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Multipurpose Uses of Bamboo Plants: A Review

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Multipurpose Uses of Bamboo Plants: A Review

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This review paper discusses the versatile uses of bamboo grass plant. Bamboo plants have some useful properties and having lot of beneficiary uses; these are using as pillar, fencing, housing, house hold products, raw materials of crafts, pulp, paper, boards, fabrics industry, fuel, fodder etc. The shoot of young bamboo grass can be processed into various delicious healthy foods and sometimes uses as medicines. Young bamboo shoot is usually consumed as vegetable in curry and also as pickle. The nutritional value of bamboo shoots varies by species to species, harvesting procedure and growing environment. Bamboos also utilized in different areas as herbal or traditional treatments.
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ___________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(12), 57-60, December (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 57
Review Paper
Multipurpose Uses of Bamboo Plants: A Review
Hossain M.F.
1
*, Islam M.A.
2
and Numan S.M.
3
1
School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, BANGLADESH
2
School of Education, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, BANGLADESH
3
School of Science and Technology, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, BANGLADESH
Available online at: www.isca.in, www.isca.me
Received 19
th
September 2015, revised 25
th
October 2015, accepted 21
st
November 2015
Abstract
This review paper discusses the versatile uses of bamboo grass plant. Bamboo plants have some useful properties and having
lot of beneficiary uses; these are using as pillar, fencing, housing, house hold products, raw materials of crafts, pulp, paper,
boards, fabrics industry, fuel, fodder etc. The shoot of young bamboo grass can be processed into various delicious healthy
foods and sometimes uses as medicines. Young bamboo shoot is usually consumed as vegetable in curry and also as pickle.
The nutritional value of bamboo shoots varies by species to species, harvesting procedure and growing environment.
Bamboos also utilized in different areas as herbal or traditional treatments.
Keywords: Bamboo, importance, medicinal value, food value, Bangladesh.
Introduction
Bamboos is a large woody grasses that belonging to the family
Poaceae. This ancient woody grass widely found in tropical,
subtropical and mild temperate zones of the world. It is a
tremendously diverse plant, which have the capacity to adapt
any extreme climatic and soil conditions. There are about 90
genera and about 1200 species of bamboo found in the world.
Most of the bamboos are found in forestry and it also widely
spread outside forests usually farmlands, riverbanks, roadsides
and rural areas. Bamboo is a long stick like non-wood forest
product and sometimes used as wood substitute. Moreover, as it
is found any regions of the world and plays an important
economic role. Even though it is used for housing, crafts, pulp,
paper, panels, boards, veneer, flooring, roofing, fabrics and
vegetable (the bamboo shoot). Products of bamboos are using
everywhere and bamboo industries are now thriving in Asia and
are quickly expanding across the continents to Africa and
America
1
.
In Bangladesh, there are 26 species of bamboo under seven
genera including natural and cultivated exotics
2
. Bamboo has lot
of beneficial impact for alleviating many of the social and
environmental problems in many countries
3
. It has been act as
natural protection of environment restoration and in the
production of household handicrafts, arte facts and furniture.
Bamboo product like bamboo-ply, laminated boards, flooring,
roofing sheets, props and many others, have been key wood
substitutes of bamboo in the construction and fencing industry
world-wide. Moreover, it also used as medicines, food,
charcoal, vinegar, beverages, natural pesticides, and toiletries
4
.
It is utilized as wood in construction work, furniture, utensils,
fibre and paper. Bamboo charcoal produces three times as
porous as wood and releases more energy and gives us huge fuel
backup. Bamboo shoots are also delicious to eat and the young
leaves provide feedstuff for animals
5
. It is a likely demanding
species and mostly occurs in pure stands, also mixed with other
vegetation
6
. The shoots from stem develop during the pre-
monsoon and grow during the rainy season. Elongation of the
bamboo plant takes place during the rainy season and it
continues still the post rainy season
7
. Lack of reliable,
comprehensive data on bamboo resources and utilization
hampers their sustainable development and limits their potential
to contribute to poverty reduction
1
. However, the using
potentiality of bamboo remains unexploited. Literature on the
nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce.
Uses as food
A bamboo shoot is the new gentle growth of the stem apex into
a young culm consisting of compressed internodes sheltered by
a number of leathery sheaths. The shoots are usually harvested
when they attain the height of 15-16 cm. After eliminating the
fibrous sheaths the inner tender portion or meat has been
thoroughly washed in water and then cut into pieces. The pieces
are usually eaten as vegetable components in curry or soup by
mixing with fish or meat and also as pickle. Shoots of both
running (monopodial) and clump forming (sympodial) bamboos
are utilized as food. In Northern China and Japan, the
monopodial bamboo species such as phyllostachys edulis, p.
mitis, p. pubescens are most common and prepared delicious
bamboo shoot
8
. However, plantation of bamboo should be
encouraged and promoted due to their high value, productivity,
uniformity of crop, choice of species linked to peoples’ and
industrial need. It is estimated that bamboo plants constitutes
about 13% of the total forest area of the India. About 50% of
Research Journal of Biological Sciences ___________________________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(12), 57-60, December (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 58
bamboo produced in North Eastern region and West Bengal of
India. It is also estimated that India has the second largest
bamboo reserves in the world after China
9
. Various palatable
species and interesting food products (fermented shoots, pickle,
etc.) and guidelines of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo
cookies) are consumed all over the world. Different species of
bamboo shoots have varieties of nutritional composition.
Bamboo shoot used as food in traditional ways by the tribal
community the in deferent countries. Bamboo shoots are used
as a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories for
human being
10
. Bamboo shoots contain high protein but less fat,
moderate dietary fiber, having essential amino acids, selenium,
potassium, a potent antioxidant and minerals for healthy heart.
Besides all the versatile uses of bamboo, people has been using
shoots of this plant as one of his food items since prehistoric
days when they were ignorant about vegetable growing. Young
shoots of several species of bamboo are used as important
vegetable in the daily meals in China, Japan, Taiwan and
Thailand. These young bamboo shoots have been considered as
gourmet items in the western world where these are available
only as imported canned products
8
. They can be stir-fried alone
or mixed with other vegetables with or without meat and with
very little oil. Bamboo juice is also used in recipes. To get some
delicious effect, it needs to extract moisture from the roots,
particularly those that are a little sweet
11
. Soft drink, bamboo
wine also prepared from bamboo shoot
12
. Moreover, nutritional
value of bamboo shoots is different between species and within
the same species based on local conditions. Generally the
nutritional values are more or less similar. Nutritional value for
bamboo shoots, cooked, boiled, with salt bamboo shoots is rich
and they contains about 18 amino acids
13
and it also contains
96% moisture
14
.
Uses as medicine
From the ancient and using the traditional knowledge,
pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt,
bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts are using to control diabetes
and keep the cholesterol level within normal limit
15
. Bamboos
and bamboos extract has been utilized in Korea for traditional
treatment to relieve hypertension, sweating and paralysis. It has
been established that bamboo extract have antioxidant activities
and anti-inflammatory effects
16, 17
. Bambusa arundinacea is
highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal plant. Various parts of this
plant such as leaf, root, shoot and seed possess anti-
inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anthelmintic
and astringent activity. Various phyto-pharmacological
evaluations have been reported for the important potential of the
Bambusa arundinacea
18
. The root (burnt root) is applied to
ringworm, bleeding gums and arthritis. Bark is used for skin
eruptions. Leaf has a property of antileprotic and
anticoagulation activities that can be used in haemoptysis
19
.
Seeds are acrid, laxative, said to be beneficial in strangury and
urinary discharges
20
. The combination of herbal product
(methanol extract of Bambusa arundinacea) with modern
medicine (NSAIAs) will produce the best anti-inflammatory
drug and will be useful for long-term treatment of chronic
inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis with peptic
ulcer
21
. Bambusa arundinacea seed has shown statistically
significant anti-diabetic activity as like the standard
glibenclamide
22
. Furthermore, bamboo-derived pyrolyzates have
been proposed to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities
23
and to protect neurons from oxidative stress
24
. Bamboo extract
pyrolyzates may have anti-apoptotic effects and can be useful as
a supplement for ischemic injury treatment
25
. The tender shoots
of Bambusa bambos are reported to enhance appetite and help in
digestion. Buds of Bambusa bambos are reported to have
estrogenic activity. Extract of the bud has shown antifertility
activity in rats
26
and very soft shoots of this species are used for
birth control
27
in north Lakhimpur, Assam, India. It is also
reported that bamboo shoots have cancer prevention properties
and effective in decreasing blood pressure, cholesterol and
increasing appetite
28
. Bambusa bambose L. leaves extract
possess broad spectrum antibacterial properties and can be used
for the most common bacterial diseases. These promissory
extracts open the possibility of new clinically effective
antibacterial compounds
29
. Modern research has revealed that
bamboo shoots have a number of health benefits such as:
improving appetite and digestion, weight loss, curing
cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant activities and anti-
inflammatory effects
30
.
Chemical compositions
The different parts of this plant contain silica, cholin, betain,
cynogenetic glycosides, albuminoids, oxalic acid, reducing
sugar, resins, waxes, benzoic acid, arginine, cysteine, histidine,
niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, protein, gluteline, lysine,
methionine, proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, urease
18
. The
silicious substance found inside the bud joint and it is white
camphor like crystalline in appearance, slightly sticky to the
tongue and sweet in taste
31,32
. Moreover, shoot has active
constituents those are oxalic acid, reducing sugar, resins, waxes,
HCN, benzoic acid
33
. Seed contain arginine, cysteine, histidine,
isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylamine, threonine,
valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine. Similarly,
leaves mainly contain protein, gluteline, lysine, methionine,
betain, cholin, proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, urease
34
. It has
been noted that the bamboo plant has unusually high levels of
acetylcholine (which acts as a neurotransmitter in animals and
humans; its role in plants is as yet unknown), especially in some
portions of the plant (e.g., upper part of the bamboo shoot)
35
.
Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw
shoots, and it have harmful effect on human health calls for the
demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to
eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient
reserve
15
.
Conclusion
Bamboo plant usually uses for making houses in sub-urban and
rural areas. It is also, used as raw materials of different house
Research Journal of Biological Sciences ___________________________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(12), 57-60, December (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 59
hold products, production of paper and useful handicrafts.
Bamboo shoot has been suing one of the delicious vegetable in
different countries. Research has revealed that bamboo shoots
have a number of health benefits. So, it is necessary to promote
bamboo cultivation through appropriate methods. As well as
verify the impacts of the plants extract in human body as
traditional medicine by using modern technology for further
recommendation.
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... Bambusa arundinacea leaf extract has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiulcer, and anthelmintic properties, which have led to its use in phytopharmaceuticals. The burned root and bark of bamboo are used to treat arthritis, bleeding gums, and skin eruptions, respectively [50,67]. The leaves and seeds of the bamboo plant are used to treat hemoptysis (anticoagulation) and urinary discharges. ...
... The leaves and seeds of the bamboo plant are used to treat hemoptysis (anticoagulation) and urinary discharges. The pyrolyze extract of Bambusa bambos has antimicrobial and antifungal activity, which protects neurons from oxidative stress and aids digestion and appetite stimulation [67]. Phyllostachys nigra has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-kBinduced gene expression, which also helps reduce cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein and aids in weight loss. ...
... A bamboo shoot develops a young culm composed of leathery sheaths compressed within internodes, which are harvested at 15-16 cm heights, and the internal portion can be washed and used as a food source after removing the fibrous sheath. Phyllostachys edulis and Phyllostachys pubescens are most commonly used to prepare various dishes [67]. A study examined Dendrocalamus asper as young shoot fiber culm flour used in food applications and discovered that it contains 67-79 g of fiber per 100 g. ...
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... The therapeutic application of plant products and parts of plant known since ancient period as traditional medicine (Singh et al., 2020a, b) [34] . This traditional knowledge of ethnomedicine and socioeconomic values of native wild plants have been handed down from one generation to the next by spoken word and through lifestyle (Hossain et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2019) [18,31] . The bamboos are applicable in cure of various digestive system disorders, haematuria, fever, after birth complication in women (Tangjitman et al., 2015;Chaudhry and Murtem, 2016) [36,7] . ...
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... B Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants on earth (Liese and Köhl, 2015) with an excellent carbon sequestration capability (Luo et al., 2010). Bamboo has a wide range of applications including structural materials, household products, paper and packaging products, furniture, and biobased composite pipes (Hossain et al., 2015;Chen et al., 2021;Semple et al., 2022;Sharma et al., 2015). The high carbon sequestration capability and versatile applications make bamboo a potential alternative to fossil-based materials for producing many essential products of our society. ...
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