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Leadership: Do traits matter?

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... Kemudiannya kepimpinan ditakrifkan sebagai "setiap tindakan yang menumpukan sumber-sumber ke arah matlamat yang benar-benar bermanfaat" [1]. Teori popular yang menjelaskan tentang kepimpinan ialah teori 'great man' yang hebat dibahaskan sekitar abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 [9]. Berdasarkan kepada teori tersebut, aspek kepimpinan adalah suatu eleman yang diwarisi khususnya dalam kalangan orang-orang kelas atasan, di mana mereka dilahirkan dengan ciri-ciri kepimpinan [9]. ...
... Teori popular yang menjelaskan tentang kepimpinan ialah teori 'great man' yang hebat dibahaskan sekitar abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 [9]. Berdasarkan kepada teori tersebut, aspek kepimpinan adalah suatu eleman yang diwarisi khususnya dalam kalangan orang-orang kelas atasan, di mana mereka dilahirkan dengan ciri-ciri kepimpinan [9]. Namun begitu, hari ini teori tersebut telah ditolak oleh kerana terdapat banyak lagi elemen lain yang perlu diambil kira dalam membincangkan kepimpinan. ...
... Maka tidak akan lahir elemen kepimpinan. Menurut Kirkpatrick dan Locke [9], terdapat bukti bahawa pemimpin yang efektif adalah indivdu yang berbeza daripada orang lain dalam hal-hal tertentu dan mereka memiliki ciri-ciri kepimpinan. Ciri-ciri kepimpinan tersebut merangkumi orang yang boleh memandu bagi mencapai sesuatu kejayaan iaitu dari segi pencapaian matlamat, motivasi kepimpinan, cita-cita, tenaga, ketabahan, inisiatif, kejujuran dan integriti, mempunyai keyakinan diri yang tinggi dan mempunyai keupayaan kognitif [9]. ...
... Although every definition emphasizes something different we can state that leadership is a demanding, unrelenting job with enormous pressures and grave responsibilities. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) believes it takes a special kind of person to master the challenges of opportunity. ...
... There are many reasons why a leader needs self-confidence (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991;Northouse, 2016;Axelrod, 2017;Holsinger, 2018). A great deal of information must be gathered and processed. ...
... Researchers have been trying to understand what makes a leader for more than a century (Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, & McKee, 2014) general perception was that leaders were great men who naturally possess leadership traits; in other words, leaders are born leaders (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Empirical studies based on this restricted approach focused on measuring personal traits linked to leaders, but sole reliance on the great-man theories failed to provide a reliable explanation of leadership (Bass, 2008;Yukl, 2013). ...
... For more than a century, countless researchers have attempted to present theoretical frameworks that can accurately explain leadership . Their efforts demonstrated that leadership is not a birthright trait but rather a more complex and elusive concept that needs to be studied from a multi-disciplinary perspective (Bass, 2008;Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991;Schriesheim & Bird, 1979). This led leadership researchers to utilize theories from other disciplines to explore leadership, and one such endeavor led to the emergence of leader identity as a promising framework that can explain leadership from the perspective of identity theory (Burke & Stets, 2009;DeRue et al., 2009). ...
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The influence of different employee behaviors on leader identity is understudied, and most empirical studies focus mainly on leadership development interventions. This dissertation widens the scope and explores the relationship between leader identity and employee voice in culturally-diverse work environments. The research adopts a weekly diary study design and uses multilevel modeling to examine this relationship. A stratified random sample from three Saudi companies participated in this four-week study. The analysis is performed on a univariate (long) format dataset suitable for multi-level modeling containing N = 196 complete level 1 (within-person) observations nested within 49 level 2 dyads. Leader identity fluctuates over time when experiencing employee voice. The direct effect of prohibitive voice on leader identity is negative and significant, while the relationship between promotive voice and leader identity is insignificant. The results also indicate that leaders’ cultural intelligence moderates these relationships. The findings indicate that leader identity is a malleable construct which fluctuates on shorter intervals, confirming that the identity verification process is constantly active to verify the identity as long as it exists in the self-concept as depicted by the identity theory. This study also contributes to the literature on leader identity by investigating the influence of employee voice on leader identity over four weeks within a cross-cultural context. From a practical perspective, the findings suggest that training leaders to deal with employee voice and to utilize cross-cultural skills effectively can enable them to perceive employee voice as a resource instead of a threat.
... Green transformational leaders enhance employee job satisfaction by shaping attitudes and behaviors toward the natural environment [67][68][69][70][71]. Similarly, transformational leaders positively impact employee job satisfaction [72][73][74][75][76]. In contrast, the relationship between transactional leaders and job satisfaction may be positive [77,78], non-significant [79], or positive in the short run but negative in the long run [80,81]. ...
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Social sustainability in organizations has been externally focused and, given its socio-ecological importance and potential, it requires further attention. This study examines social sustainability in business organizations (a) as an antecedent of environmental and economically related constructs, and (b) as a component of a multiplicity of relationships among social, environmental, and economically associated constructs. We examine a diverse set of 41 model configurations of 10 first-order constructs, and a diverse set of second-order constructs following a gradient ranging from a relatively moderate degree of order to quasi-random construct arrangements ending with model configurations fully determined at random. These sets reflect variability and commonality among respondents from various organizations, industries, and regions of the United States. Constructs may be antecedents, mediators, or outcomes. Analyses were conducted using PLS-SEM software. Results show (a) that social constructs are at the core of organizational life, given their frequent moderate to strong positive effects on other social constructs, as well as on environmental and economically related organizational constructs; and (b) construct variability within sustainability dimensions. Contributions include examining both constructs’ gradient ordering and constructs’ variability effects contingent on both construct nature and position. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations and future research, are discussed.
... Scholars have listed different traits associated with such great leaders. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) mentioned the under listed as important characteristics of leadership i. Desire to achieve (through self-motivation, displaying initiative, energy and innovativeness) ii. Self-motivation to lead others (getting others to follow his shared vision) ...
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Good leadership in any society or country is necessary for the economic growth and development. A good leadership will also ensure that the level of insecurity in the society is reduced to the barest minimum. Nigeria is saddled with numerous insecurity problems. This coupled with leadership that has not lived up to expectation has negatively impacted the infrastructural, socioeconomic and political development of Nigeria. The paper focuses on the concept of leadership, Nigeria's insecurity and the connection between leadership, insecurity and development in Nigeria. The paper concludes that insecurity is a threat to protection of lives and property. The leadership should focus on the elimination of crimes that threaten the peace and safety of its citizens, provide habitable environment for all and this will ensure growth and development
... The outgoing, sociable, and assertive characteristics of extraverts are congruent with leadership roles that require interactions with and persuasion and motivation of others to achieve goals (House, 1977). In addition, leaders are more likely than non-leaders to have a high level of energy and stamina and to be generally active, lively, and often restless (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Buckmaster (2008) opined that extraversion is related to leadership effectiveness. ...
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This study explore the relationship between principals' personality trait and leadership effectiveness. Using the Big Factor Model, the study seek to identify the commonly exhibited personality trait and to investigate the relationship between principals' personality trait and leadership effectiveness. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of all the 44 public schools principals in Kano Municipal educational zone. Two research instruments were used as data collection tool namely: The Big Five Inventory (BFI) which was an adopted with .87 reliability index and a researcher instrument "School Leadership Effectiveness Questionnaire" (SLEQ) with .86 reliability index. Collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to answer the research question while Multiple Regression was used in testing hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that conscientiousness trait (M= 39.04, SD= 2.37) was the commonly exhibited trait among school principals. It was found that principals' personality traits and leadership effectiveness were having a multiple correlation of r= .940 while each of the BFI dimensions were found to predicted for 26%, 27%, 19%,-15% and 40% increase/decrease in leadership effectiveness for Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness respectively. The study recommended that school leaders should retract the neurotic tendencies in them and develop more positive characters such as novelty, sociable, courteousness, self-confidence and self-esteem.
... Leaders have an impact on how communities and societies function with their emphasis on reinforcing the overall well-being of the community at large. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) indicate that effective leaders possess the "right stuff" to navigate a crisis. The goal of such a leader in a crisis is to investigate the situation in detail, specify apt strategies and identify a suitable course of action from among varying options (Hittle and Leonard, 2011). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore leadership and information dissemination during a crisis like COVID-19. The article reviews the information produced and published during the crisis. The author proposes a typology of information and categorizes messages based on their contextualization within the Caribbean environment. Design/methodology/approach The research method is developed around three main stages: a review of literature on leadership and information dissemination; synthesis of information to inform the typology; and discussion of the information reflecting the interplay between leadership and information dissemination. Findings The literature shows a legacy of deceit that dominates the history of healthcare for Blacks and Caribbean people. This heritage has helped to fashion individual attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic in the Caribbean. The research also highlights that in addressing the several typologies of information, varying leadership styles came to bare. The democratic leadership style was the most dominant among the Caribbean countries, while some illustrations of autocratic leadership were visible. Other leadership facets and traits fashion responses by the leaders in managing information dissemination during the crisis. The paper also observes a triangular system of information which highlights where influences exist between relationships (governments, media/NGOs and society) and how such relationships lend to shaping the behavior of others. Research limitations/implications Limitations on the research are based on the author's philosophy and interpretation. In addition, much of the information surrounding COVID-19 is novel and hence difficult to fact-check because of the unique nature of COVID-19. Practical implications This paper provides a better understanding of the typology of information during a crisis like COVID-19. The discussion on leveraging leadership strategy and competencies for dissemination of information during a crisis provides an optimistic perspective to guide leaders in managing information dissemination during a crisis. Social implications The typology is helpful in delineating the way society interprets information based on other crisis. It also helps with assessing the leadership styles and understanding potential tailor-made strategies. Originality/value The development of an information typology that provides insight into the influence that historical perspectives give to interpreting information in a health crisis in a Caribbean context. The research also looks at the strategies pursued by Caribbean leaders as they adopt novel and promising techniques to communicate during a crisis.
... L'assurance et le désir de diriger lui permettent de partager sa vision et de convaincre. Le dynamisme, l'intelligence et la compétence professionnelle l'aident à s'impliquer dans son travail et à rechercher un accomplissement, voire à répondre à un besoin de réalisation, d'affiliation et de puissance (Kirkpatrick, Locke, 1991). ...
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... Thus, our findings suggest that leadership is not "merely an attribution" that people make about an individual (e.g., Haslam et al., 2001;Meindl, 1995). Instead, both the trait theory of leadership (e.g., Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991) and the attribution theory of leadership (e.g., Green & Mitchell, 1979;Martinko et al., 2007) align well with these results. ...
Article
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Multisource leadership ratings rely on the assumption that –in addition to the leader’s self-evaluation– different rater groups (i.e., subordinates, peers and superiors) bring in unique perspectives and thus provide a more well-rounded analysis of the leader’s behavior. However, the way in which multisource data are typically treated in research offers little information about the precise levels of overlap and uniqueness that are encapsulated in these different perspectives. Drawing on the Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) model, we propose a model that conceptualizes these shared and unique perspectives in terms of latent factors reflecting respectively (i) the consensus about the leader (i.e., the Leadership Arena), (ii) the impressions conveyed to others that are distinct from self-perceptions (i.e., the leader’s Reputation), and (iii) the unique self-perceptions of the leader (i.e., the leader’s Identity). This Leadership Arena-Reputation-Identity (LARI) model is formalized by means of bifactor modeling, which allows to statistically decompose the variance captured by multisource ratings. The LARI model was tested against five alternative models in two large multisource samples (N1 leaders = 537, N1 observers = 7,337; N2 leaders = 1,255, N2 observers = 15,777), each using different leadership instruments. In both samples, the LARI bifactor model outperformed the alternative models. A subsequent variance decomposition showed that each rater source indeed provides unique information about the target’s behavior, although in varying degree. Across all leadership dimensions in both samples, superiors consistently provided the largest share of unique information among the three observer groups. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Management of organizations today whether public or private as Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) argue, depends on its decision making and ability to employ various approaches that are important for organizational performance and accomplishment of goals which also is dependent upon their ability to manage knowledge and information. Indeed, the only irreplaceable capital an organization possesses is the knowledge and ability of its people. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical assessment of the effect of knowledge management and employee placement on effective decision making with a view to identifying the further work that needs to be done to better understand decision making especially in the public sector organization. The paper captured the views of Nigerian students' community in University Utara Malaysia and University Putra Malaysia, the responses are quantitatively analyzed using regression analysis. Two out of the three hypotheses are proven as alternative hypotheses indicating a significant relationship and the third hypothesis was in significant.
... It may, therefore, be helpful that it is retitled as great leader or great person (Bowen, 2021). The great man theory is developed in the twentieth century focusing on particular personality traits that differentiate the effective leader from one who is ineffective (Reed and Bogardus, 2012;Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991). ...
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Abstract: The Office for National Statistics find that productivity in the UK remains sluggish. They describe this as a productivity puzzle. One reason many be associated with the accidental manager. These are people who are appointed to leadership positions with little or no leadership/ management skills and can drain productivity. This suggests that, not withstanding the development of leadership/ management theories, there continues to be a problem that needs to be addressed. This journal article, begins by comparing and contrasting the terms leadership and management and reflects upon a few of the main theories. The findings propose that there is no one right approach to leadership. However, the leader needs to have the requisite skills to adapt and adopt the appropriate leadership style for the situation. This requires the leader to make decisions that involve cognition, intuition and emotion. Therefore, the leader of the twenty first century needs to be able to influence and collaborate with others while recognizing that “words can hurt” and that some people can be more sensitive than others. It is, therefore important that leaders develop their emotional intelligence skills. The leader of the twenty first century also recognizes the damaging impact that passion killers and pathocratic influence can have on the organization. These factors can help build a high performing, passionate and healthy workplace in which people feel valued. In summing up, the role of leader and follower is increasingly blurred. It acknowledges the significance of allowing followers to take responsibility while recognizing leadership is a process not a position.
... )。隨著人們 休閒活動的發展,他們的動機、資源喜好、友誼選擇、以及對管理實踐的態度可能會發 生變化。在某些情況下,人們會因為他們所選擇的生活或身分,而將其休閒活動發展成 進階的階段 (Bryan, 1977;Ditton, Loomis, & Choi, 1992)。Bryan (1977) (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991) 、 行 為 理 論 (behavior theory) 、 領 導 權 變 理 論 (contingency theories of leadership) (Heresy & Blanchard, 1988)及其他新近的理論(e.g., Bass, 1985;Conger & Kanungo, 1987) (Mannell, Zuzanek, & Larson, 1988;Neulinger, 1974;Stebbins, 2000 (Hatcher, 1994;Petrick, 2002)。 在區別效度檢定方面,本研究先由每一個構面的 AVE 均方根大於各構面的相關係 數之個數,且至少需佔整體的比較個數 75%以上 (Hair, et al., 1998) (Dai, 2002)。 本研究之假設模式有良好的配適度(df = 100、χ 2 = 224.38、χ 2 /df = 2.24 < 5、RMSEA = 0.075、NNFI = 0.94、CFI = 0.96) (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Dai, 2002 ...
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本研究以澎湖地區水域遊憩活動遊客為例,套用並且檢驗 Lee and Scott (2006)所提出的遊憩專門化成本效益模式。本模式指出當人們在遊憩行為、技巧與知識、行為承諾和個人承諾等概念達到專門化的程度,他們最終將會體驗到參與遊憩活動所帶來的持續性利益。本模式也指出遊憩專門化尚會影響領導角色、持續性利益、和自我決定三者之間的關係。自我決定被視為是人們透過行為承諾達到遊憩專門化的指標。本研究以便利抽樣法進行問卷抽樣,共計回收 222 份有效問卷。本研究架構獲得實證上的支持,而得到水域遊憩活動參與者的下列實證結果:1. 遊憩專門化程度與其領導角色、自我決定、持續性利益皆有部分顯著正向影響的關係。2. 領導角色與其自我決定、持續性利益皆有顯著正向影響的關係。3. 自我決定與持續性利益有顯著正向影響的關係。綜上所述,研究結果對此模式有著部分的支持。本研究結果建議從事水域遊憩活動的遊客若增進遊憩專門化的程度,所導致的持續性利益是遠大於任何成本付出的。本研究希望藉由驗證此模型,提供給人們對於參與遊憩活動時所需面對之成本支出以及持續性利益獲得有更深入之瞭解。
... The researchers associated with trait theory (such as Ralph Stogdill; Richard Mann; Robert Lord, DeVader and Alliger; Shelley Kirkpatrick and Edwin Locke; Stephen Zaccaro, Cary Kemp and Paige Bader) believed that a great man has to be born, not made. 14,15,16,17,18,19 In contrast, James MacGregor Burns has determined the four dimensions of transformational leadership as a way to become or aspire to be a great leader which is in contrast with the "great man" approach in trait theory. ...
... According to Lord et al. (1986), other leadership traits include intelligence, masculinity and dominance. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) postulated that there are six traits that differentiates leaders from non-leaders and they are drive, motivation, integrity, confidence, cognitive abilities and task knowledge. ...
Article
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Quality leadership is key to achieving organizational vision and mission, while also coping with the ever-changing climes and disruptions through corporate agility. Haneberg, (2011) defined corporate agility as the efficiency with which organizations respond to continuous change by consistently adapting. It only takes astute leadership to create or induce innovation which is very core in an agile organization (Hamel, 2012). Leadership style influences the organizational culture which in turn affects organizational performance. Klein et al. (2013) opine that organizational culture and performance are related to the types of leadership styles. The impact of leadership in an organization is paramount in the areas of creating vision and mission, setting of goals, designing of strategies for the achievement of organizational objectives and meeting shareholders expectations. This can determine the trajectory of any organization whether it will be upward or stagnated inference.
... A deeper understanding of leadership effectiveness requires scholars to move beyond theoretical debates. Many researchers (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991;Schriesheim et al., 2001) have presented shared assumptions between the Great Man and Trait Theory. While Great Man Theory suggest leadership characteristics are innate, Trait Theory states that these characteristics can be acquired both at birth and later. ...
Thesis
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The 21st century public school principal is faced with complex challenges and issues as would be expected to befall a key influencer of student success. Among others, these challenges include accountability demonstrated through high stakes testing, data-driven decision making, effectively incorporating innovative technology, recruiting and retaining teachers, and finally, ensuring a safe, nurturing and inspiring school culture. As the administrative role has increasingly evolved from manager to instructional leader, the impact and positive influence an effective principal can have on teachers and school culture stands to be their most important overall contribution, aside from hiring the best teachers in the first place (Hughes, 2014). Therein, effective schools require engaged leadership that actively inspires teachers to invest in realizing what is possible instead of settling for the targets that are most easily attained. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between the leadership style of public school principals and school culture as assessed by public school teachers. A total of 43 principals and 314 teachers from elementary, middle school, and high schools located in Cochise, Pima, and Santa Cruz counties in Southern Arizona were selected and agreed to participate in this study. Data for this study were collected using the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 2004) to classify the leadership styles of principals as transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire. Additionally, the School Culture Survey by Gruenert and Valentine (1998) was used to assess the following six factors of school culture: collaborative leadership, teacher collaboration, unity of purpose, professional development, iii collegial support, and learning partnership. The means, standard deviations, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between the variables. The results of this study were evaluated through the SPSS platform. Outcomes indicated that there was a weak significant linear correlation between the three leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and school culture. More specifically, of the three leadership models under consideration, only transformational leadership showed a positive correlation through Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
... Si ces approches ont été communément privilégiées pour tenter de comprendre le rapport des individus au travail, les recherches dans le domaine de la psychologie du travail montrent cependant que la satisfaction au travail s'intègre dans un cadre plus général de celles relatives à la motivation de l'individu au travail (Morin,2009 ;Neveu & Thévenet ,2002 ;Dujarier,2006). Des chercheurs comme Locke (1991) et Vroom (1964 ont ainsi proposé des théories visant à comprendre comment un certain nombre de paramètres se mettent en interaction pour impacter la mobilisation, la coopération et le comportement des individus au sein de leur situation de travail, qu'il s'agisse de leurs performances et de leur implication ou de leurs trajectoires professionnelles, voire de leur employabilité. (Pour changer d'entreprise ou d'organisation, y demeurer, s'y former, etc.). ...
Thesis
Increasing a system efficiency is often seen as a cost-effective way to reduce intensive use of natural resources. Paradoxically, technical improvements do not necessarily imply resource savings. Economic literature has observed adjustments in producers and consumers behavior after such improvements, which often results in increased demand for the resource, an opposite effect to that intended by the policy. The increase in demand following an improvement in the technical efficiency of a resource conversion device, is know as the rebound effect. This thesis is structured in three chapters combining both theoretical and empirical methods to address different aspects of the rebound effect in energy and water use. The first chapter presents an empirical analysis that compares the different methods used to estimate the rebound effect in the use of the private vehicle. The second chapter proposes a new theoretical framework of analysis for the rebound effect, based on households heterogeneity, that can be used to estimate residential and vehicle use related rebounds. The final chapter evaluates the rebound effect in the use of irrigation water and discusses the implications of the existing relation between irrigation water demand and energy demand.
... Not only in the political arena but also in business, honesty and integrity are strongly suggested. According to numerous studies (Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991;Yammarino, 2007, 2009;Bauman, 2013;Martin et al., 2013), followers describe integrity as the most important leadership characteristics. A well-founded leader-follower relationship requires implicit trust. ...
... Our first theme corresponds to the trait theory of leadership, where leadership depends on the personal qualities or traits of the leader [12,13]. Individuals who subscribe to this perspective believe great leaders possess a special set of characteristics that distinguish them from others; some respondents go so far as believing these qualities are innate. ...
Conference Paper
Recent research suggests that engineers can be more inclined to identify leadership in the practices of admired colleagues than recognizing themselves as leaders [1-4]. We believe by asking engineers who they view as exemplary engineering leaders, we can sidestep some engineers’ reluctance to adopt leadership as part of their engineering profession to allow us to better understand the qualities of engineers who lead. This work is based on two survey questions that ask engineers 1) to identify exemplary engineering leaders in their lives, and 2) to describe what makes an exemplary engineering leader. While we set out to analyze the 828 open-ended responses through Engineering Leadership Orientations framework [3], our analysis of the responses revealed 3 perspectives engineers take to define exemplary engineering leadership: an individual’s values, attributes and traits, an individual’s skills, abilities, and behaviours, and lastly, an individual’s impact to community, society, or the profession. This works contributes to the developing definition of engineering leadership by providing the perspective of engineering professionals from industry.
... 146)). Leaders responsible for the effectiveness of organizations [19] are achievement-oriented, ambitious, energetic, stubborn and proactive [20] (p. 52). ...
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The changing perception towards leadership reveals that different leadership types are felt to be needed to deal with different problems that modern organizations face. Even though there is lots of research which focuses on the effects of different leadership types on organizations' performance, there is no research to be found which only focuses on employees' perceptions. Therefore, this paper aimed to figure out the most important leadership characteristic for employees and their choice of leaders to work with. In order to reach these goals, a two-sectioned survey was given to eight hospitality employees in the Sultanahmet Region. Since the evaluations of the employees are subjective, the answers were analyzed with the Fuzzy TOPSIS method by transfiguring the verbal assessments of the participants into numbers to ease the decision-making process. With regard to the results, the most important leadership characteristics discovered were: being a guide to the followers, being capable of creating mission and vision, and encouraging the followers. According to employees' leader choices, the results showed that the hospitality employees in the Sultanahmet region mostly want to work with Transformational Leaders. Considering the implementation and the results, this paper is important as a pioneering study, which will fill the gap in the literature about investigating employees' leadership preferences and choices.
... and the attention senior leaders gave to its composition, taking into consideration leadership traits and characteristics that are relevant to the project and its success(Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991, Bennis, 2000;Goleman et al, 2002). The importance of this phase was to get the right mix of individuals at differing levels to provide insight into the planning required, with potential benefits by blending these skills, for robust and effective progression(Senior and Swales, 2016). ...
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting social, economic, and political crisis has unleashed an avalanche of uncertainty and unique challenges on the global stage. Within a constructivist theoretical lens, failures of pandemic global leadership are explored. These failures include that global leadership has been xenophobic, siloed, and fraught with mixed messages that make followership problematic. Nevertheless, triumphs of global leadership have also emerged against the backdrop of the coronavirus, such as accelerated digital transformation and the recognition of a cadre of influential young women leaders internationally. Lessons can be gleaned from the coronavirus experience for application in the post-pandemic era. Global leaders will need to be more agile, connected, and empathetic. A preliminary empirical research study concludes that core leadership factors of focusing on collective over individual interests, communicating optimism and a sense of purpose, and having concern for the moral and ethical impact of decisions will be more important post-pandemic than in the pre-pandemic era. Overall, the roadmap for post-pandemic leadership as designed by the citizen voice is grounded in notions of transformational leadership.
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The purpose of this study was to explore how variables such as student demographics, pre-college leadership activities, and perceived pre-college parenting behaviors predict students’ leader self-efficacy (i.e., individuals’ confidence in themselves to lead and belief that others will support their leadership [Hannah et al., 2008]) in college and leader emergence (i.e., college-based leadership involvements [DeRue & Ashford, 2010]) in college. Undergraduate students (n = 420) at a large, public university in the Mid-Atlantic were surveyed to examine these relationships and data were analyzed using hierarchical and logistic regression, with appropriate controls and moderators. Findings included discovery that pre-college engagement with sports team positional leadership, community service, extracurriculars, and positive parenting behaviors, such as family routine and greater quality time with parents, predicted leader self-efficacy. Further, findings noted that pre-college community service, extracurriculars, peer tutoring and perceptions of parental quality time and proactive parenting predicted leader emergence. This study suggests that students’ leadership development is influenced by myriad systems across the lifespan and demonstrates that, as educators committed to student development, we must engage the full arc of our students’ leadership journeys and provide for intentional partnerships between higher education and the K-12 community.
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Liderlik, insanlığın doğuşundan, ilk medeniyetlerin ortaya çıkışından bu yana var olan bir olgu ve önemli bir kavramdır. Liderlik insan gruplarının olduğu her ortam ve yerde bulunabilen bir faktör olmakla birlikte her kişinin üstlenemeyeceği bir sıfattır. İşletmelerdeki liderlik anlayışı firmaların her türlü strateji ve politikalarına yön vermektedir. Piyasada bulunan tüm şirketlerin amacı rekabet üstünlüğü sağlayabilmek, sürdürülebilirlik derecesini yükseltmek, optimum kar etmek ve optimum fayda sağlamaktır. Bu bağlamda, birinci seviye yetenekler olarak adlandırılan, piyasada ve işletme çevresinde ürünü, üretim sürecini, pazarlama stratejilerini ve diğer bazı unsurların bilinçli olarak değiştirilmesini sağlayan bir sistem olan dinamik yeteneklerin kullanılıp kullanılamayacağı liderlik anlayışı ve yönetim felsefesine göre anlamlılık kazanmaktadır. Dinamik yetenekler, işletme için fırsatların değerlendirilebilmesi adına ortam hazırlamak ve çevreye göre uyumlu olabilecek faaliyetlerin uygulanmasına yol açmakla ilgilidir. Bu kitabın amacı, liderlik tarzlarının işletmelerde bulunan dinamik yeteneklere olan etkisini incelemektir. Liderlik tarzının nasıl uygulandığı ve işletmedeki diğer unsurlarla birlikte işletmede planlanan ve yürütülen dinamik yeteneklere ne derece etki ettiği, bu etkinin sonuçlarının neler olduğu da çalışmanın amaçları arasındadır. Türkiye İhracatçılar Meclisi İhracat 2021 Raporu verilerine göre, 2020 yılı için Türkiye'nin ihracatını gerçekleştirdiği 27 sektör içinde 4,27 milyar dolarlık payı ile on ikinci sırada olan, 2025 yılında sekizinci ve 2035 yılında ise yedinci sırada olması beklenen madencilik ürünleri sektörünün Türkiye ekonomisi için önemli bir sektör olduğu görülmektedir. Bu bağlamda hem ülke ekonomisi hem de dünya ihracatında önemli bir konumda olması beklenen madencilik sektörüne ilişkin yapılan çalışmaların ilgili alana katkısının da önemli olacağı anlaşılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Burdur, Isparta ve Antalya illerinin oluşturduğu Batı Akdeniz'de ihracat yapan mermer firmalarında uygulanan liderlik tarzlarının, firmaların dinamik yeteneklerine olan etkisine yönelik araştırma yapılarak, hangi liderlik tarzlarının dinamik yeteneklerden hangisini nasıl ve hangi düzeyde etkilediği Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli kullanılarak analiz edilmeye çalışılmıştır.
Chapter
This chapter presents the theoretical foundations of public sector networks with a specific focus on their leadership and performance, which seems to be concepts substantially neglected by public management literature. In addition, this chapter endeavours to conceptually analyse leadership and its different approaches such as integrative or integrated leadership and collective or collectivist leadership taken in guiding public networks. Several leadership theories have been developed throughout the years including formal and informal leadership, the leader as a person, leader’s behaviours, the effects of a leader, the interaction process between leader(s) and follower(s), the relevance of social cognition and contextual factors. However, the literature on network leadership is still nascent; consequently, it has received less attention than other network management tools. The chapter concludes by offering a comprehensive overview of the main streams of research conducted on network performance through the presentation of the main models used to assess performance in a network setting. In this regard, specific attention is paid to the multidimensional model of network performance (MMNP) developed by Cepiku (Network Theory in the Public Sector. Routledge, 2014). This model goes beyond the two overrated categories of performance drivers shown in the literature: the exogenous factors and the endogenous factors. In fact, the MMNP model adds more drivers of network performance called internal (trust across the network) and external resources that can be partly governed by the management with a delayed effect after the networks has produced some results.
Article
We consider a two‐agent hierarchical organization with a leader and a specialist in a reputation‐signaling model. The specialist proposes an innovative but risky project to the leader, and decides whether to exert an effort to improve the value of the project, which benefits the organization. The leader decides whether to endorse the project or block it. The leader's competence is her private information, and the market updates its belief about the leader's type based on observation of her action (endorsing the project or blocking it) and its outcome. In equilibrium, the leader could behave excessively conservatively when she is subject to reputation concerns. We have two main findings. First, aside from its usual distortionary effects, the leader's reputation concern has a beneficial effect by inducing the specialist to supply productive effort and improves the organization's performance. Second, there exists a nonmonotonic relationship between the perceived competence of the leader and the performance of the organization. As a result, a paradox of mediocracy emerges: The organization may benefit from a seemingly mediocre leader, as a mediocre leader motivates the specialist to exert effort, which offsets the efficiency loss due to incorrect decisions.
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This paper applies Emmanuel Levinas’ philosophy to the management practice of leadership. Specifically, it focuses on servant leadership, which is considered the most dyadic other-oriented style. While often viewed altruistically, servant leadership can still be egological if it totalizes followers to a leader’s interests and to organizational ends. This paper conceptualises an enriched version of servant leadership using key ideas taken from Levinas’ understanding of the infinite Other and then describes this style using relevant examples. This novel approach, Servant-Leadership-for-the-Other, offers a theoretical lens by which to enrich existing leadership practices as well as providing a style of leadership better suited for the twenty-first century.
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Based on social learning theory and the trickle-down effects, in which behavioral patterns cascade from one management level to the next (also known as the falling domino effect), we attempt to answer whether upper-level managers’ temporal leadership can be transferred to lower-level managers to form their temporal leadership, and what the mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions for this occurrence are. By analyzing the data from 234 middle-level managers and 686 junior managers/employees, we found that top managers’ temporal leadership was positively associated with middle-level managers’ temporal leadership through the mediating role of middle-level managers’ temporal leadership perspective and that the relationship was moderated by middle-level managers’ identification with the top manager. Identification with the top manager, in particular, strengthens both the top manager’s positive effect on middle-level managers’ temporal leadership and the top manager’s temporal leadership’s mediating role in this relationship through their temporal leadership perspective. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are investigated.
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This chapter explores leadership related to healthcare and care in the clinical setting to support a better understanding of clinically focused leadership. Leadership can be a vexed and convoluted concept, and it is commonly seen as linked to theories of management and associated with elevated hierarchical positions and power. The chapter explores the theoretical perspectives of leadership and brings a greater array of dishes to the banquet. The ‘big bang theory’ proposes that calamitous circumstances provide the elements essen‐tial for the creation of leaders. The ‘trait theory’ of leadership rests on the assumption that the individual is more impor‐tant than the situation. Style theories explore how leaders behave, what they do, how they act, as well as how groups respond, with leaders being described as either democratic, paternalis‐tic, laissez‐faire, authoritarian and/or dictatorial. ‘Authentic leadership’ and ‘breakthrough leadership’ are more recent leadership theories.
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Liderliğin zaman içindeki evriminde, kişilik özellikleri yaklaşımından başlanarak dönüşümcü liderliğe kadar farklı liderlik tarzları yer almıştır. En eski liderlik yaklaşımlarından olan kişilik özellikleri yaklaşımına göre, kişilerin liderlik vasıflarına sahip olup olmadıkları, doğuştan gelen fiziksel ve kişilik özellikleri tarafından belirlenmekteydi. Daha sonra gelen yetenekler yaklaşımına göre ise, liderlik doğuştan gelen bir vasıf olmaktan ziyade, öğrenilebilir yeteneklerden oluşmaktadır. Üçüncü sırada gelen stil yaklaşımı, liderlerin kişilik özellikleri veya yeteneklerine değil, davranışlarına odaklanırken; dördüncü sırada yer alan durumsal yaklaşım, liderlerin tarzlarını içinde bulundukları durumlara göre farklılaştırmaları gerektiğini öne sürer. Beşinci sırada incelenen koşul bağımlılık yaklaşımına göre ise, bir liderin etkinliği, liderin stilinin, içinde bulunulan koşullarla ne kadar uyumlu olduğuna bağlıdır. Altıncı sırada bahsedilen yol-amaç kuramı, liderlerin, çalışanlarını belirlenmiş amaçlara ulaşmaları için nasıl motive ettikleri ile ilgilidir. Yedinci sırada söz edilen lider-üye etkileşimi kuramı liderliği, liderler ve takipçiler arasındaki karşılıklı etkileşime odaklanan bir süreç olarak kavramsallaştırır. Son olarak bahsi geçen ve en yeni liderlik yaklaşımlarından biri olan dönüşümcü liderlik, liderliğin daha çok karizmatik ve duygusal öğelerine odaklanır.
Article
ظهرت نظرية السمات في القيادة في الدراسات الأولى للقيادة، ثم تبلور مفهومها أكثر نتيجة تأثيرات المدرسة السلوكية في علمي الإدارة والنفس، حيث اكتسبت هذه النظرية شهرة واسعة في المجالين: الأكاديمي، والتطبيقي، وتركزت أفكارها حول إمكانية تمييز القادة بسمات عن سواهم، وأن لهذه السمات تأثيرات على السلوك القيادي، وقد حاول باحثوها تصميم مجموعة من المقاييس بهدف الوصول إلى صحة الافتراضات السابقة، ومن هؤلاء على سبيل المثال: (Terman: 1904) (Gowin: 1918) (Cox: 1926) (Tead: 1935) (VanDusen: 1948) (Gattell: 1954) (Korman: 1968) (Ghiselli: 1971) (Meadows: 1980) (Wally & Baum: 1994) (Robbins & Judge: 2004) .
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the transitions in hiring criteria by recruiting companies in top ten Quacquarelli Symonds ranked business schools in India during the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Using an exploratory lens, an in-depth semistructured interview was conducted with 20 recruiting companies across industries and roles. Findings Content analysis suggests the changing preferences in hiring criteria and identifies six themes that have assumed importance during the pandemic period. Research limitations/implications This study has implications for business school participants who need to change their preparation strategy during the placement season. Practical implications There is an opportunity for business schools to focus on these two soft skills, namely, self-management with self-discipline and oral and written communication across the platform. However, in the depth and diversity of soft skills training, there is often a shallow coverage of multiple skills. The rather focused approach to developing these two skills may go a long way in preparing work-delivery graduates who could hit the proverbial ground running as the first step into their careers. Originality/value This study contributes to hiring managers by suggesting the traits that may assume importance in the new normal where remote or hybrid working context is a necessity.
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Setting ambitious goals is a proven strategy for improving performance, but we suggest it may have interpersonal costs. We predict that relative to those with moderately ambitious goals, those with highly ambitious goals (and those with unambitious goals) will receive more negative interpersonal evaluations, being seen as less warm and as offering less relationship potential. Thirteen studies including nine preregistered experiments, three preregistered replications, and one archival analysis of graduate school applications (total N = 6,620) test these hypotheses. Across career, diet, fitness, savings, and academic goals, we found a robust effect of ambition on judgments, such that moderately ambitious goals led to the most consistently positive interpersonal expectations. To understand this phenomenon, we consider how ambition influences judgments of investment in one’s own goals as opposed to supportiveness for other people’s goals and explore expectations about goal supportiveness as one mechanism through which ambition may influence interpersonal judgments.
Chapter
The COVID 19 pandemic hit on a global scale: more than 219 countries were affected. Governments are struggling to raise awareness regarding the need to get vaccinated. Efforts have been made relentless since 2019 to prevent the infection globally. How to increase the vaccine acceptance rate proved to be a challenging task for governments since vaccination is the only efficient measure to efficiently protect people from disease. According to various studies, it is necessary to vaccinate about 90% of the population to create herd immunity and decelerate the transmission of the virus. According to the numbers published by the Romanian Health Ministry (January, 2022), 40.9% of the population got vaccinated. In terms of age segments, about 35% of people between 19 and 25 years of age had at least one dose of vaccine while the new variant of COVID (Omicron) spreads and infects about 25.000 each and every day (as of January, 2022. We all need to better understand why some people prefer to vaccinate while others oppose to vaccination. The focus is on raising the vaccination rate and therefore, public health officials and governments work on finding the strategy to impact people so that they decide to vaccinate. While vaccination questions trust in government officials, strategies and policies, recent studies (Hui 2020) show that in times of crisis such as the COVID 19 pandemic is also a matter of leadership and leadership authenticity. Some evidence found in the literature suggests that authentic leadership is increasingly in demand (source). Therefore, we looked into the issue of authentic leaders – what are the traits, skills, and behaviors that people associate with authentic leadership in the specific context of (COVID) crisis leadership. The research methodology is based on the construction of a questionnaire structured on types of questions related to what authentic leadership means in relation with the present pandemic. The second part of the questionnaire looked into the beliefs and behaviors of our respondents toward vaccination. Data were collected and analyzed. The model of authentic leadership that emerged and the formulated hypotheses were tested followed by a statistical analysis, interpretation and conclusions.
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Collaboration, such as communication and coordination, using BIM is the key to a successful BIM-based construction project. In spite of existing studies on BIM competency and the optimal arrangement of BIM staff, there have not been many studies on the tendencies of BIM staff in the humanities aspect. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively evaluate the collaborative behavior of BIM staff through a cognitive survey targeting BIM staff. For this, 13 tasks essential for collaboration were defined. The frequency of tasks performed by the BIM staff differed according to the role they are in charge of, and the frequency of tasks considered important to support the collaboration of project participants also appeared to be different. In addition, the personal behavior of the BIM staff, which is the core outcome of this study, was investigated by dividing it into two types: the importance level of personality traits and the required level of personality traits. A survey on the perception of BIM staff was conducted through three categories (leadership, communication, job performance) and a total of 17 personality traits. The research findings, visualized through a correspondence analysis, strongly suggest that it is necessary to consider the personality traits of the BIM staff to improve collaboration performance.
Article
Purpose Using the stereotype content model (SCM) as a framework, the authors examine how the negative relationship between peoples’ unethical behavior and perceptions of their competence only holds when the unethical act is simple. Design/methodology/approach In two studies, participants ( n = 401) evaluated the competence of an employee who behaved unethically. In one condition, the unethical behavior was complex (e.g. computer hacking), while in the other it was simple (e.g. stealing items from a closet). Findings Our findings are built on prior work by showing that employees are considered significantly more competent when their unethical behavior is complex as opposed to simple (“evil genius” effect). Practical implications Employees may not be discouraged from engaging in complex unethical behavior if they recognize that it might not affect their reputation as a competent employee. Given the negative impact of unethical behavior, this is a consequence that organizations would likely seek to avoid. Originality/value The authors expand on the SCM by making a clear distinction between how certain behaviors (unethical and complex) influence trait perceptions (warmth and competence). In doing so, the authors identify a moderator – act complexity – that weakens the negative relationship between individuals’ unethical behavior and perceptions of their competence.
Article
Leadership training needs a holistic, contemporary approach to meet the global workforce challenges of the 21st century. Metaphorically, a kaleidoscope can provide the lens through which we view the diversity of positions on leadership training. Change evolves with each individual viewing through the lenses. An appreciation of the uniqueness of students in problem solving of necessity, moves leadership training from a static to a fluid event and involves all constituent groups, namely, students, faculty, business leaders and community members. This paper examines the changes in leadership training from the 20th century to the pedagogical dilemma of leadership training in the 21st century. Research was conducted using the curriculum of seven leadership-training groups with the results having implications for future studies and modifications to academic curricula.
Chapter
This chapter argues that leadership can be viewed from more than one perspective. Leadership is conceptualized both as the concept that denotes an individual or a group of individuals whose authority has been accepted by others and, a process in which the set goals, plans and tasks are realized through exerting influence on one’s followers and their behaviour. The chapter describes three types of theoretical approaches according to the classic ontology of leadership: (1) leader-focused based on leadership traits, skills and styles, (2) follower-focused based on information processing, social constructivism paradigm and implicit leadership theories, and (3) situation-focused centered on the impact of the situation on leadership and its manifestations).
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the effect of chief executive officer (CEO) integrity on organizations’ strategic orientation. The authors propose that CEOs who have high degrees of integrity tend to negatively influence each of the three core dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. They also argue that this impact of CEO integrity is likely to be stronger for overconfident CEOs and the CEOs with high power. Furthermore, this negative relationship is expected to attenuate when the firm has high customer orientation and when the CEO is compensated with high equity-pay ratio. Design/methodology/approach Seemingly unrelated regression analysis was conducted on panel of 741 firm-year observations of 213 firms across 2014–2017. CEO integrity and each of the three dimensions of EO were measured using content analysis of CEOs’ letters to shareholders. CEO power was measured using CEO stock ownership and CEO duality. CEO overconfidence was measured by using options-based measure. Customer orientation was measured by using content analyses on annual reports. CEO equity-pay based ratio was measured as sum of value of stock and option awards divided by CEO’s total compensation. This study considered alternative measures and performed treatments for potential endogeneity, sample selection bias and outliers. Findings The research findings conclude that organizations with CEOs who have high integrity tend to have lower levels of all sub-dimensions of EO – innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. Further, the results indicate that the negative effect that CEO integrity has, affects one of its dimensions – proactiveness, such that the relation is strengthened when the CEO has high power and is highly overconfident. This negative effect weakens when the CEO is compensated with high equity-pay ratio. The results also indicate that the negative effect of integrity and innovativeness and risk-taking weakens when the firm has high customer orientation. Research limitations/implications The research contributes to upper echelon theory literature by adding to the discussion of how business executives’ psychological traits map onto firm behavior. This research also finds common ground between literature on innovation and upper echelons, contributing to awareness about the drivers of firms’ EO. Practical implications This research addresses the question of firm relation to EO by highlighting that firms’ EO is also shaped by the psychological traits of their CEOs and the interaction of these traits with CEOs’ cognitive biases. Thus, board members of firms led by CEOs with high integrity can limit CEO’s risk-averse behavior by focusing on their training and by creating incentive systems. It is also advantageous for CEOs to understand that integrity is a double-edged sword, thus leveraging the strengths of their integrity, while simultaneously using tools such as training to diminish its negative aspects. Originality/value This paper fulfils a twofold identified need to: study the antecedents of each of the three dimensions of EO, not limited to corporate governance; and unearth the counterproductive behaviors associated with bright traits that make up their dark side
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RESUMO | A investigação e o conhecimento científico sobre a liderança e a sua importância no sucesso das organizações, continua a ser um tema amplamente explorado pela ciência. No que diz respeito às organizações desportivas, e à gestão do desporto em particular, persiste a necessidade de se continuar a estudar este fenómeno para compreendermos cada vez melhor o papel dos lideres e os seus comportamentos, assim como a sua importância no desenvolvimento das pessoas nas organizações. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar a relação entre a gestão do desporto e liderança e os efeitos na motivação dos técnicos superiores de desporto nos municípios portugueses, com base nos estilos de liderança e respetivos comportamentos dos atuais responsáveis municipais pelo desporto. A investigação seguiu uma abordagem dedutiva de natureza quantitativa descritiva, incindindo sobre 302 dos 308 municípios de Portugal Continental, Região Autónoma dos Açores e da Madeira. O universo em estudo foi composto por técnicos superiores de desporto e pelos atuais responsáveis municipais pelas unidades orgânicas dos serviços de desporto. Os dados foram recolhidos entre novembro de 2020 e fevereiro de 2021 com recurso a questionários de respostas fechadas e no total obtiveram-se 443 respostas, tendo sido posteriormente analisados com recurso a técnicas de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Os resultados da investigação permitiram caracterizar e atualizar o conhecimento sobre os profissionais a atuar na gestão do desporto municipal e concluir que existe de forma geral um reconhecimento entre grupos sobre a predominância dos estilos de liderança existentes e do seu comportamento enquanto lideres, um claro reconhecimento sobre a importância da formação em gestão do desporto no âmbito da liderança e na melhoria das competências e conhecimentos para atuar na gestão do desporto, ao mesmo tempo que existem diferenças significativas entre técnicos superiores de desporto e responsáveis municipais pelo desporto ao nível da perceção sobre os estilos de liderança e motivação. As características associadas ao estilo de liderança transformacional também foram amplamente percecionadas como essenciais para se alcançar uma liderança de excelência nas organizações desportivas e na gestão do desporto. Palavras-chave: Gestão do Desporto; Liderança; Municípios; Motivação; Técnicos Superiores de Desporto. ABSTRACT | The research and scientific knowledge about leadership and its importance in the success oforganizations continues to be a subject widely explored by science. Regarding sports organizations,and sport management in particularly, there is still a need to continue to study this phenomenon tobetter understand the role of leaders and their behaviors, as well as their importance in thedevelopment of people in organizations. This study aimed to analyse and evaluate the relationshipbetween sport management and leadership and the effects on the motivation of sport technicians inPortuguese municipalities, based on the leadership styles and respective behaviors of the currentmunicipal heads of the organic units of the sport services. The research followed a deductiveapproach of a descriptive quantitative nature, focusing on 302 of the 308 municipalities in MainlandPortugal and in the Autonomous Region of Azores and Madeira. The universe under study wascomposed of sport technicians and the current municipal heads of the organic units of the sportservices. Data were collected between November 2020 and February 2021 using closed-endedquestionnaires and a total of 443 answers were obtained, which were subsequently analysed usingdescriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The results of the research allowed us to characterizeand update the knowledge about the professionals working in municipal sports management andconclude that there is a general recognition among groups about the predominance of the existingleadership styles and their behavior as leaders, a clear recognition of the importance of training insports management in the context of leadership and improvement of skills and knowledge to work insports management, while there are significant differences between sports technicians and municipalheads of the organic units of the sport services in terms of the perception of leadership styles andmotivation. The characteristics associated with the transformational leadership style were also widelyperceived as essential to achieve leadership excellence in sports organizations and in sportsmanagement. Keywords: Sports Management; Leadership; Local Authorities; Motivation; Sports Technicians.
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Internationalisation, the notion of cross border business, has become one of the key strategies for growth for SMEs in developing countries in recent years. Although many SMEs have used internationalisation strategies, there remains a gap of understanding the relative importance of factors influencing SMEs internationalisation particularly from developing countries perspectives. Drawing on the Resource Based View of the firm (RBV) theory, this research develops and validate the dimensions and sub-dimensions of the drivers of internationalisation. The study further identifies the relative importance of these dimensions from a developing country context. The study used a questionnaire survey to collect primary data from 212 Bangladeshi SMEs based on area wise cluster sampling. This study used partial least square based structural model (PLS-SEM) to assess the key drivers for foreign market entry by developing country SMEs. The findings confirm that the drivers of internationalisation represent a hierarchical construct consisting of three primary and eight sub-dimensions. Furthermore, this study suggests that SME internationalisation in a developing country is contingent up two categories of capabilities: critical organisational capabilities or resources (linked to internal processes largely associated with human resources) and critical institutional capabilities (associated with state level provision and the cultural fabric).
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The purpose of this paper is to examine how Leadership Styles, Talent Management Impact Employee Performance in the hotel industry in Uganda. This study was cross-sectional and also adopted a correlational research design. Data was processed by SPSS on a sample of 240 hotels. The findings revealed that there is a strong Correlation between Leadership Styles and Employee Commitment. The study also revealed that there was a strong positive significant relationship between Employee Commitment and Employee Performance with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.918. The study recommends that the management of three-star hotels should train their managers and staff in order to improve the leadership skills of the managers and ensure that leaders should have leadership skills which can improve the effectiveness of their group members hence improving the performance of the employees of hotels as whole. It is also recommended that the managers in hotel industry should improve their interpersonal skills which enables them to build good relationship among themselves and the employers as this boosts high morale and greater job satisfaction which eventually improve their performance. Keywords: Leadership, Personnel evaluation, Personnel management, Hospitality Industry -Uganda
Conference Paper
Strategic leaders can effectively impact all business stakeholders and positively actualize critical management systems to the organizations. The strategic leader can decide and foresee an organization's future as per present organizational functioning and the organizational environment. In this time laden with uncertainties amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, everybody is universally experiencing an unusual fright. Present-day leaders can either deal with the business's vulnerabilities effectively by adopting a solution-driven approach or may lose the equilibrium notwithstanding vulnerabilities by performing ineffective management practices. This study, discusses strategic leadership and examines its uniqueness among other leadership styles, thereafter, discusses the usefulness of strategic leadership during the unprecedented and unforeseen times brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which is laden with uncertainty. In this paper, we have discussed the COVID-19 pandemic, its impact on business organizations including homecare, and the strategies adopted by the strategic leaders to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on business organizations. We present strategic leadership's vitality due to its innate suitability in face of the uncertainties encountered in the organizational environment and therefore indicate how strategic leadership aligns well with the uncertainties.
Article
Purpose Personality profiling in today’s business world has become an essential organisational development practice targeted at identifying a set of employees' traits, which differentiate an employee from one another. Given the assumption that personality traits form an essential indicator of developing the potential of an individual workforce, possible to establish how employees function in a certain job role and their suitability for the particular tasks in an organisation. This study aims to explore the relationship between personality traits, assessment centres (ACs) quality and management development in Nigeria telecommunication organisation among its managers. Design/methodology/approach The study employed multi-stage sampling techniques and further stratified the hierarchy of the management and finally used a simple random sampling strategy on each stratum. A combination of 482 managers in Nigerian telecommunication organisations participated in this study. The study investigated 12 hypotheses and 1 mediating postulation. Multiple scales were adapted to measure dimensions of endogenous and exogenous variables along the path of mediating variables of the study. The study employed a cross-sectional survey approach to administering the research instrument across all the departments among the managers of the organisations. A structural equation model of assessment was used to analyse the data collected from managers of the telecoms organisations. Findings The outcome of the study was significant, 10 of the postulated hypotheses were found to be significant while 3 were not significant. The study revealed that a combination of openness to experience, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and extraversion personality have no significant relationship with the AC. Also, employees who are high in neuroticism like being emotionally unstable did not find a significant relationship with the AC. In a similar situation, the combined effect of all the big-five personalities was not significant in management development among the managers of the telecommunication industry. The AC is discovered to mediate between personality traits and management development. Individually, the big-five model finds a significant relationship with AC and management development, respectively. Research limitations/implications The study is restricted to managers of the Nigerian telecoms industry alone and not all the entire workforce. It adopted cross-sectional analysis to make an inference on all the managers of the organisations. The implication is that the period of the view of a particular point in a sequence of the event may not be representative. Another implication is that the results from the cross-sectional design are for the relationship, and they do not indicate causation. Originality/value In practice, this study has shown that personality profiling is important to managing organisational behaviour to highlight a set of traits of employees suitable for peculiar roles. This study implies that personality elements constitute a vital signal of the potential development of the workforce. It helps to illuminate an individual functioning style in a certain task situation, therefore determining both professional and managerial suitability in performing a given role.
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