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Mining and Metallurgy in Ancient Perú

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... Sin duda, la importancia cultural ancestral de este tipo de material está dada por su naturaleza y utilización cromática, pues los pigmentos derivados de tierras coloreadas fueron extensamente conocidos en épocas prehispánicas, siendo la hematita tempranamente extraída, tratada y utilizada en los Andes centro-sur en distintos soportes (Vaughn et al., 2005;Brooks et al., 2008;Eerkens et al., 2009Eerkens et al., , 2014Petersen, 2010;Salazar et al., 2010Salazar et al., , 2011Salazar et al., , 2015Arriaza et al., 2012;López et al., 2012;Sepúlveda et al., 2013Sepúlveda et al., , 2014Sepúlveda et al., , 2015Ogalde et al., 2014Ogalde et al., , 2015Ogalde et al., , 2020Castelleti et al., 2015, entre otros). De hecho, la extracción de hematita es una de las primeras manifestaciones de minería en Sudamérica (Vaughn et al., 2007(Vaughn et al., , 2013, mientras que algunas de las fechas más tempranas asociadas al uso y explotación de este mineral han sido reportadas en el norte de Chile (Salazar et al., 2011). ...
... Luego, las tierras naturales rojas que consisten en uno o más óxidos ferrosos o férricos además de sílice, alúmina, arcillas y ocasionalmente óxidos de manganeso, se denominan ocres y se encuentran en depósitos geológicos de todo el mundo (Harben y Kužvart, 1996;Petersen, 2010). La variación del color del ocre -de rojo hasta amarillo-se debe a la presencia de diferentes óxidos e hidróxidos de hierro, como la hematita (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), la limonita (FeO (OH) * nH 2 O), la magnetita (Fe 3 O 4 ) y la goetita (FeOOH) (Harben y Kužvart, 1996;Goffer, 2007;Romero-Gómez et al., 2013;Cortell, 2016), variando también según los contenidos de arcilla (Solá et al., 2013;Cortell, 2016). ...
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Aquí se presentan los resultados de los análisis de espectroscopía Raman e Infrarroja de pigmentos rojos provenientes de dos contextos fúnebres del cementerio de Topater-1, además de otras dos muestras, una del sector San Salvador y otra sin referencia como muestra de control. Todos los pigmentos fueron hallados en el área de Calama, norte de Chile (ca. 500 AC – 100 DC). El cromóforo rojo identificado en todos los casos fue hematita, además de distintos tipos de arcilla y cantidades variables de materia orgánica. Los contenidos de arcillas se relacionan con diversas fuentes de aprovisionamiento, mientras que la presencia de materia orgánica sugiere procesos tecnológicos. Luego, el contraste de estos resultados con la evidencia arqueológica local permite explorar prácticas tecnológicas donde es importante la relación individuo-paisaje o medio ambiente. Esta evidencia es significativa porque confluye con prácticas fúnebres donde se depositan estos pigmentos en valvas de Concholepas concholepas. La realización en la región de estudios de largo alcance bajo esta óptica permitiría: i) dar fundamento estadístico a estas nociones preliminares, ii) proponer acciones analítico-instrumentales posteriores, y iii) inferir sobre el manejo y la circulación local de la hematita y las prácticas asociadas.
... Hematite is a common chromophore with a strong color, good adherence, and opacity. It is easily powdered, and its extraction is among the first manifestations of mining in South America (Harben and Kužvart, 1996;Petersen, 2010;Vaughn et al., 2005Vaughn et al., , 2007Vaughn et al., , 2013. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed a complete transformation of limonite into goethite between 30 and 60 • C by the evaporation of the water retained chemically. ...
... In the South Central Andes, the treatment of red Fe oxides or hematite (as slip at ~900 • C) is widely known and used, as shown by archeometric studies carried out with vibrational spectroscopy and/or SEM-EDX (see Acevedo et al., 2015;Bertolino et al., 2009;Bugliani et al., 2012;Cortell, 2016;Eerkens et al., 2014;De la Fuente et al., 2010;Marte et al., 2012). Moreover, several studies have corroborated the use of hematite in various types of supports, areas, and chronological periods in the macro-area (Arriaza et al., 2012;Brooks et al., 2008;Castelleti et al., 2015;Eerkens et al., 2009Eerkens et al., , 2014Ogalde et al., 2015;Petersen, 2010;Salazar et al., 2010Salazar et al., , 2011Salazar et al., , 2015Sepúlveda et al., 2012Sepúlveda et al., , 2014Vaughn et al., 2005). Thus, the differences in the red color composition (with and without Mn) of the Cabuza ceramics (see Tables 3 and 4) are probably due to the different geochemical origins of the black chromophore. ...
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We report the chemical characterization of 13 ceramic shreds of the Cabuza phase (900–1200 CE) from northern Chile. In this decorative pottery, the red chromophore was hematite, while the black pigment was jacobsite. We also identified important secondary chemical elements, including arsenic. The discussion of all this evidence allowed us to reflect on the relationship between the individual and the environment, using the ceramics as cultural material.
... Numerous studies in the south-central Andes corroborate the use of hematite in very diverse pictorial supports, areas and chronological periods (Brooks et al. 2008;Eerkens et al. 2009Eerkens et al. , 2014Petersen 2010;Vaughn et al. 2005). Hematite is a common chromophore with a strong colour and good adherence and opacity, and it is easily powdered (Harben and Kužvart 1996). ...
... Hematite is a common chromophore with a strong colour and good adherence and opacity, and it is easily powdered (Harben and Kužvart 1996). The extraction of hematite is also among the first evidences of mining processes in South America (Petersen 2010;Salazar et al. 2011;Vaughn et al. 2005Vaughn et al. , 2007Vaughn et al. , 2013. ...
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We report the chemical and mineralogical characterization of seven ceramic fragments produced within the Tiwanaku State (ca. 500‐1000 A.D.). Instrumental techniques used included: X‐ray elemental and mineralogical chemical analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning and light microscopy. The results show that there are several clay types, although they show similarities, such as the use of a plant‐based temper. The red color of the decoration is hematite, and manganese oxides such as jacobsite are present in the black. The white color is a mixture of gypsum and clay, and the orange is a mixture of hematite and clay. The use of colors, the quality of clays, and the temperatures reached during pottery firing point to expertise in ceramic production and to complex decision‐making processes. The multi‐elemental archaeometric approach documented here could become an important tool to shed light on ancient ceramic technology and the internal variance of Tiwanaku pottery.
... Mercurialism as an occupational disease with its toxicity is uncommon and its associated diseases include shaking of nerves, loss of sense, and death. It is highly connected to extraction and processes which can lower life expectancy (28) , (29) . ...
... flint mine at Grimes Graves (UK) (Clutton-Brock 1984: 25) or in the Bronze Age (1880-1630 BCE) copper mine at Ecton, Staffordshire (UK) (Barnatt and Thomas 1998). In Peru, picks and scrapers made of deer antlers as well as from the iliac bone (part of the pelvis) of deer and llamas were used in mining, while on the coast, whale bones were used for chisels (Petersen 2010). Some of these bones/antlers may have been hafted or attached with a cord to wooden handles, as reported by Peterson (2010: 37) for a Chavin period (1200 BCE-200 CE) antler pick from the site of Las Aldas. ...
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Here we describe an assemblage of faunal remains retrieved from two copper mines in Nahal >Amram in the Arabah Valley, dating to the Early Islamic and/or Roman periods. The animal remains comprise bones of domestic caprines, camel as well as fish bones representing six different Families, four of which only inhabit the Red Sea. The mammal bones were disarticulated, such that it is highly unlikely that they represent natural mortalities. Moreover, the bones show characteristic butchery damage resulting from carcass dismemberment and filleting, long bone breakage resulting from marrow extraction as well as human gnawing. Most of the mammal bones represent meat-rich limb bones. Consequently, they have been interpreted as food remains discarded by miners. This is corroborated by their association in the excavated area with cooking-pots, firewood, charcoal and remains of fruit. Clearly, miners in Nahal >Amram enjoyed a rich and varied diet, atypical of slaves or poor people. We compare the Nahal >Amram findings with published data on food remains from mines and mining camps elsewhere in the world, including the copper mines of Faynan (Jordan) and the neighboring mines in Timna. We conclude that the mines were probably provisioned by settlements in the surrounding area.
... Most probably copper-and arsenic-rich ores with the addition of Pb-containing mineralization were used for this purpose. The obtained results coincide with the results of other researchers (e.g., Lechtman 1991Lechtman , 1996Lechtman and Klein 1999;Petersen and Brooks 2010;Vogel et al. 2015;Giersz and Rizzuto 2018). They also indicate that both sulphide and oxide ores were used in the production of Cu alloys. ...
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