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How Is a Pseudo-Translation Manipulated? A Critical Look at the Production of Carl Weter’s Educational Law

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Translation studies as an independent discipline is only a matter of not more than 50 years. It is interesting that the so-called "cultural turn" has pointed our attention towards the multitude of factors that govern the production of translation as both product and process. One of the pioneers in opening up the new path is Toury, whose concept of assumed translation provides a theoretical basis, on which pseudo-translations can be investigated. Therefore, contextualising certain translational phenomena can make us see the interdependencies of function, process and product of pseudo-translation production. The pseudo-translation Carl Weter's Educational Law is examined within such a framework. And the result shows that the reading and reception of such a pseudo-translation reveals the model of Chinese readers' reception and production of translation, that is, its emergence is a result of the pseudo-translator manipulating the cultural mechanism to make the biggest economic profit. © 2015 by Koninklijke Brill nv, Leiden, The Netherlands. All rights reserved.
... First, because of the suffocating atmosphere of Pahlavi Regime; second, because his profession in journalism was filling the blank columns by fabricating such stories; and third, since he was aware of the social, economic and political situation of that era. Zhang (2015) tried to answer this question that How a pseudotranslation was manipulated with a critical look at the production of Carl Weter's educational law by Liu. He described that cultural turn in translation studies resulted in considering different factors that governed on the production of this translation as both production and process. ...
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For various reasons such as ideology of patronage, fear of censorial measures and specific cultural and literary plans, authors may present their original texts as translation, and sometimes translators manipulate the original text to the extent that it cannot be considered as translation anymore. This research was aimed at investigating Bastin's adaptation as a kind of pseudo-translation. He considered two kinds of adaptation: local and global adaptation. In order to conduct this study, Zabihullah Mansouri's translation of A Year Amongst the Persians was compared with its original text by Edward Browne. One hundred instances were extracted and investigated closely according to Bastin's procedures of adaptation. The results revealed that Bastin's procedures of adaptation were mostly applied in the selected corpus to the extent that it could be called a pseudo-translation. Intervention was so significant in the source text that out of 581 pages in the ST, 128 pages were omitted and the content of omissions was indicator of intentional intervention. Transformations, modifications and adjustments converted the book to a work which could not be considered a text independent from its original and a considerable part of it was the translator's own writing. Keywords: Pseudo-translation, Adaptation, Intervention, Local Adaptation, Global Adaptation, Ideology
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