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Maritime security challenges for South Africa in the Indian ocean region (IOR): The southern and east coast of Africa

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Abstract

Globally, maritime criminal activities including piracy, terrorism, drugs and arms smuggling, human trafficking, illegal and unregulated fishing (IUU) and environmental threats have impacted the functioning of economies, societies, the environment and the security of maritime regions. These crimes are interconnected and transcend boundaries, generating huge profits. This paper focuses on the maritime security challenges facing the geographical region of the southern and east coast of Africa in the western quadrant of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) which includes Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa. The paper is twofold: firstly, it provides an overview of maritime crime in the area as well as South Africa's regional (SADC, EAC and COMESA) and international (IORA, IBSA and IBSAMAR) involvement within this maritime zone in the past decade and secondly, positions recent studies in the socio-economic dimension of piracy specifically, from the 2006 Somali piracy threats to present. In doing so, new forms of crime and security dilemmas are revealed, making maritime security within the sub-region, an ongoing challenge for all stakeholders concerned.

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... Here, trafficking, piracy and insurgencies operate in trans-regional networks, resulting in social instability, corruption in government and the degradation of critical energy infrastructures. 26 While piracy and drug trafficking are the two most critical threats in the South Atlantic region, neither originates entirely from the sea. 27 Both activities derive from the landbased contexts inshore of societal poverty and fragmentation, state inefficiency and the existence of black markets in governance gaps. ...
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