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The role of logos in building brand awareness and performance: Implications for entrepreneurs


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This conceptual paper develops a model that determines whether: (1) brand/logo awareness; (2) prior consumer shopping experience with a retailer; (3) consumer sentiments of logos, and (4) consumer shopping intentions significantly and positively associated with the performance of the top 100 US retailers. The performance measurements include retailer revenues, profits, number of stores, number of employees, sales per employee, and earnings per share. Brand awareness based on logo is measured by determining which of the top 100 US retailer logos are recalled by the respondents correctly without any aid. The significance and implications of this study for entrepreneurs are discussed.
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Tulay Girard, Penn State University - Altoona
M. Meral Anitsal, Tennessee Tech University
Ismet Anitsal, Tennessee Tech University
This conceptual paper develops a model that determines whether: (1) brand/logo
awareness; (2) prior consumer shopping experience with a retailer; (3) consumer sentiments of
logos, and (4) consumer shopping intentions significantly and positively associated with the
performance of the top 100 US retailers. The performance measurements include retailer
revenues, profits, number of stores, number of employees, sales per employee, and earnings per
share. Brand awareness based on logo is measured by determining which of the top 100 US
retailer logos are recalled by the respondents correctly without any aid. The significance and
implications of this study for entrepreneurs are discussed.
Entrepreneurial firms, organizations, and institutions use brand name, logos, slogans,
jingles, brand characters/personalities, URL, signage, packaging, letterhead paperwork, and
advertising to increase brand awareness as part of their external branding efforts. Brand logos are
also seen on labels, promotion materials, trade dress and employee uniforms, distribution trucks,
and business cards. These external branding strategies and tactics help firms build not only
corporate identity and brand persona to differentiate themselves from the competition, but also
brand loyalty. Entrepreneurs can develop their brand’s persona throughout the years with guided
and planned actions and in turn consumer responses to their brand. Herskovitz and Crystal
(2010) state that brand persona is essential in driving the continuity of the overall brand message.
They (2010, p. 21) add that brand persona is “what makes the difference in strong or weak brand
associations.” Consumers attach human like characteristics to brands based on their
understanding of brand’s values and behaviors. Logo is an important part of the brand as it
signals brand character through a stylized treatment of the company or brand name. It is like a
signature of a person. Its main function is to remind the brand and make sure that “it remains at
the forefront of the audience’s thoughts” (Herskovits and Crystal, 2010, p.21).
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Schecter (1993, p.33) defines logos as “the official visual representation of a corporate or
brand name, and the essential component of all corporate and brand identity programs.” Due to
the entrepreneurial importance of logos in consumer sentiments (positive or negative attitudes)
and brand awareness, great amounts of “investments are made because management expects that
logos can add value to the reputation of an organization” (van Riel and van den Ban 2001, p.
428). Indeed, in 1994 over 3,000 new companies in the United States spent an estimated total of
$120 million to create and implement a new logo (Anson, 1998). Timmons (1999), however,
points out that entrepreneurs work with minimal resources.
Although the theoretical assumptions and evidence from practice underline the
importance of logos in consumer perceptions of a company and its products (Schecter 1993) and
their preference of brands, empirical research on the added value of logos are limited (Green and
Lovelock, 1994). In fact, the impact of a logo’s added value through its associations with brand
awareness, consumer sentiments of a brand’s logo, likelihood of brand purchase, and the
entrepreneurial organization’s performance has not been researched in the literature. Prior
research did not pay much attention to logos. As the brands become more similar and struggle to
gain unique associations in the presence of strong competitors, investigating the correlation of
brand and logo associations become critical. As brand association researchers mentioned, brands
are focusing on trivial attributes for unique brand associations and losing the core value of the
brand. Logos may help brands to avoid lose focus. They may act as cues to elicit stronger
associations than mere attributes and help differentiate in the presence of strong competitors.
Boyle (2003) suggests that brand building efforts are more likely to succeed if associations are
created based on personal identification rather than on abstract concepts. In support of this idea,
Herskovits and Crystal (2010) suggests story-telling to build brand persona.
In this study, the authors develop a model that reflects the effectiveness of logos on
organizations’ performance. Specifically, the study examines the logo brand awareness level of
the top 100 retailers, consumer sentiments of these retailers’ logos, their prior shopping
experience with the retailer, purchase intentions, and the relationship of these factors with the
organizations’ performance. The following sections provide a review of the relevant literature
that substantiates the proposed model, the measurements and methodology to be used in a future
empirical study, and discussions of the entrepreneurial significance of the findings from such
Brand Awareness, Prior Shopping Experiences, and Shopping Intentions
Aaker (1996, p. 10) defined brand awareness as the “strength of a brand’s presence in the
consumers’ mind.” Percy and Rossiter (1992, p. 264) deliberated the brand awareness as “a
buyer’s ability to identify a brand within a category in sufficient detail to make a purchase.”
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Brand awareness has been measured with unaided recall of a brand and/or brand recognition
(Aaker, 1991; Percy and Rossiter, 1992; Keller, 1993). Hence, brand awareness is the ability of a
potential buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is a member of a certain product category
(Aaker, 1991). Brand recognition usually happens at the point of purchase where a visual image
such as a logo or package stimulates a response. After recognizing the brand, a buyer considers
whether s/he needs to buy the category. Conversely, brand recall happens prior to purchase and
customers have to remember brand name in sufficient detail when the brand is not present (Percy
and Rossiter 1992). In situations where brand recall is necessary, consumers first pull category
knowledge related to the recognized need (such as hunger) from their memories, then they make
a selection among identified brands in their evoked set (such as which fast food restaurant they
want to go).
Services generally, and retailers specifically elicit both very positive and very negative
emotional responses. However, a gap exists in research exploring the nature of affective
responses to brands and retail experiences, including the role of logo perceptions in triggering
the retrieval of delightful and terrible experiences from memory (Arnold, Reynolds, Ponder, and
Lueg, 2005). The interactions among service brand awareness, consumer sentiments of logo, and
prior shopping experiences need further investigation. By definition, the logos of admired brands
evoke trust and initial compliance by a customer to an offer. Starting with an interesting question
“Would you take and taste a food sample offered to you by a stranger on the street (p.845)”
Rafaeli, Sagy, and Derfler-Rozin (2008) find that presence of a known and relevant logo makes
the offer legitimate and causes higher compliance rates especially in high-risk situations. They
conclude that reduction in perceived risk may enhance consumer compliance in the presence of
Among the relevant studies, Kanungo (1969) finds that in order to ensure that a consumer
recalls the brand name and the product category it represents, marketers need to pay attention to
meaningfulness (for response learning) and fittingness (for brand-product association learning)
of the brand name. She concludes that highly meaningful names evoked a larger number of
associations, and that a fitting brand name would be retained better than an ill-fitting brand
name. In a 2007 study, Romaniuk and Gaillard examine the relationship between unique brand
associations, brand usage, and brand performance of 94 brands across eight brand categories.
They state that unique brand associations and brand knowledge are essential for consumer based
brand equity; as such strong, favorable and unique brand associations act as cues to retrieve a
brand name from memory. Unique brand associations and brand knowledge also should help in
the brand evaluation process leading to choice and eventually purchase. However, these
researchers find inconsistent results among customers and non-customers of brands of eight
categories. They conclude that there is no strong positive relationship between the presence of
unique associations and past usage of a brand or a brand preference. Apparently, the majority of
a brand’s current customer base cannot elicit any unique brand associations even though they
regularly buy the brand. This result suggests that unique associations are not very different from
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shared associations in the choice process. Another finding of this study is that brands with larger
market share have neither more nor less unique associations than brands with lower market
Romaniuk and Nenycz-Thiel (2011) extend consumer brand association research and
examine buying frequency and share of category requirements as the antecedents of brand
associations. They find behavioral differences between loyal and non-loyal consumers.
According to their results, the higher the buying frequency is the higher the propensity to give
brand associations. They also suggest that models of brand associations should include strength
of competitors in memory as well as the strength of the brand itself.
In addition, Arnold, Reynolds, Ponder, and Lueg (2005) investigate delightful and
terrible shopping experiences. They theorize that customers spend more emotional effort during
negative experiences, and negative experiences may have more prominent consequences for the
customers; therefore, the brand might be easily recalled from memory compared to neutral and
slightly positive experiences. Outcomes of both types of experiences as stated by respondents
had direct impact on brand awareness and customer shopping intentions for the brand. They
conclude that while customers are “often fickle about brands they buy and stores they patronize,
they are adamant about the ones they do not buy…” (p. 1142). Negative brand associations
resulting from terrible shopping experiences seem to make more permanent mark and can be
recalled easily from memory compared to positive brand associations. Therefore, the following
hypotheses will be tested:
H1: Consumer sentiments of logo will be positively associated with brand awareness and
prior shopping experience.
H2: Shopping intentions will be positively associated with brand awareness and prior
shopping experience.
H3: Brand awareness and prior shopping experience will be positively correlated.
Consumer Sentiments of Logo, Shopping Intentions, and Performance
Henderson and Cote (1998) define logo as “graphic design that a company uses, with or
without its name, to identify itself or its products” (p.14). They also provide a systematic
topology to investigate multiple elements of logos, which include concepts such as naturalness,
harmony, elaborateness, parallelism, repetition, proportion, and shape. They suggest that brand
logos should be unique, transmit proper meaning and propose something about brand benefits
(Kilic, Miller and Vollmers, 2011). Using a cross-sectional survey, Henderson, Giese, and Cote
(2004) find that western consumers prefer abstract and asymmetric logo designs whereas eastern
consumers prefer natural and harmonious logo designs with more rounded features. The driving
design elements of logos are found to be elaborateness, naturalness and harmony.
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Usually, brands that need revitalization start with logo redesigns. As brands get old, there
are erosions in brand knowledge structures, and brand awareness. Consumers increasingly
associate an aged brand with less desirable descriptions, and prefer more stylish and trendy
alternatives (Keller 1999). The results are loss of market share, difficulties with channels of
distribution and eviction from evoked set in consumers mind. Muller, Kocher, and Crettaz (2011)
show that logo change has a positive effect on brand modernity, brand attitude and eventually
brand loyalty in case of aging brands.
Conversely, logos as the signatures of the brand persona are so important that redesigns
are risky, and sometimes may hurt the brand instead of helping. Although there is a trend
towards designing more rounded logos, entrepreneurs attempting to change their logos should be
aware of potential negative impacts of the change on loyal consumer base. Walsh, Winterich and
Mittal (2010) find that strongly committed customers of brand react more negatively to rounded
logo redesigns. They also have a lower brand attitude as they may see this change as a threat to
their long nurtured relationship with their brand.
Van Riel and Van den Ban (2001) explain the intrinsic and extrinsic properties for logo
designs. Intrinsic properties of logos are the degree of representativeness of the logo, in other
words, a perception of the graphical representation of logo. Hynes (2009) provides empirical
evidence that color and design of the logos are directly related with representativeness. Color and
meaning of the logo are closely linked for implicitly illustrative or pictorial logos. Consumers
can elicit strong associations among designs and meanings for abstract logos, however, color
choices can vary widely. In short, consumers can drive meaning from color as well as designs.
Extrinsic properties of logos, on the other hand, originate from associations with the
company or brand. Accumulation of perceptions about past actions of the brand and intensity of
communications of values of brand to internal and external audiences define brand associations.
In one of the few studies about logo - brand associations, van Riel and van den Ban (2001) draw
attention to the fact that organizations should be careful about choosing or redesigning their
logos, as they are symbolizing desired characteristics of organization. They find that logos of
organizations with positive reputations appear to evoke more positive and desired attributes than
organizations with negative or less positive reputations. This finding provides evidence that
logos have added value in the creation and maintenance of a favorable corporate reputation.
Another study regarding NASCAR sponsorship (Levin, Joiner and Cameron, 2001)
indicate that logos generate higher level of recall for corresponding brands than recalls generated
by traditional ads, especially for consumers with higher level of involvement. Researchers draw
attention to the fact that there is a lack of underlying theory and conceptual foundation on how to
link sponsorship activities to desirable consumer responses. The role logos played in
sponsorships need to be investigated further.
Kilic et. al (2011) summarize that the development of brand identity is essential for
strong, well known and trusted brands. The brand identity depends on a set of brand associations
that consumers perceived as unique promises of the brand. These associations are related to the
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brand awareness and ultimately brand choice in purchase decisions. Brand logo serve as the
visual cue in consumer choice and purchase decisions.
Given the importance of the role of logos on brand identity and performance, most
literature on logos have focused on how to design effective logos and associations made based
on the design. Most of them are nonacademic articles. Similar to brand associations, logo
associations may be product attribute, service quality, and experience related (John, Loken, Kim
and Monga 2006). Although research on the relationships of consumer sentiments of logos with
shopping intentions and in turn performance does not exist, extant research imply a positive
relationship between brand awareness and consumer sentiments of logos (Levin et al., 2001),
prior experience and consumer sentiments of logos (van Riel and van den Ban, (2001), consumer
sentiments of logos and performance (Keller, 1999), consumer sentiments of logos and shopping
intentions (Muller, Kocher, and Crettaz, 2011). Therefore, the following hypotheses will be
H4: Consumer sentiments of logo and shopping intentions will be positively correlated.
H5: Performance will be positively associated with brand awareness, prior shopping
experience, consumer sentiments of logo, and shopping intentions.
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To achieve the objectives of this research, a total of 400 participants from diverse
demographics groups will comprise the sample. Business students at two universities will be
trained to obtain a snowball sample. For example, each student will distribute a paper and pencil
survey to three to five adult nonstudent participants. As an incentive, an extra credit/bonus point
will be offered to the students. Students’ identity will be captured to give the bonus point. In
addition, identity and contact information of the participants will also be captured to verify the
interviews via a 20 percent call back or email method.
To measure brand awareness based on logos, the participants will be shown the top 100
retailers’ logos one at a time and asked if they recall the name of the brand. Frequency
distribution of open ended answers (name of the logo) will be coded as: 1=recalled correctly; 0=
not recalled. The brand awareness for a logo will be classified as 3=high if 66 to 100 percent of
the participants recall the logo correctly; 2=medium if 34 to 65 percent recall the logo correctly,
and 1=low if 1 to 33 percent recall the logo correctly.
Using the URL link for, an online PowerPoint slide show with 100 logos
downloaded from the web sites of 100 top retailers will be played sequentially. Participants will
fill out a paper survey with an open ended question for each numbered corresponding logo.
To measure consumer sentiments of logos, the participants will be asked whether logo
represents (-100)=negative, 0=neutral, (+100)=positive associations to them on a sliding scale.
The participants will be asked about how many and types of prior shopping experiences (e.g.,
number of purchase, visit, seeing an ad, return, and inquiry for product/service information) they
had with the specific company using the ratio scale: 0=none, 1=one to two, 3=three or more
times in the past 12 months. If there is any, then the nature of the experience will be asked using
the scale: (-100)=very dissatisfied, 0=neutral, (+100)=very satisfied on a sliding scale. Shopping
intentions will be measured by asking the likelihood of shopping with the retailer on a 100
percent probability scale (Girard and Dion, 2010).
The annual performance data of each top 100 retailer will be obtained from The performance variables include revenue, profit, number of stores, number of
employees, sales revenue per employee, and earnings per share. Demographics questions (i.e.,
age, income categories, occupation type, education categories, gender, and zip code) will be
asked at the end of the survey after the participants complete answering the questions in order to
describe the sample and assure a diverse demographic profile representative to the general
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To test the hypotheses in the proposed model in Figure 1, MANOVA or Canonical
Correlations test will be performed. The dependent variables include each of the performance
variable of each retailer and the independent variables include brand awareness, prior shopping
experience including number of experience and satisfaction level (average score per retailer),
consumer sentiments of logo (average score per retailer), and shopping intentions.
Model: Y
+ Y
+…+ Y
= X
+ X
+…+ X
Traditional manufacture-based consumer brand equity model (Aaker 1991) overlooked
experiential nature of services, including prior shopping experiences of consumers with retailers
and consumer brand awareness. Furthermore, logo associations of retailers are different than
product logo associations, as the logos of retailers usually represent corporations as brands.
Retailers occupy extended media space in daily life of consumers through print, broadcasted, and
online advertising. Even if consumers have no shopping experience with a specific retailer, they
may have negative or positive logo associations based on external communications of that
retailer. This model will allow both researchers and entrepreneurs to assess relative weight of
service brand awareness, prior shopping experiences on logo associations, and purchase
intentions in leading to overall performance of retailers.
This study aims to examine the role logos play in building brand awareness that leads to
the performance of the top 100 retailers based on the consumer sentiments of these retailers’
logos, their prior shopping experience with the retailers and in turn shopping intentions in a
theoretical model. Prior research suggests that entrepreneurs can establish consumer trust by
building brand persona that affect consumer sentiments positively through designing their logos
to carry unique and positive associations (Green and Lovelock, 1994). Because entrepreneurs
have limited resources (Timmons 1999), by creating favorable unique brand associations
attached to logos and delivering positive consumer shopping experiences, entrepreneurs can
create strong customer preferences for their brands.
Aaker, D.A. (1996). Building strong brands, New York: The Free Press.
Aaker, D.A. (1991). Managing brand equity, New York: The Free Press.
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Arnold, Mark J., Kristy E. Reynolds, Nicole Ponder and Jason E. Lueg (2005). “Customer delight in a retail content:
investigating delightful and terrible shopping experiences”, Journal of Business Research, 58, 1132-1145.
Boyle, Emily (2003). “A study of entrepreneurial brand building in the manufacturing sector in the UK,” Journal of
Product and Brand Management, 12 (2), 79-93.
Girard, T. and Dion, P. (2010). “Validating the Search, Experience, and Credence Product Classification
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Green, D. and Lovelock, V. (1994). "Understanding a corporate symbol", Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 37-47.
Henderson, P.W. and J. A. Cote (1998). “Guidelines for selecting and modifying logos”, Journal of Marketing, 62
(2), 14-30.
Henderson, P.W., J.L. Giese and J. A. Cote (2004). “Impression management using typeface design”, Journal of
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Herskovitz, Stephen, and Malcolm Crystal (2010). “The essential brand persona: Storytelling and branding,”
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Romaniuk, Jenni and Elise Gaillard (2007). "The relationship between unique brand associations, brand usage, and
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The role of brand commitment”, Journal of Product and Brand Management, 10 (2), 76-84.
... Logo, color, and slogan are the prime candidates when evolutionary rebranding exercises are conceived (Stuart and Muzellec, 2004). A logo reduces the risk perception and enhances consumer compliance, thus acting as a signature of the brand (Girard et al, 2013). Logo redesign signals revitalization of the brand when it gets old and could lead to consumer perceptions of brand modernity and favorable attitudes (Müller et al, 2013). ...
... at different levels of market strength at varying degrees. For example, if the logo of a well-established brand is redesigned, there is a possibility that the loyalists may not take it kindly and can hurt the prospects of the brand and its equity (Girard et al, 2013) as it would create an information asymmetry. This may not be a concern for a lessestablished brand as the level of information integration it has achieved is low. ...
... Gains in the brand equity were observed for the follower brand on all the six dependent variables for a change in logo and combined change in logo and color scheme. The positive effect of a logo change supports the existing literature (Girard et al, 2013;Müller et al, 2013). The combined effect of the logo and color scheme supports cue utilization theory (Anderson, 1981;Maheswaran and Chaiken, 1991) and also suggests that multiple cues could be effective than single cues (Miyazaki et al, 2005). ...
In the present study, we intend to contribute to the rebranding literature by investigating: (a) the relative change in customer based brand equity (CBBE) of a brand before and post an evolutionary rebranding announcement; (b) the relative change in CBBE with respect to the market position of the brand (leader/follower) in case of evolutionary rebranding; and (c) the relative effect of a specific type of change in brand element (logo and/or slogan) on the consumer attitudes and CBBE. We use cue utilization theory and information integration theory along with rebranding literature to establish our hypotheses. We test our hypotheses using a 2 × 2 (with repeat measures) and a 2 × 3 full factorial design in succession. We find the CBBE of an established brand to diminish following rebranding news while that of a less-established brand to be enhanced. We also find a differential effect of the rebranding types on the consumer attitudes and CBBE that is subject to the relative brand position in the market. The academic implications of the study lie in the exploration of the effects of rebranding on consumers. The practitioner implications include suggestions for the effective use of rebranding as a strategy.
... Previous studies have revealed that appropriate selection of company's logo is an important and complex process, especially when a brand is being recognised through its logo (Chen and Bei, 2019). Logo enhances consumers' brand compliance and reduces the risk perception for companies in a way that they act as a signature for their brands (Girard et al., 2013). An effective logo must represent the personality traits of the target audience through its content and styling (Mikaere, 2011). ...
... Brand awareness of a corporate brand is a dominant choice heuristic among subjects, emphasizing that building brand awareness was an important strategy for advertising if brands want to increase probability to be chosen (Hoyer & Brown, 1990). Due to the corporate brand logo's effect on brand awareness through eliciting favorable, unique associations (Girard et al., 2013;van Grinsven & Das, 2016), examination of the prerequisites and consequences of a likable logo is of great academic and practical importance. The environment is quickly changing and brands are adjusting their business to millennials who show different behavior patterns than previous generations (Črešnar & Jevšenak, 2019). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to test whether logo shape and color affect emotional and cognitive response to a new logo. In the explorative part of the study, the effect of the amount of each of the additive primary colors on logo perception was examined. The research was done on a sample of 190 students whose ratings were used as logo description measures. Two independent variables used in the study were logo shape (abstract vs. concrete) and logo color (original color vs. greyscale). Results showed that greyscale logos and logos that are concrete were recognized more accurately while liking was not related to either independent variable. It was also observed that the amount of red color in the logo is negatively (correlated/related), and blue and green color is positively related to both logo recognition and logo liking. Practitioners are advised to note that factors affecting consumers' cognition and emotion are different. Scientists can extend findings on the effect of the amount of individual colors in a logo. This is one of the first works of research that examined the effect of logo color on brand recognition and has approached studying color in this way of averaging the amount of each of the additive primary colors. The external validity of the research is enhanced by testing the younger generation in their natural habitat of mobile phone environment.
... Therefore, in the study H₁ are developed. In addition, there is a relationship between logo, brand and personality as proven in the literature, (Brasel & Hagtvedt, 2016;Kapferer, 2008;Girard, 2013) so based on this, a second hypothesis was developed. Then, the corporate social responsibility literature has been analyzed in order to find the relationship between marketing promotions and corporate social responsibility projects, which is approved (Dahlsrud, 2006;Dincer & Dincer, 2007) therefore, the third hypothesis was developed. ...
Full-text available
Turkcell is the leading brand in Turkey's GSM sector thanks to the successful marketing and advertising strategies it implements. This research analyses how Turkcell has implemented the different variables of advertising tools into a competitive edge in the GSM market and the role of the "Cellocanlar" commercials in this success. In this study, detailed information is provided on Turkcell's marketing and advertising strategies for the "cellocanlar" commercials. The main purpose of this study is to understand the causes of Turkcell GSM company's success. The triumph of Turkcell, which created accomplished brand awareness and reaches nearly 50 million customers in Turkey, comes from the usage of children named "Cellocanlar" as a brand figure, who are not potentially GSM users, and who have been acting in different ad formats for nearly 16 years., This study suggests that Cellocanlar took a role in ad campaigns and successfully became the brand figure of Turkcell by wearing cute costumes and acting coherently with Turkish culture and social values. The basic approaches of the study were determined as the successful application of guerrilla and emotional advertising by placing emphasis on the Turkish culture and social values. The hypothesis developed in parallel with this approach provided new perspectives to the literature.
... The logo for a company is like a signature for people (Girard et al., 2013); it is the guarantee that the company endorses it. Heilbrunn (1994, p. 529) states further that a "logo is perhaps the most representative element of identity and globalizing Figure 1 Old and new logos communication of a company". ...
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the impact of brand attachment and familiarity on perceived congruence between the logo and the brand. It explores the role of an under-researched factor, surprise, on perceived congruence in the case of a radical logo change. Design/methodology/approach A study was conducted with 220 students following a university logo change. Perceived congruence between the logos (old and new) and the school brand values was measured for two kinds of students, current and future (i.e. applicants). Findings Results show the importance of surprise in the acceptance of a logo change. Brand familiarity and brand attachment affect surprise in opposite ways, such that higher familiarity increases negative surprise, whereas higher attachment enhances positive surprise. Research limitations/implications This research used a school logo. Because schools represent a particular type of company, brand attachment to another type of brand could be different. The current model needs to be tested in different contexts. Practical implications Companies must pay special attention when communicating with their most attached consumers. In particular, companies that aim to change their logos must prepare for the change by relying on communications that can lead to positive surprise. Originality/value This study was conducted in a real context of logo change. It is the first study to focus on the link among familiarity, attachment and surprise when a radical logo change takes place within a company.
El auge de las redes sociales y la comunicación de las marcas en medios digitales ha provocado una actualización de la identidad visual corporativa de las grandes marcas, incluyendo las de sectores tradicionales, en los que la cultura corporativa, en términos generales, se encuentra muy arraigada y es más reticente a los cambios. Los logos en dos dimensiones que simulan un volumen y una profundidad propia de las tres dimensiones, se han simplificado y se han vuelto planos para una mejor inclusión en los diferentes soportes digitales, de modo que mejore su legibilidad y reflejen mejor los valores actuales del propósito de marca. El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el procesamiento cognitivo de los jóvenes universitarios de los logos tradicionales de las marcas con respecto a los actuales, sencillos y planos, en dos dimensiones. Las técnicas de neuromarketing utilizadas son el eye-tracking para medir la atención y la respuesta galvánica de la piel (GSR) para medir la emoción mostrada por los públicos. La principal conclusión es que los jóvenes muestran más atención y emoción hacia los logos planos y de líneas sencillas, más integrados en los soportes digitales.
The newspaper industry’s business model increasingly relies on subscriptions as a means of revenue. Little scholarly research has examined what characteristics of subscription appeals make them more or less successful, although prior research on news attention proposes that negative images may be more successful whereas digital advertising research suggests the benefits of positive images. In 10 tests with three newsroom partners, we experimentally manipulate the type of image used in the subscription appeal. Across the tests, we varied the type of subscription (paid or free newsletter), the medium used (Facebook Sponsored Posts or direct email), and the targeting method (Facebook custom audiences or email lists from the newsroom). Results show that images of journalists doing their work or images of natural disasters covered by the news organization are consistently more effective than logos at generating subscriptions. Implications of this study exist for our understanding of the effects of visuals, for news organizations attempting to garner subscribers, and for researchers interested in conducting real-world experiments via Facebook or email.
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Background Community engagement on research design is widely highlighted as an important approach for ethical research. This article reports the experience of consulting with communities on the logo used for an influenza study in Malawi. The logo was designed for use on badges worn by study researchers, participant information sheets and other project documents, and could affect perceptions of the study and consequent engagement in the research. Methods Four focus group discussions were conducted with populations targeted by the influenza study: pregnant women, people with HIV, mothers and community members. The focus groups incorporated a participatory matrix exercise focusing on key themes emerging from the discussions such as: attractiveness, comprehension, acceptability and suggestions for improvement. Findings from the focus groups were analyzed according to these key themes. Results The consultation highlighted important benefits of discussion with communities on research design, including providing new perspectives and helping to avoid harm. For example, people living with HIV felt that one of the possible logos could increase stigma within communities. The experience also indicated potential challenges of consultation. In particular, there were contrasting perspectives among the groups, such that the consultation did not provide a clear answer about which logo should be selected. Conclusions Our experience adds to current evidence on community engagement by reporting on an area where there is less discussion of community consultation for design of a study logo. The consultation exercise reaffirmed the value of community engagement, but also the difficulty of relying on a brief consultation for decision-making in research design. Further ethical guidance is required on how to negotiate contradictory views during consultations.
Conference Paper
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The main objective of the thesis is to analyze the influence of chosen demographic (gender, age, residence) and personality (neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience) variables on the perception of selected logo design. Data for analysis were collected from the survey, in which 90 respondent took part. The main part of the questionnaire was devoted to semantic differential focused on the perception of the assessed logo, which consists from evaluation these antonyms on the 7-degree scale: nice-ugly, interesting-boring,colorful-faded, warm-cold, favorite-unloved, positive-negative, strong-weak, pleasant-unpleasant, special-common, simple-complex, active-passive. NEO-FFI test was used to evaluate respondents personality. For the testing statistical significance of influences, CLM (logit) model was used, provided by statistical language R. We found that both selected demographic and personality variables have an impact on the perception of the evaluated logo by consumers.
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Applicant attraction practices and their linkages to four attraction outcomes (applicants/vacancy, days-to-fill, acceptance rate, and retention rate) were investigated among 117 small businesses. Usage of previously found practices as well as many others (special hiring inducements, for example) were found, and these varied according to company size, industry, and presence of an HR department. Practices had selective, significant linkages to the outcomes. For example, using both past applications and newspaper ads as recruitment sources resulted in fewer days-to-fill vacancies, providing promotion possibilities and new employee training resulted in higher acceptance rates. Providing cost-of-living increases, promotion possibilities, and having the HR manager evaluate job applicants lead to higher retention rates. Numerous implications for research and for improving small business applicant attraction practices are suggested.
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i.e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
This article examines the consequences for businesses that fail to comply with every aspect of the Fair Labor Standards Act. Employers facing enforcement by the United States Department of Labor or private suits by employees are recognizing the high costs associated with non-compliance: injunctions, demands for payment of back pay, civil money penalties, fi nes, liquidated damages and in some cases attorney's fees. Willful violators may also be prosecuted criminally.
The ISO/TS 16949 automotive standard places more emphasis on the process of the training needs analysis. Meeting this standard requires an organization to improve its methods of analyzing training needs. A needs analysis examines the current state of performance and defines the desired state of performance. It starts with defining the desired impact and accepting the limitations of training. A performance centered needs analysis provides a pathway to resolve performance issues and extract optimal value from training dollars.
Relatively little research has focused on human resource management practices in small firms. This study, using data from 991 small Atlantic Canadian businesses, investigated the incidence of ten human resource management practices. Respondents were most likely to report sharing business information with employees and having an orientation program for new employees. The study also examined whether the presence of such practices was related to characteristics of the organization. The most dominant finding was the very strong relationship between human resource practices and progressive decision-making ideology. In addition, a number of practices were associated with the union status and size of the business. Implications for future research are also discussed.