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... The behavioral attitudes of consumers determine the amount of affection that a person has for or against an object and are characterized as a set of three components: beliefs or cognition (knowledge about the object), affection (positive or negative evaluations of the object, or feelings about an object), and conation (intention or desired behavior relative to the object) (Bergami and Bagozzi, 2000;Bagozzi and Dholakia, 2002). When analyzing consumer behavior on the Internet, researchers include other variables, such as the perception of cost, perception of risk, compatibility of devices (Wu and Wang, 2005), financial resources, credibility, self-efficacy (Wang and Zhang, 2012), price (Pagani, 2004), security (Fang et al., 2016), fun (Pagani, 2004;Bruner and Kumar, 2005), satisfaction (Pagani 2004), perception of playfulness (Fang et al., 2016), and social pressure (Nysveen et al., 2005). Furthermore, a sense of commitment is an important determinant of consumption relationship with products, services, and technologies (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). ...
... The behavioral attitudes of consumers determine the amount of affection that a person has for or against an object and are characterized as a set of three components: beliefs or cognition (knowledge about the object), affection (positive or negative evaluations of the object, or feelings about an object), and conation (intention or desired behavior relative to the object) (Bergami and Bagozzi, 2000;Bagozzi and Dholakia, 2002). When analyzing consumer behavior on the Internet, researchers include other variables, such as the perception of cost, perception of risk, compatibility of devices (Wu and Wang, 2005), financial resources, credibility, self-efficacy (Wang and Zhang, 2012), price (Pagani, 2004), security (Fang et al., 2016), fun (Pagani, 2004;Bruner and Kumar, 2005), satisfaction (Pagani 2004), perception of playfulness (Fang et al., 2016), and social pressure (Nysveen et al., 2005). Furthermore, a sense of commitment is an important determinant of consumption relationship with products, services, and technologies (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). ...
... By speaking on behalf of the various actants, the representative actor reinforces the previously negotiated roles, identities, and objectives. In this phase, a series of intermediaries and equivalences leads to the designation of a spokesman, so "the network can act as a single unit, which can be distinguished from its environment as an object (actor-network) with its own consistent identity" (Callon and Law, 1997, p.170). or consumers, these elements are behavioral attitudes, defined by the amount of affection that a person has for or against an object (Bagozzi and Dholakia, 2002), perceived values (Pagani, 2004;Wu and Wang, 2005;Fang et al., 2016;Wang and Zhang, 2012;Nysveen et al., 2005), and behavioral intentions (Morgan and Hunt, 1994;Bergami and Bagozzi, 2002) encapsulating the sense of commitment, sense of entrepreneurship discussed in an earlier section. The providers are characterized by the same conceptual elements as users, where providers share products, services, time, and talents (Sigala, 2019;Basili and Rossi, 2020). ...
Chapter
The sharing economy (SE) includes economic, social, and technological arrangements to promote collaborative relations between users and providers willing to share assets through digital platforms (DP). Even evolving fast, there is an opportunity to discuss how DP establishes connections between users and providers and uses a digital agency to mediate and flatten consumption relations in SE. Therefore, the authors propose a framework and future research directions that explore characteristics of the actants (roles, agency, behavioral attitudes) in the process of flattening consumption relations through DP in SE (connections, mediation, induction). To structure this framework, the authors consolidated the various definitions of its main elements and adopted the actor-network theory concept of translation as the theoretical-methodological approach to analyze the associations that determined how flattening consumption relations occur in SE.
... A visitor "hosted" by a local has the opportunity to talk to them and feel like a temporary resident of the area, as opposed to spending a night in the usually more expensive option, a hotel (Madera et al., 2017;Ioannides et al., 2019). In essence, it has brought tourists and locals together in a new setting (e.g., Molz, 2013;Tussyadiah, Pesonen, 2016) while improving employment and increasing the income of local communities (e.g., Fang et al., 2016). Furthermore, Airbnb is a better value proposition for people who are allocentric, in particular for longer trips (Poon, Huang, 2017). ...
... The impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry is extremely significant. Several studies have addressed the "phenomenon" of Airbnb, focusing mainly on the impact of the platform on hotel revenues (Zervas et al., 2017) and employment in the tourism industry (Fang et al., 2016). Fang et al. (2016) find that the sharing economy creates new job opportunities and influences positively the entire tourism industry. ...
... Several studies have addressed the "phenomenon" of Airbnb, focusing mainly on the impact of the platform on hotel revenues (Zervas et al., 2017) and employment in the tourism industry (Fang et al., 2016). Fang et al. (2016) find that the sharing economy creates new job opportunities and influences positively the entire tourism industry. However, they point out, as small hotels are rapidly losing ground in favor of Airbnb's accommodation, the marginal impact of the platform is diminishing as the accommodation capacity offered through the sharing economy increases. ...
Book
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The monograph presents the results of research conducted in Poland and Greece. The originality of the monograph is also evidenced by its interdisciplinarity – it combines issues related to the enterprise sector and financial institutions, indicating opportunities for and threats to their development. The book consists of three main parts divided into thirteen chapters. The first part of the book is titled The macroeconomic factors of businesses development and analyses the conditions for implementing a capital market union in the light of the realities of the external environment and the European Union itself, the importance of gold as a safe haven asset in the international monetary system and in last part of this chapter was compare two taxes which affect corporations, especially financial institutions. The second part of the book is titled The development of financial institutions and examines the relationship between economic growth and internet infrastructure in selected countries, the impact of an extreme dividend policy on prospects of Greek bank development, changes in the NPL (Non-Performing Loans) ratio of non-financial corporations and its main determinants in the Polish banking sector, the relationship between shares in the insurance market and the financial results of insurance companies, and the issues of appropriate selection and use of information in the decision-making process of insurance companies. The third part of the book is titled The development of enterprises and presents the impact of business activities (sector) on the enterprise competing, the measures of the orchestrator’s ability to create value added meeting the requirements of an aggregated long-term assessment of GBN (Global Business Networks) competitiveness, benefits from the use of integrated IT systems in enterprises, the key factors of start-up success and failure in Poland, and the new forms of accommodation chosen by travellers in recent years, with the main point of reference being the case of Airbnb. This monograph may be of considerable interest to scholars and business practitioners concerned with the problems of development of financial institutions and enterprises.
... com have been able to generate new short-term accommodation options for people who are visiting a specific area, without the need to create new assets or hire staff to provide the service. Such companies have helped deliver greater market efficiencies, by improving the amount and type of accommodation offered, and by reducing prices, both of which are factors that benefit the end user (Guttentag, 2015;Fang et al., 2016). ...
... In comparison with the actual impacts of STRs (Guttentag, 2015;Fang et al., 2016;Barron et al., 2017;Forgacs and Dolnicar, 2017;Sigala, 2017;Slee, 2017;DiNatale et al., 2018;Wachsmuth and Weisler, 2018), perceived impacts have not yet been investigated in depth (Mody et al., 2020). Within STRs, peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation is more than merely an economic exchange since it also includes a social dimension (Richardson, 2015). ...
Chapter
This book contains 11 chapters demonstrating the incredible complexity characterizing the relationship between peer-to-peer (P2P) loding and commmunity resilience, by considering multiple stakeholder perspectives and examining a diverse array of destination communities. The research within this book clearly shows how P2P lodging can foster resilience by helping to make communities more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. However, the research also clearly shows how P2P lodging can itself be the external force of undesirable change against which communities may struggle to be resilient, and how P2P lodging can destabilize communities in ways that leave the communities vulnerable and less resilient to future disrupting forces. This conflicting duality highlights the complexity of the P2P lodging phenomenon, and the nuance with which one therefore must understand it. This volume will prove to be so valuable for students, academics, policy makers and community leaders looking to better understand the intersection between P2P lodging and community resilience.
... A growing body of literature documents that the emergence of P2P accommodations like Airbnb has important economic effects on local communities. On the positive side, some studies show that the increase in Airbnb supply (i) positively affects employment in all sectors of the hospitality, tourism and leisure industries (Fang et al., 2016;Dogru et al., 2020), (ii) increases neighbourhood investment in residential renovation and retail projects (Xu and Xu, 2021), and (iii) has expanded tourism demand through more meaningful travel experiences and lowered accommodation costs (Jiménez et al., 2021;Tussyadiah and Pesonen, 2016). On the negative side, the increase in the supply of short-term vacation rentals produces negative externalities in terms of increasing residential house prices and rents (Horn and Merante, 2017;García-López et al., 2020;Franco and Santos, 2021) and lowering the revenues of long-established incumbents (Zervas et al., 2017;Dogru et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Short-term residential vacation rentals (RVRs) have increased their popularity in recent years. Local governments have introduced different regulatory changes to control their supply growth. This paper evaluates a policy intervention in a Northern Spanish destination that has reduced the bureaucratic procedures to officially open a RVR since 2016. We compare the evolution of accommodation growth of RVRs with that of tourist apartments exploiting a panel data set of 78 municipalities between 2013 and 2019. Using difference-indifferences , we provide evidence that the easing of the administrative procedures increased the number of establishments and bed places in RVRs by 5 and 26 units, on average, per municipality.
... According to Fang (2015), the entry of sharing economies benefits the tourism industry since it generates new jobs, more tourists travel, incentivized by the lower cost, and stay more nights, however, as low-category hotels are being replaced by Airbnb (Zervas, Proserpio & Byers, 2017) the effect diminishes as the size of sharing economies increases and low-category hotel employees may lose their jobs. ...
Article
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The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence that the usage of the Airbnb's platform has had on hotel occupancy in Mexico during 2007-2018 period. The Hotel Classification System is considered to know if there are differences in this influence, according to hotels' category. To obtain the information from Airbnb, an application was created that extracted the public information of each lodging published on the website. Results were estimated by using the panel data econometric methodology, showing that the only negative impact the usage of Airbnb has on hotel occupancy is in 4-star hotels, and that an increase in the price of Airbnb's lodgings produces a rise in hotel occupancy. In other hotel categories there is no negative effect. An implication is that the usage of platforms like the one studied can be moderately regulated in Mexico.
... The results from these studies reflect that there will be welfare benefits in terms of broader inclusion, higher quality and improved collaboration. Similarly, Fang et al. (2015) identified that the business model of Airbnb, an online community marketplace, improve the employment in the local tourism industry. However, the impact of reputation and trustworthiness are important to register in platforms like Airbnb (Ert et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify important criteria for sustainable recovery of digital entrepreneurship from distress situation using shared resources. During pandemic disruption, the importance of sharing economy in managing business efficiency is reflected through this research. Design/methodology/approach The present study advances the knowledge on shared resources in business by integrating case study approach with multi criteria decision-making (MCDM) model. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach is adopted to compute criteria weights, and a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) technique is used to rank the sharing economy entrepreneurial ventures during COVID-19 pandemic in the context of emerging economy. Findings The present study identified five most important enablers (technological innovation, technology expertise, convergence of virtual and physical spaces, collaboration rather than competition, and benefits to underserved groups through transparency) for sustainable recovery of sharing economy ventures in emerging economy. For example, the study highlights online tutoring through shared intellect as the most sought after sharing economy venture during pandemic disruption, which fulfills the identified enablers. Practical implications The proposed framework provides an accurate decision support tool to rank the various identified potential enablers of sharing economy during disruptions. Further, the approach is practically relevant to sharing economy entrepreneurs in selecting the best approach to recover sustainability during pandemic. Originality/value The study is unique in addressing the need of sustainability for digital ventures via sharing economy approach in emerging economy (India). To develop a conceptual framework, the present study incorporates a case based approach together with the hybrid MCDM model. Further, the extant literature on disruptions is enhanced by prioritizing the enablers for sharing economy during pandemic.
... Wei et al. (2013) noted technological level, interrelation with associated industries, and environmental issues as major drivers of China's tourism employment. Research also relates geographic attraction and person-job fit to tourism employment (Solnet et al., 2014), and identifies the link between employment growth and sharing economy in the USA (Fang et al., 2016). There are further works on the sustainability of tourism employment in Sweden (Duncan et al., 2020) and the training needs of young tourism workers in South Africa (Booyens, 2020). ...
Article
Understanding the influence of tourism-linked factors on direct and indirect employment is important for tourism planning, particularly for tourism-dependent developing economies. Yet, related studies on developing countries are scant. This research considers trends of tourism growth in Sri Lanka over 1972–2018 using state-of-the-art machine learning methods: Classification and Regression Tree (CART), Boruta, hyperparameter tuning, grid search, novel robustness check strategies, and Random Forest. Our analysis confirmed that the growth in both direct and indirect tourism employment in Sri Lanka is influenced by three factors – total tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, and arrivals in the last quarter. The findings also reveal a notable seasonality impact on tourism employment, especially the growth of arrivals during the fourth quarter, for the country. Random Forest models suggest that an increase of tourist arrivals during the fourth quarter can largely compensate any detrimental impact on the growth of direct and indirect employment from a decrease in total tourist arrivals and tourism receipts. Overall, the article demonstrates that a systematic combination of machine learning approaches can provide rich insights from macro-level tourism statistics reported by tourism authorities, which in turn can guide policy formulation to boost tourism in the post-COVID-19 era.
... This new consumption pattern offers increased value with low loyalty (Tussyadiah, 2016). Airbnb tourists/travelers tend to stay long and travel frequently, which can benefit the entire tourism industry (Cheng, 2016;Fang, Ye, & Law, 2016;Guttentag, 2015;Tussyadiah, 2016;Varma et al., 2016;Zervas et al., 2016). By contrast, family travelers have weak loyalty to a particular hotel brand . ...
... Sharing economy is having a significant impact on employment in the tourism industry [23]. There are several implications that emerge from the current study from which Airbnb consumers and hosts can benefit. ...
Article
Although the use of Airbnb services is growing, research relating to its value, risk, satisfaction, and repurchase intentions involving the millennial generation is scarce. This study investigates actual experience of social, utilitarian and hedonic values, risks, satisfaction, and repurchase intentions of Airbnb millennial consumers. It further assesses perceptions of similar values, risks, and what it would take to generate satisfaction and repurchase intention amid Airbnb non-consumers. PLS Path Modelling is used to test the hypothesised relationships and compare Airbnb consumers and non-consumers. A conceptual model proposing five hypotheses is tested using a dataset of 206 responses representing consumers and non-consumers from New Zealand. The results of the two groups are compared to assess differences in the relationships specified in the proposed conceptual model. The findings have theoretical, managerial, and social implications as it expands the literature by comparing consumers/non-consumers relating to sharing economy and identifies factors that lead to satisfaction and repurchase intentions linked to the millennials, hence generating managerial implications. The findings also suggest social, utilitarian, and hedonic values that have implications for the millennial generation.
... A multiple linear regression model was built following Fang et al. [2016] with Uber adoption as the dependent variable, and operationalized by the response variable rated in importance from 1 = most important to 10 = least important. The regression model was further re¯ned using small sample response probability guidelines as suggested by Whittemore [1981]. ...
This research provides empirical insights to reveal how value convergence occurs within Uber’s sharing economy. Uber’s business model is built on a digital platform that links private vehicle owners and their under-utilized assets to be economic revenue generating units for on-demand transport requests from potential clients. By analyzing adoption values for drivers and users of Uber, we identify antecedent operational and behavioral values for Uber adoption. We add to extant Industry 4.0 research and show value convergence emanating from economic and convenience motives. On the basis of our findings, we develop propositions for value convergence leveraging on cyber-physical systems embedded in Industry 4.0, and its application for theory and practice within the broader domains of the sharing economy.
... The recently emerging and highly innovative "shared economy" -Airbnb, Uber, etc. -rest on new conceptualisations about cost. Idle resources are here capital investments that put on the tourism market without normal rent, because they owned "normal" people, whose profitability requirements are different from those of commercial enterprises (Fang et al, 2015). ...
... It has gradually become a new growth point and source of vitality for my country's national economy [8]. In the new era, a new economic model centered on improving the utilization efficiency of idle resources using an information technology style sharing economy has gradually risen, in addition to its development concept, business logic, and profit model [9,10]. ...
Article
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In the recent years, the health and wellness tourism industry has become one of the new emerging industries in Pakistan. In terms of the sharing economy, the driving mechanism of the health and wellness tourism industry has undergone significant changes. Based on a combination of theoretical and practical research, the paper explores the dynamic system and mechanism of innovation development of health and wellness in the tourism industry in Pakistan. Firstly, it theoretically constructs the driving factors in four aspects, which include market demand, industrial supply, infrastructure, and external environment. Secondly, taking Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (KPK) as an example, it uses the entropy method and Grey relational analysis to test the driving factors system. The empirical results show that four aspects jointly influence the innovation of the health and wellness tourism industry in Pakistan. Finally, this study discusses several practical implications for the development of the health and wellness tourism industry of KPK for academics, policymakers, business owners, and scholars, with recommendations for future research.
... Our research contributes to the rapidly growing literature on the gig economy and the future of work more broadly. To inform better design of the gig-economy work practices, a growing literature investigates the operation and estimates the benefits and risks of the gig economy for individuals and society (e.g., [54,59,90,93,109]). ...
Thesis
Advances in information technologies not only provide novel tools to support work in the traditional sectors; they also create additional employment opportunities in the modern workforce where work contexts have been largely changed. All these changes call for new efforts to study worker performance. Indeed, information technologies, especially data science techniques, render unprecedented large-scale rich data and sophisticated analytic tools to investigate worker performance. However, it remains unclear how we can combine the strengths of big data analytics in data science and our existing knowledge in social science to enhance worker performance. In this dissertation, we propose a human-centered data science framework that integrates machine learning, causal inference, field experiments, and social science theories: First, machine learning (with counterfactual reasoning) enables the prediction (and explanation) of human behavior in work practice via large-scale data analysis. Existing insights from social theories can further enhance its predictive power by informing feature construction, model architecture, and model explanation. Field experiments can help to evaluate the effectiveness of these models in real-world practices. Second, field experiments perform precise interventions and establish causality with randomized controlled trials. Yet, the experimental analysis mainly supports the understanding of treatment effects at aggregate levels, such as average treatment effect. Machine learning empowers more sophisticated analyses of experimental data by revealing heterogeneous effects at a finer granularity, such as individual treatment effects. Third, while these data-driven discoveries complement social science theories and provide rich insights for describing, explaining, and predicting human behavior, they require rigorous analytic tools, such as experiments and machine learning, to validate or disconfirm their applicability in specific contexts. In addition to testing theories, causal insights derived from field experiments and counterfactual machine learning models could support the development of new theories that better reflect reality. To exemplify the various applications of this framework in both traditional sectors and in the modern workforce, we present three empirical studies: developing machine learning models to improve the outreach performance for government specialists, leveraging a field experiment to enhance the performance of the gig economy workers, and using counterfactual machine learning to unpack individual treatment effects of field experiments on worker performance in the gig economy. These studies illustrate that the framework of human-centered data science is effective and flexible in increasing worker performance.
... However, each academic discipline naturally tends to focus on a relatively narrow scope, while overlooking the broader picture. For example, the impacts of Airbnb on housing and local residents have mainly been published in sociology and planning journals (Gant, 2016;Gurran & Phibbs, 2017;Schäfer & Braun, 2016), while the impacts on the formal accommodation sector have been published mainly in tourism and hospitality journals (Fang et al., 2016;Heo et al., 2019;Zervas et al., 2017). Nevertheless, Airbnb is a multifaceted phenomenon that affects residents, communities, and businesses, as well as tourists. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores the interrelationships between Airbnb and both the formal accommodation industry (hotels) and the housing market. We used time-series data (28-49 months) from Tel Aviv, a city where Airbnb was not regulated during the studied period. The analysis shows that Airbnb plays a dual function for the accommodation market. While it complements the demand for hotels, it competes with residents in the housing market and increases rental prices of apartments of all sizes. These results demonstrate that the effects of Airbnb listings on housing markets need to be contextualized by a broader understanding of the housing stock and the regulatory environment. From a tourism perspective, Airbnb may be relatively complementary to the formal accommodation market, especially in responding to seasonal demands. Nevertheless, regulatory issues concerning equity in meeting governmental requirements for accommodation remain essential.
... More generally, international research has increasingly investigated various domains 'disrupted' by the platform. The socio-spatial effects on existing markets (traditional lodging and hotels in particular) have been primarily explored (Aznar, Sayeras, Rocafort, & Galiana, 2017;Benítez-Aurioles, 2019;Blal, Singal, & Templin, 2018;Coyle & Yeung, 2016;Fang, Ye, & Law, 2015;Gutiérrez, García-Palomares, Romanillos, & Salas-Olmedo, 2017). Many studies have found that Airbnb negatively impacts hotel revenues and influenced hotel's key metrics (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2017;Dogru et al. 2020, b). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper investigates the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Airbnb's market and focuses on the crisis's effects on areas affected by digital intermediation. The study's goal is to analyse Airbnb geographies by focusing on short-term rental supply and demand at the intra-urban scale. Using historical data and by adopting a quantitative and spatial data-oriented approach, the work highlights the shifting geographies of digital intermediation. Results show that while the areas that have increased their supply are limited, a large, clustered and contiguous portion of the cities seems to have reversed the exponential growth trend of recent years. Finally, the study offers a reflection on the future of short-term rentals in the post-pandemic city. The case study refers to four Italian cities: Florence, Milan, Rome, and Naples.
... Although this new business model can increase the income of certain groups, there has been a deterioration in working conditions when the only source of income is associated with this type of activity [Lyons and Wearing (2015); Schor and Fitzmaurice (2015)]. E®ects on the traditional accommodation industry have also been described, such as a drop in employee wages [Suciu (2016)] and a lower occupancy rate [Fang et al. (2016)]. Also, impacts on the residential market have been reported, e.g. ...
This work focuses on the disruptive effect generated by online tourist accommodation platforms. This technological innovation has brought about changes not only in the tourism industry, but also in the lives of the citizens of host communities. This research analyzes the perception that citizens economically dependent on tourism have the socio-economic impacts linked to the activity of these online platforms. The field work was carried out in Spain in April 2020 by means of a survey in which citizens residing in one of the main tourist cities in the country took part. This analysis has allowed for the construction of four categories of positive impacts and four categories of negative impacts, all linked to disruptive technological innovation in the tourism sector. The most salient impact is related to how citizens economically dependent on tourism assess the changes taking place in the existing business network. This group’s assessment might possibly be the consequence of a shift in the focus of local businesses, which have gone from resident-oriented businesses to tourist-oriented businesses. The most salient impact is related to how citizens economically dependent on tourism assess the changes taking place in the existing business network.
... Since its founding in 2008, Airbnb has expanded rapidly to such a scale that it has started to impact both the tourism industries as well as the character of entire neighborhoods in certain cities. The platform offers individual homeowners to become 'micro-entrepreneurs' and claims to create benefits for the larger community, such as the generation of tourism-related jobs and other forms of economic stimulus of neighborhoods that were previously not visited by travelers (Fang, Ye & Law, 2016). However, the success of the service has led to undesired gentrification of urban areas, nuisance by tourists and reduced access to housing by ordinary residents (Nieuwland & Melik, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ongoing urbanization, combined with market fundamentalism as the prevailing mode of political management, is leading to the spatial and social segregation of economic classes in cities. The housing market, being driven by economic interests rather than public policy, favors inflexible forms of ownership or tenancy that are increasingly incompatible with the more diverse forms of live-work patterns and family structures occurring in the society. This paper presents a research-by-design project that explores a speculative future scenario of housing, based on current developments in digital technologies and their impact on the mobility and accessibility to services enjoyed by urban residents. It references technology platforms that underpin the 'sharing economy' or 'gig economy', such as 'pay-as-you-go' car and bike sharing programs or internet and smartphone-based services for taxis or temporary accommodation. The study explores how new forms of participation in the housing market could circumvent the current segregation of different communities across the city. It describes a speculative system of distributed residential spaces, accessible to all on a 'pay-for-time-used' basis. By offering freedom of choice across domestic functions of greater range and accessibility than found within existing housing or hotel accommodation, the system would enable opportunistic or nomadic forms of living linked to the dynamic spatio-temporal occurrences of social, cultural or economic opportunities. The research references how new forms of social networking create new challenges and opportunities to participate in communities and explores how new technologies, applied to housing, can help to find a 'sense of belonging' within the technological society.
... The recently emerging and highly innovative "shared economy" -Airbnb, Uber, etc. -rest on new conceptualisations about cost. Idle resources are here capital investments that put on the tourism market without normal rent, because they owned "normal" people, whose profitability requirements are different from those of commercial enterprises (Fang et al, 2015). ...
Chapter
This second-edition text offers new insights, updated concepts and a new articulation of themes in tourism management. Part I (chapters 1-4) is now an enlarged element of the text and combines an analysis of the new tourism environment, economic development, tourism forecasting and new trends in tourism. Part II (chapters 5-11) now involves consumer behaviour, strategic innovation, distribution channels, human empowerment, operations management, as well as two new chapters on financial management. Part III (chapters 12-15) deals with strategic vision and management in tourism.
... Current discussions on this topic frequently focus on the impact of the SE in the hotel industry, pointing out that the SE has indubitably acted as a substitute for hotel services (Falk and Yang, 2020;Guttentag and Smith, 2017;Zervas et al, 2017). However, other perspectives on this phenomenon suggest that because of the positive spillover effects of the SE in the hosting ecosystems, such as labour creation (Fang et al, 2016) and local restaurants revenue (Basuroy et al, 2020), the SE might have in fact fostered tourism demand. Surprisingly enough, there is a gap in the literature studying the impact of the SE on international tourist flows. ...
Presentation
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Responding to Richter’s call (1983, 317) “to know far more about the tourism policy making process”, this paper seeks to introduce the assumptions, concepts and research methodologies of the Narrative Policy Framework (Jones & McBeth, 2010; Jones et al., 2014, McBeth et al., 2014; Shanahan et al., 2018) and apply them in tourism research in order to investigate the black box of tourism planning and policy processes (Hall, 2008, 15).
... One of the most cited examples relates to the potential displacement of tourists from traditional accommodation to P2P accommodation. These displacements would cause a reduction in the number of tourists staying in traditional establishments and this, in turn, would lead to reductions in jobs in the hotel sector, which would not be fully compensated by higher levels of employment in P2P establishments (Blal et al., 2018;Fang et al., 2016;Schor and Attwood-Charles, 2017;Zervas et al., 2017). Another recurring risk is the possible decrease in tax revenue resulting from the high level of informality in P2P transactions (Exceltur, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose Peer-to-peer (P2P) vacation accommodation has recently emerged as a disruptive new form of tourism development. Its potential negative impacts (economic, socio-cultural and environmental) may make residents feel at risk. Therefore, this paper aims to explore residents’ risk perceptions related to the growth of P2P vacation accommodation. Design/methodology/approach The empirical study was conducted in Mallorca (Spain) among 529 residents and a cluster analysis was carried out. Findings Results indicate clearly differentiated sociodemographic and attitudinal profiles, which can be classified into four tourist types. The conclusions of the paper suggest implications for tourist managers. Originality/value In the field of tourism studies, risk perception has been explored from the perspective of both tourists and hosts. To date, however, residents’ perception of risk has received little attention. Given the importance of resident-tourist interaction in fostering successful destinations this paper focusing on this arena.
... Tourism, as a leading global industry, could generate significant wealth for a country and contribute to higher employment in the tourism industry (Fang et al. 2016;Duarte et al. 2018Duarte et al. , 2020. In developed countries, a more thriving tourism industry means higher income diversity and economic improvement (Pourahmad et al. 2018;Oliveira et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Geotourism is a profitable business that relies on different elements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of geotourism on destination brand selection with social media as the moderating variable. This paper falls into the category of applied studies in terms of purpose and follows the descriptive-correlational methodology. The statistical population consists of tourists who travelled to selected geotourism destinations of Iran in 2019 to visit the geological heritage. As the population size could not be determined, 384 individuals were selected based on Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size table. The data were collected through a researcher-developed questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and composite reliability. The validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed by calculating its content and construct validity. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in SmartPLS 3.0 was used for data analysis. It was found that all the hypotheses which implied a direct impact were confirmed; however, when social media was introduced as the moderating variable, it was not significant enough to affect the outcome. Sharing pictures and videos about the attractions of Iran is not enough to warrant the selection of a given destination for prospective visitors.
... For example, ride-sharing platforms, such as Uber or DiDi, can add themselves to service providers with one click and look for sharing companions to earn additional income (Zervas et al., 2017). Thus, these sharing platforms provide adequate job creation and opportunities for those facing difficulties in bricks-and-mortar entrepreneurship (Shirazi, 2012;Novo-Corti et al., 2014;Fang et al., 2016). More and more consumers are becoming co-producers of sharing platforms, also known as digital entrepreneurs (Leick et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The tourism and accommodation industry has long been a fertile field for digital entrepreneurial activities. However, sharing accommodation entrepreneurs have been ignored, whether in digital entrepreneurship or the sharing economy. This empirical study explored the relationship between start-up age and host growth based on the entrepreneurship learning theory to bridge the gap. In total, 348 hosts' balanced panel data for 5 years were collected from the Airbnb platform. The results shown that (1) there was a curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between start-up age and host growth; (2) a critical primary growth strategy (product supply) significantly moderated the curvilinear relationship such that the inverted U-shaped relationship is less pronounced when the level of product supply is high. This study is helpful to understand digital entrepreneurs in the sharing accommodation and offers management suggestions for host growth.
... The fourth topic is focused on the supply side, collecting studies which analyze the role of sharing platforms on local entrepreneurial activities (Burtch et al., 2016;Alrawadieh & Alrawadieh, 2018); facing the problem of regulation, governance and control in the sharing economy in tourism; the effects of the sharing economy evolution on jobs and the opportunities for new micro entrepreneurs (Badger, 2013;Hall & Krueger, 2016;Fang et al., 2015); and the impact of sharing economy on traditional tourism (Ginindza & Tichaawa, 2017). ...
Chapter
The sharing economy is at the centre of current debates involving new technologies, sustainability, big data and stakeholder engagement. This edited volume encourages new theoretical and empirical development on sharing economy studies in the service industries field.
... Existing studies into the perceived impacts of Airbnb (Wegmann and Jiao, 2017;Sklar and Edwards, 2017;Cheng et al., 2020b) and their relation to destination resilience (Volgger et al., 2018) mostly explore economic and socio-cultural aspects of sustainability. Among the positive impacts of Airbnb on destination resilience, several observers have documented increased competition, increased level of innovation, flexible inventory, diversification in markets and visitor segments, increased dispersal of income and spending, and updating of regulatory frameworks, positive host-guest encounters (Fang et al., 2016;Tussyadiah and Pesonen, 2016;Volgger et al., 2018). Perceived negative impacts of the Airbnb on destination resilience are elements of unfair competition, reduction of neighbourhood amenity and residents' quality of life, reduced level of safety and security, potential discrimination and community well-being issues, and negative impact on the relative return of tourism investment (Cheng and Foley, 2018;Kakar et al., 2018;Volgger et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
This book contains 11 chapters demonstrating the incredible complexity characterizing the relationship between peer-to-peer (P2P) loding and commmunity resilience, by considering multiple stakeholder perspectives and examining a diverse array of destination communities. The research within this book clearly shows how P2P lodging can foster resilience by helping to make communities more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. However, the research also clearly shows how P2P lodging can itself be the external force of undesirable change against which communities may struggle to be resilient, and how P2P lodging can destabilize communities in ways that leave the communities vulnerable and less resilient to future disrupting forces. This conflicting duality highlights the complexity of the P2P lodging phenomenon, and the nuance with which one therefore must understand it. This volume will prove to be so valuable for students, academics, policy makers and community leaders looking to better understand the intersection between P2P lodging and community resilience.
... During the last decade, Airbnb has drawn the attention of scholars in many areas and has opened up new debates about its positive and negative outcomes on society (Schor, 2016). Airbnb, a short-term accommodation rental platform, can be seen as a double-edged sword with an endless list of diverse known and unknown impacts on the socioeconomic and urban development processes and the urban built environment, including the hotel industry (Frenken & Schor, 2019;Sundararajan, 2014;Wallsten, 2015;Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2017), hotel sale growth (Blal, Singal, & Templin, 2018), housing affordability (Lee, 2016), house prices (Sheppard & Udell, 2016), and tourism employment (Fang, Ye, & Law, 2015). This short-term rental accommodation platform has generated new questions for urban planners, researchers, and policy designers on how to monitor, understand, regulate or control, distribute its benefits, and deal with its harms (Boeing, Besbris, Wachsmuth, & Wegmann, 2021;Hoffman & Heisler, 2020;Lima, 2019). ...
Article
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Over time, neighbourhoods experience different types of change. Neighbourhood change is a spatiotemporal process that involves analysing how attributes of a location change over time. In this article, we explore the capability of short-term property rental data to identify neighbourhoods where change is occurring. The article focuses on the relationship between data from the Airbnb platform and gentrification. Through a study in Dublin, Ireland, Airbnb data was analysed using state-of-the-art Emerging Hotspot Analysis to identify locations with high potential to experience gentrification and areas that have undergone recent development. The locations identified by the method are correlated with gentrification and neighbourhood change described in other literature. The spatiotemporal approach reveals more about locational changes in the city than other methods, which focus only on one component, such as space or time. The study highlights the importance of access to real estate market data, such as data about the short-term rental market, to extract spatiotemporal changes occurring in neighbourhoods. The results contribute to the discourse on the impacts of short-term rental and Airbnb on cities and can be used by policymakers, observers, and citizens to motivate the distribution of services. The question as to whether gentrification or Airbnb came first remains an open one.
... The SE has transformed the way in which people consume goods and services (Belk, 2014), and this has had a significant impact on traditional industries (Fang, Ye, & Law, 2016;Zervas et al., 2017), economies (Cockayne, 2016), and society (Xu, Pennington-Gray, & Kim, 2018). This has led to scholars and practitioners taking an increasing interest in the topic (Frenken & Schor, 2017), yet there is still no agreement about what the SE actually is (Herbert & Collin-Lachaud, 2016). ...
Article
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The sharing economy (SE) has been studied from various perspectives, but ridesharing is a particularly popular type of SE that has manifested around the world. Prior studies of the SE have largely explored customers' perspectives, with drivers' perspectives remaining largely unexplored. Due to its various business models, cultures, driver traits, and consumer groups, the Middle East is an important area for SE research. This study, therefore, aims to explore the drivers' perceptions of the sharing economy in Qatar and how culture, public transport, regular taxi services, and unexpected incidences affect the sharing economy in Qatar. Based mainly on 31 face-to-face interviews with SE drivers, this study reveals several insights into the SE in Qatar. It identifies the main perceptions that drivers have of SE firms, driving distress, and customer hassles, as well as why drivers are motivated to engage with the SE and the system for drivers to rate customers and vice versa. Based on the findings, this study discusses the implications and some potential directions for future research.
... Airbnb claims to enable small-scale "home sharing", by lowering thresholds for participation on the short-term rental market, and thereby providing an extra income to low-income families and communities. In this narrative, the platforms stand on the side of the regular homeowner against large-scale real-estate interests, by supplanting large-scale hotel industry with small-scale home rental [15][16][17][18][19]. Airbnb has also released multiple reports promoting this narrative, such as a 2016 report suggesting that Airbnb helps middle-class minority families "make ends meet" by allowing them to rent out spare sofas and extra rooms [20]. ...
Article
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Digital platforms such as Airbnb have become a major economic and political force in recent years, presenting themselves as a "sharing economy"-a new, more just way of organizing social and economic activity-while functioning as owners and managers of proprietary markets. These platforms have in recent years been subject to variegated but growing regulations, begging questions of how these affect their platform markets. This paper examines these claims by a large-scale international comparative analysis of the revenue distribution of Airbnb markets in 97 cities and regions, focusing on the level and evolution of revenue inequality, and estimating the racial and gender revenue gaps by using machine learning classification of host profile pictures. Examining 834,722 listings, 513,785 hosts, and 13,466,854 reviews, the paper finds an average Gini coefficient of 0.68, implying that a majority of the market revenue tends to go to about 10% of the hosts. The level of centralization varies significantly across cities, but is consistently growing over time, with government regulation appearing as a counteracting factor, which however only temporarily slows down the growing dominance of a small minority of large-scale hosts. The paper furthermore finds large gender and race revenue gaps, as Black hosts receive on average 22% less revenue for their listings, and women an average of 12% less. These findings contribute important data to ongoing academic and policy debates, as well as a starting point for further research on inequality in the sharing economy, and how it can be regulated.
... The material aspects of wellbeing include consumption levels, livelihoods, and wealth (White, 2010). In the commercial hospitality domain, our results reveal that Airbnb provides hosts the opportunity to enhance their material wellbeing (see Figure 1) through providing a supplementary income in the form of short-term rent for their property (Fang et al., 2016;Lampinen and Cheshire, 2016), which is found to be a primary reason for hosting (Farmaki and Kaniadakis, 2020). However, some literature points to the fact that financial aspects can be both a gain and a pain for hosts (Fischer et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Despite a plethora of studies examining hosting experiences of Airbnb guests, the wellbeing of hosts has received limited attention. Drawing on both top-down and bottom-up theories of wellbeing, we explore the different ways in which Airbnb enhances or diminishes host wellbeing using a multidimensional lens (material, relational and subjective wellbeing). Data is collected from in-depth interviews with twenty-two Airbnb hosts. We also identify tensions and conflicts in the host-guest relationship using the three interactional hospitality domains of commercial, social and private. Through a deductive process, we find that participating in Airbnb both enhances and diminishes the material, relational and subjective aspects of wellbeing for hosts. Inductively, we find that a lack of territorial boundaries in shared accommodation contribute to conflicts that reduce wellbeing. This exemplifies a tension that exists in the private-commercial domain of network hospitality provision. We provide implications for peer-to-peer accommodation providers on developing the managerial skills of hosts, and helping hosts set realistic expectations around hosting to reduce the conflicts and tensions that arise from the intersectionality of the various Airbnb hospitality domains in such a way that the wellbeing of hosts is enhanced.
... Visitors who choose P2P accommodation benefit from lower prices, and they can spend more money on the tourism sector. As a result, local neighbourhoods have been transformed by spending from increasing numbers of visitors (Fang et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to discuss the evolution of the peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation phenomenon in Europe and to examine the key trends noticeable in the sector, including any external factors that influence P2P accommodation operations, practices and future development. Correspondingly, the chapter also examines the opportunities and challenges that emerge from P2P accommodation’s rapid growth. As such, the chapter aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on the evolution of P2P accommodation platforms in Europe. Specifically, the chapter offers insights that may illuminate the understanding of the drivers, inhibitors, and influencers pertinent to the phenomenon’s development and resilience potential in the COVID-19 pandemic era.
Chapter
Due to rapid growth rates and associated economic and social impacts, Airbnb has attracted increasing attention and controversy by various industry, government and community stakeholders in many cities and countries around the world.
Article
In recent years, home sharing has gone from a “disruptive innovation” to a major industry, with platforms such as Airbnb creating a range of impacts for users, competitors and members of affected communities. The social licence to operate concept offers a way to understand these impacts and design strategies to enhance social acceptability. This article presents a home-sharing social licence framework co-created through a participatory research process in New South Wales, Australia. Insights from the mining sector are relevant to home-sharing, such as a focus on local communities and the role of distributional fairness, procedural fairness and confidence in governance in building trust. Modifications are also required to account for contextual and proxy factors in home sharing.
Article
Over the past decade, the global rise of home-sharing platforms, such as Airbnb, has catalysed the process of ‘touristification’ in major tourism cities. Touristification, a term recently used to describe tourism-induced gentrification, leads to a morphological transformation of a community into a tourism commodity. However, less is understood about the effects of this process, when it is triggered by short-term accommodation platforms, in reshaping urban housing markets. Therefore, in this case study, we apply the rent gap theory to the process of touristification and hypothesise that, ceteris paribus, (1) touristification can create a new potential ground rent that brings about a tourism-led rent gap (i.e., net positive externalities), whereas (2) in a low-density neighbourhood the urban conflicts caused by touristification can lead to a negative rent gap (i.e. net negative externalities). This study's instrumental evidence from the revealed preference approach confirms two opposing forces of the Airbnb listing density on house-type versus apartment-type accommodation rents. Further, its empirical findings imply that in framing policies for effective destination management, policymakers should consider the positive as well as the negative externalities associated with touristification.
Preprint
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Unemployment is one of the most important issues in every country. Tourism industry is a dynamic sector which is labor augmented and can create jobs, increase consumption expenditures and offer employment opportunities. In the analysis of this work, the empirical literature on this issue is presented, which indicates that tourism can play a vital and beneficial role to increase employment. This paper uses meta-analysis techniques to investigate the effect of tourism on employment, and finds that the vast majority of the studies reveal a positive relationship. The mean effect of the 36 studies of the meta-sample, using Partial Correlations, is 0.129. This effect is similar to the regression results which is around 0.9, which is positive and statistically significant, clearly indicating that tourism is effective in the creation of jobs and offers employment opportunities. Moreover, evidence of selection bias in the literature in favor of studies which produce positive estimates is found, and once this bias is corrected the true effect is 0.85-0.97.
Article
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Purpose Taking a retrospective view, the present study aims to investigate the resilience of shared facilities (accommodation) across India in the post-pandemic period. More specifically, it explores the issues and challenges in implementing sustainable practices in the long run taking a dual perspective of both consumers and service providers. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method study was pursued in exploring the future resilience of the shared facilities in the post-pandemic period. A multi-method triangulation approach was adopted involving both data collection and data analysis. Primary data was collected through focus group sessions and analysed through a grounded theory study. Whereas, secondary data was extracted from Twitter and processed through textual data mining using the NVivo (12 Pro) software. Critical themes and sentiments were explored through the dual study and a corroboration process was followed thereon to support the findings. Findings The dual study extracted major themes pertaining to the present pandemic scenario wherein recovery strategies are at the top priority for all tourism service providers. Among the major themes tourists 2019 passiveness towards the environment existing misconceptions with shared facilities and situational perspective emerged as critical issues worrying service providers in the post-pandemic period. Furthermore the sentiment analysis indicated a positive start to the recovery measures wherein both tourist and tour operators are confident to embrace and restore the shared facilities/business respectively with additional care and responsibilities. Originality/value The novelty of the study lies in the identification of critical themes and sentiments concerning the future resilience of the shared economy businesses post-pandemic period in Indian tourism which can have a generalized effect across the world. Moreover, the study corroborated the findings of the dual study where similarities among the themes were observed.
Article
Prior studies have documented local bias in online product and online crowdfunding markets. By collecting a unique longitudinal dataset covering 91,693 Airbnb properties, we find evidence that local bias also exists in peer-to-peer rental platforms. We also prove that local bias has a negative consequence on guest satisfaction and property reputation. In addition, a focus on moderating effects reveals that (a) local bias is less prominent in properties with high prices, and (b) uploading detailed host descriptions can suppress the appearance of local bias and reduce its negative consequences on the online ratings of properties. Therefore, information asymmetry at least partially drives this phenomenon. The findings contribute to the literature and platforms in practice.
Article
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Globalization and rapid technological developments have contributed to the emergence of a new economic system-the sharing economy. A prominent example of this new type of economy lies in the tourism industry. This sector has been influenced and transformed by this economy with important consequences for tourism, tourist destinations, and sustainability. This article, through a systematic review of the literature, endeavours to systematize current knowledge of this relationship and investigate its evolution, the relationship between this new form of economy and the sustainability in tourism as well as the areas that have not yet been explored for possible future research. For this, a study of 45 articles was subsequently analysed in the light of content analysis. The results show although it is an area of growing interest, given the number of recent articles, there are few studies concerned in the relation between sharing economy and sustainability in the tourism sector. There are four major areas of current studies with quantitative methods dominating investigations. The impacts that this type of economy has on tourism and also on the sustainability of the destinations remain dubious and there are areas whose results are not consensual among authors. There is thus a need to consolidate the knowledge and to explore several ways of research since it is a subject that is still in the embryonic stage.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the growing impact of short-term rental platforms on urban life, and more generally, their potential to disrupt and deregulate existing order in society and the tourism economy. It argues that the conditions that allow platforms to flourish are contingent upon the different political and sectoral contexts in which they operate and the public interests that are at stake. Moreover, they depend upon governments’ interest and ability to enforce (new) regulations upon them. By means of illustration, the chapter describes the development of Airbnb in Sofia, Bulgaria and sheds light on the broader urban transformations that have taken place in the city since the end of the socialist regime in 1989. The section provides empirical evidence of the unevenly distributed economic benefits produced by Airbnb, further adding to existing socio-economic disparities within the context of Sofia, Bulgaria.
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Araştırma, UNWTO (2019) verilerine göre Dünya’nın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerini gastronomi turizmi açısından değerlendirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman inceleme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın kapsamını dünyanın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin resmi web sitelerinde yer alan gastronomi turizmine yönelik pazarlama ve tanıtım çalışmaları oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda veriler, 1 Aralık 2020 ile 10 Ocak 2021 tarihleri arasında ilgili ülkelerin İngilizce dilindeki resmi turizm web sitelerinden metin, fotoğraf ve video şeklinde toplanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere içerik analizi uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları incelenen ülkelerin tamamının gastronomiyle ilgili bir sayfası veya kategorisi bulunduğunu, bazı ülkelerin ciddi eksiklikleri olmasına rağmen genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde dünyanın en çok turist ağırlayan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerinde gastronomi turizmine yönelik tanıtım ve pazarlama çalışmaları yaptıklarını göstermektedir.
Chapter
The sharing economy is at the centre of current debates involving new technologies, sustainability, big data and stakeholder engagement. This edited volume encourages new theoretical and empirical development on sharing economy studies in the service industries field.
Conference Paper
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People started stay and work from, with the Coronavirus (Covid-19) epidemic, and this situation negatively affected many industries. The necessity of social isolation to prevent the transmission of the disease has caused tourism to come to a standstill. However, precautionary quarantines and curfew restrictions have been effective in controlling the spread of the disease, while the introduction of vaccines in many countries in the fight against Covid-19 has allowed the normalization process to begin gradually. It is known that current and potential tourists use the internet and social media the most to get information about touristic products during the Covid-19. For this reason, it can be stated that effective digital marketing and online reputation management are of great importance for the preference of hotel businesses. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the thoughts of the managers of tourism businesses about effective digital marketing and online reputation management in tourism for the Coronavirus (Covid-19) era and beyond. It was observed that 10 interviewed tourism business managers indicated the holiday destinations and tourism businesses have received reservations for the summer of 2021. According to the interviewed tourism business managers, this situation has created significant opportunities in the sector, especially in digital marketing. The participants also stated that the online reputation management is very important in the context of strengthening the communication for existing and potential tourists.
Article
The progress of IT technology such as social network and mobile payment and the change of social economic environment promote the emergence of sharing economy. As a subversive business model, the sharing economy is growing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, the influencing factors of consumers' continuous participation in the sharing economy are not clear. The paper aims to clarify the relationship between consumer perceived value and repeat purchase intention in the sharing economy. Taking the sharing economy platform (Airbnb) as an example, it proposes a dimension framework of consumer perceived value in peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation rental service, including functional value, hedonic value, epistemic value and social relationship value. This paper used big data technology to crawl online reviews of P2P accommodation platform. LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation) topic model and sentiment analytics method were applied to construct the measurement indicators of perceived value based on online reviews. And repeat purchase intention variables were extracted from online reviews. Then structural equation model was used to examine the effect of perceived value dimensions on it. The paper identified that perceived value has a positive impact on consumers' repurchase intention in P2P accommodation. Also, social relationship value was considered the most important influencing factor.
Chapter
The sharing economy is at the centre of current debates involving new technologies, sustainability, big data and stakeholder engagement. This edited volume encourages new theoretical and empirical development on sharing economy studies in the service industries field.
Article
The advancements of the sharing economy (SE) have sparked growing interest among scholars. However, the literature on innovation in the SE remains fragmented and without a systematic research agenda for future studies. Aiming to fulfill this gap, this paper follows a systematic literature review encompassing 85 papers. In this study, SE organizations are defined as all commercial or non-commercial product-service systems that capture and redistribute idle resources or assets in crowd-based networks through true sharing, pseudo-sharing, or collaborative consumption, and that use mediation platforms, that are most often electronic and accessible via the internet, to promote an efficient use of resources and value creation. Our findings, based on a framework for mapping types of innovation, suggest that previous studies focus mostly on how the business models of SE organizations impact cities and urban areas and contribute to sustainability. Moreover, process innovation and position innovation are the types of innovation most reported in the SE literature. The results show that the engagement of new social actors in innovation activities is essential in the SE. Some emerging topics for future research in the SE field include the co-creation of product innovation, network-based process innovation, technology-based service position innovation, and evasive innovation.
Article
Airbnb is one of the business models that represent the expansion of the sharing economy into digital environments. The model offers several different benefits to its own customers, who are guests and hosts. It affects the tourism and hospitality industry via its economic impact on competition and its influence on choices made by visitors. This study thus aims to explore the role of visitor motivation to use Airbnb (price value, authenticity, enjoyment, social interaction, home benefits, novelty, and sharing economy ethos) and the visitor experience (low-experienced vs. high-experienced individuals) by explaining usage intention via attitudes toward this particular business model. For this purpose, 468 people were surveyed online, and the gathered data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Based on the results, we can offer empirical evidence of the positive effect of motivational factors on attitude, and correspondingly, also of attitude on usage intention. The moderating role of experience on the relationship between motivation and attitude is also discussed.
Article
Prior literature has reported significant price and revenue reductions in the hotel industry due to the emergence of Airbnb. Other studies have documented that hotels' price reactions to the penetration of Airbnb depend on their service level, e.g., low/medium-end versus high end. Relying on a large sample from the Italian market, we contribute by showing that the effect of Airbnb on hotels' price decisions does not only depend on incumbents’ quality level, but also on the difference between booking and check-in time. That is, the effect of the penetration of Airbnb on hotels' dynamic price decisions varies over time depending on the core segment hotels target.
Article
Even though academics and practitioners extensively apply the notion of the sharing economy (SE), the conceptualization and the literature construction remained disjointed and dispersed due to the lack of a rigorous attempt to understand the core concept of the SE. This concept is multidimensional, which makes its investigation essential for practitioners and academics. Based on a 15-year data set collected from the Web of Science database, our paper seeks to provide a pervasive science plot of the intellectual structure of the SE field. A bibliometric review method was used by studying documents published from 2005 to 2020, using the VOSviewer, Bibexcel, SPSS, and GunnMap2 software. Providing an overview of articles, authors, the most influential journals, and themes of research, we contribute to the literature on the SE by identifying and proposing six research groups in MDS analysis, six research clusters in HCA analysis, and future study directions. Eventually, the research acknowledges the theoretical contribution, the limits of the present study, and recommends further study directions.
Chapter
Esta investigación pretende describir los principales trabajos asociados a la cadena de valor de las viviendas turísticas e identificar con carácter exploratorio en qué colectivos se producen mayores riesgos de precarización laboral. De forma prioritaria se centra la atención en el trabajo asalariado y autónomo tradicional, mayoritario en el sector, pero también el más invisibilizado.
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Turizm sektöründe gün geçtikçe etki alanı genişleyen paylaşım ekonomisi modeli tartışmaları da beraberinde getirmiştir. İlgili akademik araştırmaların öznesi ise büyük oranda Airbnb platformudur. Bu çalışma Airbnb arzına yönelik çeşitli destinasyonlardaki toplumsal muhalif tutumun İstanbul’da olmadığı varsayımı ile gerçekleştirilmiş ve bu durumun sebepleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Yorumlayıcı bir yaklaşımın benimsendiği araştırmada öncelikle İstanbul Airbnb arzı ortaya koyulmuş ve sonrasında literatür destekli bir tartışma yürütülmüştür. İstanbul Airbnb arzı Beyoğlu, Şişli, Fatih, Kadıköy ve Beşiktaş ilçelerinde yoğunlaşmış durumdadır ve buralarda dahi bir muhalif tavrın olmadığı varsayımı, kent kültürünün eksikliği ve karar mercileriyle beraber yerel halkın ekonomik bakış açısı ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Nihai olarak Airbnb arzını sınırlandırarak ve kent geneline yayarak olası tartışmaların engellenmesi adına öneriler sunulmuştur. Bu öneriler; çekicilik çeşitlendirmesi ile turizm hareketliliğinin kente yayılması, Airbnb girişimlerine yasal düzenlemeler getirilmesi, küçük ve orta büyüklükteki otel işletmelerinin hizmetlerinde revizyona gidilmesi şeklindedir.
Article
Tourist overnight stays are difficult to estimate properly due to the substantial gaps in the official data and the multiple types of accommodation. This trend has been accentuated with the emergence of new forms of accommodation resulting from the development of information and communication technologies and collaborative economies. Several studies have highlighted the importance of quantifying these accommodations because of their social, economic and environmental consequences for tourism destinations. This article explores the use of mobile data analysis as a complementary approach to official statistics to quantify the tourist overnight stays in the Walloon region. The mobile data highlight several aspects of tourism that are ignored by official statistics and raise questions about the underestimation and the current definition of a tourist. However, important limitations to this approach have been identified and are discussed.
Article
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Improving the sharing economy will require addressing myriad problems
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While the proliferation of online review websites facilitate travellers' ability to obtain information (decrease in search costs), it makes it difficult for them to process and judge useful information (increase in cognitive costs). Accordingly, this study attempts to identify the factors affecting the perceived usefulness of online consumer reviews by investigating two aspects of online information: (1) the characteristics of review providers, such as the disclosure of personal identity, the reviewer's expertise and reputation, and (2) reviews themselves including quantitative (i.e., star ratings and length of reviews) and qualitative measurements (i.e., perceived enjoyment and review readability). The results reveal that a combination of both messenger and message characteristics positively affect the perceived usefulness of reviews. In particular, qualitative aspects of reviews were identified as the most influential factors that make travel reviews useful. The implications of these findings contribute to tourism and hospitality marketers to develop more effective social media marketing.
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Four years after the introduction of City CarShare in the San Francisco, Bay area in California, 29% of carshare members had gotten rid of one or more cars, and 4.8% of members’ trips and 5.4% of their vehicle miles traveled were in carshare vehicles. Matched-pair comparisons with a statistical control group suggest that, over time, members have reduced total vehicular travel. However, most declines occurred during the first 1 to 2 years of the program; 3 to 4 years after City CarShare’s inauguration, earlier declines had leveled off. Because many carshare vehicles are small and fuel-efficient but can carry several people, the trend in per capita gasoline consumption also is downward. Mindful of the cumulative costs of driving, carshare members appear to have become more judicious and selective when deciding whether to drive, take public transit, walk, bike, or even forgo a trip. Coupled with reduced personal car ownership, these factors have given rise to a resourceful form of automobility in the San Francisco Bay area.
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Carsharing has grown considerably in North America during the past decade and has flourished in metropolitan regions across the United States and Canada. The new transportation landscape offers urban residents an alternative to automobility, one without car ownership. As carsharing has expanded, there has been a growing demand to understand its environmental effects. This paper presents the results of a North American carsharing member survey (N = 6,281). A before-and-after analytical design is established with a focus on carsharing's effects on household vehicle holdings and the aggregate vehicle population. The results show that carsharing members reduce their vehicle holdings to a degree that is statistically significant. The average number of vehicles per household of the sample drops from 0.47 to 0.24. Most of this shift constitutes onecar households becoming carless. The average fuel economy of carsharing vehicles used most often by respondents is 10 mi/gal more efficient than the average vehicle shed by respondents. The median age of vehicles shed by carsharing households is 11 years, but the distribution covers a considerable range. An aggregate analysis suggests that carsharing has taken between 90,000 and 130,000 vehicles off the road. This equates to 9 to 13 vehicles (including shed autos and postponed auto purchases) taken off the road for each carsharing vehicle.
Article
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Customer reviews are increasingly available online for a wide range of products and services. They supplement other information provided by electronic storefronts such as product descriptions, reviews from experts, and personalized advice generated by automated recommendation systems. While researchers have demonstrated the benefits of the presence of customer reviews to an online retailer, a largely uninvestigated issue is what makes customer reviews helpful to a consumer in the process of making a purchase decision. Drawing on the paradigm of search and experience goods from information economics, we develop and test a model of customer review helpfulness. An analysis of 1,587 reviews from Amazon.com across six products indicated that review extremity, review depth, and product type affect the perceived helpfulness of the review. Product type moderates the effect of review extremity on the helpfulness of the review. For experience goods, reviews with extreme ratings are less helpful than reviews with moderate ratings. For both product types, review depth has a positive effect on the helpfulness of the review, but the product type moderates the effect of review depth on the helpfulness of the review. Review depth has a greater positive effect on the helpfulness of the review for search goods than for experience goods. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theory and practice.
Article
Peer-to-peer markets, collectively known as the sharing economy, have emerged as alternative suppliers of goods and services traditionally provided by long-established industries. The authors explore the economic impact of the sharing economy on incumbent firms by studying the case of Airbnb, a prominent platform for short-term accommodations. They analyze Airbnb's entry into the state of Texas and quantify its impact on the Texas hotel industry over the subsequent decade. In Austin, where Airbnb supply is highest, the causal impact on hotel revenue is in the 8%-10% range; moreover, the impact is nonuniform, with lower-priced hotels and hotels that do not cater to business travelers being the most affected. The impact manifests itself primarily through less aggressive hotel room pricing, benefiting all consumers, not just participants in the sharing economy. The price response is especially pronounced during periods of peak demand, such as during the South by Southwest festival, and is due to a differentiating feature of peer-to-peer platforms-enabling instantaneous supply to scale to meet demand.
Article
Airbnb is an online community marketplace facilitating short-term rentals ranging from shared accommodations to entire homes that has now contributed more than ten million worldwide bookings to the so-called sharing economy. Our work addresses a central question facing the hospitality industry: to what extent are Airbnb stays serving as substitutes for hotel stays, and what is the impact on the bottom line of affected hotels? Our focus is the state of Texas, where we identify Airbnb's impact by exploiting significant spatiotemporal variation in the patterns of adoption across city-level markets. Using a dataset we collected spanning all Airbnb listings in Texas and a decade-long panel of quarterly tax revenue for all Texas hotels, we develop a nuanced estimate of Airbnb's material impact on hotel revenues. Our baseline estimate is that a 1% increase in Airbnb listings in Texas results in a 0.05% decrease in quarterly hotel revenues, an estimate compounded by Airbnb's rapid growth. To further isolate Airbnb's impact, we employ hotel segments that consumers are less likely to substitute for Airbnb stays as additional control groups. We find that the impacts are distributed unevenly across the industry, with lower-end hotels and hotels not catering to business travelers being the most affected. Finally, by simulating various regulatory interventions informed by current events, such as limiting Airbnb hosts to a single listing, we find only a moderate mitigating impact on hotel revenues.
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This paper considers a general heteroskedastic error component model using panel data, and derives a joint Lagrange multiplier (LM) test for homoskedasticity against the alternative of heteroskedasticity in both error components. It contrasts this joint LM test with marginal LM tests that ignore the heteroskedasticity in one of the error components. Monte Carlo results show that misleading inference can occur when using marginal rather than joint tests when heteroskedasticity is present in both components.
Article
This paper considers a general heteroskedastic error component model using panel data, and derives a joint Lagrange multiplier (LM) test for homoskedasticity against the alternative of heteroskedasticity in both error components. It contrasts this joint LM test with marginal LM tests that ignore the heteroskedasticity in one of the error components. Monte Carlo results show that misleading inference can occur when using marginal rather than joint tests when heteroskedasticity is present in both components.
Airbnb economic impact
  • Airbnb
Airbnb. (2014). Airbnb economic impact. Retrieved Feb 12, 2015, from http://blog.airbnb.com/economic-impact-airbnb/.
San Francisco makes Airbnb legal at last
  • Julie Bort
Bort, Julie. (2014). San Francisco makes Airbnb legal at last. Retrieved Feb 12, 2015, from http://www.businessinsider.com/sanfrancisco-makes-airbnb-legal-at-last-2014-10.
An Airbnb rival challenges San Francisco's Airbnb law
  • Joshua Brustein
Brustein, Joshua. (2014). An Airbnb rival challenges San Francisco's Airbnb law. Retrieved Feb 12, 2015, from http://www. bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-11-03/san-francisco-faces-a-lawsuit-over-its-airbnb-law.
  • Infoplease
Infoplease. (2015). Idaho. Retrieved Feb 18, 2015, from http://www.infoplease.com/us-states/idaho.html.
Idaho 2013 visitor profile Idaho Conference on Recreation & Tourism
  • Anndee Johnson
Johnson, AnnDee (2014). Idaho 2013 visitor profile Idaho Conference on Recreation & Tourism. Longwoods.
Airbnb vs hotels: A price comparison
  • Permalink
Permalink. (2013). Airbnb vs hotels: A price comparison. From http://priceonomics.com/hotels/.
The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry. Working paper Available online xxxx 4 Research Note / Annals of Tourism Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Please cite this article in press as: Fang, B., et al. Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment
  • Geogios Zervas
  • Proserpio
  • Deavide
  • John W Byers
Zervas, Geogios, Proserpio, Deavide, & Byers, John W. (2014). The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry. Working paper. Boston University, Boston. Received 13 August 2015. Revised 12 November 2015. Accepted 23 November 2015. Available online xxxx 4 Research Note / Annals of Tourism Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Please cite this article in press as: Fang, B., et al. Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment. Annals of Tourism Research (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2015.11.018