive transcriptional activation, led to reduced expression of IL-8 and 5-LOX mRNA in gastric mucosal cells, of which action was very similar to known LOX inhibitor, 200 mumol of geraniin. RGE could be phytoceutical against H pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation through its LOX-inhibiting actions, inhibitory 5-LOX enzyme activity, and attenuating its expression.
Article
Background and aim: Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient of hot red and chilli pepper, has been considered as not only a cytoprotective but also a detrimental agent to the gastric mucosa. However, the effect and mechanism of capsaicin that modulate the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine in Helicobacter pylori-infected epithelial cells have not been investigated previously. Herein, we demonstrated that capsaicin inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8) by H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signal pathway. Materials and methods: AGS or MKN45 cells as gastric epithelial cells and Vac A+, CagA+ wild-type H. pylori strain ATCC 49503 were used. Gastric epithelial cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of capsaicin and infected with H. pylori for different periods of time to determine IL-8 concentrations in culture supernatant by an ELISA assay. We measured IL-8 mRNA transcripts in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells co-treated with capsaicin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. We performed electrophoretic mobility shift assay to examine the NF-kappaB DNA binding activity with capsaicin and immunofluorescence microscopy to examine nuclear staining of p65. We also performed immunoblotting for IkappaB, IKK activity with capsaicin. Results: Capsaicin inhibits H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Capsaicin as low as 100 micromol/L significantly inhibited IL-8 production in H. pylori-infected MKN45 cells (43.2% of control) at 24 hours incubation, whereas inhibited IL-8 production in H. pylori-infected AGS cells (70% of control). We confirmed that capsaicin inhibited IL-8 mRNA expression after infection of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori for 6 hours. The addition of capsaicin (100 micromol/L) suppressed H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation in gastric epithelial cells at 1 hour post-infection. We also found that the degradation of IkappaB and IKK activation were inhibited by capsaicin. Conclusions: Nontoxic dose of capsaicin inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells through the modulation of IkappaB-, NF-kappaB-, and IL-8 pathways. We conclude that capsaicin can be proposed as a potential anti-inflammatory drug by inhibition of the production of IL-8 in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelium.