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Sinocrassula vietnamenis (Crassulaceae), New Species and New Generic Record in the Flora of Vietnam

Authors:
  • Komarov Botanical Institute, Saint Petersburg
  • Van Lang University

Abstract and Figures

New species, – Sinocrassula vietnamensis (Crassulaceae) discovered in the Northern Vietnam is described and illustrated. Standard citations of type specimens, description, name etymology, data on ecology, phenology and distribution, as well as short taxonomic remarks for the new species are provided. The species differs from its closest ally S. diversifolia in large well developed rosettes, hairy leaves, white flowers and long styles. The discovery of this species in Vietnam remarkably extends the geographical range of the genus southwards.
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Taiwania, 59(4): 348‒ 352, 2014
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2014.59.4.348
348
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Sinocrassula vietnamenis (Crassulaceae), New Species and New Generic
Record in the Flora of Vietnam
Leonid V. Averyanov1*, Vyacheslav V. Byalt1, The Van Pham2, Nguyen Tien Vinh3, Phan Ke Loc4 and Nguyen
Quang Hieu3
1. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg. Prof. Popov Str. 2, Russia, 197376.
2. Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Ha
Noi, Vietnam.
3. Center for Plant Conservation, No 25/32, lane 191, Lac Long Quan, Nghia Do, Cau Giay District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
4. Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam.
* Corresponding author. Email: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
(Manuscript received 10 August 2014; accepted 12 July 2014)
ABSTRACT: New species, Sinocrassula vietnamensis (Crassulaceae) discovered in the Northern Vietnam is described and
illustrated. Standard citations of type specimens, description, name etymology, data on ecology, phenology and distribution, as
well as short taxonomic remarks for the new species are provided. The species differs from its closest ally S. diversifolia in large
well developed rosettes, hairy leaves, white flowers and long styles. The discovery of this species in Vietnam remarkably extends
the geographical range of the genus southwards.
KEY WORDS: Crassulaceae, new species, plant diversity, plant geography, plant taxonomy, Sinocrassula vietnamensis,
Vietnam.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Sinocrassula A. Berger is a small
Sino-Himalayan genus of the Crassulaceae family
comprising 7 hitherto known species. Its generic area
includes Bhutan, Nepal, NE. India, Pakistan and China
with 6 species endemic to Yunnan and Sichuan (Fu,
Ohba, 2001; Thiede, 2003). One more species of the
genus was recently discovered in north-western
Vietnam during the field exploration of 20102011 in
Muong Cha and Tua Chua districts of Dien Bien
province of the country (Fig. 1).
The new species was observed growing under light
shade and on rather open mossy boulders and cliffs
composed by highly eroded solid marble-like limestone.
In its habitats the plant often forms colonies of
numerous crowded, rather lax rosettes 610 cm in
diameter with glabrous or sparsely hairy basal leaves
which superficially resembles rosettes of Echeveria
agavoides Lem. originated from Mexico and well
known in ornamental cultivation. During field
explorations in both discovered localities plants were
observed and collected in fruiting stage for herbarium
and for cultivation. A year later the collected living
plants bloomed in greenhouse that allowed a close
examination of their floral morphology and
identification. Eventually they were recognized as an
unknown species of Sinocrassula, the genus not yet
recorded in the flora of Vietnam. Sinocrassula is the
fifth genus of Crassulaceae found in the flora of the
country, additionally to Bryophyllum Salisb.,
Kalanchoe Adans., Rhodiola L., and Sedum L.
(Gagnepain, 1920; Red data book of Vietnam, 1996;
Phm-hoang H, 1999; Nguyn Tiến Ban, 2003,
personal data). Comparative morphological studies of
Vietnamese plants revealed their differences from all
other known species of the genus. An illustrated
description of the novelty is presented below with notes
on its expected relations, ecology, phenology and
distribution.
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
Sinocrassula vietnamensis Aver. et V. Byalt, sp.
nov. Figs. 1, 2AL.
Described from north-western Vietnam (“Dien Bien
province, Muong Cha district, Hua Ngai municipality,
Ha La Chu village, …”). Type (“Flowered under
cultivation in October-November 2013. Flowers pink,
odorless. Type specimen collected from cultivated
plants in 25 October 2013, L. Averyanov, P. Efimov
CPC 2041a”) – LE (holotype).
December, 2014 Averyanov: Sinocrassula vietnamenis New Species and Genus in Indochina
349
Terrestrial or lithophytic glabrous or minutely hairy
herb with biennial monocarpic rosettes forming
occasionally adventitious buds producing new shoots
during next year. Sterile stems short, 0.51.5 cm tall,
simple (rarely branching), slightly thickened to the base,
58 mm in diam., herbaceous or semi-woody in fruiting
plant. Rosettes of basal leaves rather loose, occasionally
with several rosettes per plant, 610 cm in diameter,
glaucous, dull green, olive-brown, light pink-violet to
pink and almost glaucous-white, speckled throughout
with fine reddish marks. Rosette leaves spirally
arranged, sessile, succulent, fleshy, narrowly lanceolate
to narrowly ovate, tapering to the apex and base, acute,
34 cm long, 0.81.2 cm wide, 23 mm thick, broadest
usually below middle, adaxially often slightly concave,
indistinctly cymbiform, convex and indistinctly keeled
abaxially. Floriferous shoot terminal (rarely lateral),
elongated, initially erect, later arching to reclining or
pendulous (in plants growing on vertical cliffs), 1525
cm long, leafy throughout with distant, spirally
arranged, sessile, narrowly lanceolate to linear,
recurved, acute leaves 23.5 cm long, 34 mm wide.
Inflorescence terminal, compound corymb branching
near the apex, with branches 26 cm long; floral bracts
leaf-like, sessile, acute, laxly arranged, erect to down
reflexed, (3)515 mm long. Flowers 80120 per
inflorescence, erect, actinomorphic, pedicellate,
bisexual, 5-merous, of two whorls, 68 mm in diameter,
pedicellate; pedicles (3)45(6) mm long. Calyx
cup-shaped; sepals 5, subequal, erect, almost straight,
fleshy, narrowly triangular, acute, with broadening base,
2.53 mm long, 1.21.5 mm wide, dull yellowish-green,
with small purple marks, connate at the base for about
0.5 mm, divided by broad U-shaped sinus. Corolla
urceolate; petals 5, subequal, almost free, thick,
narrowly triangular, S-shaped in longitudinal section,
base concave, apically recurved, obtuse, 45 mm long,
1.52 mm wide, white, speckled toward the apex with
many fine purple marks. Stamens 5, inserted between
sepals, slightly shorter than petals; filaments white,
erect, straight; anthers basifixed, ovoid, about 0.8 mm
long and wide, scarlet-purple. Nectar scales entire,
subquadrate to transverse-rectangular, 0.30.5 mm long,
0.50.7 mm wide. Ovary of 5, white carpels, joined at
the base for 0.40.7 mm. Carpels as long as stamens,
ventrally hardly keeled, about 3.5 mm long, rather
broad, erect, attenuate at apex into straight styles 11.5
mm long terminated in small capitate stigma. Fruit of 5
follicles joined at the vase. Ripe, dry follicles 2.53 mm
long, 0.81 mm wide, many seeded, narrowly ovoid,
ventrally keeled, apically with recurved beak, dehiscent
from the apex by lateral irregular splits. Seeds ovoid,
dull brown, longitudinally grooved, 0.50.7 mm long.
Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the
country of the species discovery.
Ecology: Terrestrial and lithophytic succulent herb
in rather exposed rock outcrops. Primary and secondary
evergreen broad-leaved forests on remnant rocky
Fig. 1. Location of 2 discovered subpopulations of Sinocrassula
vietnamensis Aver. et V.Byalt in north-western Vietnam with
indication of collection numbers documenting these discoveries.
karstic hills composed by marble-like, solid, crystalline
limestone at elevations of 11001400 m a.s.l.,
particularly on steep rocky mossy slopes and on shady
cliffs.
Phenology: Flowers in SeptemberOctober, fruits in
NovemberDecember.
Distribution: The species is probably endemic to a
very limited area of karstic rocky limestone in
north-western Vietnam within Dien Bien province
(Muong Cha and Tua Chua districts). Fig. 1.
Paratypes. N. Vietnam, Dien Bien Prov., Muong
Cha Distr., Hua Ngai Municipality, Ha La Chu Village,
around point, 21°53’46”N, 103°10’17”E. Highly
degraded primary evergreen broad-leaved humid forest
on very steep slopes of remnant mountains composed
with solid limestone at elevation 1100-1400 m a.s.l.
Lithophytic rosulate succulent herb on open mossy cliff.
Rare. 7 April 2011, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc, N.Q. Hieu,
N.T. Vinh CPC 2041 (Herbarium of the Center for Plant
Conservation!, LE!). N. Vietnam, Dien Bien Prov., Tua
Chua Distr., Ta Phin Municipality, around point,
22°00’21”N, 103°21’39”E. Open secondary scrub on
very steep rocky humid mossy slopes of remnant hills
composed with highly eroded marble-like solid
crystalline limestone at elevation about 1150 m a. s. l.
Rosulate succulent herb on open mossy rocks. Leaves
dark greenish-gray. Rare, but locally common. 16
December 2010, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc, P.V. The, N.T.
Vinh CPC 1023 (Herbarium of the Center for Plant
Conservation!, LE!).
Taiwania Vol. 59, No. 4
350
Notes: Sinocrassula vietnamensis clearly differs in
its morphology from all known species of the genus
including the most widespread and variable species S.
Indica which occurs all over the generic area from
Nepal and NE. India to central and southern China
Fig. 2. Sinocrasssula vietnamensis Aver. et V. Byalt. A species colony in typical habitat; B-E plants in nature; F flowering plant in
cultivation; G basal portion of fertile shoot; H portion of inflorescence; I open flowers and flower buds; J flower buds, K opening
December, 2014 Averyanov: Sinocrassula vietnamenis New Species and Genus in Indochina
351
young flower; L old flower at later stage of anthesis (A-E CPC 2041, photos of L. Averyanov; F-L type, CPC 2041a, photos of P.
Efimov). Table. Comparison of diagnostic characters between Sinocrassula vietnamica and allied species
CHARACTER
S. vietnamensis
S. indica
S. diversifolia
S. longistyla
Height of floriferous stem
15-25 cm
5-60 cm
40-50 cm
20-25 cm
Diameter of rosettes
6-10 cm
8-12 cm
6-8 cm
~ 3 cm
Presence of rosettes at anthesis
+
+
+
Leaf dimorphism
±
±
+
±
Rosette leaves size
3-4 x 0.8-1.2 cm
3.5-6 x 1-1.5 cm
3-5 x 2-2.7 cm
~ 1.5 x 0.5 cm
Floriferous stem leaves size
2-3.5 x 0.3-0.4 cm
2.5-3 x 0.4-1 cm
3-5 x 0.3-0.8 cm
~ 1.5 x 0.5 cm
Leaf hairiness
±
±
Primary inflorescence branches length
2-6 cm
1-6 cm
4-6
6-10
Flowers per inflorescence
80-120
?
?
30-60
Pedicle
terete
terete
winged
terete
Flower diameter
6-8 mm
4-8 mm
~ 6 mm
~ 6 mm
Flower color
white
red, yellow, greenish
yellow
deep purple
Sepal shape
narrowly triangular
broadly triangular
narrowly triangular
narrowly triangular
Sepal size
2.5-3 x 1.2-1.5 mm
~ 2 x 1 mm
2-2.5 x 1-1.5 mm
1.5-2.5 x 1-1.2 mm
Petal shape
narrowly triangular
lanceolate to ovate
lanceolate
triangular ovate
Petal size
4-5 x 1.5-2 mm
2.5-5 x ~ 2 mm
3.5-4 x 1-1.5 mm
3.5-4 x 1.2 mm
Carpel length
3.5 mm
2.5-3 mm
2.5-3 mm
~ 3 mm
Style length
1-1.2 mm
< 1 mm
0.5-1 mm
~ 1.5 mm
(Ohba, 1992; Fu, Ohba, 2001). Among local Chinese
endemics our new species most closely resembles S.
diversifolia H.Chuang, a rare species recorded from
highlands of north-western Yunnan (Chuang, 1997; Fu,
Ohba, 2001), from which it differs in large well
developed rosettes of basal leaves, subsimilar rosette
leaves and leaves of fertile stem, in hairy leaf base,
white petals and in relatively long styles reaching about
1/3 of carpel length. The new species has also some
similarities with and is probably related to S. indica
(Decne.) A. Berger and S. longistyla (Praeger) S.H. Fu.
A detailed comparison of the most important diagnostic
characters shared with the new species and its closest
allies are presented in table.
A key for identification of all known species of the
genus including the novelty is compiled and provided
below.
Key to the species of Sinocrassula A. Berger
1. Floral stem more than 10 cm tall ....................................................2
-. Floral stem less than 10 cm tall.......................................................5
2. Primary branches of inflorescence longer than 6 cm; styles 1.5 mm
long...........................................................................1. S. longistyla
-. Primary branches of inflorescence usually less than 6 cm long;
styles 0.51 mm long .....................................................................3
3. Leaves distinctly dimorphic; basal leaves broadly obovate or
elliptic, 22.7 cm wide; inflorescence branches and pedicels
winged; petals 11.5 mm long...............................2. S. diversifolia
-. Leaves monomorphic or indistinctly dimorphic; basal leaves
broadly oblanceolate to ovate-orbicular, 0.81.5 cm wide;
inflorescence branches and pedicels terete; petals 1.52 mm
long ................................................................................................4
4. Leaves monomorphic, all uniformly broadly oblanceolate, obovate,
or ovate-orbicular, 0.41.5 cm wide; flowers red, yellow or
yellowish-green; sepals broadly triangular, 1 mm wide; carpel 2.5
3 mm, style less than 1 mm long....................................3. S. indica
-. Leaves indistinctly dimorphic; basal leaves lanceolate to broadly
lanceolate, toward stem apex narrowly lanceolate to linear, 34
mm wide; flowers white; sepals narrowly triangular, 1.21.5 mm
wide; carpel about 3.5 mm, style 11.2 mm
length......................................................................4. S. vietnamica
5(1). Leaves and stems densely pubescent..............5. S. yunnanensis
-. Leaves and stems glabrous, or sparsely hairy................................ 6
6. Leaves hairy; flowering stem glabrous..........................3. S. indica
-. Leaves glabrous; flowering stem glabrous or sparsely hairy..........7
7. Sepals as long, or longer than petals; caudex branched, 36 cm
long.............................................................................6. S. ambigua
-. Sepals distinctly shorter than petals; caudex simple, shorter than 3
cm long...........................................................................................8
8. Basal leaves persistent, form compact rosette; petals narrowly
triangular............................................................7. S. densirosulata
-. Basal leaves early caducous, do not form persistent rosette; petals
oblong....................................................................8. S. techinensis
The discovery of S. vietnamensis in northern
Vietnam remarkably extends the geographic area of the
genus Sinocrassula in southern direction. It is first
record of this montane Sino-Himalayan genus in the
floras of Indochina, genuine tropics of mainland
Southeast Asia.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors cordially thank the Director of the Center for
Plant Conservation (Vietnam Union of Science and
Technology Associations) Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep for his
key role in organization of field works which resulted in the
discovery described here. Field and laboratory studies were
funded by U.S.A. National Geographic Society, grant
"Exploration of primary woods along constructed highway
Hanoi - Ho Chi Minh for their sustainable conservation (in
limits of Ha Tinh and Nghe An provinces of central Vietnam"
Taiwania Vol. 59, No. 4
352
(9129-12). They are also grateful to Dr P. Efimov for
photography of flowering plant under cultivation.
LITERATURE CITED
Chuang, H. 1997. New taxa of Crassulaceae. Acta Bot.
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... Sinocrassula genus is small genus comprising seven species. It is native to China with six species endemic to Yunnan and Sichuan and one more species of the genus was recently discovered in northwestern Vietnam (Averyanov et al., 2014). Reviewing the literature about the biological and phytochemical studies of genus Sinocrassula in the last ten years, records were mainly on the specie S. indica. ...
Article
Full-text available
Family Crassulaceae is a large family of dicotyledonous angiosperms characterized by its unique form of photosynthesis. Although plants of this family are used mainly as ornamental plants, many reports are found discussing the chemical content and biological efficacy of many members of this family. Phenolic compounds are among the most prevalent chemical moieties. On the other hand, many biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anticancer and antidiabetic are recorded for several species. The present study reviews the phytochemical content and the biological activities of forty species belonging to nine genera of the family Crassulaceae; Aeonium, Crassula, Echeveria, Hylotelephium, Jovibarba, Orostachys, Sedum, Sempervivum and Sinocrassula during the last ten years. The isolation of 189 compounds of phenolics, flavonoids, sterols, triterpenes, nitrogen-containing compounds and other miscellaneous compounds is reported. Moreover, the biological activities of these genera are reviewed. This study indicates that several species have not been adequately studied in terms of their chemical content or biological effect. Hence, it provides a source for selecting species for phytochemical or biological exploration. The provided information may inspire new biomedical application for different species of the selected genera.
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.6. S. ambigua -. Sepals distinctly shorter than petals; caudex simple, shorter than 3 cm long
  • Long Long..................................................................................................................................................................... Sepals As
Sepals as long, or longer than petals; caudex branched, 3–6 cm long.............................................................................6. S. ambigua -. Sepals distinctly shorter than petals; caudex simple, shorter than 3 cm long...........................................................................................8
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Fam. Crassulaceae DC
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