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The Scree Test for the numbers of factors

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... H2 predicted that guests more satisfied with low-carbon services from luxury hotels would be more likely to revisit, which is in line with previous research [167,168]. According to the survey, most guests (77.96%) were first-time visitors at the hotels. ...
... In this study, R-E Fit related to a hotel's image. Yu et al. [167] and Chen and Tsai [170] mentioned that the destination image also had significant influences on post-trip assessment, such as satisfaction and future behavioral intentions (intentions to revisit and recommendation to others). This theory is similar to the results of H1 and H2, confirming that R-E Fit could increase guests' satisfaction; moreover, it could positively affect guests' revisit intention. ...
... Table 5 shows that the KMO is 0.956, which is greater than 0.6 and passes the Bartlett sphericity test (p < 0.05), indicating that the data can be used for factor analysis research. From the screen plot of factor analysis in Figure 3, the graphical judgment method proposed by Cattell [167] clearly shows that the eigenvalue is greater than 1 and the corresponding component number is 11. Thus, the 10 main factors selected in this study are reasonable and meet the statistical analysis needs. ...
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This book is a reprint of the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumer Behaviour that was published in Sustainability. This is a reprint of articles from the Special Issue published online in the open access journal Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050) (available at: www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/special issues/ sus consumer behaviour).
... A varimax rotation was selected to maximise the difference between factors [40]. The number of components to be extracted was decided using the point of inflection on the scree plot [41] along with the Kaiser Criterion, which proposes the retention of components with an Eigenvalue >1 [42]. For interpretative purposes, items were deemed to load onto a given component if the loading was >0.4 [39]. ...
... The point of inflection on the scree plot [41] suggested a possible two or three component solution; however, the Kaiser criterion [42] supported the extraction of only two components. These two components explained 55.2% of the variance. ...
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The concept of psychological resilience is well-explored in the human literature and is often described as the ability to ‘bounce back’ following adversity. However, it remains a neglected research area in dogs despite observations that like humans, dogs vary in their ability to cope with stress. This study aimed to develop the first canine ‘resilience’ scale. An on-line survey was developed for owners. This covered demographics, medical/behavioural history of the dog, and 19 potential resilience items assessed using a 5-point Likert scale; 1084 complete responses were received during the survey period, with 329 respondents subsequently completing the questionnaire a second time, 6–8 weeks later. Intra-rater reliability was assessed, and only reliable items retained. A principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was then performed with components extracted on the basis of the inspection of scree plots and the Kaiser criterion. Items were retained if they loaded >0.4 onto one of the components but removed if they cross-loaded onto more than one component. This resulted in a 14-item, 2-component solution. One component appeared to describe “Adaptability/behavioural flexibility” and the other “Perseverance”, which are described in the human literature on resilience. Predictive validity was established for expected correlates, such as problem behaviour. The resulting instrument was called the Lincoln Canine Adaptability and Resilience Scale (L-CARS) and is the first to be developed for the assessment of resilience in dogs.
... It consists of looking at the bend in the falling curve (so-called "elbow") indicating an optimal dimensionality (if there is no obvious elbow, one can choose the number of components just before a flat appears). It has been adapted from PCA (Cattell, 1996) and used in the context of correspondence analysis (Costa et al., 2013). All factor analysis methods can notably be found in R in the well-known FactoMineR package, and in Python in the prince GitHub library (although issues are still open for the latter). ...
... The number of MCA components to be used was decided using the standard scree plot by identifying the "elbow" of the curve [method widely used with PCA (Cattell, 1996)] while constraining eigenvalues to be strictly above a threshold of 0.11 equivalent of Kaiser's rule in PCA (i.e., 1/C with C the number of categorical variables). ...
Article
The exploration of heath data by clustering algorithms allows to better describe the populations of interest by seeking the sub-profiles that compose it. This therefore reinforces medical knowledge, whether it is about a disease or a targeted population in real life. Nevertheless, contrary to the so-called conventional biostatistical methods where numerous guidelines exist, the standardization of data science approaches in clinical research remains a little discussed subject. This results in a significant variability in the execution of data science projects, whether in terms of algorithms used, reliability and credibility of the designed approach. Taking the path of parsimonious and judicious choice of both algorithms and implementations at each stage, this article proposes Qluster, a practical workflow for performing clustering tasks. Indeed, this workflow makes a compromise between (1) genericity of applications (e.g. usable on small or big data, on continuous, categorical or mixed variables, on database of high-dimensionality or not), (2) ease of implementation (need for few packages, few algorithms, few parameters, ...), and (3) robustness (e.g. use of proven algorithms and robust packages, evaluation of the stability of clusters, management of noise and multicollinearity). This workflow can be easily automated and/or routinely applied on a wide range of clustering projects. It can be useful both for data scientists with little experience in the field to make data clustering easier and more robust, and for more experienced data scientists who are looking for a straightforward and reliable solution to routinely perform preliminary data mining. A synthesis of the literature on data clustering as well as the scientific rationale supporting the proposed workflow is also provided. Finally, a detailed application of the workflow on a concrete use case is provided, along with a practical discussion for data scientists. An implementation on the Dataiku platform is available upon request to the authors.
... Only those elements with a value higher than one (> 1) were considered as significant factors (Cangelosi & Goriely, 2007).Therefore, the eigenvalue in the IBM SPSS 25 program has been set to 1 for the appropriate extraction of the poverty incidence components. Cattle's (1966) scree Test is a graphical representation of the eigenvalue in terms of factors (Cattell, 1966). ...
... The eigenvalues were shown using the Cattle's Scree Test (Cattell, 1966). This simple line segment graphic illustrates the volatile nature of the data. ...
Article
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Poverty is not only the focal issue that has drawn worldwide attention but is also an essential issue in people's livelihoods. This research examines the primary factors of poverty in the Birbhum district. Multivariate statistical techniques have been used to identify the primary determinants. Ten parameters have been identified as significant drivers of poverty, six of which are physical, viz. slope, elevation, drainage density, pond frequency, soil texture, and rainfall. The remaining four sociocultural and economic parameters are literacy, major market center, population growth, and road density. A linear relationship has been established between the explanatory and response variables where the R-square or coefficient of determination value is 0.741, and this relationship explains more than 74% of the variables. The P-value of multi-linear regression is 0.000, which validates the model and permits the data for factor analysis to extract the major determinants. Factor analysis indicates that five essential factors have been found based on their eigenvalue viz., agro-climatic factor, infrastructural and educational factors, hydrological factor, demographic factor, and pedological factors. All the p-values of the correlation matrix are < 0.05, meaning all the relationships are valid and significant. This research also demonstrates the spatial analysis of data using GIS technology. The western part of the study area has been affected by the high influence of all factors due to the presence of plateau fringe and associated low productivity. The outcomes of the research are scientifically significant and this study helps the planners, higher authorities, and social workers to eradicate poverty from this region through formulating better policies and management.
... This was the preference as we expected the latent variables (factors) to be correlated with each other. The most meaningful number of principal components was determined visually through Cattell's scree test (1966) [38], and statistically through Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test (MAP) [39]. These tests are reported to be among the most reliable graphic and numeric based methods, respectively [39,40]. ...
... Next, two separate factor analyses were performed in order to extend the comparison for RL general and dance ratings. Initially, the results of the two Cattell scree tests [38] revealed the optimum number of factors to be 3 for the RL general ratings and 1 for the RL dance ratings. Subsequently, the optimum factor numbers were applied in each factor analysis. ...
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Previous literature has shown that music preferences (and thus preferred musical features) differ depending on the listening context and reasons for listening (RL). Yet, to our knowledge no research has investigated how features of music that people dance or move to relate to particular RL. Consequently, in two online surveys, participants (N = 173) were asked to name songs they move to (“dance music”). Additionally, participants (N = 105) from Survey 1 provided RL for their selected songs. To investigate relationships between the two, we first extracted audio features from dance music using the Spotify API and compared those features with a baseline dataset that is considered to represent music in general. Analyses revealed that, compared to the baseline, the dance music dataset had significantly higher levels of energy, danceability, valence, and loudness, and lower speechiness, instrumentalness and acousticness. Second, to identify potential subgroups of dance music, a cluster analysis was performed on its Spotify audio features. Results of this cluster analysis suggested five subgroups of dance music with varying combinations of Spotify audio features: “fast-lyrical”, “sad-instrumental”, “soft-acoustic”, “sad-energy”, and “happy-energy”. Third, a factor analysis revealed three main RL categories: “achieving self-awareness”, “regulation of arousal and mood”, and “expression of social relatedness”. Finally, we identified variations in people’s RL ratings for each subgroup of dance music. This suggests that certain characteristics of dance music are more suitable for listeners’ particular RL, which shape their music preferences. Importantly, the highest-rated RL items for dance music belonged to the “regulation of mood and arousal” category. This might be interpreted as the main function of dance music. We hope that future research will elaborate on connections between musical qualities of dance music and particular music listening functions.
... We note that the goal of the MMRF CoMMpass study was designed to represent myeloma patients from diagnosis through treatment and is the largest existing cohort of treatment naïve CD138+ transcriptomes, with sampling continuing over time. To limit overfitting in spectra derivation, we used dimension reduction to focus only on the first k spectra (largest k components of variation), selected using a scree test (17). Data quality and processing are paramount to derive informative agnostic variables. ...
Article
Background: Transcriptome studies are gaining momentum in genomic epidemiology, and the need to incorporate these data in multivariable models alongside other risk factors brings demands for new approaches. Methods: Here we describe SPECTRA, an approach to derive quantitative variables that capture the intrinsic variation in gene expression of a tissue type. We applied the SPECTRA approach to bulk RNA sequencing from malignant cells (CD138+) in patients from the Multiple Myeloma (MM) Research Foundation CoMMpass study. Results: A set of 39 spectra variables were derived to represent MM cells. We used these variables in predictive modeling to determine spectra-based risk scores for overall survival, progression free survival, and time to treatment failure. Risk scores added predictive value beyond known clinical and expression risk factors and replicated in an external dataset. Spectrum variable S5, a significant predictor for all three outcomes, showed pre-ranked gene set enrichment for the unfolded protein response, a mechanism targeted by proteasome inhibitors which are a common first line agent in MM treatment. We further used the 39 spectra variables in descriptive modeling, with significant associations found with tumor cytogenetics, race, gender, and age at diagnosis; factors known to influence MM incidence or progression. Conclusions: Quantitative variables from the SPECTRA approach can predict clinical outcomes in MM and provide a new avenue for insight into tumor differences by demographic groups. Impact: The SPECTRA approach provides a set of quantitative phenotypes that deeply profile a tissue and allows for more comprehensive modeling of gene expression with other risk factors.
... The cumulative column adds explained variance as the number of factors increases. There is no general agreement in the literature (Zwick & Velicer, 1986), but two of the most often used criteria are the scree test (Cattell, 1966) and the Kaiser-Guttman criterion of factors with eigenvalues of more than 1 (Matsunaga 2010, p. 102). Graph 1 displays the scree plot. ...
... An inspection of the scree plot revealed a clear break after the fifth component. Hence, using Cattell's (1996) scree test, all five components were retained for further investigation ( Figure 1). ...
Article
This study explores the reasons why older people participate in sports. A total of 463 senior athletes (M = 61.4, SD = 5.5) who are actively engaged in competitive sports disciplines participated in this study. The participants indicated their degree of agreement with reasons for practicing sport on a 4-point Likert scale with 20 items, developed on the basis of a literature review on motivation theories in sports. These items were analyzed psychometrically. The exploratory factorial analysis revealed five components: competitiveness, interpersonal, cognitive, physical and emotional reasons. The most frequently reported reasons for participation were to feel healthier, to improve mood, and to release tension and stress. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in reasons for participating in sport based on sex, age, comparative health status, type of sport and number of competitive events attended per year. These findings could contribute to the development of age-specific sports promotion interventions tailored to different groups of older people.
... On the first subsample (150 respondents) an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run, while on the second subsample a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was run. In the EFA, Kaiser and Cattell's (1966) kink criteria selected one dimension, while scree, map (Velicer, 1976) and parallel (Horn, 1965) criteria suggested two dimensions. A delta χ 2 test indicated to keep the second dimension. ...
... Existen una multiplicidad de criterios para establecer el número de componentes principaleś optimos; para este trabajo solo se tomaron en cuenta los siguientes tres criterios: el primero, que es el mas común de todos, consiste en la revisión del porcentaje acumulado de varianza por los componentes principales, el cual al llegar al 70 %, se considera representativo para la selección del número de componentes. El segundo, denominado Scree Test (Cattell, 2010), se basa en graficar la varianza explicada por cada componente principal en función del orden en que fueron extraídas; una vez realizada la gráfica se procede a identificar el quiebre, señalando así el número componentes (Bettolli et al., 2010); el tercer criterio se conoce como regla de Kaiser (Kaiser, 1958), el cual se basa en tomar los componentes principales con eigenvalores mayores a 1. ...
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Rainfall is the meteorological phenomenon that occurs most frequently, so it is one of the climatic elements that presents the greatest spatial and temporal variation. To analyze the spatial and temporal variability along the Cundiboyacense high plateau, a regionalization of rainfall patterns was carried out through the PCA Principal Component Analysis method, based on monthly climatic series of monthly precipitation, from 21 stations.
... In this study, factors one to five passed this criterion. The second consideration was the Scree test [54], wherein eigenvalues were plotted and visually inspected for inflexion (the point where the slope changed gradient). The Scree test result led us to examine whether one or three factors should be considered. ...
Article
Background: Urban planning for age-friendly environments is an important issue, and occupational therapists and occupational scientists could contribute to planning such environments; however, knowledge of the potential roles of occupational therapists is limited. Aim: To explore the potential roles of occupational therapists in urban planning for age-friendly environments in Japan from the perspectives of occupational therapists and stakeholders. Materials and methods: A Q-methodology study was conducted to gain viewpoints from occupational therapists and stakeholders regarding their roles in the urban planning of age-friendly environments for older people in Japan. Participants included eight occupational therapists and seven stakeholders who completed the Q-sorting process. Results: Three viewpoints emerged which are interpreted as roles of occupational therapists: (1) Promote older people's participation in everyday activities in their communities, (2) Advocate for older people towards policy-making to reflect their occupational needs or perspectives, and (3) Arrange neighbourhood environments towards enhancing participation in occupation through adjustments to compensate for functional limitations. Conclusion and significance: Results reveal the potential roles of occupational therapists in urban planning for age-friendly environments in Japan. These roles can be a guide in the continuing professional development of occupational therapists in the fields of urban planning for older people.
... The scree plot ( Figure 4) shows the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix of the data. Various scree-plot heuristics (Cattell, 1966) indicate that 6 and 7 factors were potential candidates. We further considered a number of error metrics (Table 3), which indicated that 7 factors provided a better fit than 6. ...
Article
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We present a data-driven typology framework for understanding patterns in drinking water accessibility across low- and middle-income countries. Further, we obtain novel typology-specific insights regarding the relationships between possible explanatory variables and typology outcomes. First, we conducted exploratory factor analysis to obtain a smaller set of interpretable factors from the initial set of 17 drinking water accessibility country measurements on 73 countries. The resulting seven factors summarize the key drivers for water accessibility, and also serve as a vehicle for framing discussions on country outcomes. We clustered the countries based on their seven-dimensional water accessibility factor scores, referring to the resulting three clusters as "typologies'' namely, Decentralized, Centralized and Hybrid. The typologies serve as a vehicle for analyzing water accessibility among countries with similar patterns, in contrast with geographically-based approaches. Finally, we fitted a decision tree classifier to analyze relationships between a country's typology membership and socioeconomic, geographic and transportation explanatory variables. We found that private car ownership, population density and per-capita GDP are most relevant in predicting a country's drinking water accessibility typology.
... The analysis of the initial solution pointed to the extraction of nine components that presented eigenvalues greater than 1, explaining 59.56% of the total variance, but the first three components were responsible for more than half of the variance. Due to the excessive number of components, a second criterion was applied, the Cattell Scree Test (Cattell, 1966), suggesting the extraction of factors in a number between three and five. Thus, three EFA were run by restraining the extraction to three, four and five underlying components, respectively (an identical procedure used in the CRQ original version). ...
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Child routines have been recognized as positive contributors to children’s development. However, in Portugal there is still a lack of instruments available to assess school-age child routines. The purpose of this study was to present the translation, adaptation, and validation studies of the Portuguese version of the Child Routines Questionnaire (CRQ), a parent self-report measure developed to assess school-age child routines. A total of 460 parents of children aged between 6 and 12 years-old participated in the study. Two studies were conducted to define the CRQ-PT factor structure. In Study 1 (n = 204 children from 6 to 12 years-old), findings from the exploratory factor analysis provided evidence for a four-factor structure (for 32 items), which explained 43.53% of the total variance. In Study 2 (n = 256 children from 6 to 9 years-old), results from confirmatory factor analysis showed good model fit indices (CFI = 0.84, RMSEA = 0.06). The total scale of the CRQ-PT (α = 0.89) and its subscales showed good internal consistency. Further evidence of construct validity was shown by weak to moderate correlations with measures of parental sense of competence and family mealtime routines. Relevant contributions of the study are underscored, namely the availability and usefulness of a reliable and valid assessment tool to evaluate the routines of Portuguese school-age children for clinical practice and research purposes. Keywords Child routines · school-age · validation · CRQ
... To obtain PCA 16 scores and loadings, singular value decomposition was applied to the mean-centred, z-17 transformed data matrix using the 'mdatools' package (Kucheryayskiy, 2020). PCs with 18 eigenvalue > 1 were retained (Cattell, 1966). Individual variables were considered to 19 contribute substantially to a PC if they explained more variance than that would be equally 20 explained by each variable (PC loading > 1/number of variables). ...
Preprint
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Visual working memory is critical for goal-directed behaviour as it maintains continuity between previous and current visual input. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that visual working memory relies on communication between distributed brain regions, which implies an important role for long-range white matter connections in visual working memory performance. Here, we characterised the relationship between the microstructure of white matter association tracts and the precision of visual working memory representations. To that purpose, we devised a delayed estimation task which required participants to reproduce visual features along a continuous scale. A sample of 80 healthy adults performed the task and underwent diffusion-weighted MRI. We applied mixture distribution modelling to quantify the precision of working memory representations and guess rates, both of which contribute to observed responses. Latent components of tract-specific microstructural indices were identified by principal component analysis. Higher working memory precision was associated with lower bulk diffusion across ten tracts of interest and higher directionality of diffusion in a group of frontoparietal-occipital tracts. Importantly, there was no association between guess rates and any of the structural components. Our findings suggest that microstructural properties of white matter tracts connecting posterior and frontal brain regions mediate, in a functionally specific manner, the precision of visual working memory.
... for all items. The scree test was examined as recommended byCattell (2010), which also suggested a three factor solution accounting for 53.66 % of the variance. The result was a simple, interpretable structure, which is shown inTable 1. ...
Article
Introduction. High school students’ self-reports about their perception of barriers, optimism and attachments in relation to the postsecondary transition were examined.Method. Factor analysis of an inventory administered to 1044 high school students (573 males and 471 females) who attended six urban schools identified three factors.Results. ANOVA indicated that students living in areas of higher deprivation reported perception of more career barriers and fewer career scaffolding attachments. Males were more optimistic about their career prospects but reported fewer career scaffolding attachments. There was an interaction between deprivation and gender with regard to career optimism.Discussion and Conclusion. These results contribute to an explanation of why failure to obtain a positive postsecondary destination is more prevalent in young people living in areas of greater social deprivation, and in males rather than females. The implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed.
... Different methods exist. We can mention the proportion of explained variance method, the elbow criterion (6)(7) or the Kaiser Rule (8) . ...
Conference Paper
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The context of this work is the non-destructive examination of material generating significant structural noise. We use an ultrasonic array probe and focus on the first inspected millimetres, usually considered as a "blind zone" because of the sub-surface waves. A first approach was proposed in a previous work (1) , where some post processing of the imaging results is derived from a learning zone defined on several sensor positions. This approach gives good results, with a significant increase of signal to noise ratio. Yet it requires the difficult definition of a learning area which has to be defect-free and statistically representative of the noise in the controlled zone. In this work we propose a new approach which does not require any learning area. The processing is performed on the Full Matrix Capture (FMC) acquisitions and consists in removing a significant amount of noise from the acquisitions to improve imaging results. To do that, acquisitions are divided into groups in which a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is performed. Then, we remove from each acquisition the projection of itself on eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues. As a result, the noise component is reduced, and the defect information is enhanced.
... The reason for choosing orthogonal solution over oblique solution was that the extracted components in data were not correlated. In initial analysis we followed Kaiser Criterion [25], which retains factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 and Cattell's (1966) Scree test [26], which involves an examination of a plot of the eigenvalues for breaks or discontinuities, to determine the number of components to retain. However, because the 3-factor solution suggested by these methods was not interpretable and components had an eigenvalue marginally larger than 1 we continued the analysis with 2 components. ...
Article
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Background Despite consistently reporting poorer health, women universally outlive men. We examine whether gender differences in lived circumstances considered, and meaning attributed to SRH by women and men might explain this paradox. Methods In an online survey 917 adults rated their health (SRH) and mental health (SRMH) and reflected upon what life experiences they considered in making their ratings. Descriptive findings were sex-disaggregated. The multiple experiences listed were then subject to factor analyses using principal components methods and orthogonal rotation. Results Women reported poorer SRH and SRMH. They considered a wider range of circumstances, weighing all but self-confidence and behaviors as more important to SRH than did men. Two underlying components, psychosocial context and clinical status were identified overall. Physical health and pain were more important elements of men’s clinical status and behaviors. Comparisons with others of the same age played a larger role in male psycho-social context. Two components also underpinned SRMH. These were clinical problems and psycho-social circumstances for which self-confidence was only important among men. Conclusions Women’s and men’s common interpretation of measures like SRH suggests that women’s health disadvantage is neither artefactual nor determined by gendered meanings of measures and does not explain the paradox. SRH and SRMH captured social circumstances for all. Convergence of characteristics women and men consider as central to health is evidence of the dynamism of gender with evolving social norms. The remaining divergence speaks to persisting traditional male stereotypes.
... Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA, the correspondent of PCA for a large database with categorical data) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to explore the linkages and associations between different variables and similarities between cases, respectively. To define the number of axes retained for the HCA, we employed two criteria: scree test (Cattell 1996) and eigenvalue. We used Euclidean distance as the dissimilarity matrix coefficient and Ward's method as clustering technique to minimize the error in sum of squares (Ward 1963). ...
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Through a systematic review of scientific literature, we investigate the nature and the contents of vulnerability research in rural Spain. The studies reviewed (n = 137) are unevenly distributed across the country, with almost half conducted in the autonomous communities of Andalucía and Catalunya. We identify two main strands of research depending on the methodological approach (quantitative vs qualitative). The scale of analysis varies, from national to local level, while only 14% of the studies are grounded on vulnerability concepts (exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity) and related analytical frameworks. Climate change is the most studied driver of vulnerability, often considered in conjunction with other stressors such as environmental degradation, unsuitable policies, or unfavorable terms of trade. The studies reviewed pay minimal attention to sensitivity factors and to adaptive capacity, which often only appear in qualitative studies that focus on social systems. In the light of these findings, we identify research gaps and discuss the ambivalent role of rural development policy in either enabling or hindering adaptive capacity in Spanish rural areas.
... 1. Guttman-Kaiser was used to retain factors with the eigenvalue greater than 1 (Kaiser, 1974). 2. Scree plot, a graphical representation of factors, was used to retain number of factors before breaking point or elbow (Cattell, 1966). 3. Items in respective factors with high item loadings. ...
Article
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The parental self-efficacy or parents’ confidence in raising their children is believed to influence the parent-child relationship. A scale was developed for parents of Pakistani adolescents to understand and measure experience and expression of parental self-efficacy. Initially, an open-ended question was asked for the item generation of parental self-efficacy with parents of 11-15 years old adolescents. Further, scale's content validity was established and then pilot testing was conducted to assess the user-friendliness of the developed scale. Lastly, sample of 300 parents (143 fathers & 157 mothers) with the age range of 25-67 (M=42.23; SD=6.57) was given the Parents Self-Efficacy Scale protocol General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis generated four factors namely, Educating Morality, Providing Basic Needs, Inculcating Discipline and Teaching Autonomy. Also, the scale was proven to be highly reliable and valid. The results of this study provides singificnant information in order to validated the desired scale and reaching the conclusion in systematic manner. Further, the results have been discussed in the Pakistani cultural context.
... can be considered to be good 555 (Nunnally, 1978). Consistent with this assessment, after running an exploratory factor analysis a scree 556 test clearly supported a one-factor solution (Cattell, 1966). Accordingly, Eigenvalues dropped markedly 557 .23, ...
Research
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Relating the worldwide impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the human psyche to the phenomenon of mass formation (an extreme form of collectivism and groupthink in the face of a perceived common threat and strategies to deal with it), the present investigation had two objectives: To create a reliable and valid scale to measure COVID-19-related mass formation (CrMF) and to identify correlates of CrMF in relation to personality, ideological and personal convictions, and media consumption. In an online study, Swiss inhabitants (N = 77) were presented statements pertaining to CrMF, and then filled out several other measures. The internal consistency of the COVID-19-related Mass Formation Scale (CrMF-S) and the split-half reliability were good, as well as convergent validity with authoritarian submission. There were no correlations between the scores on the CrMF-S and need for cognition and the Big Five personality dimensions, respectively, but CrMF-S scores correlated positively with the advocacy of reductionist materialism and transhumanism, as well as with considering social recognition very important in life. On the other hand, CrMF-S scores correlated negatively with spirituality, considering oneself a free spirit and the conviction that true happiness can only be achieved by going within. The correlation between scores on the CrMF-S and the frequency of media consumption (mainstream minus alternative) was remarkably strong. Finally, the frequency of speaking out publicly (but not privately) on COVID-19 related matters was negatively correlated with CrMF-S scores. Alongside the discussion of the results, further research in this field is encouraged by presenting suggestions for future studies.
... The plot presents the successive eigenvalues, which drop off sharply and then tend to level off. The methods suggests retaining all eigenvalues in the sharp descent before the first one on the line where they start to level off (Cattell, 1966;Nardo et al., 2008) -Variance explained criteria. Some researchers simply use the rule of keeping enough components to account for 90 % (sometimes 80%) of the variation (Nardo et al., 2008) -Joliffe criteria. ...
Thesis
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Over the past few decades economic growth has come at the expenses of the environments and the topic of sustainable development is becoming more important. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The main aim of this dissertation was to investigate the available methodologies of sustainability assessment and to test which of them could be suitable for Russian conditions. Russia is an interesting subject for research as, it has its own history of sustainability science, but quite often the commitment to sustainable development is only in rhetoric and there are some problems with the interpretation of the concept of sustainable development. For example, in Russian official documents the term sustainability is used as a synonym for stable economic growth. The focus of the research was a creation of an indicator system for a regional sustainability assessment on the example of Tambov region of the Russian Federation. At the first stage of the research a regional assessment was performed with the help of the United Nations set of sustainable development indicators, SWOT analysis was performed to identify the main strengths and problems in the region. Also, the availability of statistical data and relevancy for the research region of the indicators was checked. During the next stage of the research a composite indicator was created using different techniques for normalization of indicator and weighting. Then robustness and sensitivity analysis of created indicators was performed, the results were visualised, and composite indicators were decomposed to explain the drivers of the aggregated results. The result of this work has shown that composite indicators together with regional assessment on the base of sustainability indicators are the tools that could support policymakers in sustainability decision-making. There are some problems with the availability of the statistical data in Russia, and there is no monitoring mechanism at the federal district level and lack of coordination with work of statistical agencies. This research is confirming a necessity of further research, and a need to develop a monitoring and assessment system in Russian Federation. The second part of the research was devoted to education for sustainable development. UNESCO is stressing that the approach of Education for Sustainable Development empowers learners to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability, and a just society for present and future generations, and therefore education is playing a crucial role in reaching sustainability (UNESCO, 2017). The aim of this research was to see how the sustainability topics are integrated into the curriculum of the agricultural universities, to define the sources of integration and research possible problems and formulate the recommendations for strengthening the integration. To research the education for sustainable development in Russia first a literature review was conducted, followed by 16 semi-structured interviews with the representatives of 8 universities. The research confirmed the fact that sustainability is present as a topic in the official documents, for example educational standard, but this mention remains only rhetorical and does not provide the background for the establishment of a framework for integration of sustainability concept. As a result, the integration into education is mostly driven by the personal initiative of the teaching staff. There is a clear demand for an integration framework of sustainability topics in the federal state educational standard. The main problems are uncoordination and competition between departments and ministries, overload of teachers, lack of best-practices, absence of system in the education and limited financing. These problems could be mitigated with creation of interdepartmental centres, creation of interdisciplinary working groups, creation of a systematic concept of education for sustainability and involvement of different stakeholders into educational projects, but the success of these measures depends on the general approach and if the importance of sustainability will be present only in official documents, then there will be no shift in integration, and everything will depend only on individual initiative of teachers.
... for categorical data [39]. Cattell's [40] scree plot was used to visualize the results. CFA was used to confirm the fit of the EFA suggested solutions. ...
Article
Purpose: Little is known about the accuracy of the GAD-7, a self-report anxiety measure, in detecting generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in people with dissociative seizures (DS). We evaluated the reliability, validity and uniformity of the GAD-7 using a diagnosis of GAD on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as a reference. Methods: We assessed 368 adults with DS at the pre-randomisation phase of the CODES trial. Factor analysis for categorical data assessed GAD-7 uniformity. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by estimating the area under the curve (AUC). We evaluated discriminant validity, reviewed data on convergent validity and calculated internal consistency. We explored correlations between GAD-7 scores and monthly DS frequency, frequency of severe seizures and measures of behavioural and emotional avoidance. Results: Internal consistency of the GAD-7 was high (α=0.92). Factor analysis elicited one main factor and general measurement invariance. Diagnostic accuracy was fair (AUC)=0.72 but the best balance of sensitivity and specificity occurred at a cut-off of ≥12 and still had a specificity rate of only 68%. Discriminant and convergent validity were good. GAD-7 scores correlated positively with DS frequency, severe seizure frequency, behavioural and emotional avoidance (all p<0.001). Conclusion: Findings regarding internal consistency and factor structure parallel previous psychometric evaluations of the GAD-7. Correlations between GAD-7 scores and DS occurrence/severity and avoidance are evidence of the concept validity of GAD-7 and provide further support a fear-avoidance treatment model for DS. However, the utility of the GAD-7 as a diagnostic instrument for generalised anxiety disorder is limited in patients with DS.
... The scree plot showed a break after the third component. Three components were retained for further investigation, as suggested by Cattell's (1966) scree test. ...
... The first method was the Guttman (1954) rule in which all factors of Eigenvalues greater than 1.0 are retained (Warne and Larsen, 2014). The next was Cattell (1966) Scree plot approach. This consisted of producing a heuristic graph representation consisting of the Eigenvalues (y-axis) and components (x-axis) and inspecting the Scree plot for the last significant drop in the line plot (Ledesma et al, 2015). ...
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Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs (PIEDs) are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms and associated transgressive behaviour. This form of behaviour is associated with moral disengagement and is collectively used to refer to acts that can have negative interpersonal consequences (Kavussanu, 2019). Moral disengagement (Bandura 1991) refers to cognitive mechanisms that separate our moral values from our actions, resulting in behaviour that conflicts with our moral values. This model has been used to theorise the use of PIEDs for occupational performance gains - for instance, in the police or in private security- with the development of the psychometric Moral Disengagement for Occupational Gains Scale. In this investigation, 84 participants (34 PIED and 50 Non-PIED users) from 10 occupations completed an online questionnaire, shared via social media. The questionnaire was based on an 8-factor model proposed by Bandura et al. (1996), with items adapted from validated scales investigating doping in sport. Twenty items measured the following factors: Moral Justification, Euphemistic Labelling, Advantageous Comparison, Diffusion of Responsibility, Distortion of Consequences and Displacement of Responsibility. Participants completed the questionnaire using a 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). The Moral Disengagement for Occupational Gains Scale (MDOGS) has demonstrated initial psychometric properties that support the use as a valid and reliable measure of moral disengagement for research into the use of PIEDs in an occupational context.
... 7,50 In the first random half sample, a principal axis factoring (PAF) was conducted with oblique rotation, since, considering theory and the previous findings, it was expected that the ISSADI-PAIN dimensions were intercorrelated. Although the Kaiser criterion is commonly used, the parallel analysis 13, 27 and Scree test criteria 10 were privileged to extract the factors, as these have been shown to be more accurate. Then, in the second subsample, a CFA was performed using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. ...
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Assessing family supportive responses to pain behaviors is paramount, as these may help or hinder chronic pain (CP) adjustment. Current self-report measures of pain-specific family supportive dynamics are scarce, covering a limited range of responses. To address this gap, this paper aimed at the psychometric validation of a (revised) novel measure - the Informal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory (ISSADI-PAIN). Three-hundred and three adults participated in this study (53.3% women; Mage=49.31), 53.5% with current CP, 20.1% with acute pain (AP) in the previous week and 26.4% with no current pain. All participants completed the revised ISSADI-PAIN. Participants reporting AP/CP in the previous week also filled out measures of pain coping/outcomes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes supported a 3-factor structure: Perceived Promotion of Dependence (PPD; 5 items; α=.82), Perceived Promotion of Autonomy-Emotional (PPA-Emot; 3 items; α=.78), PPA-instrumental (PPA-Inst; 3 items; α=.82). Higher PPD was associated with higher AP disability and less wellness-focused coping; higher PPA-Emot was associated with more wellness-focused CP coping; PPA-Inst was associated with better/worse AP/CP outcomes and more frequent use of wellness-focused CP coping. Men with AP reported more PPD than women. The revised ISSADI-PAIN is an innovative, valid, and reliable measure of relevant functions of pain-related social support, which may influence pain persistence and adaptation. Perspective: This article presents a novel self-report measure (ISSADI-PAIN) that assesses family support for functional autonomy and dependence in pain contexts. This measure may contribute to further research on the complexities of family supportive dynamics surrounding individuals with AP/CP, clarifying their role on pain persistence and adaptation processes.
... The overall measure of sampling adequacy obtained through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test provides an excellent measure of 0.94 (Dziuban & Shirkey, 1974) that opens the door to the factor analysis procedure. The elaboration of the eigenvalues suggests to use 6 loading factors after a scree plot analysis (Cattell, 1966) and the maximum-likelihood factor analysis on a covariance data matrix led to reduce the number of extrinsic variables choosing the key ones (Costello & Osborne, July 2005). 5.3.2 ...
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In an always more Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous environment, companies must adapt to keep their context in check. The purpose of this paper is to share and discuss the Systemic Agility model, that explores the adaptation of an organization to its context. The model is rooted in the existing literatures and uses quantitative methods to investigate on organizations’ adaptation. Inner organization’s observations are used to position its culture in a continuum bounded by modern and postmodern perspectives. Outer observations are used to quantify the VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) characteristics of the environment. The association of all the observations reveals the fit level of an organization to its context; the unfit consequences may be associated with tensions and stress that may impede efficacy. The model and the questionnaire appear consistent under the lenses of the gathered observations analyzed with the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. This suggests that the Systemic Agility may be used to further explore the adaptation of an organization to its context, the creation of wellbeing and the reductions of inner tensions.
... Explanatory factor analysis of the scales was used for the second part of the findings section (Table 2). First, Horn's (1965) Parallel Analysis (HPA), Velicer's (1976) Minimum Average Partial (MAP) and Cattell's (1966) Scree Plot were used to determine the factor number of the scales. The conclusions from conducting all three analyses are that the traveling by motorcycle scale had a three-factors structure and group travel activities scale had a one-factor structure. ...
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Due to the global prevalence of motorcycle tourism, this study considers the travel motivators among riders from Turkey, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom. This study adds the previously unexplored factor of group membership and its influence on travel motivators. The study used quantitative analysis of a survey that was disseminated via Google forms. The primary factors are: sense of pleasure, passion for adrenaline, and ease of riding and travel activities. Group membership was used to examine the difference among the factors. All motorcyclists ranked the factors as high as travel motivators. There were some differences among riders from different countries. Turkish riders ranked their participation in group activities higher than did the US and UK. While the US and UK and Turkey had significant differences on the sense of pleasure. This study has importance to governments, travel agencies, and businesses that serve motorcyclists.
... The retained factors were further illustrated using the scree plot. 30 Any component with initial eigen value lower than the random eigenvalue are often rejected. The number of components to retain was decided by the Monte-Carlo parallel analysis. ...
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To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and psychometrically evaluate the Older People’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL-35) among the Igbo older adult population in Enugu State. The original English OPQOL-35 (E-OPQOL-35) was translated into Igbo language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert panel review, pre-testing and cognitive debriefing interview. The final Igbo version (I-OPQOL-35) was tested for internal consistency, concurrent, and structural validities in a cross-sectional study of 115 consenting apparently healthy older adults that were conveniently recruited from Enugu State, at 0.05 level of significance. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the participants’ domain and total scores on the I-OPQOL-35 and E-OPQOL-35 (rho = .92-1.00) were excellent. The Mann–Whitney U test revealed no significant difference between corresponding scores in the E-OPQOL-35 and I-OPQOL-35 (P = .65-.94). The internal consistency coefficient of the I-OPQOL-35 was 0.78. The ceiling and floor effects were 0% respectively. The I-OPQOL-35 is therefore a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of quality of life among Igbo older adults in Nigeria. Keywords: OPQOL-35, cross-cultural adaptation, validation, Igbo language
... Prior to the maximum likelihood extraction, principal components extraction was conducted in order to assess the number of factors, multicollinearity, and factorability of the correlation matrices [38,39]. Kaiser's criterion [40] and Cattell's scree plot test [41] were used to determine the number of factors. However, Kaiser's criterion was inconclusive based on eigenvalues as there were 11 factors with an eigenvalue of 1 and above. ...
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This web-based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate university students’ career choices and their determinants. Data were collected from four disciplines within the Social Science School at the Khulna University of Bangladesh. The findings from Pearson’s Chi-square revealed a significant association between career choice and age, sex, discipline, level of education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor solution, explaining the variance of over 50% and the overall reliability of α = 0.748. The findings from a multinomial logistic regression showed that older and male students had a lower likelihood of becoming teachers, while Sociology students were more interested in teaching. Furthermore, career choices were substantially influenced by students’ level of education, job quality, job prospect, and job motive. Considering the global demand for specific skills and knowledge, universities should revise their curricula, integrating the cognitive domain of students with practical knowledge-based education in order to widen the horizon of employment options for university graduates.
... This configuring and quantifying scalp regions system is preferable to an a priori subdivision into fixed scalp regions for ERP components, since sPCA demarcates scalp regions according to the real behavior of each scalp-point recording. The number of extracted factors in both the temporal and spatial PCA was determined by the scree test method (Cattell, 1966). Promax rotation was applied to select both temporal and spatial factors (Dien, 2010(Dien, , 2012. ...
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Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by dysfunctional processing of nociceptive stimulation. Neuroimaging studies have pointed out that pain-related network functioning seems to be altered in these patients. It is thought that this clinical symptomatology may be maintained or even strengthened because of an enhanced expectancy for painful stimuli or its forthcoming appearance. However, neural electrophysiological correlates associated with such attentional mechanisms have been scarcely explored. In the current study, expectancy processes of upcoming laser stimulation (painful and non-painful) and its further processing were explored by event-related potentials (ERPs). Nineteen fibromyalgia patients and twenty healthy control volunteers took part in the experiment. Behavioral measures (reaction times and subjective pain perception) were also collected. We manipulated the pain/no pain expectancy through an S1–S2 paradigm (cue-target). S1 (image: triangle or square) predicted the S2 appearance (laser stimulation: warmth or pinprick sensation). Laser stimuli were delivered using a CO 2 laser device. Temporal and spatial principal component analyses were employed to define and quantify the ERP component reliability. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of an abnormal pattern of pain expectancy in patients with fibromyalgia. Specifically, our results showed attenuated amplitudes at posterior lCNV component in anticipation of painful stimulation that was not found in healthy participants. In contrast, although larger P2 amplitudes to painful compared to innocuous events were shown, patients did not show any amplitude change in this laser-evoked response as a function of pain predictive cues (as occurred in the healthy control group). Additionally, analyses of the subjective perception of pain and reaction time indicated that laser stimuli preceded by pain cues were rated as more painful than those signaling non-pain expectancy and were associated with faster responses. Differences between groups were not found. The present findings suggest the presence of dysfunction in pain expectation mechanisms in fibromyalgia that eventually may make it difficult for patients to correctly interpret signs that prevent pain symptoms. Furthermore, the abnormal pattern in pain expectancy displayed by fibromyalgia patients could result in ineffective pain coping strategies. Understanding the neural correlates of pain processing and its modulatory factors is crucial to identify treatments for chronic pain syndromes.
... Concerning the number of retained factors, several procedures should be used to determine the appropriate number of factors that are suitable to keep (30). For this reason, we performed the parallel analysis (31), the minimum average partial (MAP) (32), and the visual Scree test (33) in this study to determine the number of retained factors. ...
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Background: The main aims of this study were to adapt the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) to the Peruvian population and to establish a model explaining depression using CPDI values and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. Finally, we sought predictive values of the obtained CPDI factors for depression and anxiety as a secondary aim. Materials and Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (n = 300) was performed, followed by confirmatory factor analysis in a second phase (n = 1135). To explain depression scores during the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, we performed a hierarchical regression model (HRM) to evaluate the amount of explained variance of the CPDI factors above depression, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables. Results: A 2-factor solution (ruminationand stress) for the CPDI (p < 0.001; CFI = 0.99) was found. Concerning the SEM, our model was able to explain 81% of the depression scores (p < 0.001; CFI = 0.98). Finally, in the HRM, rumination could explain 17% additional variance in depression (p < 0.001) and 28% in anxiety (p < 0.001). However, stress showed collinearity with depression and anxiety, not continuing for further HRM analysis. Conclusions: Our results showed a 2-factor solution for the CPDI. Moreover, our SEM model showed that female sex, younger age, and incomplete education (with high COVID-related stress and anxiety) lead to more depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. Finally, our HRM showed that people who frequently ruminate during the COVID-19 lockdown are more afraid and negatively affected.
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INTRODUCTION: Self-efficacy refers to the beliefs in the ability to organise and implement action plans needed to achieve a certain result and to the feeling of control over the behaviours and environment. Despite this construct having some degree of generalisation when considering related tasks or behaviours, as in eating behaviour, only the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale assesses global features of eating self-efficacy. This instrument showed good psychometric properties among Portuguese higher education students. OBJECTIVES: To study the psychometric properties of the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale among female patients treating overweight and to study the relationship of eating self-efficacy with age, education and Body Mass Index. METHODOLOGY: We studied a sample of 63 women attending Nutrition appointments to treat overweight: mean age of 40 years (SD = 11), mean education of 9 years (SD = 4) and mean Body Mass Index of 36.4 Kg/m2 (SD = 7.0). RESULTS: Similarly to the original study among higher education students, the scale showed good reliability (α = 0.864) and a unifactorial structure, with the extracted factor explaining 67.4% of the overall variance. The associations with other instruments revealed good convergent and discriminant validity. General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale score did not significantly correlate with either age (r = -0.004, p = 0.973), years of education (r = -0.223, p = 0.090) or Body Mass Index (r = -0.164, p = 0.215). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale presents good psychometric properties among females treating overweight and that it appears to be a useful tool for use in clinical settings.
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Objective: Sustaining concussions has been linked to health issues later in life, yet evidence for associations between contact sports exposure and long-term cognitive performance is mixed. This cross-sectional study of former professional American-style football players tested the association of several measures of football exposure with later life cognitive performance, while also comparing the cognitive performance of former players to nonplayers. Methods: In total, 353 former professional football players (Mage = 54.3) completed both (1) an online cognitive test battery measuring objective cognitive performance and (2) a survey querying demographic information, current health conditions, and measures of past football exposure, including recollected concussion symptoms playing professional football, diagnosed concussions, years of professional play, and age of first football exposure. Testing occurred an average of 29 years after former players' final season of professional play. In addition, a comparison sample of 5,086 male participants (nonplayers) completed one or more cognitive tests. Results: Former players' cognitive performance was associated with retrospectively reported football concussion symptoms (rp = -0.19, 95% CI -0.09 to -0.29; p < 0.001), but not with diagnosed concussions, years of professional play, or age of first football exposure. This association could be due to differences in pre-concussion cognitive functioning, however, which could not be estimated based on available data. Conclusions: Future investigations of the long-term outcomes of contact sports exposure should include measures of sports-related concussion symptoms, which were more sensitive to objective cognitive performance than other football exposure measures, including self-reported diagnosed concussions.
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Introduction. Price is the main factor that has a direct impact on the main results of the enter­prises, especially agricultural. The pricing policy is able to maintain the competitiveness of the enter­prise, to ensure its solvency and stability. Problem. Pricing is carried out in a complex interaction of a set of internal and external Factors. The corresponding complexity of the phenomenon leads to the need to include many Factors in the model, which can negatively affect the result. The numerous number of Factors necessitate the use of methods that allow the identification of the most statistically significant Factors and assess their relationship with the resulting feature. The aim of the article is to identify the main Factors and their influence on the formation and change of the price of agricultural products using Factor analysis. Methods. Different methods such as mathe­matical and statistical (factor analysis, principal component), economic and statistical (multiple regression method based on factor scores) and generalization were applied in the article. Results. The application of Factor analysis and method of principal components determine the most significant Factors influencing the formation of agricultural products prices. The author used different dimensionality reduction methods and obtained three main components: supply, demand, and the solvency of the po­pulation. This helped to reveal the relationship between variables and price without multicol­linearity problem. Conclusions. The author used Factor ana­lysis and the principal component method; it helped to take into account the peculiarities of the relationships between the indicators that characterize potato pricing, to eliminate multi­collinearity between independent indicators, to get fewer common Factors than the original number of variables, to obtain a quantitative assessment of the latent variable. The use of orthogonal rotation helped to distribute the load on all three Factors more evenly, which simp­lified their further interpretation and to save 95 % of the total primary information after rota­tion and to reduce the dimensionality of the fea­ture space, which is a high indicator for prac­tical tasks.
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Agri-environmental climate measures (AECM) are considered a promising tool to achieve environmental policy goals. Not only farmers but also policy administrators and intermediaries are important actors whose attitudes and actions drive the success of these measures. To follow the idea of better stakeholder participation in the design of policy instruments, we analyse stakeholder viewpoints on the contract design of AECM. We apply Q methodology with 25 individuals from Brandenburg, Germany, who are from the farmer, policy administrator and intermediary domains. We identify three distinct attitudinal profiles, the “planners”, the “cooperators” and the “individualists”, which do not correspond to the three individual stakeholder groups. The results provide evidence that general differences in the viewpoints of policy designers and implementers on the one hand and farmers on the other hand are not a source of potential institutional mismatch. We further use the attitudinal profiles to develop three types of policy programmes with slightly different underlying rationalities. Policymakers could use such an approach to better develop target group-specific (sub)programmes in parallel. Our research strengthens the argument that multiple stakeholders should be involved in co-designing conservation measures. Moreover, behavioural factors should be considered in policy making processes.
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Background. When exposed to hundreds of medical device alarms per day, intensive care unit (ICU) staff can develop “alarm fatigue” (i.e., desensitisation to alarms). However, no standardised way of quantifying alarm fatigue exists. Objective. We aimed to develop a brief questionnaire for measuring alarm fatigue in nurses and physicians. Methods. After developing a list of initial items based on a literature review, we conducted 15 cognitive interviews with the target group (13 nurses and two physicians) to ensure that the items are face valid and comprehensible. We then asked 32 experts on alarm fatigue to judge whether the items are suited for measuring alarm fatigue. The resulting 27 items were sent to nurses and physicians from 15 ICUs of a large German hospital. We used exploratory factor analysis to further reduce the number of items and to identify scales. Results. A total of 585 submissions from 707 participants could be analysed (of which 14% were physicians and 64% were nurses). The simple structure of a two-factor model was achieved within three rounds. The final questionnaire (called Charité Alarm Fatigue Questionnaire; CAFQa) consists of nine items along two scales (i.e., the “alarm stress scale” and the “alarm coping scale”). Conclusion. CAFQa is a brief questionnaire that allows clinical alarm researchers to quantify the alarm fatigue of nurses and physicians. It should not take more than five minutes to administer.
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Epistatic effects are an important part of the genetic effect of complex traits in livestock. In this study, we used 218 synthetic ewes from the Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Reclamation in China to identify interacting paired with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and one-yearling weight. We detected 2 and 66 SNP-SNP interactions of sheep birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. No significant epistatic interaction of one-year-old body weight was detected. The genetic interaction of sheep body weight is dynamic and time-dependent. Most significant interactions of weaning body weight contributed 1% or higher. In the weaning weight trait, 66 significant SNP pairs consisted of 98 single SNPs covering 23 chromosomes, 5 of which were nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), resulting in single amino acid substitution. We found that genes that interact with transcription factors (TFs) are target genes for the corresponding TFs. Four epitron networks affecting weaning weight, including subnetworks of HIVEP3 and BACH2 transcription factors, constructed using significant SNP pairs, were also analyzed and annotated. These results suggest that transcription factors may play an important role in explaining epistatic effects. It provides a new idea to study the genetic mechanism of weight developing.
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Mining activities considerably affect groundwater quality and resources. It is crucial to investigate water chemistry and hydrochemical processes under coal mining settings for water environment protection and sustainable utilization of groundwater resources. In this study, 36 groundwater samples from the Cenozoic pore aquifer in the Gubei coal mine in Huainan (Anhui Province, China) were analyzed using hydrochemical, multivariate statistical methods, and inverse geochemical modeling. Results revealed a hydrochemical boundary around 100 m below the ground surface, forming two flow zones participating in different hydrological cycles. In the shallow (circulation) zone above the boundary, the main hydrochemical processes are silicate dissolution and cation exchange, followed by evaporite dissolution. In this zone, the Na⁺ + K⁺, Cl⁻, and SO4²⁻ concentrations are low and stable, forming low-salinity water (total dissolved solids [TDS] < 1 g/L) dominated by Na*Ca*Mg–HCO3 and Na*Ca–HCO3 types. At greater burial depths, the pH, TDS, Na⁺ + K⁺, Cl⁻, and SO4²⁻ concentrations in the groundwater gradually increase, while the HCO3⁻ concentration gradually decreases, which is mainly due to the enhanced evaporite dissolution and decarbonation in the deep (circulation) zone below the hydrochemical boundary. In this zone, the Na⁺ + K⁺, Cl⁻, and SO4²⁻ concentrations are high and variable, forming high-salinity water (TDS > 1 g/L) dominated by Na–Cl and Na–Cl*SO4 types. A hydrochemical evolution model of the Cenozoic aquifer was finally established, which advances our understanding of the evolutionary processes of groundwater chemistry under mining drainage.
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Pediatric social anxiety is characterized by attentional biases (AB) towards social threats. This study used a new response-based calculation method to assess AB from response times (RT) in a visual dot-probe task and electroencephalography (EEG) to explore its electrophysiological correlates. Twenty, high socially anxious children (HSA) (mean [M ] = 10.1 years; standard deviation [SD] = 1.01) were compared with 22 healthy control children (HC) (M = 10.20 years; SD = 1.30) matched in age and gender. Participants had to identify targets preceded by disgust-neutral, happy-neutral, or neutral-neutral pairs of faces. RT and electroencephalograms were recorded throughout the task. While no significant group difference was found at the behavioral level, principal component analyses performed on EEG data revealed that event-related potentials for threat-related stimuli were impacted by social anxiety. Analyses indicated a larger N170 amplitude in response to all facial stimuli in HC when compared to the HSA. However, we found increased P2 amplitudes for disgust-neutral pairs compared with happy-neutral pairs in has only. Then, thasHSA group showed increased P2 amplitudes for targets following disgusted faces on the opposite side of the screen compared with targets appearing on the same side of the screen. These results suggest that HSA may display an increased anchorage of attention on threatening stimuli and need more effort to disengage their attentional focus from threats and to perform the task correctly. Taken together, our data confirmed the presence of AB in children with high levels of social anxiety, which are reflected by increased neural processing during the confrontation to faces depicting a potential threatening expression.
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En los últimos treinta años el debate en el campo de la administración pública en América Latina ha girado en torno a cómo introducir reformas en el sector público inspiradas por la Nueva Gestión Pública. En efecto, la mayoría de las administraciones públicas se han enfocado casi exclusivamente en introducir este tipo de reformas, ignorando una serie de alternativas que han emergido en el debate académico. Una de esas alternativas es el enfoque de la motivación de servicio público que analiza cómo ciertos factores intrínsecos, directamente asociados con la noción de servicio público, motivan el comportamiento de los empleados públicos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo fomentar un debate latinoamericano respecto a cómo diseñar e implementar políticas de recursos humanos basadas en la teoría de la motivación de servicio público. A partir de una muestra no probabilística con 172 respuestas, este trabajo identifica un número de factores de motivación de servicio público entre funcionarios públicos chilenos. Los hallazgos muestran que la atracción por las políticas públicas, el compromiso con el interés general y la compasión son factores tan poderosos como el amor por el dinero. Al mismo tiempo, los resultados muestran que el autosacrificio no motiva a los funcionarios públicos chilenos. A partir de estos hallazgos, se presenta una discusión sobre la motivación de servicio público como enfoque útil para rediseñar políticas de recursos humanos.
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