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Perfectionism, Worry, and Rumination in Health and Mental Health: A Review and a Conceptual Framework for a Cognitive Theory of Perfectionism

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In this chapter, we examine the tendency for vulnerable perfectionists to obsessively ruminate and cognitively perseverate in response to stress and to feelings of distress, and we introduce a cognitive theory of perfectionism. Our analysis includes an overview of the studies showing that various elements of trait perfectionism are associated with worry and ruminative brooding in maladaptive ways, which have significant implications for the onset and persistence of health and mental health problems. The vulnerability of both self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) is jointly emphasized, as it is shown that both SOP and SPP are linked consistently with worry and rumination. The costs and consequences of this excessive cognitive perseveration are outlined within the context of a conceptual framework for our proposed cognitive theory of perfectionism. A central premise of perfectionism cognition theory is that certain perfectionists are chronically engaged in overthinking. We propose an expanded conceptualization of rumination in perfectionism that includes the tendency for perfectionists to experience frequent automatic thoughts about their need to be perfect and to engage in excessive mistake rumination, failure perseveration, and social comparison rumination. Our analysis of “perseverating perfectionists” emphasizes that their propensity to engage in various forms of ruminative thinking is deeply rooted in self and identity issues involving chronic self-uncertainty, self-doubt, a need for self-validation, and a chronic self-focus on the acceptability of dispositional characteristics. The role of cognitive perseveration in the health and mental health problems of vulnerable perfectionists is discussed.

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... Flett, Madorsky, Hewitt, & Heisel, 2002;Frost & DiBartolo, 2002). Recently, Flett, Nepon, and Hewitt (2016) proposed the perfectionism cognition theory (PCT) to provide a theoretical account of the cognitive mechanisms of perfectionism, with an emphasis on the function of cognitive perseveration. As two comparable forms of cognitive perseveration, rumination and worry play an important role in the perfectionism-distress link because perfectionists who are at risk of mental health issues tend to ruminate and worry. ...
... Therefore, SOP and SPP focus on criticism of the self, whereas OOP focuses on criticism of others (Hewitt & Flett, 2004). It is clear that concerns about criticism of the self are correlated with various forms of perseverative cognition (Flett et al., 2016), therefore, the framework of PCT focuses on SOP and SPP, but not OOP. ...
... PCT is a theoretical model that provides a framework for perfectionism to explicate its cognitive processes and mechanisms (Flett et al., 2016). This model highlights the importance of two forms of perseverative cognition: worry and rumination. ...
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The perfectionism cognition theory (PCT) provides a theoretical account of the cognitive mechanisms of perfectionism, with an emphasis on the function of cognitive perseveration. The framework of PCT provides three central themes: (1) that both self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) are correlated with rumination and worry; (2) that perfectionists are more likely to suffer from interrelated forms of cognitive perseveration; (3) that rumination and worry are important variables that contribute to vulnerability to emotional distress and physical illness. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the three themes of PCT. The results suggested that both SOP and SPP were positively correlated with worry and rumination. Moderator analyses suggested that both SOP and SPP are correlated with various forms of cognitive perseveration and meta-analytic mediation models suggested worry and rumination contribute to the relationship between perfectionism and distress. The findings of this meta-analysis provide evidence to support the three themes of PCT and shed light on the mechanisms and processes of perfectionism cognition.
... Cette étude étant l'une des premières à tester le lien entre le perfectionnisme et la procrastination de façon longitudinale, il serait utile d'en conduire davantage, notamment en ayant recours à divers types de populations ou en incorporant d'autres processus susceptibles de jouer un rôle médiateur. Les ruminations mentales Dans leur revue de la littérature, Flett, Nepon, et Hewitt (2016) suggèrent que les personnes perfectionnistes présentent de multiples persévérations cognitives en réponse à un stresseur réel ou anticipé. Parmi celles-ci, on retrouve les ruminations qui portent sur la peur de l'échec (réel ou anticipé) et le besoin d'être parfait, et qui ont pour conséquence d'accentuer l'écart perçu entre le soi actuel et le soi idéal. ...
... Ces anticipations permettraient selon elles d'éviter des réactions émotionnelles trop fortes et intolérables si l'évènement anticipé a effectivement lieu. Pourtant, sur le long terme, ces ruminations peuvent nuire à la performance en mobilisant les ressources attentionnelles et cognitives de la personne, formant dès lors un cercle vicieux : les ruminations centrées sur l'échec entrainent l'échec objectif qui -à son tour -renforce les ruminations centrées sur l'échec (Desnoyers & Arpin-Cribbie, 2015 ;Flett et al., 2016). Flett et al. (2002), ainsi que Harris, Pepper, et Maack (2008) ont démontré que les ruminations constituent un médiateur de la relation entre le perfectionnisme et la détresse psychologique (en particulier la dépression ou l'anxiété) faisant suite à un évènement stressant. ...
... Comme discuté dans le premier point de ce second volet, cet ensemble d'études suggère que la dimension « Standards personnels » n'est pas une caractéristique pathologique en soi, mais qu'elle peut le devenir en présence de certains modérateurs (tels que la présence d'un stresseur ou de préoccupations évaluatives). Ainsi, Flett et al. (2016) ...
Article
Perfectionism is a phenomenon that is gaining an increasing interest among researchers and health practitioners. However, no consensus currently exists concerning its definition, and there is still a lack of experimental and longitudinal studies. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this phenomenon using a process-based approach. As a first step, we introduce the theoretical and conceptual evolution of perfectionism. We distinguish between multidimensional conceptualizations and the cognitive-behavioural conceptualization of this construct. Across both, perfectionism is characterized by a cognitive and behavioural inflexibility. The latter maintains a functional impact and can lead to psychopathological disorders. In a second step, we review the psychological transdiagnostic processes of the first step conceptualizations, which underline inflexibility. We examine self-imposed personally demanding standards setting, evaluative concerns, self-criticism, dichotomous thinking, cognitive biases, ruminations, and experiential avoidance. We also briefly discuss the interpersonal consequences linked to perfectionism. As a third and final step, we outline clinical guidelines for targeting perfectionism within therapeutic treatments. We further detail the cognitive-behavioural treatment of Egan, Wade, Shafran, and Antony (2014) as it tackles the transdiagnostic processes of perfectionism and has received stronger empirical support.
... A model that explains an impact of perfectionism on both mental and somatic health is the perfectionism cognition theory (Flett et al., 2016(Flett et al., , 2018. According to this approach, perfectionism influences mental and somatic health through its close relationships with such cognitive characteristics as a high tendency to worry, rumination, and indecisiveness, resulting in higher stress and negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, and guilt) experienced by perfectionists in everyday situations. ...
... The present study is the first one devoted to identification of mediating factors in the relationship of perfectionism and identity processes. It was anticipated that in line with the perfectionism cognition theory such consequences of perfectionism, especially of perfectionistic concerns, as worry, indecisiveness, and rumination, and proneness to experience such negative emotions as guilt and shame (Flett et al., 2016(Flett et al., , 2018 would mediate the perfectionism-identity relationship. It was hypothesized that the direct relationship between perfectionism and identity (Luyckx et al., 2008d;Piotrowski, 2019) would significantly diminish when the above-mentioned cognitive and emotional consequences of perfectionism were taken into account. ...
... Perfectionistic concerns lead to characteristic changes in the areas of cognitive and emotional functioning (Flett et al., 2016). Perfectionists with high concerns display a characteristic tendency to long-term worry about the future consequences of their actions, difficulties in making decisions, persisting states of self-reflection and ruminations, and often experience negative emotions such as here analyzed shame and guilt. ...
Article
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The objective of the study was to assess the relationships between two dimensions of perfectionism, that is, perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, and identity processes in the domains of future plans and education. It was hypothesized that such consequences of perfectionism as worry, rumination, indecisiveness, and guilt and shame proneness would be mediators of the perfectionism–identity relationship. A total of 696 students took part in the study (Mage = 26.74, SD = 7.56). It was found that perfectionistic strivings may promote the development of identity by supporting adaptive exploration and identity commitment. This relationship was only partly mediated. On the other hand, perfectionistic concerns were associated with significant difficulties with identity formation. This relationship was largely indirect, and indecisiveness proved to be the main mediator of the perfectionistic concerns–identity relationship. High indecisiveness, which disturbs decision-making processes, seems to explain why maladaptive perfectionists have problems with identity formation. This mediational effect was observed in both analyzed domains.
... Yet, perfection is the exception in life-not the rule. Thus, people with high self-oriented perfectionism frequently encounter and subsequently ruminate about circumstances in which they have failed to live up to their selfimposed perfectionistic goals (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016). Likewise, people with high selforiented perfectionism often have an excessive preoccupation with productivity, leaving them prone to ruminations about events inhibiting their ability to attain perfect outcomes efficiently (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). ...
... Indeed, people with high socially prescribed perfectionism see their social world as a malevolent place in which approval and acceptance are conditional on them being perfect (Hewitt, Flett, Sherry, & Caelian, 2006). This leaves people with high socially prescribed perfectionism susceptible to ruminations about how they have fallen short of the perfection they believe others require and the negative feedback they anticipate receiving because of it (Flett et al., 2016). To make matters worse, people with high socially prescribed perfectionism are often "defective detectives" when navigating their social world and are prone to misinterpreting and ruminating about events signaling the self is less than perfect (e.g., unflattering comparisons; Sherry et al., 2013). ...
... Drawing on the EMPDS, we posited that self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism generate depressive symptoms through two mediational pathways: rumination and difficulty accepting the past. Building on theory (Flett et al., 2016) and evidence (Graham et al., 2010;Sherry et al., 2015), we anticipated our results would support the hypothesized structure of the EMPDS. In particular, we expected both rumination and difficulty accepting the past would mediate the effect of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism on depressive symptoms. ...
Article
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The Existential Model of Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms (EMPDS) is a promising integrative model. According to the EMPDS, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism indirectly influence depressive symptoms through rumination and difficulty accepting the past. Yet, the extent to which self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, rumination, and difficulty accepting the past uniquely and collectively influence depressive symptoms is unestablished. Likewise, supporting evidence derives from relatively healthy university students, rendering the generalizability of the EMPDS to more distressed individuals unclear. Our study addressed these important limitations. Data were obtained from 393 depressed individuals. Congruent with the EMPDS, bias-corrected bootstrapped tests of mediation indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism indirectly predicted depressive symptoms through rumination and difficulty accepting the past. In contrast, self-oriented perfectionism indirectly predicted depressive symptoms through rumination, but not difficulty accepting the past. Overall, our findings underscore the different ways in which people with high self-oriented perfectionism and people with high socially prescribed perfectionism experience depression.
... Cognitive theories of perfectionism (Flett et al., 2016(Flett et al., , 2018 state that individual differences in the experience of perfectionistic cognitions (PCs) (i.e., automatic and recurring thoughts signifying the need for perfection) are pertinent for psychological distress. This notion is consonant with the perseverative cognition hypothesis (i.e., the idea that rumination prolongs the stress response, thus conferring additional risk for psychological distress; Verkuil et al., 2011). ...
... However, pre-pandemic anxiety did not contribute to PCs during the pandemic. These results lend credence to vulnerability models (Hewitt et al., 2017;Smith et al., 2016) and cognitive theories of perfectionism (Flett et al., 2016(Flett et al., , 2018 and further suggest that PCs may function as a sensitizing factor (Wade et al., 2020) within the context of the global pandemic. The current findings are also consistent with diathesis-models of perfectionism and distress (Hewitt & Flett, 1991;1993) and Flett and Hewitt's (2020) contention that the stress of the pandemic would be particularly difficult for individuals elevated in perfectionism and would result in higher levels of psychological distress. ...
... PCs decreased across the early stages of the pandemic, providing preliminary support for Flett and Hewitt's (2020) notion that the pandemic may "serve as a catalyst for positive change" encouraging individuals elevated in perfectionism "to realize the folly of striving for absolute perfection rather than excellence (p.96)." Our results also support vulnerability models and cognitive theories of perfectionism (Flett et al., 2016(Flett et al., , 2018, such that higher levels of pre-pandemic PCs contributed to later anxiety among EAs during the pandemic and not vice versa. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to recognize that EAs struggling with perfectionistic tendencies are at heightened risk for psychological distress to prevent long-lasting effects. ...
Article
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This study employed a two-wave cross-lagged panel analysis to examine associations between perfectionistic cognitions, anxiety, and depression pre-pandemic to during the pandemic in a sample of 171 (57% female, n = 98) emerging adults. Results demonstrated that perfectionistic cognitions decreased, anxiety increased, and depressive symptoms did not change pre-pandemic to during the pandemic. Cross-lagged results indicated that pre-pandemic perfectionistic cognitions predicted higher levels of anxiety symptoms (but not depressive symptoms) during the pandemic after accounting for pre-pandemic levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. These results held with the inclusion of covariates (i.e., sex, age, education, exposure to COVID-19, whether or not participants knew someone diagnosed with COVID-19, had lost income due to the pandemic, and how often they thought about COVID-19). Psychological distress (i.e., anxiety and depressive symptoms) pre-pandemic did not predict perfectionistic cognitions during the pandemic after accounting for pre-pandemic levels of perfectionistic cognitions. Results support assertions that individuals with heightened levels of perfectionism are at an increased risk for poorer mental health during the pandemic. Findings underscore the importance of assessing perfectionistic cognitions for the prevention and treatment of anxiety symptoms among emerging adults during and post-pandemic.
... According to the cognitive theory of perfectionism (G. L. Flett et al., 2016), individual differences in the frequency with which people experience perfectionistic cognitions (i.e., automatic and repetitive thoughts reflecting the need for perfection) are particularly relevant for health problems (Flett et al., 2016;Flett et al., 2018). This premise is in keeping with the perseverative cognition hypothesis (i.e., the notion that rumination extends the stress response, J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f therefore conferring increased risk for health problems; Verkuil, Brosschot, Gebhardt, & Thayer, 2011). ...
... According to the cognitive theory of perfectionism (G. L. Flett et al., 2016), individual differences in the frequency with which people experience perfectionistic cognitions (i.e., automatic and repetitive thoughts reflecting the need for perfection) are particularly relevant for health problems (Flett et al., 2016;Flett et al., 2018). This premise is in keeping with the perseverative cognition hypothesis (i.e., the notion that rumination extends the stress response, J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f therefore conferring increased risk for health problems; Verkuil, Brosschot, Gebhardt, & Thayer, 2011). ...
... e measures (see Fry & Debats, 2009, for an exception) rather than biomarkers of health. Moreover, to our knowledge, research has yet to gauge how individual differences in perfectionism are related to inflammation. Thus, within the contexts of the perfectionism diathesis-stress model (Hewitt & Flett, 1993) and the cognitive theory of perfectionism G. L. Flett et al., 2016) this study examined associations between individual differences in perfectionistic cognitions and low-grade inflammation via CRP and IL-6 biomarkers and whether these associations varied as a function of stress. We also tested whether these associations held after including potential confounds that were of theoretical interest (e.g., ci ...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated that perfectionism is implicated in poorer health and earlier mortality. However, to our knowledge, research has not yet determined how individual differences in perfectionistic cognitions are related to intermediary health markers such as inflammation. Thus, within the theoretical frameworks of the perfectionism diathesis-stress model (Hewitt & Flett, 1993) and the cognitive theory of perfectionism (Flett, Hewitt, Nepon, & Besser, 2018; Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016) the aims of our study were to test whether individual differences in perfectionistic cognitions were associated with low-grade inflammation via c-reactive CRP and IL-6 biomarkers and whether these relationships varied as a function perceived stress. The sample included 248 Canadian young adults (52% female, Mage = 22.89, SD = 1.53) who completed surveys assessing key constructs such as perfectionistic cognitions and perceived stress along with providing assessments of body fat percentage and serum samples of IL-6 and CRP. Regression analyses indicated that perfectionistic cognitions were not related to IL-6 under any conditions of stress. However, under high levels of stress perfectionistic cognitions were associated with elevated levels of CRP and these findings held after accounting for the effects of smoking status, body fat percentage, and respondent sex. The present work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting links between personality and inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that experiencing more frequent thoughts centered on the need to be perfect when coupled with higher levels of stress may set the stage for greater vulnerability for chronic inflammation.
... Being able to complete these tasks enters into conflict with the need to regulate their physical discomfort caused by pain or fatigue, which is an everpresent goal (Pérez-Aranda, Andrés-Rodríguez, . The conflict between the goals increases critical and negative self-appraisal, generating feelings of shame and incompetence when they are unable to carry out a routine without pain getting in the way of their activities (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016). Perfectionism, and in particular negative self-appraisal, favor the setting of higher and higher goals so as to avoid the frustration created by personal failures (De Rosa, Dalla-Valle, Rutsztein, & Keegan, 2012), although this can lead to an increase in functional limitation and to long term personal underestimation (Flett et al., 2016;Molnar & Sirois, 2016). ...
... The conflict between the goals increases critical and negative self-appraisal, generating feelings of shame and incompetence when they are unable to carry out a routine without pain getting in the way of their activities (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016). Perfectionism, and in particular negative self-appraisal, favor the setting of higher and higher goals so as to avoid the frustration created by personal failures (De Rosa, Dalla-Valle, Rutsztein, & Keegan, 2012), although this can lead to an increase in functional limitation and to long term personal underestimation (Flett et al., 2016;Molnar & Sirois, 2016). De Rosa et al. (2012) state that this phenomenon is due to the perception of lack of achievement in theirs goals, belief that characterizes people with maladaptive perfectionism, resulting in an excessive preoccupation with failure. ...
... In addition, the psychological inflexibility model highlights the need to include personal variables to explain anxiety. In this sense, the current study proposes that perfectionism, as a personality trait, reinforces the demands regarding the management of multiple and incompatible tasks and goals (personally relevant goals vs pain control) (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015;Flett et al., 2016;Velasco-Furlong et al., 2020) within the proposed serial mediation model. Taken together, the results found have shown that catastrophizing and cognitive fusion can be considered relevant cognitive mediators between perfectionism and anxiety (Van Damme et al., 2012) according to the results found in the SMM1 compared to the SMM2 model. ...
Article
Fibromyalgia (FM) patients are known to be highly demanding of themselves in achieving goals. In fact, some authors suggest that perfectionism influences maladaptive coping regarding health and hinders routine tasks. Despite the evidence about the anxiety caused by this demanding pattern and the difficulty it creates in dealing with the conflict between goals, to date, there are no studies exploring the relationship between these psychological processes from motivational theories of pain. This study aims to explore the mediating role of pain catastrophizing and cognitive fusion between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety among 230 FM women. Results found that pain catastrophizing and cognitive fusion contribute to the negative effect of maladaptive perfectionism on anxiety. These results can be interpreted from motivational theories of pain (conflict of goals), allowing action guidelines for the personalization of treatments.
... The experience of perfectionism, defined as a disposition for excessive critical self-evaluation and high standards for oneself (Frost et al., 1990), plays a crucial predisposing and perpetuating role in relation to many psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, disordered eating, and insomnia (Bardone-Cone et al., 2007;Egan et al., 2011;Hewitt et al., 1991). According to cognitive models of perfectionism, intrusive thoughts (e.g., perfectionistic, self-critical and/or procrastinatory), worry (e.g., hopelessness, negative future outlooks), and rumination (e.g., past mistakes and failures, anger-related, work-related) related to perfectionistic strivings may increase the vulnerability of new onset, or accentuation of pre-existing, psychiatric difficulties amongst perfectionistic individuals (Aprin-Cribble & Cribble, 2007;Besser et al., 2004;Flaxman et al., 2012;Flett et al., 2012;2016;O'Conner et al., 2004). Here, worry and rumination emerges due to an inherent yet unrealistic need to be perfect in all aspects of daily life as a means of compensating for underlying feelings of self-doubt, shame, perceived humiliation, and unworthiness (Flett, 2018). ...
... Here, worry and rumination emerges due to an inherent yet unrealistic need to be perfect in all aspects of daily life as a means of compensating for underlying feelings of self-doubt, shame, perceived humiliation, and unworthiness (Flett, 2018). With that in mind, this line of thought may certainly elicit psychological and physiological stress, which feeds back to accentuate worry and rumination in a cyclical manner (Flett et al., 2016;. ...
Article
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[In Press]. Perfectionism is related to insomnia and objective markers of disturbed sleep. This study examined whether multidimensional perfectionism is related to dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, sleep-effort, pre-sleep arousal, and polysomnography-determined markers of sleep amongst individuals with insomnia. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on perfectionism was also examined. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on CBT-I. Forty-three insomnia patients were randomized to treatment (receiving CBT-I) or waitlist control groups. Sleep was recorded using polysomnography at baseline. Participants completed measures of perfectionism, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, sleep-effort and pre-sleep arousal at baseline and post-treatment. Total perfectionism scores and doubts about action, concern over mistakes and personal standards were each significantly related to increased sleep effort, pre-sleep arousal and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep at baseline. Patients receiving treatment displayed increased total perfectionism scores post-treatment d=.49. In those receiving treatment, levels of organization d=.49 and parental expectations d=.47 were significantly increased post-treatment, relative to baseline. In line with the literature, our results confirm that perfectionism is related to insomnia. Here, insomnia was related to increased sleep effort, pre-sleep arousal and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. The propensity to maintain a high standard of order and organization may be elevated following CBT-I, considering the treatment protocol expects patients to strictly adhere to a set of clearly defined rules. Levels of parental expectations may be increased following CBT-I since the patient-therapist-relationship may trigger implicitly expectations in the patients which are reminiscent of their relationship to their parents.
... Maladaptive perfectionists are suggested to be at elevated risk of rumination and worry due to their high sensitivity to criticism and threat. They are likely to engage in these perseverative cognitive processes when thinking about failure, criticism, and the need to be perfect (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016;. Engaging in rumination and worry amplifies perceived inadequacies, prolongs NA, and can also prevent problem solving following a stressor (Flett et al., 2016;Lyubomirsky & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1995;Lyubomirsky, Tucker, Caldwell, & Berg, 1999). ...
... They are likely to engage in these perseverative cognitive processes when thinking about failure, criticism, and the need to be perfect (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016;. Engaging in rumination and worry amplifies perceived inadequacies, prolongs NA, and can also prevent problem solving following a stressor (Flett et al., 2016;Lyubomirsky & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1995;Lyubomirsky, Tucker, Caldwell, & Berg, 1999). Further, the finding that higher maladaptive perfectionism is associated with lower mindfulness and present-moment awareness (James et al., 2015;Short & Mazmanian, 2013;Wimberley et al., 2016), conceptualized as adaptive emotion regulation strategies, suggest that maladaptive perfectionists fail to engage in adaptive attentional deployment strategies that could improve NA. ...
Article
Maladaptive perfectionism has been shown to be associated with undesirable outcomes, such as elevated negative emotions and psychopathological traits. Perhaps unsurprisingly, there is preliminary evidence that maladaptive perfectionism is also related to emotion dysregulation. However, the nature of emotion dysregulation in perfectionism has not been characterized. In this review, Gross and Jazaieri's (2014)clinically-informed framework of emotion dysregulation is used to review the evidence of emotion dysregulation in maladaptive perfectionism. Specifically, this paper reviews evidence of problematic emotional experiences and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies in maladaptive perfectionism and discusses how poor emotional awareness and emotion regulation goals may also contribute to emotion dysregulation. A conceptual model of these components of emotion dysregulation in maladaptive perfectionism is proposed in which heightened negative affect in response to threatened perfectionistic standards is posited to be at the core of emotion dysregulation, and implicit and explicit unhelpful emotion regulation strategies and poor emotion regulation goals are suggested to contribute to further dysregulation and elevated negative affect. Clinical implications, limitations in the extant research, and future directions are discussed.
... Persevering thought processes have been labelled as repetitive negative thinking (Ehring et al., 2011) or cognitive perseveration (Flett et al., 2016). They can be concerned with present, past or future circumstances and have demonstrated three primary characteristics: the thinking is repetitive, the thoughts are at least in part intrusive, and that it is difficult to disengage from them (Macedo et al., 2014). ...
... As such, cognitive perseveration and self-focus are deeply rooted in a perfectionist's high need for self-validation and acceptance of their dispositional tendencies. Such tendencies have been reported between different dimensions of perfectionism, through means of rumination and worry (see Flett et al., 2016). ...
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Background Metacognition and perfectionism are factors found to be associated with both anxiety and depression. A common component that underlies these factors is the influence of perseverance, or the tendency to continue a behaviour or thought even if it is no longer productive. Aims This study aimed to investigate the relationships between metacognitive beliefs with maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (i.e. perseverance behaviours), and their relation to anxiety and depression. Method Participants ( n = 1033) completed six self-report questionnaires measuring metacognitive beliefs about rumination and worry, perseverance, anxiety and depression. Data were analysed using correlational testing, and structural equation modelling. Results Results of structural equation modelling revealed that positive metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking increased the likelihood to perceive the thinking as uncontrollable, and that perseverance behaviours were predicted by all metacognitive beliefs. Furthermore, examination of partial correlations revealed that both negative metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking and perseverance behaviours predicted anxiety and depression; however, negative metacognitive beliefs were the strongest predictor, in both cases. Conclusions The results provided support for current metacognitive models, in that the interpretation of cognitive perseveration sequentially influences psychopathology, but also provided insight into the inclusion of perseveration behaviours. Furthermore, the findings may also have value in a clinical setting, as targeting metacognitive beliefs in the presence of perseverance type behaviours may prove beneficial for treatment.
... Our focus on rumination is in keeping with conceptual advances in the perfectionism field that highlight the need to supplement and extend the current focus on trait perfectionism by incorporating a focus on the cognitive side of perfectionism. Analyses by Flett and associates [38][39][40] suggest that much of the vulnerability of stressed and distressed perfectionists stems from ruminative tendencies. Indeed, the tendency to ruminate about the need to be perfect can be regarded as an internal dialogue that makes the need to be perfect both cognitively salient and a constant source of pressure, especially for those with a negative self-view who see themselves falling short of the ideal of perfection. ...
... Consequently, a coach who ruminates about performance-related issues would do so without the need to interact with anyone, as also discussed by Hill and Curran [30]. Future research is warranted based on suggestions by Flett and colleagues [38,39] that chronic rumination creates a constant source of pressure, as this may explain why exhaustion develops to such a degree that the risk for burnout consequently increases [40]. In contrast, socially prescribed perfectionism would require some form of external interaction, and, if this interaction is intermittent, then the stress level will most likely be lower and its consequences less taxing over time. ...
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Coaching athletes is highly rewarding yet stressful, especially at the elite level where media, fans, and sponsors can contribute to an environment that, if not well-managed by the coach, can lead to burnout. Coaches who display perfectionistic tendencies, such as striving for flawlessness, may be particularly vulnerable—even more so if they are overly critical of themselves and have a tendency to ruminate over their performance, or if they are attempting to convey an image of faultlessness, or both. A total of 272 coaches completed a battery of inventories assessing burnout, perfectionistic thoughts, and the tendency for perfectionistic self-presentation. All variables correlated significantly: coaches with higher scores on exhaustion scored higher both on perfectionistic thoughts and self-presentation. However, when three subscales of perfectionistic self-presentation were considered separately, lower and nonsignificant correlations emerged. We believe that this can be explained by the heterogeneous group of coaches participating in this study. Whereas all coaches may at times ruminate privately—self-oriented perfectionism—about their perceived failure to perform to expectations, not all may feel the pressure to present themselves to others as faultless—a more socially prescribed perfectionism. This finding warrants further investigation, preferably comparing coaches at different levels of public scrutiny.
... Cognitive deficiencies indicate the lack of processing abilities in situations that require problem-solving (Kendall, 1985), so a feature of low CF is the tendency to use incompatible cognitive strategies excessively and strictly (Greco, Lambert & Baer, 2008;Crosby, Bates, & Twohig, 2011). This type of inelastic response is also considered to be a form of cognitive continuation associated with incompatible perfectionism (Daigneault, Braun, & Whitaker, 1992;Flett et al., 2016). ...
... It has been determined that individuals with anorexia nervosa and who have high perfectionism levels have low CF (Buzzichelli, Marzola, Amianto, Fassino, & Abbate-Daga, 2018). Incompatible perfectionism has been found to be strongly associated with various cognitive biases such as cognitive maintenance and worrying rumination (Flett et al., 2016), and also automatic cognitive biases such as excessive adherence to dual thought (Davis & Wosinski, 2012;Egan, Piek, Dyck & Rees, 2007). Another studies found that there is a negative relationship between perfectionism and self-sensitivity (Barnett & Sharp, 2016;Ferrari, Yap, Scott, Einstein & Ciarrochi, 2018;Neff, 2003a, b). ...
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and cognitive flexibility in university students. The sample consisted of 375 students (179 [47.7%] males) aged from 18 to 41 years. Data were obtained using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. The results obtained from the research has shown that multidimensional perfectionism affects cognitive flexibility and as multidimensional perfectionism increases, the level of cognitive flexibility decreases.
... To address these gaps, the present study examines the influences of two specific negative parenting practices, rejection and overprotection, separately for fathers and mothers on NSSI, as well as the mediating effects of maladaptive perfectionism and rumination. We hypothesize that (a) both maladaptive perfectionism and rumination would mediate the relations between negative parenting practices and NSSI; (b) rejection would be a more harmful parenting practice than overprotection because protection is a kind of care that brings negative effects only when excessive, while rejection damages children's health directly; moreover, individuals may attribute overprotection to a kind of care or concern, while such attribution is essentially impossible with rejection; (c) mothers' negative parenting practices would exert a different influence on the development of NSSI compared to fathers' because Chinese mothers and fathers are differently involved in parenting and children's education; and (d) maladaptive perfectionism may also lead to rumination because individuals with maladaptive perfectionism tend to ruminate to seek the reasons for their failure and negative feelings (Flett et al., 2016). ...
... link from maladaptive perfectionism to rumination found in this study is consistent with those in many previous studies (Olson & Kwon, 2008;Randles, Flett, Nash, McGregor, & Hewitt, 2010) and could be explained by perfectionism cognition theory (PCT; Flett et al., 2016). PCT suggests that when individuals with maladaptive perfectionism experience failures, they tend to ruminate on the causes of their failures. ...
Article
Background Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent and serious public health concern among adolescents worldwide, and family experiences are influential in its development. However, the potential mediating mechanisms underlying the relations between childhood experience of negative parenting practices and NSSI are not fully understood. This study tested a mediating model to examine the roles of maladaptive perfectionism and rumination in these relations. Methods A total of 5,619 Chinese adolescents (54.7 % males; mean age = 15.92 years, SD = 0.73) participated in this study and completed self-report measures of negative parenting practices, maladaptive perfectionism, rumination, and NSSI. Results There were significant positive correlations among negative parenting practices, maladaptive perfectionism, rumination, and NSSI. In the mediation analyses, all negative parenting practices were indirectly related to NSSI via maladaptive perfectionism, while rumination only mediated the relation of maternal overprotection to NSSI. In addition, among all negative parenting practices, maternal rejection was the most closely associated with maladaptive perfectionism. Conclusion The findings of the study expand our understanding of the influences of negative parenting practices on NSSI. Clinicians may pay special attention to maternal rejection and focus on adolescents’ maladaptive perfectionism and rumination when interacting with individuals with NSSI.
... Again, this reasoning can be extended to the effects of positive experiences on adjustment. For instance, individuals with PC may not fully appreciate positive experiences because of their self-doubting and self-critical tendencies (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2015); hence beneficial effects of those experiences on adjustment would be lessened. ...
... Finally, for the third research question, we further investigated a moderation effect of perfectionism subtypes on the relationship between achievement emotions and academic burnout as perfectionistic traits are expected to would exaggerate or bumper the effect of positive or negative experiences on adjustment outcomes (e.g., Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2015;Rice, Ray, Davis, DeBlaere, & Ashby, 2015). Specific hypotheses were set based upon findings of Li, Hou, Chi, Liu, and Hager (2014) suggesting four subgroups of perfectionism are associated with different tendencies of implementing diverse coping strategies (i.e., reflective, suppressive, and reactive coping), and of Gong, Fletcher, and Paulson (2017) suggesting different capacity of emotional intelligence among different perfectionism groups. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine the relationship between the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism, academic burnout, and achievement emotions via a person-centered approach in a sample of 450 South Korean adolescents (64.7%female). Participants completed two perfectionism scales (i.e., the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised), the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. The results of the latent profile analysis offered support for the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism with four classes: adaptive (high perfectionistic strivings(PS)/low perfectionistic concerns(PC)), maladaptive (low PS/high PC), mixed (high PS/high PC), and non-perfectionists (low PS/low PC). Adaptive and mixed perfectionists experienced higher levels of positive-activating achievement emotions and lower levels of negative-activating/deactivating achievement emotions than maladaptive and non-perfectionists did. Regarding academic burnout, maladaptive perfectionist was the most maladaptive profile, whereas adaptive perfectionist was the most adaptive profile. Additionally, positive-activating emotions and negative-deactivating emotions negatively and positively predicted academic burnout, respectively. Among these relationships, only the relationship between positive-activating emotions and cynicism was moderated by perfectionism profile. Overall, the present findings may offer a useful framework for understanding the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism of adolescents in academic settings.
... First, individuals with high levels of perfectionism could be identified as at risk of workaholism. Then, specific training programs could help perfectionists to set realistic goals at work, reduce perseverative cognitions (Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016), and increase their personal resources (e.g., self-esteem), to prevent workaholism and promote work engagement. Moreover, cognitive-behavioural interventions could encourage individuals with high levels of perfectionism to identify and challenge those cognitive factors that contribute to maintain perfectionism, such as irrational beliefs (as well as perfectionistic automatic thoughts; Egan & Shafran, 2018;Flett, Newby, Hewitt, & Persaud, 2011) while cognitive-constructivist interventions could shed light on how, globally and individually they attribute meaning to themselves and to others (Dal Corso, Floretta, Falco, Benevene, & De Carlo, 2013). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the association between workaholism and two possible dispositional and situational antecedents, namely perfectionism, in terms of both self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP), and workload. Specifically, we hypothesize that both perfectionism and workload are positively associated with workaholism, and that workload may moderate the association between perfectionism and workaholism. Overall, 250 middle and top managers of an Italian service organization completed a self-report questionnaire. The hypothesized relationships were tested using moderated multiple regression. Results showed that SOP, SPP, and workload were positively associated with workaholism. Additionally, workload moderated the association between SOP/SPP and workaholism, which was stronger for workers with high workload. This study suggests that dispositional and situational factors, in terms of perfectionism and workload, may interact in predicting workaholism in managers. Interventions aimed at preventing workaholism could target cognitive elements of perfectionism, such as irrational beliefs about performance demands and failure.
... In the perfectionism literature, cognitive rumination on mistakes and imperfections has been frequently mentioned (Flett et al., 2016;Flett et al., 2018;Frost & Henderson, 1991;Frost et al., 1997;Guidano & Liotti, 1983). Accordingly, measurement instruments aiming to measure rumination have been developed. ...
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The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of Turkish adaptation of the Mistake Rumination Scale (MRS) in university students. The study group consisted of 372 participants from different faculties, aged between 17 and 39 years and mainly female. We first translated Turkish of the MRS. Then, we analyzed the scale in terms of reliability and validity. The findings indicated that the MRS–Turkish Form confirmed seven items in one factor with good factor loadings. Good fit values were determined with the MRS–Turkish Form. The MRS–TF has good reliability coefficients. The mistake rumination was moderately positively correlated with ruminative thought styles and moderately negatively correlated with cognitive control and flexibility. These results demonstrated that the MRS–Turkish Form can be validly and reliably performed to Turkish culture.
... Perfectionistic concerns (PC) is the experience of holding high standards, constant punitive self-evaluation, inability to feel satisfied with objectively successful performance, and persistent concerns about the criticism and disapproval of others (Dunkley et al., 2006;Sirois and Molnar, 2017). Another comparatively less studied, more state-like feature of perfectionism includes perfectionism cognitions, which describe a cognitive process that involves persistent and automatic thoughts about the need to be perfect, often arising in situations in which there is clear evaluation or in which one perceives "failure" in their performance (Flett et al., 2016). Perfectionism differs from similar constructs such as self-criticism or conscientiousness in that the individual strives for an unwavering standard of perfect performance and avoidance of errors (a striving that is not an inherent feature of these other constructs), and anything other than this unattainable standard is perceived as a "failure" (Powers et al., 2004). ...
... Cognitive restructuring and related techniques for this population thus include addressing irrational, perseverative, and anticipatory thought patterns, as well as developing problem-focused coping skills to decrease perfectionistic attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. The general goal is to help one become more flexible in setting and attaining goals, separate value from performance, and to adjust cognitive appraisals toward greater consideration of positive or neutral facets of performance (Blankstein and Winkworth 2004;Ellis 2002;Flett et al. 2016). ...
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Maladaptive perfectionism (MP) can have adverse consequences for mental and physical health and can interfere with treatment success for various conditions. Theoretical conceptualizations of MP largely surround overly rigid and self-critical thinking as well as excessively high standards. Treatment for MP thus often focuses on these cognitive aspects and has been successful, albeit lengthy. The present study evaluated a brief cognitive-behavioral workshop for those with high, moderate, and low MP, which was defined as a composite of perfectionism subscales that included concern over mistakes, doubting of actions, parental criticism, parental expectations, and discrepancy. Workshop components focused on psychoeducation about MP, setting high standards, fearing mistakes and doubting oneself, and preventing distress and maintaining gains. Ratings of MP as well as anxiety, depression, and distress were significantly lower from pre-treatment across post-treatment and 3-week and 3-month follow-up assessments for those with high and moderate MP. Participants with low MP showed no significant change over time, as expected. The workshop thus provided a useful, brief, and cost-effective intervention for MP and related distress. Clinical implications are discussed, including routine assessment of MP in clinical practice, intervention for MP early in the clinical process, specific focus on self-criticism and setting high standards, and implementation in university counseling centers. Recommendations for future research are also discussed, including dismantling of workshop components, identifying treatment mechanisms, expanding to clinical populations, evaluating more diverse samples, and understanding the possible preventative aspects of a workshop approach.
... For the chronic procrastinator, activation of negative self-evaluations that increase negative affect can also trigger avoidant responses to the goal as a means of reducing mood and protecting self-esteem (Pychyl & Sirois, 2016;Sirois, 2004a;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). For individuals high in perfectionistic concerns, negative affect arising from the expectancy assessment process may activate ruminative brooding and end-state thinking that shifts focus to the negative feelings surrounding the goal rather than to ways of taking instrumental action to attain the goal (Flett et al., 1998;Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016;L. L. Martin & Tesser, 1989). ...
Article
Abstract The equivocal and debated findings from a 2007 meta-analysis, which viewed perfectionism as a unidimensional construct, suggested that perfectionism was unrelated to procrastination. The present meta-analysis aimed to provide a conceptual update and re-analysis of the procrastination-perfectionism association guided by both a multi-dimensional view of perfectionism and self-regulation theory. The random effects meta-analyses revealed a small-to-medium, positive average effect size (r = .23; k = 43, N = 10,000; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [0.19, 0.27]) for trait procrastination and perfectionistic concerns, and a small-to-medium, negative average effect size (r = -.22; k = 38, N = 9,544; 95% CI: [-0.26, -0.18]) for procrastination and perfectionistic strivings. The average correlations remained significant after statistically accounting for the joint variance between the two perfectionism dimensions via semi-partial correlations. For perfectionistic concerns, but not perfectionistic strivings, the effects depended on the perfectionism measure used. All effects did not vary by the trait procrastination measure used or the respondent’s sex. Our findings confirm that from a multi-dimensional perspective, trait procrastination is both positively and negatively associated with higher order perfectionism dimensions, and further highlight the value of a self-regulation perspective for understanding the cognitive, affective, and behavioural dynamics that characterise these traits.
... This rumination about mistakes was related to state reactions involving various forms of distress. At a conceptual level, the concept of mistake rumination is an element of perfectionism cognition theory (Flett, Hewitt, & Nepon, 2016;Flett, Hewitt, Nepon, & Besser, 2018). This conceptualization was built on initial theory and research advanced by Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, and Gray (1998). ...
Article
In the current article, we describe the development and validation of the Mistake Rumination Scale as a supplement to existing trait and cognitive measures of perfectionism. The Mistake Rumination Scale is a seven-item inventory that taps the tendency to ruminate about a past personal mistake. Psychometric analyses confirmed that the Mistake Rumination Scale consists of one factor assessed with high internal consistency. Analyses established that elevated levels of mistake rumination are associated with trait perfectionism, ruminative brooding, depression, and social anxiety. Moreover, scores on the Mistake Rumination Scale significantly predicted unique variance in depression beyond the variance accounted for by trait perfectionism dimensions, rumination, and automatic thoughts. Overall, our findings attest to the further use of the Mistake Rumination Scale and highlight the tendency of certain perfectionists to suffer from cognitive forms of perfectionism involving overthinking about past mistakes and related imperfections involving the self.
... Regardless, evidence states that different perfectionism types predict different levels of happiness outcomes [30]. Notably, according to the Cognitive Theory of Perfectionism (CTP) [44], those who strive for perfection tend to chronically engage in overthinking to fulfill their 'perfect' standard and, as such, their intense desire to achieve this standard may cause them to have excessive mistake rumination, failure perseveration, and social comparison. We, thus, further contribute to expanding this view by examining two different types of perfectionism construct, adaptive and maladaptive, as another indicator to further explain the link between trait EI and happiness. ...
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Perfectionism or a tendency to aim for an unrealistic standard can impair happiness. However, the potential mechanisms of perfectionism to explain the association between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness are still understudied. This study explores the mediating role of perfectionism in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness among young adults. A cross-sectional sample of 259 young adults aged between 18 to 35 years old was recruited. All analyses were conducted using SPSS and AMOS Structural Equation Modeling. High trait EI was linked to low perfectionism and high happiness levels. Furthermore, perfectionism mediated the relationship between trait EI and happiness. Although high trait EI lowered maladaptive perfectionism, the negative impact of maladaptive perfectionism remained and subsequently led to decreasing happiness levels of young adults. This study offers an enhanced understanding of the role of perfectionism in explaining the happiness state of young adults. Moreover, it provides practical implications for using trait EI and managing perfectionism tendency to manage the happiness and wellbeing of the young adult population.
... Independently of insomnia, research has revealed that perfectionism, in particular the two previously mentioned dimensions concern over mistakes and socially prescribed perfectionism, is linked to a tendency to engage in counterfactual thinking and to experience counterfactual emotions (Tangney, 2002;Sirois et al., 2010;Flett et al., 2016;Stoeber and Diedenhofen, 2017). Counterfactual thinking refers to comparisons between the facts of reality (e.g., actual performance) and counterfactual imaginations of what might have been (e.g., ideal performance) (Epstude and Roese, 2008). ...
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Previous research suggests that certain dimensions of perfectionism are associated with insomnia. However, the exact processes whereby perfectionism may influence sleep have as yet remained unexplored. The present study tested the hypothesis that perfectionistic individuals are particularly prone to engage in counterfactual thinking and to experience counterfactual emotions (regret, shame, and guilt) at bedtime, which have been shown to impair sleep. One hundred eighty university students completed questionnaires on perfectionism, counterfactual processing, and insomnia severity. Analyses revealed that three dimensions of perfectionism were significantly related to insomnia severity: Concern over mistakes and doubts about action showed positive correlations, whereas organization showed a negative correlation. Moreover, the frequency of counterfactual thoughts and emotions at bedtime largely mediated the effects of these dimensions of perfectionism on insomnia severity. These findings highlight how personality-related patterns of behavior may translate into affective arousal at bedtime, thereby increasing the risk of insomnia.
... It can be inferred that increased rumination would lead to greater increases in cognitive test anxiety. As Flett et al. (2016) mentioned, the present study found a strong correlation between worry and rumination, which supports the view that cognitive test anxiety has a significant relationship with rumination. Rumination is also regarded as a key factor in psychological inflexibility among anxious students, who experience less psychological flexibility because their state of mind is focused far from the present moment . ...
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This study examined the roles of psychological inflexibility, rumination, perfectionism cognitions, cognitive defusion, and self-forgiveness in predicting cognitive test anxiety among a sample of 715 university students (351 females, 364 males). The Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale-Revised, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Ruminative Response Scale, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, Drexel Defusion Scale, State Self-Forgiveness Scale, and Demographic Information Form were used as data collection instruments. The results of Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that psychological inflexibility, rumination, perfectionism cognitions, and cognitive defusion were significant predictors of cognitive test anxiety, whereas self-forgiveness made no significant contribution to the model. The hypothesized model overall accounted for 31% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety scores, with psychological inflexibility explaining 23% of the variance in the first model, and the remaining variables accounting for an additional 8% of the variance. The strongest contribution to cognitive test anxiety was psychological inflexibility, followed by cognitive defusion, rumination and perfectionism cognitions. While psychological inflexibility, rumination, and perfectionism cognitions were found to correlate with cognitive test anxiety positively, cognitive defusion was negatively associated with cognitive test anxiety.
... Both maladaptive perfectionism and negative body image are also found to be related to individuals' anxiety, which is a highly prevalent emotional problem in sexual minorities (Cohen et al., 2016;Ploederl & Tremblay, 2015). According to the perfectionism cognition theory (PCT; Flett et al., 2016), maladaptive perfectionism can cause anxiety directly. A meta-analysis of 11 longitudinal studies demonstrated that both maladaptive perfectionism dimensions (i.e., concern over mistakes and doubts about actions) were risk factors of follow-up anxiety symptoms (Smith et al., 2018). ...
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IntroductionNonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent and serious public health concern among Chinese LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) populations, and a variety of cognitive and affective factors caused by sexual minority stress is influential in the development of NSSI. This study tested a chain mediating model to examine the roles of negative body image (i.e., a cognitive factor) and anxiety (i.e., an emotional factor) in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and NSSI. Potential gender differences on these associations were also tested.MethodsA total of 682 Chinese LGB individuals (57.8% gay men, 6.0% bisexual men, 16.0% lesbian women, and 20.2% bisexual women; mean age = 24.4 years, SD = 6.5) from across the country participated in this study in August 2020. They completed self-report measures of maladaptive perfectionism, negative body image, anxiety, and NSSI.ResultsThere were significant positive correlations among maladaptive perfectionism, negative body image, anxiety, and NSSI in Chinese LGB populations. In the chain mediation analyses, maladaptive perfectionism was indirectly related to NSSI via negative body image and anxiety. In addition, negative body image was related to anxiety only in gay males, but not in sexual minority females, and anxiety was related to NSSI more strongly in sexual minority females than in gay males.Conclusions Findings of the study contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of NSSI in Chinese sexual minorities. Maladaptive perfectionism was related to NSSI through negative body image and anxiety. Gender differences were noteworthy.Policy ImplicationsPsychological education regarding proper body image expectations may be necessary for LGB populations, and clinicians may pay special attention to gender differences when addressing related mental health problems of LGB individuals in China.
... Second, this research advances the response styles theory in the field of sustainable tourism. The theory has been predominantly applied in mental health studies to identify coping strategies to stress and negative affect (Flett et al., 2016;Rood et al., 2009); it has also been widely used to examine well-being issues of employees and their response styles (Niven et al., 2013;Rosen & Hochwarter, 2014). While tourist well-being has gained considerable attention from academia, the cognitive process to cope with their well-being threats has been rarely studied. ...
Article
While travel has long been resorted to as a pursuit for tourists’ well-being, this purpose has been brought into question by the sudden public health emergency of COVID-19, when many tourists found themselves unwelcome in a destination. This study aims to explore the psychological consequences of discriminative experiences through a survey with tourists from the epicenter in China. Building on social identity theory, a conceptual model is proposed to test how perceived discrimination during the pandemic could devastate travel-induced well-being through aroused anxious sentiment. In addition, response styles theory postulates that repetitive dwelling on negative thoughts will prolong the depressive process. The results reveal that worries over COVID-19 trigger ruminative responses to the depressive symptoms and exacerbate discrimination-induced anxiety, whereas active social media participation serves as a means of distraction to buffer the negative effects of psychological distress. The results provide a new perspective by which to view threats to travel-induced wellness, while informing tourism authorities of the buffering mechanisms during a crisis to reconcile tourist anxiety and rumination. This research contributes to sustainable tourism literature that seldom investigates the threats to well-being in public health emergencies, and it sheds light on responsible recovery of travel in the post-COVID world.
... In the case of adaptive perfectionism, mixed findings are consistent with psychological theory and existing literature [48,86]; adaptive perfectionism may confer some psychological benefits [87,88]. However, adaptive perfectionism may cease to be adaptive in people with CFS/ME, due to its correlation with maladaptive perfectionism [61]; striving to achieve standards may in fact trigger self-doubt, self-criticism and worry [61,82,89]. ...
Article
Objective High levels of depression and anxiety are experienced alongside Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Psychological causal and maintenance factors are not well-understood. Perfectionism is a multifactorial, transdiagnostic risk factor for various physical and mental health conditions. This systematic review assesses the association between perfectionism and depression and/or anxiety in people with CFS/ME. Method Systematic literature searches used a combination of terms for ‘perfectionism’, ‘depression’, ‘anxiety’ and ‘CFS/ME’. Peer-reviewed English-language papers reporting quantitative data regarding the relationship between perfectionism and depression and/or anxiety in adults (aged 18–65 years) with a clinical diagnosis of CFS/ME were included. Screening, selection and assessment of risk of bias was completed independently by two authors. Bivariate and multivariate associations between perfectionism and anxiety and depression were extracted. Data were synthesised narratively. Results Seven studies, reported in eight papers, were included. Seven examined the relationship between perfectionism and depression. Moderate-strong significant positive associations were found between depression and maladaptive perfectionism (r = 0.42 to .48, p < .01), and its component factors of concern over mistakes (r = 0.40 to .60, p < .01) and doubts about actions (r = 0.51 to .60, p < .01). Methodological limitations included sample size justification and selection, psychometric measures, and control of potential confounders. Conclusion Maladaptive perfectionism is consistently associated with depression in patients with CFS/ME. The relationship between perfectionism and anxiety is under-researched. Corroboration is required from longitudinal, cross-cultural studies. Clinical understanding may be increased through examining the interplay between maladaptive perfectionism, depression and anxiety and the physical and cognitive symptoms of CFS/ME.
... Although these findings report pharmacists views alone, their perceptions as service providers represent a breadth of 'insider' experiences which underpin their individual service provision directly. These insights are a strong reminder that pharmacist service providers are also people: their integral part in the healthcare system already requires a high level of accuracy and detail in their work [86,87], putting them at risk of developing maladaptive perfectionism and related mental illnesses [88,89]. .To avoid further work strain associated with CPS provision [1,87,[90][91][92], an effective implementation of new health services should include evidence-based support and resourcing of providers on every level. ...
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Background Australian federally-funded cognitive pharmacy services (CPS) (e.g. medication management and reconciliation services) have not been translated into practice consistently. These health services are purportedly accessible across all Australian community pharmacies, yet are not delivered as often as pharmacists would like. There are international indicators that pharmacists lack the complete behavioural control required to prioritise CPS, despite their desire to deliver them. This requires local investigation. Objective To explore Australian pharmacists’ perspectives [1] as CPS providers on the micro level, and [2] on associated meso and macro level CPS implementation issues. Methods Registered Australian community pharmacists were recruited via professional organisations and snowball sampling. Data were collected via an online demographic survey and semi-structured interviews until data saturation was reached. Interview transcripts were de-identified then verified by participants. Content analysis was performed to identify provider perspectives on the micro level. Framework analysis using RE-AIM was used to explore meso and macro implementation issues. Results Twenty-three participants across Australia gave perspectives on CPS provision. At the micro level, pharmacists did not agree on a single definition of CPS. However, they reported complexity in interactional work and patient considerations, and individual pharmacist factors that affected them when deciding whether to provide CPS. There was an overall deficiency in pharmacy workplace resources reported to be available for implementation and innovation. Use of an implementation evaluation framework suggested CPS implementation is lacking sufficient structural support, whilst reach into target population, service consistency and maintenance for CPS were not specifically considered by pharmacists. Conclusions This analysis of pharmacist CPS perspectives suggests slow uptake may be due to a lack of evidence-based, focused, multi-level implementation strategies that take ongoing pharmacist role transition into account. Sustained change may require external change management and implementation support, engagement of frontline clinicians in research, and the development of appropriate pharmacist practice models to support community pharmacists in their CPS roles. Trial registration This study was not a clinical intervention trial. It was approved by the University of Technology Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (UTS HREC 19–3417) on the 26th of April 2019.
... Indeed, currently few interventions have been validated in the field of parental burnout prevention [67]. The results of this study could inform the creation of interventions targeting risk factors such as abstract ruminations, which contribute to parental perfectionism [37,68] and maintain high depression, stress, and anxiety [69], as well as protection factors. The results of this study highlighted the role of self-compassion and concrete rumination in preventing parental burnout. ...
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The COVID-19 lockdown increased the day-to-day challenges faced by parents, and thereby may have increased parental burnout risk. Therefore, identifying parental burnout protection factors is essential. This study aimed to assess the protective role of the following factors which can be increased through mindfulness practice: trait mindfulness, self-compassion, and concrete vs. abstract ruminations. A total of 459 parents (Mage = 40; 98.7% female) completed self-reported questionnaires at two-time points to assess the predictive role of mindfulness on parental burnout, self-compassion and rumination type, and the mediating role of self-compassion and rumination type in the relation between mindfulness and parental burnout. Results showed that trait mindfulness, self-compassion, and rumination type at Time 1 predicted levels of parental burnout at Time 2. Self-compassion (indirect effects: b = − 22, 95% CI = [−38, −05], p < 0.01), concrete ruminations (indirect effects: b = −20, 95% CI = [−32, −09], p < 0.001), and abstract ruminations (indirect effects: b = −0.54, 95% CI = [−71, −37], p < 0.001) partially mediated the relation between trait-mindfulness and parental burnout. These findings showed that trait mindfulness, self-compassion, and concrete (vs. abstract) ruminations may help prevent parental burnout in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results contribute to the field of research on parental burnout prevention and will allow for the development of effective approaches to mental health promotion in parents.
... Not only does perfectionism make individuals likely to be more susceptible to physical and mental health disorders, but its perniciousness also results in decreased capacity to cope with hardship and illness (Hewitt & Flett, 2002). Due to the significant and multi-faceted negative impacts, perfectionism must be targeted for treatment, both as a primary presenting problem and as a related set of symptoms comorbid with other diagnoses (Crosby et al., 2013;Flett et al., 2016;Fry & Debats, 2009). Increased awareness of perfectionism in the clinical setting and suggestions for evidence-based treatment will provide clinicians the tools needed to assist with this far-reaching and often misunderstood affliction. ...
... Cualquiera sea la orientación, está demostrado que el perfeccionismo insano se vincula con desórdenes emocionales y sociales que perjudican la adaptación psicológica . Entre los desórdenes más estudiados se encuentran la depresión, la ansiedad, los trastornos de alimentación, la reactividad prolongada al estrés, la preocupación y rumiación cognitiva persistente, y la ideación y el comportamiento suicida Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016a;Flett, Nepon, Hewitt, & Fitzgerald, 2016b). También se ha estudiado el impacto que el perfeccionismo puede tener sobre la salud física, puntualmente sobre los desórdenes gastrointestinales, las migrañas y las enfermedades cardiovasculares (Flett, Hewitt, & Molnar, 2016). ...
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Está demostrado que el perfeccionismo insano surge en edades tempranas y tiene importantes consecuencias clínicas a largo plazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar qué se ha investigado sobre el perfeccionismo infantil en Argentina, puntualizando los avances instrumentales y teóricos que se han realizado en esta línea durante los últimos 15 años. Se consultaron diferentes bases de datos y se establecieron contactos institucionales y personales para recabar la información disponible. Se identificaron 15 trabajos empíricos sobre la temática, realizados con niños y niñas de entre 8 y 13 años de edad, pertenecientes a diferentes provincias y regiones de la República Argentina. El corpus de análisis incluyó artículos científicos publicados en revistas nacionales e internacionales, tesis de grado y posgrado, y proyectos de investigación. Las investigaciones argentinas han podido revelar qué variables del entorno familiar y qué características de los niños y niñas juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo del perfeccionismo desadaptativo, y han demostrado cómo éste perjudica el ajuste psicosocial durante la niñez, poniendo en riesgo el bienestar físico, social y emocional. En relación al ámbito diagnóstico, se registraron dos instrumentos psicométricos con probada validez y confiabilidad, y valores de referencia para establecer el perfil perfeccionista auto-orientado en niños y niñas argentinos según su edad y género.
... Co-rumination is an important constituent of the socialemotional skills set as conceptualized in our model. Given the widely demonstrated maladaptive role of rumination in the context of mental health outcomes (Flett et al., 2016), the importance of co-rumination (evidence type A) in SPR is particularly interesting due to its positive direction. Our results are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating the heterogeneity of rumination sub-constructs in terms of their roles in psychological well-being. ...
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Supportive peer relationships (SPR) are crucial for mental and physical health. Early adolescence is an especially important period in which peer influence and school environment strongly shape psychological development and maturation of core social-emotional regulatory functions. Yet, there is no integrated evidence based model of SPR in this age group to inform future research and practice. The current meta-analysis synthetizes evidence from 364 studies into an integrated model of potential determinants of SPR in early adolescence. The model encompasses links with 93 variables referring to individual (identity, skills/strengths, affect/well-being, and behavior/health) and environmental (peer group, school, family, community, and internet/technology) potential influences on SPR based on cross-sectional correlational data. Findings suggest the central importance of identity and social–emotional skills in SPR. School environment stands out as a compelling setting for future prevention programs. Finally, we underscore an alarming gap of research on the influence of the virtual and online environment on youth's social realm given its unquestionable importance as a globally expanding social interaction setting. Hence, we propose an integrated model that can serve as organizational framework, which may ultimately lead to the adoption of a more structured and integrated approach to understanding peer relationship processes in youth and contribute to overcoming marked fragmentation in the field.
... Negative cognitive consequences of perfectionism, related mainly to the level of perfectionistic concerns, include high indecisiveness, high rumination and black and white thinking, while emotional consequences include the tendency to experience anxiety, proneness to guilt (a self-conscious emotion that arises when an individual assesses his/her specific behaviour as not fulfilling personal standards; Orth et al., 2006), shame (a self-conscious emotion that results from a negative evaluation of the whole self in a situation of not fulfilling personal standards; Orth et al., 2006), and low self-esteem. According to Flett et al. (2016), this specific cognitive and emotional functioning of perfectionists translates into higher and prolonged experience of stress, which in turn leads to psychopathology and somatic health issues. In the present study, we focused specifically on whether emotional and cognitive factors related to perfectionism may also lead to poorer outcomes of identity formation processes in adulthood. ...
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Recent years have been marked by a rise in perfectionism in developed countries. Studies have shown that dimensions of perfectionism are related to the way people handle identity crises, whose successful resolution leads to finding a place within the adult community. In the present study, we aimed to show that two dimensions of perfectionism-perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns-are related to the outcomes of identity formation and that these relationships are mediated by shame and guilt-proneness, and self-esteem. A path mediation model showed that shame and self-esteem fully mediate the relationship between two dimensions of perfectionism and community-identity. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications. Firstly, they show the mechanism by which perfectionism may be related to identity stage resolution. Secondly, our results support the distinction between perfectionistic strivings expressing drive towards excellence, and perfectionistic concerns expressing fear of failure and fear of being judged in identity studies. This in turn may contribute to more fitting and nuanced psychotherapeutic interventions, as it justifies the application of psychotherapeutic tools aimed at reducing perfectionistic concerns and enhancing perfectionistic strivings.
... In this perspective, cognitive elements of trait perfectionism, such as perfectionistic cognitions and irrational beliefs (Flett, Hewitt, & Cheng, 2008;Flett, Nepon, & Hewitt, 2016) could act as possible mediators. In this study we focused on irrational beliefs, that is, illogical and rigid cognitions that are related to unrealistic demands about the self, other people, and the world in general, and that may lead to maladaptive consequences for the individual (Ellis, David, & Lynn, 2010). ...
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This study investigates the role of irrational beliefs at work in two samples of workers. The first aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an Italian adaptation of the Work-related Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire (WIB-Q; Van Wijhe, Peeters, & Schaufeli, 2013). Several confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), including multiple-group CFAs, supported the four-factor structure (i.e., performance demands, coworkers' approval, failure, and control) of the WIB-Q in both samples. Additionally, the WIB-Q showed satisfactory convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity. The second aim of this study was to test a theoretical model in which irrational beliefs at work mediate the association between two dimensions of perfectionism - self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) - and workaholism. Failure mediated the association between SOP/SPP and workaholism, whereas the mediating effect of performance demands was marginally significant. Overall, the results of this study suggest that interventions aimed at preventing workaholism should target perfectionists' work-related irrational beliefs related to failure and performance demands. © 2017 Cises Green Open Access under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International License.
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Objective: To use the biopsychosocial model and current literature to clarify conceptual underpinnings between chronic pain and perfectionism in youth, provide recommendations for assessment and treatment of co-existing perfectionism and chronic pain conditions, and suggest a research agenda. Methods: Current literature is used to identify biopsychosocial factors common between pediatric chronic pain and perfectionism, preliminary research findings are presented, and suggestions are made for research that will help inform inclusion and adaptations of assessment tools and interventions to address perfectionism. Results: Biopsychosocial factors that may contribute to the observed relationship between chronic pain and perfectionism seen in many youth are identified. For example, cognitive factors known to be associated with perfectionism (e.g., rumination) may also contribute to pain-related catastrophizing and disability. Biopsychosocial factors may serve as mediating variables between perfectionism and pain-related outcomes among youth with chronic pain and their parents. Conclusions: Research assuming a biopsychosocial perspective is needed to clarify observed links between chronic pain and perfectionism in youth. Findings related to the characterization of perfectionism in pediatric chronic pain will inform how assessment and treatment tools can better identify and address perfectionism.
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Background: Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a specific type of human thought involving mental representations of alternatives to past situations by perceiving the immediate environment from an imagined perspective. CFT problems and deficits in counterfactual inference ability are related to psychopathologies. Objective: We aimed to assess the CFT in a sample of high sociocultural-healthy women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure to determine whether exposure to different types of IPV has effects on CFT. Methods: Three hundred thirty-six women recruited the study. Data was collected by Violence Exposure Questionnaire and Counterfactual Inference Test. Results: Compared with non-victims, physical IPV victims significantly generate fewer counter-factual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. In addition, the reaction of rumination (judgemental) in response to a temporal nearly happened event was significantly lower among both physical and emotional IPV victims. Among victims, deficits in the CIT is positively correlated with the number of physical, emotional and economic abuses but the degree of correlations were weak. Discussion: We demonstrated that IPV exposure is severe in healthy women at the high socioeconomic level and is associated with the decrease in CFT ability.
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Despite clinical observation of perfectionistic tendencies among youth with chronic pain and their parents as well as established relationships between perfectionism and functional somatic symptoms in adults and youth, no research in the pediatric pain literature has examined perfectionism. This study explored the role of various types of youth and parent perfectionism on youth and parent pain-related distress and behavior and youth pain-related dysfunction. At admission, 239 parent–child pairs from outpatient and day-treatment rehabilitation settings completed several questionnaires assessing perfectionism, pain-related distress, and pain-related dysfunction. Bivariate correlations indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism in youth and parents was linked to youth pain duration, parent and youth pain-related distress and behavior, and youth somatization. Indirect relations showed that youth socially prescribed perfectionism was the only form of perfectionism directly associated with youth somatization whereas all forms of youth perfectionism were indirectly associated with somatization and functional disability through increases in youth pain-related fear and catastrophizing. Additionally, socially prescribed perfectionism was the only type of parent perfectionism linked to youth pain-related dysfunction (somatization, functional disability) through its association with youth pain-related fear. Findings support clinical observations that parent and youth perfectionism is a psychosocial factor that should be targeted in pediatric chronic pain treatment. Perspective Perfectionism in youth with chronic pain and their parents was indirectly linked to youth pain-related dysfunction through its effect on youth pain-related catastrophizing and fear. Findings support clinical observations that parent and youth perfectionism is a psychosocial factor that should be targeted in pediatric chronic pain treatment.
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Perfectionistic cognitions are thinking patterns that reflect excessive striving and are associated with emotional disorders in nonclinical samples. Despite literature connecting trait perfectionism with psychological disorders, much remains unknown about how perfectionistic cognitions relate to anxiety disorder symptoms in clinical populations. This is the first study to our knowledge that investigates how symptoms of anxiety and related symptoms are influenced by the frequency of perfectionistic cognitions when controlling for well documented correlates of anxiety. Perfectionistic cognitions, depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety symptom severity were assessed prior to starting treatment in 356 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with an anxiety or anxiety-related disorder at a specialty anxiety clinic. Perfectionistic cognitions were significantly correlated with all anxiety symptom measures as well as measures of depression, emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity (range of rs =.22-.68). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that when controlling for depressive symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and emotion regulation, perfectionistic cognitions significantly and uniquely contribute to the variance of GAD (p <.01) and PTSD (p <.05) symptoms but not other anxiety-related symptoms (all ps >.05). Regardless of specific diagnoses, treatment-seeking individuals reporting frequent perfectionistic thoughts are more likely to report more severe symptoms of PTSD and GAD.
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Extreme perfectionism has been linked with distress and dysfunction. This association is reflected by the recent development of the Big Three Perfectionism Scale (BTPS), which has superordinate trait-based scales that assess 3 broad elements—rigid, self-critical, and narcissistic perfectionism. We examined psychometric features of the BTPS as well as the links between the BTPS and indexes of distress. A sample of 602 undergraduates completed the BTPS, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, and measures of social anxiety and depression. Support was obtained for the psychometric qualities of the BTPS. All 3 superordinate trait factors were associated with social anxiety and depression. Analyses also established that rigid perfectionism, self-critical perfectionism, and narcissistic perfectionism are associated with perfectionistic cognitions and perfectionistic self-presentation. In addition, the results of a series of regression analyses established that perfectionistic self-presentation and perfectionistic cognitions accounted for significant unique variance in distress beyond the variance attributable to rigid, narcissistic, and self-critical perfectionism. Overall, our results suggest that the BTPS has significant promise as a predictor of various forms of dysfunction, but the cognitive and self-presentational aspects of the perfectionism construct are also uniquely relevant and not redundant with the BTPS superordinate trait factors
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The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) is one of the most popular questionnaires for measuring perfectionism. Although this scale is in common use, its psychometric parameters still remain in dispute. The aimof this article is to present the Polish adaptation of the FMPS in a non-clinical sample. 696 university students aged 18 to 42 (M= 26.74, SD = 7.56) took part in the study. Confirmatory Factor Analyses suggested that the most appropriate factor structure of the adapted version of the FMPS contains 5 correlated factors: CM (concerns over mistakes), DAA (doubts about actions), PE (parental expectations), PC (parental criticism), and PS (personal standards). TheORG (organization) subscalewas removed after evaluation. The evaluation of the specific relationships of each dimension of the adapted version of the FMPS with shame, guilt, worry, rumination, and indecisiveness revealed that when controlling for the variances of the remaining dimensions, significant relationships occurred almost only in the case of the CM, DAA and PS scales, suggesting that they constitute the three core facets of perfectionism as measured by the FMPS.
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Perfectionistic automatic thoughts have been linked with depressive symptoms in numerous cross-sectional studies, but this link has not been assessed in longitudinal research. An investigation with two timepoints was conducted to test whether perfectionistic automatic thoughts, as assessed by the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI), are contributors to subsequent depression or vice versa. The possible role of a third factor (major life events stress) was also evaluated. A sample of 118 university students completed the PCI, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Life Experiences Survey on two occasions with a 5-month interval. A cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling showed that above and beyond within-time associations and across-time stability effects, perfectionism automatic thoughts contributed to subsequent depressive symptoms and not vice versa. Negative life events stress was correlated significantly with both depressive symptoms and perfectionism automatic thoughts but did not have an influence on Time 2 depressive symptoms or on perfectionistic automatic thoughts. Our discussion focuses on perfectionistic automatic thoughts as a contributor to depressive vulnerability according to the perfectionism cognition theory.
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Research on the dark triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) is increasingly focusing on the functional or dysfunctional influences of personality traits on cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses. Thus, studies in sport contexts have shown that athletes who participate in competitive sports have higher scores in the dark triad than those who do not. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to evaluate the linear and predictive relationships between dark traits and competitiveness (p < .05), as well as to identify any differences based on sports orientation (professionals vs. amateurs). Scales SD3 (dark personality) and C-10 (competitiveness) were applied to a sample of Spanish athletes (N = 806). The results show that competitiveness is strongly related to the traits of the dark personality triad. Narcissism is related to both the desire to win and the fear of losing, while Machiavellian tendencies are high when athletes feel like losers. Finally, psychopathic tendencies are related to feelings of inferiority and fear of failure. In conclusion, the results suggest that dark personality traits are related not only to the individuality of the athletes, but also to the self-perception of both their psychological response and the competitiveness of their sporting environment.
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The aims of our study were to test the role of stress in explaining the links between multidimensional perfectionism and sleep quality and to replicate our findings with two distinct samples and two different measures of perfectionism. Sample 1 included 335 Canadian undergraduate students (n = 276 women, Mage = 21.7 years, SD = 4.9) who completed surveys assessing perfectionism via the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Sample 2 included 296 American adults recruited from MTurk (n = 141 women, Mage = 34.8 years, SD = 9.8) who completed surveys measuring multidimensional perfectionism with the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Path analyses in both samples indicated that PS was related to better sleep via lower levels of stress whereas PC was associated with poorer sleep via higher levels of stress. There was no support for treating stress as a moderating factor of the association between perfectionism and sleep. Our findings substantiate that from a multidimensional perspective, trait perfectionism is both positively and negatively associated with sleep and further underscores the value of examining the role of perceived stress in understanding how multidimensional trait perfectionism contributes to sleep.
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Introduction Anxiety and perfectionism affect academic success of college students. Mindfulness is associated with decrease anxiety and perfectionism among college students. Objective This study evaluates the mediating role of dispositional mindfulness on the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and anxiety in first year college students. Method The subjects, 283 first year college students (59.5% girls), completed self-reported measures of anxiety, perfectionism and dispositional mindfulness. Results Our results show that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with greater anxiety, and a higher dispositional mindfulness score is associated with less anxiety symptoms. Also, mindfulness mediates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety symptoms, especially in girls. When the shared variance of maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism is statistically controlled, adaptive perfectionism is associated with anxiety symptoms in boys and mindfulness in girls. Conclusion This study confirms the mediating role of mindfulness on the relation between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety. Gender differences, limits of the mindfulness measure and future research are discussed.
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Psychological reactions to pandemics and their constraints depend heavily on personality. Although perfectionism is consistently associated to depression, anxiety and stress, its role in the pandemics’ psychological impact has not been yet empirically studied. Our aim was to analyze the role of perfectionism in psychological distress during the pandemic of COVID-19, testing whether it is mediated by fear of COVID-19 and repetitive negative thinking/RNT. Participants (N=413 adults; 269.2% women) were recruited from September until December 2020, via social networks. They completed self-report validated questionnaires to evaluate perfectionism dimensions (self-critical, rigid and narcissistic perfectionism), fear of COVID-19, RNT and psychological distress (sum of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms). As women had significantly higher levels of self-critical perfectionism, RNT, fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress, gender was controlled in mediation analysis. The three perfectionism dimensions correlated with RNT, fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress. The effect of self-critical perfectionism on psychological distress was partially mediated by fear of COVID-19 and RNT whereas the effect of rigid and narcissistic perfectionism was fully mediated. Perfectionism influences emotional and cognitive responses to the COVID-19 and therefore should be considered both in the prevention and psychological consequences of the pandemic.
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The present work tries to describe the relationships among perfectionism, dark traits of personality, and exercise addiction and according to highly intense sports. Following research on perfectionism in sport, its dysfunctional facet is based on a continuous and negative cognitive-evaluative judgement about the difficulties to achieve the accomplishment of tasks or behaviors that improve their sport performance, describing how athletes configure altered thoughts or cognitive resources in their sport experiences. The Spanish versions of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Short Dark Triad Scale, and the Exercise Addiction Inventory were applied in a sample of 462 Spanish amateur athletes (39.6% women and 60.4% men). The findings show that a more maladaptive perfectionist pattern (concern over mistakes and external criticism) is related to higher levels of dark personality traits and a greater risk of exercise addiction. However, there are no differences between runners and CrossFit users on the subject of perfectionism, dark traits, and exercise addiction scores.
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In recent years, the study of perfectionistic automatic thoughts (PAT) has increased given its maladaptive nature since it is link to numerous psychological disorders. From our knowledge, no previous research has addressed the relationship between PAT and the four components of aggressive behavior (anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression. This study had a double goal. The first aim was to identify distinct profiles of PAT in a sample of 3060 Ecuadorian undergraduates (Mage=22.7, SD = 2.46. The second aim of this study was to determine whether or not statistically significant differences exist between these profiles, based on the four components of aggressive behavior. The Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were used. Five profiles with different intensities in the dimensions of perfectionistic automatic thoughts were identified by Latent Class Analysis (1. No-Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, 2. Low Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, 3. High Perfectionistic Demands, 4. Moderate Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, and 5. High Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts). The moderate and high perfectionistic automatic thoughts profiles obtained the highest mean scores for all components of aggressive behavior (i.e., the four factors that make up AQ: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility), while the No-perfectionistic automatic thoughts and Low perfectionistic automatic thoughts profiles had the lowest mean scores. These results provide new knowledge about the prevalence of PAT in the context of Ecuador. Also, they suggest further research on the topic given the positive relationship of PAT and aggressive behavior.
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Past research has primarily focused on the main effect of perfectionism on worry among children and neglected potential moderating processes. The purpose of the present study is to examine the moderating effects of mothers’ parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles) in the association between self-oriented perfectionism and worry among children in Hong Kong. This study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 292 children (142 female, 48.6%) aged between 8–12 years (M = 9.60, SD = 0.68) completed a self-report questionnaire. The results of a hierarchical moderated regression analysis revealed that mothers’ authoritative and permissive parenting styles significantly moderated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and worry. Specifically, mothers’ authoritative parenting exhibited a buffering effect while mothers’ permissive parenting exhibited a strengthening effect. No significant moderating effect was found for mothers’ authoritarian parenting. These findings suggest that interventions targeting authoritative parenting practices may be effective in ameliorating the impact of children’s self-oriented perfectionism on worry.
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The current research extends previous theory and research on perfectionism and motivation by showing that perfectionism involves a propensity to pursue self-image goals. It was shown across three studies that dimensions of trait and self-presentational perfectionism were associated with self-image goals in the areas of academics, friendships, and self-improvement. These associations were not simply a reflection of the variance attributable to constructs associated with perfectionism such as self-silencing or self-consciousness. Further, validation seeking mediated the association between perfectionism and self-image goals. Additionally, self-image goals mediated the associations that perfectionism has with depression and burnout. Our findings suggest that perfectionists operate according to a chronically activated “egosystem” and their preoccupation with self-image concerns is central to understanding the compulsive striving and pressure they experience.
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Our article reviews and celebrates Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's remarkable contributions to psychological and clinical science, focusing on her vast body of theoretical and empirical work and her influence on colleagues and students. Susan spent her career trying to understand how and why a style of regulating emotions called rumination increases vulnerability to depression and exacerbates and perpetuates negative moods. More broadly, we describe research by Susan and her colleagues on the predictors of depression in childhood and adolescence; gender differences in depression and rumination in adolescence and adulthood; roots, correlates, and adverse consequences of ruminative response styles; and rumination as a transdiagnostic risk factor for not only depression but also a host of psychological disorders, including anxiety, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Susan's intellectual legacy is evident in her impressive publication and citation record, the clinical applications of her work, and the flourishing careers of the students she mentored. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 11 is March 28, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Perfectionism serves as a mediator in the relationship between difficult life experiences and psychological distress, but to date no research has examined the effect of recalled peer victimization on perfectionism and adult depressive symptomatology (DS). The present study assessed the Social Reaction Model of Perfectionism (SRMP; Flett, Hewitt, Oliver, & Macdonald (2002b). Perfectionism in children and their parents: A developmental analysis. In G. L. Flett and P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 89–132). Washington: American Psychological Association), which proposes that perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism) results from harsh experiences. This may include experiences of peer victimization (physical, verbal and indirect). The model was extended to also include adult DS and rumination (brooding and reflection). Self-report questionnaires measuring recalled childhood experiences of peer victimization (Owens, Daly, & Slee (2005). Aggressive Behavior, 31, 1–12. doi: 10.1002/ab.20045), current trait perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.60.3.456), rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115) and DS (Radloff (1977). Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 386–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306) were completed by 338 adult participants (54% female). Path-analyses revealed recalled indirect victimization to be associated with adults' self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. However, only socially prescribed perfectionism mediated the relation between recalled indirect victimization and adult DS. Brooding rumination also mediated the effect of socially prescribed perfectionism upon DS. The findings support the SRMP, and extend the theory to include the effects of perfectionism on rumination and DS. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–11, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioral expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However, this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression). The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N = 101) were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett–Clark Pleasure Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing, and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC) and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI) to each picture were recorded. Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity, and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.
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The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD.
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Rumination has been robustly implicated in the onset and maintenance of depression. However, despite empirically well-supported theories of the consequences of trait rumination (response styles theory; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991), and of the processes underlying state episodes of goal-oriented repetitive thought (control theory; Martin & Tesser, 1989, 1996), the relationship between these theories remains unresolved. Further, less theoretical and clinical attention has been paid to the maintenance and treatment of trait depressive rumination. We propose that conceptualizing rumination as a mental habit (Hertel, 2004) helps to address these issues. Elaborating on this account, we propose a framework linking the response styles and control theories via a theoretical approach to the relationship between habits and goals (Wood & Neal, 2007). In this model, with repetition in the same context, episodes of self-focused repetitive thought triggered by goal discrepancies can become habitual, through a process of automatic association between the behavioral response (i.e., repetitive thinking) and any context that occurs repeatedly with performance of the behavior (e.g., physical location, mood), and in which the repetitive thought is contingent on the stimulus context. When the contingent response involves a passive focus on negative content and abstract construal, the habit of depressive rumination is acquired. Such habitual rumination is cued by context independent of goals and is resistant to change. This habit framework has clear treatment implications and generates novel testable predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: Blunted blood pressure (BP) dipping during nighttime sleep has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Psychological traits have been associated with prolonged cardiovascular activation and a lack of cardiovascular recovery. This activation may extend into nighttime sleep and reduce BP dipping. Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the association between trait rumination and nighttime BP dipping. Methods: Sixty women scoring either high or low on trait rumination underwent one 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring session. Self-reported wake and sleep times were used to calculate nighttime BP. Results: High trait rumination was associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) dipping relative to low trait rumination. Awake ambulatory BP, asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP, and asleep SBP dipping were not associated with trait rumination. Conclusions: In a sample of young women, high trait rumination was associated with less DBP dipping, suggesting that it may be associated with prolonged cardiovascular activation that extends into nighttime sleep, blunting BP dipping.
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The authors review the role of cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in the relationship between maladaptive aspects of perfectionism and psychological distress. A brief introduction to the concept of perfectionism is made, giving particular relevance to its multidimensional nature that encompasses positive and negative aspects. The later facets and its relationship with a broad range of psychopathological conditions are emphasized. The main cognitive processes and cognitions underlying perfectionist behavior and its negative emotional consequences are analyzed. Special importance is given to the role of repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and how this cognitive process mediates the relationship between perfectionism and psychological distress. The authors propose a multilevel cognitive model in which the metacognitive beliefs about the value of RNT may explain the onset and maintenance of the cognitive mechanisms involved in perfectionism and its relationship with emotional disturbances. In this context, it is important to develop and test this model empirically, with instruments designed to investigate the metacognitive processes in-volved in perfectionism. The clinical implications resulting from this model would be the development of cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to address levels of psychological distress across the many perfectionism-related disorders, focused directly on controlling levels of RNT (worry/rumination) and managing symptoms of anxiety and depression.
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There is much evidence to suggest that rumination and dysphoria share a close relationship. The tendency to ruminate is considered a stable individual difference, reflecting variation in repetitive thoughts concerning the causes and consequences of distress. In the present study, we evaluated the veracity of a proposed distinction between 2 hypothetical dimensions of ruminative tendency, which plausibly represent dissociable facets of dispositional rumination, and whose interactive influence may make a particularly strong contribution to dysphoria. These dimensions are ruminative onset, the probability of experiencing ruminative symptoms when feeling upset, and ruminative persistence, the continuation of ruminative symptoms once initiated. The findings indicate that ruminative onset and ruminative persistence do indeed represent dissociable dimensions of ruminative disposition. Furthermore, as hypothesized, it is the interaction between these 2 facets of rumination that makes the greatest contribution to the prediction of variance in dysphoria. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: To date no research has investigated the link between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and perfectionism in a clinical sample. Aims: The aim of the current study was to examine whether there is a relationship between PTSD and perfectionism. This is important to address as many studies have demonstrated a link between other anxiety disorders, eating disorders, depression and perfectionism. The research also aimed to examine whether rumination was a mediator of the relationship between PTSD and perfectionism. Method: The sample consisted of 30 participants who were currently in treatment for PTSD. Results: The results suggest that perfectionism and PTSD symptoms were significantly correlated. In addition, rumination was a significant mediator of the relationship between Concern over Mistakes and PTSD. Conclusions: These findings help increase understanding about the relationships of perfectionism and rumination in PTSD and have implications for the treatment of PTSD.
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It has been argued that a negative view of the future characterised by impaired positive future thinking is associated with increased hopelessness and suicide risk (e.g., MacLeod & Moore, 2000). Hence, the central focus of the two studies reported in this paper was to extend our knowledge of positive future thinking by investigating its relationship with established suicide risk factors: stress, perfectionism, and hopelessness. Study 1 demonstrates, for the first time, that positive future thinking moderates the relationship between stress and hopelessness. The findings of Study 2 replicated those found in Study 1 and they also supported the notion that perfectionism is best understood as a multidimensional construct and that its relationship with future thinking and hopelessness is not straightforward. The results are also discussed in terms of the relationship between the structure of affect and motivational systems.
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The current study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, negative social feedback, interpersonal rumination, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. New measures of negative social feedback and interpersonal rumination were used to evaluate their relevance to the social aspects of perfectionism and their roles in distress. A sample of 155 undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Social Feedback Questionnaire, Rumination About an Interpersonal Offense, and measures of depressive symptoms and social anxiety. The results confirmed that socially prescribed perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation were associated significantly with negative social feedback and rumination following interpersonal events (i.e., being hurt, humiliated, mistreated). Also, depressive symptoms and social anxiety were associated significantly with negative social feedback, interpersonal rumination, trait perfectionism, and perfectionistic self-presentation. Additional analyses indicated that negative social feedback and interpersonal rumination mediated the links between components of the perfectionism construct and distress. Overall, our findings suggest that self-reported receipt of frequent negative feedback from others and engaging in rumination about an interpersonal event play important roles in the distress experienced by certain individuals with high levels of perfectionism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested whether perfectionism dimensions uniquely predict chronic unipolar and chronic bipolar symptoms. A sample of 121 patients and former patients (mean age 46.1 yrs) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the General Behavior Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The results confirm that the perfectionism dimensions are related to chronicity of depression symptoms. Whereas self-oriented perfectionism was uniquely associated only with chronic unipolar symptoms, both socially prescribed and other-oriented perfectionism were uniquely associated with chronic bipolar symptoms. Importantly, these relationships remained significant after controlling for the effects of concurrent state depression. Finally, only socially prescribed perfectionism was uniquely associated with state depression. The results provide support for the position that perfectionism dimensions are important in both chronic. and state depression symptoms, but the perfectionism dimensions may differ in terms of their degree of association with various facets of depressive phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous perfectionism measures have not been evaluated for use with clinical samples. This research examined the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), a 45-item measure of self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Study 1 provided normative data for various patient groups and demonstrated the stability of the MPS subscales in psychiatric patients. Study 2 showed that the MPS subscales have adequate concurrent validity, are not influenced by response biases, and that the items require a Grade 6–7 reading level. Overall, the MPS appears to be a useful measure for individuals with various clinical disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes the development of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and data exploring the reliability and construct validity of the subscales are provided. 809 college students (aged 17-43 yrs) participated. The results support the existence of 3 subscales with adequate internal consistencies and promising relationships with other relevant measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) involves excessive or unrealistic anxiety and worry over multiple life circumstances, with accompanying symptoms of autonomic hyperactivity, motor tension, and vigilance and scanning (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987). From a cognitive-behavioral perspective, the disorder represents perhaps the most diffuse and complex cognitive/ affective state among the anxiety disorders (Barlow, 1988). To the person with GAD, the world and especially the future are seen as dangerous much of the time, and the individual feels that he or she does not have resources to cope. A vicious cycle of threat cue detection (Mathews, in press), a mixture of somatic activation and inhibition (Borkovec, Shadick, & Hopkins, in press), and worrisome thought activity (Borkovec & Inz, 1990) perpetuates habitual anxious responding.
Chapter
Depression is a disorder of the entire psychobiologic system including the emotions, thoughts, behaviors, and somatic functions. The emotional component is characterized by a blue mood involving feelings of sadness, anhedonia, guilt, irritability, and despair. The somatic symptoms include hypochrondriasis, insomnia or hypersomnia, weight gain or loss, constipation or diarrhea, fatigue, and decreased libido. The behavioral changes are characterized by passivity, lethargy, inactivity, social isolation, withdrawal from work, and avoidance of pleasurable activities.
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First, a word about “neuropsychology.” This term has commonly been used in a quite restricted sense to delineate that part of psychology which is concerned with the study, in human beings, of the effects of known (even if often poorly known) structural damage to the brain. I use “neuropsychology,” in contrast, in a much wider sense, as in my book, The Neuropsychology of Anxiety (Gray, 1982a), to mean the study, quite generally, of the role played by the brain in behavioral and psychological function, whether in human or animal subjects, and whether there is structural damage to the brain or not. Since I also take it as axiomatic (and few would, I think, disagree with the axiom) that all behavioral and psychological function depends upon the activities of the brain, it follows that “neuropsychology” has a breadth which shadows that of “psychology” itself: if there is a psychology of hunger, intelligence, love, or learning French, then there is ipso facto a neuropsychology of the same.
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Some emotions last longer than others. However, duration differences have only been explored for a small number of emotions and the observed differences have not been explained. The aim of the present study is to provide a detailed picture of variability in duration between emotions and to account for this variability. Participants were asked to recollect recent emotional episodes, report their duration, and answer questions regarding appraisals and regulation strategies. Out of 27 emotions, sadness lasted the longest, whereas shame, surprise, fear, disgust, boredom, being touched, irritation, and relief were the shortest emotions. One appraisal dimension and one regulation strategy accounted for almost half of the variability in duration between emotions. In particular, compared to short emotions, persistent emotions are typically elicited by events of high importance, and are associated with high levels of rumination. This conclusion holds across emotion duration definitions, and remains valid when taking emotion recency and intensity into account.
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Socially anxious individuals tend to have elevated levels of perfectionism and engage in excessive rumination following social situations. The present research aimed to examine perfectionism, in both state and trait forms, as a predictor of post-event rumination. Socially anxious students (N = 104) completed measures of trait perfectionism prior to, and state perfectionism following, an anxiety inducing speech task. Post-event rumination was assessed 2 days later. State and trait perfectionism were significant predictors of post-event rumination (2 days later), while controlling for baseline social anxiety, depression and state anxiety. These results support the need to target perfectionism in treatments for social anxiety disorder.
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The present study aimed to examine how perfectionism is contributing to social anxiety and its cognitive processes of post-event rumination and self-perception of performance following a speech task. Forty-eight undergraduate students completed measures of perfectionism and trait social anxiety prior to performing a 3-min impromptu speech task. Immediately following the speech task, participants rated their state anxiety and self-perception of performance, and 24 hr later, their level of post-event rumination was measured. Structural equation modelling revealed that perfectionism, in the form of socially prescribed perfectionism and doubts about actions, directly influences trait social anxiety, and indirectly influences post-event rumination and self-perception of performance through its relationship with trait social anxiety and state anxiety. This is the first study to investigate how perfectionism is contributing to social anxiety and its cognitive processes. The findings of this study provide evidence in support of the potential predictive role of perfectionism in social anxiety.
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In the current article, we comment on a recent article by Stoeber, Kobori, and Brown that provided evidence suggesting that a multidimensional approach to perfectionistic cognitions is superior to a unidimensional approach in predicting maladjustment. They also showed with their data from a university student sample that our Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory has multiple factors in contrast to our unidimensional approach. Our commentary focuses primarily on the issue of whether the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory should be considered unidimensional versus multidimensional and outlines concerns about how perfectionism cognition factors should be used and interpreted. Although there are serious interpretive problems inherent in existing multidimensional measures of perfectionism cognitions, it is apparent that a cognitive approach is an important and viable supplement to the extensive focus on the trait multidimensional perfectionism that is currently in vogue. We conclude by discussing the potential clinical uses of cognitive assessments of perfectionism.
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Our objective was to analyze the relationships between Repetitive negative thinking (RNT), perfectionism and psychological distress. Specifically we wanted to test if RNT mediates the relationship between perfectionism and psychological distress. 788 college students completed self-report questionnaires to evaluate perfectionism trait dimensions [Evaluative concerns (EC) and Positive strivings (PS)], RNT dimensions [Repetitive thinking (RT) and Cognitive interference and unproductivity (CIU)], perceived stress, and perceived support. Psychological distress was measured with the Profile of Mood States subscales: Depression (D), Tension–anxiety (TA), Anger–hostility (AH), Fatigue–inertia (FI) and Vigor–anxiety (VA). After controlling for perceived stress and support, perfectionism dimensions and RNT (particularly CIU) remained a significant predictors of psychological distress. CIU was a partial mediator of the relationship between EC and D, TA, AH, FI and VA and a full mediator of the relationship of PS with D and FI. Whereas the effect of negative perfectionism on emotional disturbances was potentiated by RNT, PS was only associated to it when high levels of RNT were also present. Showing that Positive striving effects on psychological distress may be a function of specific mediators, these results contribute to a better understanding of the nature of positive perfectionism.