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College Students' Sense of Belonging: A Key to Educational Success for All Students

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Abstract

Belonging-with peers, in the classroom, or on campus-is a crucial part of the college experience. it can affect a student's degree of academic achievement, or even whether they stay in school. Although much is known about the causes and impact of sense of belonging in students, little is known about how belonging differs based on students' social identities, such as race, gender, or sexual orientation, or the conditions they encounter on campus.

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... Many undocu/ DACAmented collegians experience challenges on college campuses across the nation due to anti-im/migration rhetoric and policies [3,4], which often result in a lack of belongingness due to feelings of not fitting in and racist nativism [5]. Existing studies show that student belongingness in college is a crucial part of the collegiate experience and holistic success, especially as it relates to the intersectionality of social identities (e.g., race, gender, sexual orientation, and im/migration status) of those who perceive themselves as marginal at historically white institutions [6][7][8]. For the last decade, the body of scholarship on undocu/DACAmented students has been increasingly growing, revealing the barriers they often encounter with access to and persistence in higher education (e.g., [4,[9][10][11]) and their advocacy efforts, e.g., [12][13][14]. ...
... Despite no conclusive definition for sense of belonging (SOB), various scholarly definitions include the "connectedness to one's school or perceived school membership" [15] (p. 344); a phenomenon that "captures the individual's view of whether he or she feels included in the college community" [6] (p. 327); the "degree to which an individual feels respected, valued, accepted, and needed by a defined group" [7] (p. 87); and "the psychological sense that one is a valued member of the college community" [16] (p. ...
... 59). Sense of belonging has also been described as a "basic human need and fundamental motivation that drives student behaviors, and facilitates educational success" [7] (p. 87). ...
Article
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Guided by sense of belonging and counterspaces, this critical ethnographic study investigates the people, places, and spaces collegians that are Latinx and undocu/DACAmented use to persist toward graduation amidst an ongoing anti-im/migrant sociopolitical climate. Findings reveal that (a) connections built with peers who share racial backgrounds and have liminal legal statuses, (b) supportive and affirming faculty, (c) access to culturally-based student organizations and academic programs, and (d) campus departments and programs catered to the holistic support of undocu/DACAmented collegians are salient for these students’ sense of belonging in college, though belongingness is not fully attainable in the United States as a result of racist nativism. Recommendations for research and practice are offered for higher education institutional agents at all levels.
... Of the three fundamental needs in SDT, the need for relatedness is central to this study. Relatedness is the need to feel connected with others, including with instructors and other students [10,[13][14][15]. Feelings of belonging and academic engagement can be supported in multiple ways, such as teacher-student relationships [16,17] and student-student relationships [18]-both of which can contribute to students' sense of community [19,20]. ...
... Feelings of belonging and academic engagement can be supported in multiple ways, such as teacher-student relationships [16,17] and student-student relationships [18]-both of which can contribute to students' sense of community [19,20]. Undergraduate STEM students' feelings of belonging to their academic and classroom community predict persistence, achievement, and degree completion, particularly for historically underrepresented groups of students in STEM [15,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. ...
... University instructors can play a critical role in facilitating relationships and online learning communities. Faculty can act as community organizers who help develop feelings of efficacy, belonging to one's institution, and classroom community, which are key factors that motivate students to pursue and persist through undergraduate STEM programs and are associated with motivational and achievement outcomes [15,21,[25][26][27][28]32]. For example, a multi-method study surveying and interviewing undergraduate STEM students during the onset of the pandemic at a HSI revealed that students who reported receiving more interactive and synchronous virtual instruction (i.e., synchronous lectures and breakout groups) also experienced greater feelings of belonging, engagement, and STEM interest, with stronger relationships among students who identified as African American and Hispanic/Latinx [6]. ...
Article
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The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic initiated major disruptions to higher education systems. Physical spaces that previously supported interpersonal interaction and community were abruptly inactivated, and faculty largely took on the responsibility of accommodating classroom structures in rapidly changing situations. This study employed interviews to examine how undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) instructors adapted instruction to accommodate the mandated transition to virtual learning and how these accommodations supported or hindered community and belonging during the onset of the pandemic. Interviews with 25 STEM faculty at an undergraduate Hispanic Serving Institution revealed a wide range of accommodations they made to their courses and how they managed communication with students. Faculty strived to support student belonging with responses ranging from caring to crisis management, though some faculty expressed feelings of powerlessness when unable to accommodate certain challenges. The case of a responsive and flexible instructor is presented to highlight a productive response to a crisis. These retrospective findings point to strategies to support faculty teaching in virtual learning environments in the future; increasing opportunities for student–student and student–faculty interaction, supporting faculty in learning technologies that support these interactions and addressing faculty’s feelings of powerlessness.
... Those who work in higher education often hear retention conversations focused on students' sense of belonging. Research over the past few decades has shown that, while not the only indicator, students' sense of belonging or connectedness to an institution remains important as to whether they will persist and earn a degree from that institution (Strayhorn, 2018). It is well known that students who feel they do not belong or have not established a connection to an institution are far more at risk of leaving (Tinto, 1987(Tinto, , 2012Hausmann, Schofield, & Woods, 2007). ...
... Moreover, Strayhorn (2018) argues that college students' sense of belonging is related to their involvement on campus. A review of four previous studies he was involved in found that students frequently involved in meaningful college activities report a stronger sense of belonging. ...
... First-gen status did not predict first-year students' sense of belonging on any of the subscales used to measure it. This study supports previous research (Strayhorn, 2018;Gillen-O'Neel, 2019) that campus involvement or engagement influences students' sense of belonging. The link found between perceived peer support and living in an LLC supports previous research findings that students living in an LLC report a greater sense of belonging than non-LLC students (Spanierman et al., 2013;Johnson et al., 2020;Flynn et al., 2016). ...
Article
To determine if first-generation status, living in an LLC, and campus club involvement affect students’ sense of belonging in their first semester of college, the researchers surveyed first-year college students enrolled at a large, public research institution during their first semester. Multiple regression analyses found campus club involvement to be a significant predictor of sense of belonging on all four subscales of the Sense of Belonging Scale: perceived peer support, perceived classroom comfort, perceived isolation, and perceived faculty support. Living in an LLC was also found to be a significant predictor of perceived peer support, but not in perceived classroom comfort, perceived isolation, or perceived faculty support. First-generation status did not emerge as a significant predictor for any of the four areas of sense of belonging. Findings revealed the significant role campus involvement has on college students’ sense of belonging in the first semester.
... Theoretical Framework This study adopted Strayhorn's (2012) conceptualization of belonging as a basic human need. Strayhorn explains that belonging has special significance for racialized and other minoritized groups, particularly when thinking about STEM college students. ...
... In contrast to studies that define belonging as a general construct related to college adjustment, this study contends that it is important to situate belonging related to those marginalized within STEM fields. Strayhorn (2012) emphasizes the comprehensive effort of the STEM learning ecosystem in students' belonging. This focus allows STEM educators to expand their views on belonging across classroom levels to departmental (Wilson et al., 2015) and institutional (Slaten et al., 2018) levels. ...
... The findings revealed that this study advances Strayhorn's (2012) conceptualization of belonging by developing a valid survey instrument. Three latent traits in this study illuminate the critical aspects of belonging, which gauges the overall inclusive atmospheres of STEM learning environments (Maltese & Tai, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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This study focuses on how students felt in science, how culturally relevant the programs seemed, and how any biases or microaggressions were experienced in the university. Based on this, we developed a survey instrument that is capable of showing how STEM college students perceive their classroom and campus experiences (classrooms, programs, and institutions). By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and bifactor analysis for graded response data, a three-trait model with 18 items was confirmed. Three latent traits in this study illuminate the critical aspects of belonging, which gauges the overall inclusive atmospheres of STEM learning environments. The findings showed that this study validated a survey instrument to not just find out whether students feel general belonging or not, but to elicit a more nuanced understanding of how students feel about the support and whether they feel restricted or encouraged to grow.
... For example, Nunn's (2021) investigation delineates three domains of belonging: academic, community, and social. Students who identify as women, BIPOC, or lowincome or who exist at the intersections of these categories may have different perspectives on how welcoming campus is, compared with students who belong to one or more historically overrepresented categories: men, White, and/or high income (Byrd et al. 2019;Campbell, Carter-Sowell, and Battle 2019;Strayhorn 2018). ...
... Yet comparatively little research has investigated students' perspectives on these efforts. Because research connects belongingness during college to important academic outcomes (Strayhorn 2018), and because PWIs have busied themselves with adopting diversity regimes (Thomas 2020) and implementing diversity projects intended to improve academic, community, and social belonging (Nunn 2021), we fill this gap by investigating student perceptions of and engagement with MSU's DEI efforts across three domains. ...
... Ovink and Veazey 2011), to instead investigate how PWIs might become supportive institutions. This shift places the onus on institutions to admit, retain, and ensure positive academic, social and community outcomes for historically minoritized students (Nunn 2021;Strayhorn 2018). ...
Article
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Growing numbers of women; Black, Indigenous, and People of Color; and low-income/first-in-family students attend U.S. colleges. Although sought after by universities eager to establish diverse campuses, many minoritized students still report ambivalence about inclusion at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Like many PWIs, Meadow State University (MSU) promotes commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). Yet little is known about how students perceive institutions’ DEI-related efforts. The authors conducted focus groups with 144 undergraduates to identify students’ perspectives on what MSU is attempting and accomplishing in pursuing DEI goals. The authors find that MSU’s goals encompass a set of loosely connected policies, practices, and behaviors they term diversity projects. The authors reveal gaps between MSU’s intentions in providing institution-led diversity projects and respondents’ perceptions of them, highlighting their largely symbolic nature. Students advocating for an institutional responsibility for inclusion stressed requests for concrete, student-led diversity projects that fulfill expressed needs, particularly for minoritized students.
... Access to the hidden curriculum is one of many interrelated factors contributing to student academic success and retention. Student psychological well-being [28], adjustment to college life [29], and feelings of connection and belonging to the university community [30] are also related to academic success and retention. Ideally, when students enter college, they are able to utilize skills and develop a support network that helps them feel like they belong and can successfully meet the expectations of college [31]. ...
... Using the LPP framework to organize resources for iAM Scholars is intended as a mechanism of inclusivity that builds community and promotes belonging. The terms "inclusivity", "community", "belonging", and similar terms (e.g., inclusive, inclusive excellence, sense of community, sense of belonging) appear throughout the literature on higher education [30,31,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63], often without explicit definitions (but see [30,64,65]). This is due in part to the overlapping nature of the concepts underlying each term and because the concepts often rely on perceptions of experiences, and feelings of connectedness. ...
... Using the LPP framework to organize resources for iAM Scholars is intended as a mechanism of inclusivity that builds community and promotes belonging. The terms "inclusivity", "community", "belonging", and similar terms (e.g., inclusive, inclusive excellence, sense of community, sense of belonging) appear throughout the literature on higher education [30,31,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63], often without explicit definitions (but see [30,64,65]). This is due in part to the overlapping nature of the concepts underlying each term and because the concepts often rely on perceptions of experiences, and feelings of connectedness. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Integrated Achievement and Mentoring (iAM) Program responds to the challenge of STEM student retention. The iAM Program provides access to the hidden curriculum (the unwritten, implicit skills critical for academic success) and uses legitimate peripheral participation to structure resources. Three essential (integrated support services, mentoring, and responsive program structure) and two adaptable components (STEM writing and metacognition seminar, and scholarships) are intended as mechanisms of inclusivity that build community and promote belonging. Retention of iAM Scholars was 18.3% higher relative to peers who were eligible but did not join the program. The Scholars’ four-year graduation rate was 26% higher than that of their STEM peers. A cost/benefit analysis revealed a net revenue benefit and suggests less-quantifiable benefits to the institution such as increased reputation. While the essential components of an iAM-based program should be consistent across institutions, the adaptable components can be implemented in ways that address local challenges and opportunities across international contexts.
... A sense of belonging is considered as a feeling of fit, inclusion, and connection with others (Walton & Brady, 2017). For college students, a sense of belonging indicates the extent to which they feel connected to their academic institutions and the people within their universities (Strayhorn, 2012), and it plays a critical role in students' learning motivation and academic achievements (Elliott & Healy, 2000;Ostrove & Long, 2007;Walton & Cohen, 2007). Students' positive academic and social interaction has been found to be one of the basic requisites for their sense of belonging to the university (Ahn & Davis, 2020;Osterman, 2000;Wilson et al., 2015). ...
... Students' positive academic and social interaction has been found to be one of the basic requisites for their sense of belonging to the university (Ahn & Davis, 2020;Osterman, 2000;Wilson et al., 2015). Strayhorn (2012) confirmed that the more involved students are in college life (e.g., socializing with peers and faculty), the greater their sense of support, acceptance, and belonging in college. Thus, the first hypothesis of this study is formulated as follows: ...
... In line with previous studies suggesting that prior engagement in campus life results in emotional attachment to universities (Astin, 1999;Strayhorn, 2012), we confirmed that student engagement is significantly related to a sense of belonging. This result indicates that students broadly involved in college have a greater sense of belongingness to their alma maters. ...
Article
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Few studies have been conducted to investigate the role that alumni's prior campus experience may play in future donation behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the affect theory of social exchange were applied to examine the underlying relationship between campus experience and donation behavior by incorporating relevant factors including student engagement, sense of belonging, educational satisfaction, alumni participation , and obligation to give. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to portray these relationships, and multigroup analyses were performed to compare the findings from two samples of US (n = 535) and Chinese (n = 510) alumni. The results suggested that student engagement is an antecedent of sense of belonging, which in turn leads to alumni's obligation to give. Furthermore, educational satisfaction and alumni participation mediate the relationship between sense of belonging and obligation to give. In contrast, the effect of sense of obligation to give on donation behavior is significant only for US alumni, and the strengths of the relationships among the constructs differ between the two samples. Cultural factors that may explain these differences are discussed. Appropriate measures for increasing alumni donation by optimizing students' campus experiences in conformance with the cultural characteristics of the society are suggested.
... Many programs explicitly encourage exploration of race and gender, leading to more expansive or non-traditional conceptualizations of masculinity Person et al., 2017). Studies suggest that these types of programs can create a sense of belonging and community for men of color, (Brooms, 2018;Strayhorn, 2018;Wimer & Bloom, 2014), promote positive identity development, increase motivation to succeed, and encourage persistence (Person et al., 2017;Zell, 2011). Several researchers have attempted to bring order and clarity to the landscape of MoC programs through detailed profiles, development of program standards, and standardized assessment (Harper & Kuykendall, 2012;Keflezighi et al., 2016;Wimer & Bloom, 2014;Wood et al., 2016). ...
... We suggest that practitioners and administrators designing MoC program evaluation maintain a deep familiarity with their own disaggregated institutional data and keep in mind how program measures of success for men of color within their own institutional type may require unique evaluation and assessment strategies. We encourage practitioners to not only revisit the five program components of Gardenhire and Cerna (2016), but to also consult research that provides insights about the psychological, social, and cultural factors that inform their experiences (Brooms, 2018;Harper & Harris, 2010;Huerta et al., 2021;Lee & Ransom, 2011;Palmer et al., 2014;Sáenz et al., 2011;Strayhorn, 2018). ...
Article
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This study provides a typological analysis of public, four-year institutions implementing programs for men of color (MoC). The purpose of the study is to expand our understanding of the institutional context and conditions in which these interventions operate. As more of these programs emerge, it is important to understand if and how institutional mission, composition, and resources shape supports and opportunities for underrepresented men of color attending four-year public institutions. Through an exhaustive search process, we identified 177 MoC programs across 166 public four-year institutions across the United States and organized them along a range of institutional characteristics. We then applied descriptive statistics and cluster analysis to program search findings. Results show that public institutions implementing MoC programs can be understood as seven clusters or institutional types. This research provides important information and context for stakeholders who are interested in addressing educational disparities for men of color by illuminating the institutional diversity through which these programs are catalyzed and implemented. To date, this is the first study to organize MoC programs located across four-year public institutions by a range of institutional categories.
... Sense of belonging-the subjective judgment of whether one is part of a community-is an important factor to understanding the relationship between social class and engagement (Nunn 2021;Ostrove and Long 2007;Strayhorn 2018). Research on sense of belonging in higher education focuses on students' access to dominant cultural and social capital, stating that lower-income undergraduates' sense of belonging is eroded by lacking the dominant cultural capital valued by the campus community (Stuber 2011). ...
... The primary family code for trajectory was "high school advantage y/n," which tagged students' discussion of how their high school prepared them or not for Renowned. Second, we created a family of codes-"sense of belonging" and "feeling of isolation"-to capture students' descriptions of belonging to the wider campus community, feelings of being socially prepared for college, and examples of integrating into campus or not (Nunn 2021;Strayhorn 2018). ...
Article
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Scholars posit that lower-income undergraduates experience “cultural mismatch,” which undermines their sense of belonging, promotes withdrawal from campus, and limits mobility upon graduation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 103 undergraduates at an elite university, we examine how students’ diverse trajectories to college affect how they identify as members of the community and modulate the relationship between social class and sense of belonging. While upper-income undergraduates find commonalities between themselves and college peers and integrate into the community, lower-income students offer divergent accounts. The doubly disadvantaged—lower-income undergraduates who attended local, typically distressed public high schools—felt a heightened sense of difference, drew moral boundaries, and withdrew from campus life. Alternatively, the privileged poor—lower-income undergraduates who attended boarding, day, and preparatory high schools—adopted a cosmopolitan approach focused on continued expansion of horizons and integrated into campus. Through detailing this overlooked diversity among lower-income undergraduates, our findings expand theoretical frameworks for examining sense of belonging to include boundary work that shapes students’ agendas, thereby deepening our understanding of the reproduction of inequality in college.
... SoBL has been found to impact students' emotional, social, and academic learning (Glass et al., 2015;Walker, 2019). A strong SoBL can give a student the confidence to ask for help, seek resources, and feel that they are working toward success (Strayhorn, 2019). Positive personal relationships and high-quality communication are indicators of strong SoBL in students (Baumeister and Leary, 1995). ...
... Through crochet and other STEM and educational activities, girls became less shy and learned about themselves and further saw themselves as a valued member of the team or community. In this positive constructivist learning environment, a strong SoBL gave each girl the confidence to ask for help, seek resources, and work toward success (Strayhorn, 2019). ...
Article
Recent STEAM programs have made accomplishments in recruiting K-12 girl students to participate in STEAM activities. Educational researchers have called for studies of how STEM programs engage girls. However, little research has embedded STEM education with girl education such as their emotional needs, identity, and self-expression. This study examined how crochet that was embedded in a STEM summer camp impacted their sense of belonging, creativity, well-being, and STEAM learning. For this qualitative study, surveys were conducted with 37 student participants and Discord was used as part of the data sources. Findings indicated that crocheting enhanced students’ sense of belonging, creativity, well-being, as well as STEM learning. This study contributes to the STEM learning program design for girls in secondary schools with two closely related theories: constructivist learning environment theory and sense of belonging theory. This study added new knowledge to the research of crochet in girl education and STEM program design.
... First-year undergraduate students of color are at particular risk of not being retained by universities for several reasons. One of those reasons is that they do not see themselves reflected in the faculty and staff they encounter (Tinto, 1987;Strayhorn, 2012). Students at most universities will have mostly White professors. ...
... This is particularly true in STEM disciplines (Corneille et al., 2019). Not seeing themselves reflected in faculty or staff can have a devastating impact on underrepresented groups' retention, progression, and graduation rates (Strayhorn, 2012). Since STEM units typically have low faculty diversity, it often leads to poor outcomes for Black and Latinx students. ...
Article
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In 2020, Americans witnessed the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately impact the most minoritized groups. Concurrently, the innumerable police killings of Black Americans re-ignited racial justice protests across the world. As a result, students, faculty, and staff observed a rapid push by administrations to enact diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives and commit to creating more equitable and inclusive climates. Since higher education's inception, urban anchor institutions have played an integral role in the political, social, and economic well-being of their surrounding communities. After 2020, as the distance between universities and their surrounding communities continues to expand, it’s as critical as ever for urban and metropolitan universities to dismantle the pervasive inequities that torment their students and surrounding communities. Although numerous anchor institutions have expressed their commitment to DEI initiatives in recent years, minoritized students, faculty, and staff continue to face systemic barriers to academic and professional achievement and overall well-being. Given this discrepancy, we, four graduate students from an urban anchor institution, were invited to provide recommendations for universities to dismantle inequities and provide a more inclusive, anti-racist environment for its students. As such, we address three concerns: increasing the diversity of faculty and staff, correcting housing and medical injustices of the past, and remodeling campus safety and policing. Our commentary also provides actionable steps for urban anchor universities to address these challenges, particularly for minoritized students and communities.
... This means that there are many avenues within a college context through which supporters of FLI STEM students can foster belonging, be it by creating positive relationships between FLI STEM students and STEM faculty and peers or by maintaining cultural centers (including FLI centers) where both STEM and non-STEM students can build their sense of belonging. It is important to remember that while a sense of belonging is critical for all students, students from minoritized cultural backgrounds experience additional challenges as sense of belonging is tied to social identities [28]. Supporters of FLI STEM students should create opportunities for students from various minoritized groups (e.g., BIPOC, gender non-conforming, immigrant) to feel welcomed, cared for, valued, and respected [28]. ...
... It is important to remember that while a sense of belonging is critical for all students, students from minoritized cultural backgrounds experience additional challenges as sense of belonging is tied to social identities [28]. Supporters of FLI STEM students should create opportunities for students from various minoritized groups (e.g., BIPOC, gender non-conforming, immigrant) to feel welcomed, cared for, valued, and respected [28]. Fostering a sense of belonging includes establishing spaces where FLI STEM students can be their authentic selves [29]. ...
... Başkalarıyla ortaklaşan bir yaşamın temel karakteristiği ise bireylerin kendi toplumsal konumlarına ilişkin algılarına bağlı olarak biçimlenmektedir. Bu yönüyle insanın temel gereksinimlerinden biri olarak görülen aidiyet duygusu (Strayhorn, 2019), mekânsal, duygusal ve sosyal bağlılıklar yoluyla (Brocato, 2006: 27-28) toplumsal ilişkilerin gelişiminde işlevselleşir. Öte taraftan, aidiyet yoksunluğu ise değer ve saygı görülme eksikliğiyle pekişerek toplumdan soyutlanma ve yabancılaşma gibi olumsuzlukları doğurur. ...
... In this respect, belonging or marginalization, which is also effective in the construction of identity, is an important parameter that determines the perception of social positioning. The sense of belonging (Strayhorn, 2019), which is considered as one of the basic needs of humans, becomes functional in the development of social relations through spatial, emotional, and social attachments (Brocato, 2006: 27-28). On the other hand, the lack of belonging is reinforced by the lack of value and respect, and results in negations such as isolation and alienation from the society. ...
Article
The characteristics of social life are established by the perceptions of individuals regarding their position in society. In this respect, belonging or marginalization, which are effective in the construction of identity, are important parameters defining the perception of social positioning. The present study is a scale development study that aimed to uncover the perceptions of Euro-Turks about belonging and marginalization in Germany. The sampling of the study consisted of a total of 608 participants living in Germany, 354 of whom were women, 254 were men, and the mean age was 35.8. As a result of the factor analysis, it was found that the scale that had 11 items consisted of a two-factor structure, belonging and marginalization, and the total variance that was explained was 53.59%. As a result of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis that was made on a different sampling group, it was determined that the model established according to the goodness of fit indices was at a significant and acceptable level. Regarding the criterion validity, General Belongingness Scale and Social Exclusion Scale were applied, and as a result of the analyses, significant relations were found between scale scores. The Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient was found to be r= .71 for the belonging sub-dimension of the scale, and r= .76 for the marginalization sub-dimension. The test-retest reliability results were found to be .82 for belonging sub-dimension and .84 for marginalization sub-dimension. Also, all the values of item statistics were significant at the (p
... All theories dealing with the academic adjustment of disadvantaged students of any ethnic group emphasise the preserving role of small communities similar to RCASN colleges (Coleman 1988;Tinto 1998;Strayhorn 2012;Nguyen and Nguyen 2020). A wide body of research highlighted that a community -such as a student organisation or colleges for advanced studies -the university student could identify with and can become an active member of (especially if he/she is bound to his/her own culture or ethnic group) can provide social participation and important resources for underrepresented minority students (Guiffrida 2003;Lukács J and Dávid 2019;Grier-Reed and Wilson 2016). ...
... The analysis of the community networks of RCASN colleges showed that colleges for advanced studies with fewer students and those operating in separate buildings (spatial segregation) provide an opportunity for much stronger connections and more interactions for the students. However, the analysis also showed that the predominance of college for advanced studies ties may hinder the formation of host connections, and this way hampers the stronger bonding to the university (Hurtado and Carter 1997;Strayhorn 2012). Studies analysing the phenomenon of propinquity regarding student organisations spotlight that certain types of peer interactions mediate the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship (Park and Kim 2013). ...
Article
Adapting to the expectations of educational institutions can be difficult for any students, but it is particularly difficult for disadvantaged, first-generation college students with a minority ethnic background. Our case study, employing a social network perspective, examines the role of small peer-communities in the academic adjustment of underrepresented minority students, namely Roma young people in Hungary. Using a social network approach, the study aims to evaluate what the exact role of ‘colleges for advanced studies’ communities is in the everyday life of Roma students, characteristically first-generation intellectuals, and how such communities contribute to academic adjustment. Furthermore, this study examines the main dilemmas concerning the operation of such colleges for advanced studies. The results show that institutions with fewer students and those operating in separate buildings (spatial segregation) provide an opportunity for much stronger connections and more interactions for the students. However, the analysis also showed that the predominance of RCASN ties may hinder the formation of host connections, and this way hampers the stronger bonding to the university.
... This is of particular concern as we regard IPL opportunities as contexts in which young women can learn about the norms and cultural practices of physics in situ, which may provide possibilities to see themselves as doing physics in context. Following recent theoretical work by Hazari and colleagues [15], we also suggest that these opportunities can provide early possibilities to develop a sense of belonging [44] in ways that contribute to their physics identities. Hazari and colleagues argue that sense of belonging is influenced by the community that surrounds students. ...
... At university, "sense of belonging refers to students' perceived social support on campus, a feeling or sensation of connectedness, and the experience of mattering or feeling cared about, accepted, respected, valued by, and important to the campus community or others on campus such as faculty, staff, and peers." [44] (p. 4). ...
Article
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For young women, inbound identity trajectories into physics are generally regarded as exceptional. In this study, we investigated the experiences that young women have which may support their sustained interest and achievement in physics, and their ongoing inbound trajectories into post-secondary physics education. To understand these experiences, we look to the role of informal physics learning (IPL) environments as spaces which can offer resources that support women’s trajectories into physics. In this paper, we highlight the important role of what we call “university-adjacent” IPL experiences—internships, summer schools, and associations that connect secondary students with the research lives of physicists. Focusing on case studies of six women enrolled in post-secondary physics programs across Sweden, we identify the various forms of resources made available through IPL environments, and how these create possibilities for young women to engage in forms of identity work that contribute to the construction of new possible selves in physics. Findings suggest that young women can access important relational and ideational resources through university-adjacent IPL programs. Relational resources included (a) supportive social networks, (b) enduring relationships, and (c) relatability. Importantly, our research finds that IPL opportunities that emphasize relationship building can create immersive experiences which go beyond representation and rather emphasize opportunities to develop practice-linked identities. Ideational resources emerged as (a) sources of information which possibilized physics for participants, and (b) types of information that provided possibilities to learn about the life of a physicist. Finally, while we claim that IPL experiences provide important possibilities for young women to immerse themselves in the practices of physics, we also discuss that these kinds of experiences remain inaccessible to most students, and thus reproduce a certain elitism in the field.
... Research that does not involve online learning similarly points to the importance of peerto-peer and student-to-instructor interactions. Peer interactions and strong interpersonal relationships can increase students' sense of belonging (Ramsey et al., 2013;Smith et al., 2013), and students' sense of belonging is associated with student retention and persistence in their studies (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019; Smith et al., 2013;Strayhorn, 2012;Walton & Cohen, 2011). Opportunities to collaborate with fellow students in peer instruction and in project-based learning have been found to enhance learning for all students but appear to have a particularly positive impact for students from minoritized groups (Freeman et al., 2014;Lichtenstein et al., 2014). ...
... The survey included items on students' course experience with respect to a set of instructional practices that prior research suggests are associated with important student outcomes including course grades, college retention, and persistence in a field of study (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019). There is also research evidence (Freeman et al., 2014;Strayhorn, 2012;Winkelmes et al., 2016) that some of these course experiences, such as sense of belonging and clarity around course expectations, are especially consequential for minoritized groups (students from low-income backgrounds, students with disabilities, and women in most STEM fields, as well as those from minoritized race/ethnicity groups). ...
Article
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This article describes findings from the Survey of Student Perceptions of Remote Teaching and Learning, which was administered to a random national sample of 1,008 U.S. undergraduates taking for-credit college courses that began with in-person classes and shifted to remote instruction in spring 2020. Course satisfaction levels were much lower after courses moved online, and students recounted an array of barriers to their continued learning. More than 1 in 6 students experienced frequent internet connectivity issues and/or hardware and software problems severe enough to interfere with their ability to continue learning in their courses. Students from all backgrounds struggled to stay motivated and missed getting immediate instructor feedback and collaborating with their fellow students. Students of color and students from lower-income households experienced more challenges than did non-Hispanic White students and students from higher-income households. However, even with the challenges of an unplanned shift to remote learning, a majority of students were at least somewhat satisfied with their learning in the course after COVID, and satisfaction was higher for those courses using more of the practices recommended for effective online instruction.
... Students and adults who have face bullying or cyber bullying experience stress, panic, insomnia and suicidal ideation (Washington 2015). Another study confirms that students who face cyberbullying are more likely to drop out of college (Bernardo et al., 2020); yet those who have positive experiences are more likely to persist (Strayhorn, 2018). Students need a sense of belong to foster academic success in college (Gopalan & Brady, 2020). ...
Preprint
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The pandemic still is not completed its reign. New strains emerge throughout the months with new boosters and strategies implemented. Higher education attainment also continues its metamorphosis. In 2013, Allen and Seaman reported an increase of 9.3% for online learning with a new high of 6.7 million students learning online. At least 32% of students took a class online. In this 2013 report, academic affairs administrators were believing that online education is just as rigorous as face-to-face instruction. Nonetheless, administrators also noted that students need more discipline to focus on distance learning modality. The National Center for Education Statistics reports: some 75 percent (11.8 million) of all undergraduate students were enrolled in at least one distance education course, and 44 percent (7.0 million) of all undergraduate students exclusively took distance education courses. The number of undergraduate students enrolled in at least one distance education course was 97 percent higher in 2020 than prior to the pandemic in fall 2019 (11.8 million vs. 6.0 million). The number of undergraduate students exclusively enrolled in distance education courses was 186 percent higher in 2020 than in 2019 (7.0 million vs. 2.4 million) (NCES, 2022). However, the mode of delivery does not change the need for human kindness and care in education. Too often, bullies hide behind a computer screen to abuse others (Bochaver & Khlomov, 2014). Studies show that as the migration to online education expands, so does the opportunity to hurt fellow students and professors (Vance, 2010). Students and adults who have face bullying or cyber bullying experience stress, panic, insomnia and suicidal ideation
... Survey items were designed to tap constructs related to self-esteem, anxiety, and sense of belonging. Respondents were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert scale the extent to which they agreed with statements like "I feel good about myself" (self-esteem, Rosenberg [1979]), "I feel worried about my future" (anxiety), and "I feel like I matter to others" (belonging, Strayhorn [2019]), based on established measures. Precedent for using these scales was set in a previous study [Author blinded]. ...
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Background Health officials have called for more information about the mental or psychological consequences of COVID-19 on individuals, especially in the US general population where COVID rates are remarkably high. Aims This exploratory study aimed to understand stress, loneliness and substance abuse among the US general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional study comprising 1,203 respondents to a controlled-access, web-based survey was conducted. Results Study results reveal statistically significant differences in stress (p<0.001), loneliness (p<0.001), and substance (ab)use (p<0.001), especially illicit (non-prescription) drug use, between those with COVID-19 or related symptoms and those without. Effect size estimates indicate small to moderate effects, ranging from 0.178 to 0.276, consistent with prior studies based on past outbreaks. Conclusions Findings have significant implications for mental health practitioners, community organizations, and federal agencies in terms of policy, practice, and future research.
... Creating a sense of belonging has emerged as an essential aspect of student success initiatives in higher education (Strayhorn, 2012). A compelling body of evidence from social-belonging interventions informed our student success program (Brooms, 2018;Zhang, Mou, et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background Increasing the size and diversity of the nursing workforce is an important priority. Here, we describe a student success program to increase students' perceived support, coping, and self-efficacy for completing the nursing program among underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students in nursing education following the dual pandemics of COVID-19 and racial injustice. Methods In collaboration with the Urban Health Program at the University of Illinois Chicago, we conducted a 15-week online student success pilot program with a volunteer sample of upper-level undergraduate nursing students. The curriculum for the program included topics centered on traditional student success topics and psychological, emotional, and contextual issues associated with student success. The sessions were conducted weekly throughout the Spring and Fall semesters of 2021, lasting 90-min. Quality improvement evaluations included weekly process variables and a post-test assessment. Results Participants (N = 35) were primarily female and Hispanic. The program was acceptable, with participants very satisfied with the weekly sessions (83 %). Post-evaluations revealed self-reported improvements in peer support (69 %), confidence in reaching educational goals (94 %), handling microaggressions (77 %), coping with adversity (80 %), stress levels (63 %), and thoughts about leaving the program (86 %). Conclusions This student success program shows promise for improving general and minority-specific factors associated with student success. Additional development and evaluation are needed to determine the program's benefits for a larger group of nursing students.
... Aspirational capital is the willingness for people to hold onto their hopes and dreams despite any setbacks or obstacles. Aspirational capital is a recurring theme, especially within Communities of Color, who are often faced with racism, lack of belonging, social isolation, academic difficulty, and collegiate dissatisfaction (Samuelson & Litzler, 2016;Strayhorn, 2012). Navigational capital is the ability to negotiate and navigate oppressive systems and spaces (Yosso, 2005); for example, a Black student who attends a PWI and uses resources to succeed at the institution despite experiencing racism. ...
... We tested the intervention in a preregistered RCT with a large sample of students and assessed treatment effects using a conservative Bayesian machine-learning algorithm (Hahn et al., 2020). The intervention altered students' reported approaches to studying and alleviated their doubts about belonging (in the course and in the biological sciences more generally); doubts about belonging are a strong predictor of attrition, especially among underrepresented students (Walton and Cohen, 2011;Smith et al., 2013;Thoman et al., 2014; see also Strayhorn, 2012). Finally, the intervention had positive, though modest and imprecisely estimated, downstream implications for students' performance and persistence, increasing their likelihood of receiving an "A" and enrolling in the subsequent class in the introductory biology sequence. ...
Article
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Mindset interventions, which shift students' beliefs about classroom experiences, have shown promise for promoting diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Psychologists have emphasized the importance of customizing these interventions to specific courses, but there is not yet a protocol for doing so. We developed a protocol for creating customized "peer-modeled" mindset interventions that elicit advice from former students in videotaped interviews. In intervention activities, clips from these interviews, in which the former students' stories model the changes in thinking about challenge and struggle that helped them succeed in a specific course, are provided to incoming life sciences students. Using this protocol, we developed a customized intervention for three sections of Introductory Biology I at a large university and tested it in a randomized controlled trial (N = 917). The intervention shifted students' attributions for struggle in the class away from a lack of potential to succeed and toward the need to develop a better approach to studying. The intervention also improved students' approaches to studying and sense of belonging and had promising effects on performance and persistence in biology. Effects were pronounced among first-generation college students and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students, who have been historically underrepresented in the STEM fields.
... It is well documented that a sense of belonging has a positive impact on student retention (Hausmann et al., 2007;Strayhorn, 2018). Students' social connections and sense of belonging were severely diminished because of the pandemic. ...
Article
The onset of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic forced higher education institutions to abruptly transition to remote services and online learning. Students with a foster care background are a subgroup of students who have been particularly hard hit by the pandemic, as were the campus-based programs (CSPs) designed to support them. The purpose of this study was to learn about the impact of the pandemic on CSPs and CSP participants. Focus groups were conducted with CSP administrators and separately with CSP students from two- and four-year colleges in California. The first theme that emerged from the data focused on challenges exacerbated by the pandemic, with six subthemes zeroing in on breaks in social connections, academic disruptions, technology woes, gaps in basic needs, employment challenges, and the toll on mental health. The second theme described participants' responses, including their creative and collaborative actions. Administrators quickly adapted service delivery, formed partnerships with new units and organizations to ensure students' needs were met, and found creative ways to stay connected with students during a time of pervasive isolation. Students talked about their own efforts to access resources, connect with peers, and use of strategies to manage challenges such as burnout and depression. A second subtheme highlighted the ways participants displayed resilience, such as creating boundaries to manage their own self-care and leaning on each other for support. The findings from this study increase our understanding of the experiences students faced during the pandemic and shed light on implications moving forward to support students with foster care histories in higher education.
... In a bunch of studies, for example, Strayhorn (2012) pointed out, "deprivation of belongingness often leads to diminished interest in life activities, loneliness, self-hatred, disengagement from life (often through suicide)" (p. 23). ...
Thesis
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A convergent parallel mixed research design belonging to the pragmatist paradigm was employed. A total of 246 and 14 students with disabilities (SWDs) were selected through stratified proportionate simple random and purposive sampling techniques from five HEIs. Data were collected through three self-administered questionnaires (SAQ, SES, and CSEQ) and a semi-structured interview guide. Permission and consent agreement of the HEIs and respondents were received. In analyzing the quantitative data frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation, One sample t-test, and stepwise multiple regression, and for qualitative data In Vivo software were used. Results were: inclusion was significantly and positively related to all dimensions of self-advocacy and engagement constructs. Both data sets were found to be integrating in indicating the same findings. Meaning, respondents were found to be self-advocates (except having lower knowledge of rights, the students were having higher knowledge of self, communication, and leadership); engaged (except having a lower relationship with their faculties, the students were having higher values, sense of belonging, cognitive, relationship with their peers, and behavioral engagements); and the students were included in the HEIs. Both self-advocacy and engagement were found to have a predictive power of inclusion of respondents in the HEIs, where engagement was found to be more predictor. From self-advocacy knowledge of self and leadership and on engagement sense of belonging, cognitive, and valuing dimensions in their respective order were found to having a stronger predictive power on the inclusion of respondents in the HEIs. However, respondents had not received the determinant factors at all on self-advocacy and obtained less on engagement to be able to self-advocate and be engaged for inclusion in the HEIs though they were found to be. Based on the findings it was concluded that if SWDs work hard to be self- determined, strive for realizing social justice, exert quality effort, and seek active involvement their inclusion in the HEIs would be ensured. Besides, relevant recommendations were made to all the concerned individuals and institutions in the area, e.g., making the HEIs in the country ready enough in advance before accepting SWDs.
... Inclusion focuses on enhancing students' sense of belonging in order for them to feel that they are accepted and included in social and academic domains of campus. Literature on student experience has convincingly demonstrated that the sense of belonging is a crucial factor for shaping student experience and chances of fully enjoying academic and social experience provided by higher education (Strayhorn, 2019). ...
Chapter
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Equity interventions need to address questions of access, participation and student success. Equitable expansion of the higher education needs heavy public investment and support. However, many of the changes that are required to create enabling conditions for students from diverse backgrounds may not require additional resources. Empathetic engagement of institutional leaders, teachers, and staff towards the students from deprived backgrounds can make transformative change in campus and classroom in favor of equity and inclusion. NEP- 2020 provides a broader framework and principles for promoting equity and inclusion. Effectiveness of emerging programmes of action and commitment to such a course of action by the government and higher education institutions will decide the success of policy in its action mode.
... United States Census, 2017) and the percentage of Latinx students (18.9%) enrolled in postsecondary institutions nationwide (NCES, 2018). Without appropriate representation, Latinx students can experience difficulty forging meaningful relationships with similar others, which undermines feelings of belonging and connection to campus (Hurtado, 1994;Strayhorn, 2012). Continued underrepresentation of Latinx faculty and students is evidence that diversity initiatives are not race-forward and are not sufficiently shifting the campus climate for diversity. ...
Article
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A university's culture cycle includes institutional ideas around racial/ethnic diversity that inform institutional practices and norms, which shape daily interactions and individual experiences of students. Using qualitative methods, we explore how Latinx students experience these elements of campus culture at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI) publicly committing to engaging in diversity work. We examine the university's ideas and institutional practices and compare them with the interactions and individual experiences of students. We discuss what Latinx students' experiences reveal about how the university's culture cycle considers and promotes the inclusion of Latinx perspectives, experiences, cultural traditions, histories, and challenges. We supplement our understanding of the culture cycle model with elements of Latinx Critical Race Theory SHALLOW INCLUSION 136 Vol 8, No 2 (LatCrit) to account for the pervasive influence of race and racism. We conclude that a race-informed Latinx cultural consciousness is only present in shallow ways within the culture cycle of the university studied. To facilitate an understanding of Latinx student perspectives, meaningfully serve Latinx students, and extend the benefits of diversity to all students, a Latinx cultural consciousness must be infused in all phases of the culture cycle.
... It is also possible that students are more engaged and satisfied with their group because they are generally friendly and collaborate with other learners regardless of whether the instructor implements CL strategies. Indeed, campus engagement and a sense of belonging contribute to academic achievement (Gunuc, 2014;Strayhorn, 2018), perhaps accounting for the hypothesized effects of CL. ...
Article
Collaborative learning (CL) is a common teaching strategy in colleges that involves actively working in groups to achieve a goal. Several studies and theories endorse it as contributing to students’ achievement, motivation, and higher-order thinking skills. However, these studies are inconsistent in the way they define and operationalize CL. For example, they do not separate the quantity and the quality of CL, nor do they distinguish between course-specific and general attitudes toward CL. The study suggests that researchers should define CL more precisely, and demonstrates this approach using a case study ( N = 38). This study examines whether the quality and quantity of group work predicted course achievement after controlling for prior achievement, individual-level motivation, and social ties among students. Quality of CL was operationalized as positive attitudes toward CL in the current course and in general, and quantity of CL was operationalized as the frequency of interactions among group members. Social ties were measured using Social Network Analysis (SNA) which allows researchers to identify the number and strength of connections among students. Findings suggest that positive attitudes toward CL in the current course predicted higher achievement levels, but the frequency of interactions and positive attitudes toward CL in general were associated with lower achievement levels. That is, in the current context, course-specific quality of CL was positively associated with achievement, but other ways of operationalizing CL were not, and in fact had negative relationships with achievement. The study also demonstrates the use of SNA when exploring students’ relationships; it shows that they were associated with course performance but that this association diminished after controlling for students’ attitudes. Overall, it is recommended that researchers clarify what they intend to measure when exploring CL, as this can have an important impact on findings.
... Regardless of the theory informing an advising approach, advisors at the AFYS gathering indicated that at-risk first-year students must first have their basic needs met in order to improve their academic performance. A sense of belonging in the campus community has been well-established in higher education research as positively related to student academic performance and retention (Gopalan & Brady, 2020;Strayhorn, 2018). Furthermore, Maslow (1943) suggested that basic needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing, are foundational to feelings of belongingness and self-esteem. ...
Article
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In February of 2022, over 125 members of the Advising First-Year Students (AFYS) Advising Community gathered to discuss best practices in advising first-year students. During the discussion, the needs of three different student populations were considered: -At-risk first-year students -Persisting first-year students -High-achieving first-year students For each population, several themes arose regarding student needs, and further discussion revealed exciting ideas and inspiration for how we as advisors can meet the needs of these students. It is our hope to encourage and inspire academic advisors globally to consider the needs of first-year students, develop an understanding of the three populations, and adopt best practices when seeking to meet the needs of students during their first year of college. Kosin, K., Sumida, C., Henriques, D., Sallavanti, M., Yoder, W., Walline, C., & Hurley, M. (2022, December). Best practices in advising first year students: Identifying and addressing the needs of the at-risk first year student population. Academic Advising Today, 45(4). [https://nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/Best-Practices-in-Advising-First-Year-Students-Identifying-and-Addressing-the-Needs-of-the-At-Risk-First-Year-Student-Population.aspx]
... al., 2010), we can conceptualise belonging as something that students do (behaviour), feel (emotion), and think about (cognitive connection), which is in flux through various time-periods, and varies by context (Kahu et al., 2020). Simply put, belonging is a key factor for a student's success (Strayhorn, 2018). ...
Article
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This practice report, framed within transition pedagogy (Kift et al., 2010), seeks to offer suggestions to assist higher education educators and administrators to develop and apply policies to foster student belonging. The authors of this article are employed at an Australian university which offers alternative pathways for students to enter a mainstream university degree. The authors were part of a project sub-committee responsible for reviewing literature on the definition of, and approaches to, belonging and writing a report with suggestions to enhance student engagement and progression. The report concluded that belonging should be a “whole-of-institution” approach (TEQSA, 2020) where all aspects of a student’s journey are considered when developing and applying student success strategies. This practice report culminates past studies and offers belonging enhancing teaching advice, policy suggestions and learning tools to strengthen connections between students and the higher education institutions in which they are enrolled.
... Research suggests that perceived fit is critical to the adjustment and social-emotional well-being of students, particularly for students of color and/or individuals coming from marginalized backgrounds (Chavous, 2000;Freeman et al., 2007;Hurtado & Carter, 1997). According to Strayhorn et al. (2012), a sense of belonging "refers to students' perceived social support on campus, a feeling of connectedness, the experience of mattering or feeling cared about, accepted, respected, valued by, and important to the group (e.g., campus community) or others on campus (e.g., faculty and peers)" (p. 3). ...
Article
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In the current study, we examined the transition to college for first-generation women of color. Previous studies of first-year college experiences among groups with minoritized statuses have primarily focused on first-generation students or students of color separately, with little consideration of women within these groups generally, and first-generation women of color specifically. Drawing from work in Black feminist scholarship, we explored the transition to college from the perspective of first-generation women of color college students, examining the resources, strengths, and challenges experienced during this transition. Fourteen self-identified first-generation women of color students participated in semi-structured interviews. Respondents were asked a series of open-ended questions about their first-year college experiences, including family dynamics, social support, and mental health. Using thematic analysis, we identified five major themes—Identity, Imposter Phenomenon, Mixed Formal Support, Complicated Family Support, and Friendship, Social, and Emotional Support. Our findings suggest that first-generation women of color college students encounter unique challenges that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, we recommend structural programming (e.g., diversity initiatives), university policies (e.g., need-blind admissions), and increased faculty and staff diversity as strategies that will benefit all students and provide support for first-generation women of color college students.
... Our work suggests that documenting resource use of graduate students over time may be one way to track the progress of socialization or even help to identify students who are having difficulties in their programs. Previous work has found that graduate students undergo a unique socialization process and that interrupting this process can cause student outcomes to suffer (e.g., attrition from program: Golde 1998; decreased academic achievement: Benavides and Keyes, 2016; decreased sense of belonging: Strayhorn, 2018). Thus, the study of expected resource use over time may help to intervene and redirect students toward a more successful path. ...
Article
Many studies and interventions have been conducted to combat differential academic outcomes between majority and minoritized student populations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) higher education; however, few studies have examined resource use as a factor impacting these differences. Resource use is critical to success in myriad fields, and we posit that understanding resource use in graduate education, including the use and perception of resources, may be important in understanding differential outcomes and success among STEM graduate students. We employed a national survey of life science graduate students (N = 534) to describe student resource use outcomes and how these outcomes may be related to student demographic characteristics. The survey collected data on the following resource use outcomes: what resources students use, how often they use them, and how useful they perceive them to be. Academic stipend was the most frequently used resource and was perceived to be the most useful resource. Analysis of variance modeling and Tukey post hoc tests indicated that year in program, racial identity, gender identity, and college generation status all impacted student frequency of use or perception of usefulness for some resources, with the greatest differentials between white and non-white students. We conclude with recommendations for policy, practice, and future research.
Article
To improve sub-standard retention and 4-year graduation rates, colleges and universities have tried to foster in students more social connections and a greater sense of belonging to the institution. Repeated positive interactions with faculty members are crucial for helping students develop this sense of belonging. Classroom-level belonging specifically is associated with increased self-efficacy and academic motivation compared to campus-level belonging. Additionally, a sense of belonging may support student success by reducing psychological distress and the risk of mental health problems. However, research about how to foster classroom-level belonging has been relatively scarce despite the demonstrated importance of this construct. To address this gap, we asked psychology and education college students to evaluate a course using the Teacher Behaviour Checklist (TBC), the Classroom Community Scale, and the Classroom Climate Scale in an online survey. We found that caring and supportive teacher behaviour (a TBC factor) predicted 1) a community of connectedness and 2) a climate of high instructor organisation and support, professional competency and communication (a TBC factor) predicted 3) a stronger community of learning and 4) a climate of higher academic expectations. Exploratory analyses also revealed that caring and supportive teacher behaviour predicted higher learning and academic expectations; professional competency and communication predicted higher connectedness and instructor organisation and support. It appears that high-impact teaching practices, in general, improve classroom belonging. Our results echo others, highlighting the importance of caring and professional competence to classroom-level belonging in higher education. Implications for student success and faculty development initiatives are also discussed.
Article
Black students attending historically White institutions of higher education (HWIs) experience the full spectrum of emotions. Given the permanence of racism and Black collegians’ inequitable experiences at HWIs much research focuses on Black students’ negative emotions as a result of racist conditions. Little research, however, examines Black students’ positive emotions and feelings on campus. This paper centers on affect, exploring how Black students experience “Black joy” in an otherwise White space. Guided by Eduardo Bonilla Silva’s theory of racialized emotions as well as socio-historical scholarship examining the dynamism of Black life in oppressive contexts, this paper analyzes how participants, themselves, understand and describe Black joy. In this paper, the author draws upon interviews with 29 Black collegians at the same HWI. Findings demonstrate how Black students associated Black joy with being, achievement, and collectivity. By studying Black students’ accounts of joy at an HWI, scholars stand to gain a more textured understanding of both HWIs and Black collegians’ experiences.
Article
T his media review analyzes a contemporary reboot of Charmed (2018). Specifically, we illuminate the show’s portrayal of student development, identity, and social and academic life through main character story arcs. While some aspects of the characters’ experiences are well-intentioned, the writers often contradict themselves and misrepresent the social dynamics surrounding important issues of identity and self-exploration. Nevertheless, the nuances within season one can underscore opportunities for higher education practitioners to assist students in their college navigation and identity formation processes.
Article
This paper draws on interviews with first‐generation (FG) college students in their first year attending two distinct public colleges (a rural state university and an urban flagship) to show how these students framed college in terms of place, how different place frames shaped students' college choices and experiences, and how place served as a proxy for students' feelings of belonging. Some students wanted place continuity: to attend college in a place that felt proximate and symbolically similar to the place where they were from. Other students, however, wanted place change: to attend college in a place that felt markedly different from where they grew up. The extent to which students' place desires matched their choice of college shaped students' sense of fit in college by determining students' access to relevant cultural and network resources. Students experienced steady belonging, forged belonging, reluctant belonging, or interrupted belonging on these bases. Our findings provide support for the role of place broadly understood in FG college students' adaptation to college, and we consider implications for higher education outcomes and improving institutional support for FG students.
Article
The declining trend of international student enrollment in the United States has been investigated from the standpoint of social discrimination, and more recently, by accounting for the compounding effects of COVID-19-based campus closures and remote learning operations. The purpose of this study was to explore whether experiences of campus alienation are related to difficulties international students faced while accessing campus services remotely. A survey was developed and validated for the study. It was completed by 417 international students attending US postsecondary institutions. A canonical correlation was conducted to evaluate the multivariate shared relationships between campus exclusion, COVID-19 racism, and country of origin as one set of variables, and difficulties accessing campus services remotely (DASCR) and international travel difficulties as the other set. Results revealed one significant canonical function; this model explained 27% of variance shared between the two variable sets. Indicators of shared variance provided evidence for significant relationships between experiences characterizing campus alienation and DASCR. Implications are drawn in light of policy and program development, and practical examples are provided for postsecondary educators on how to offer pertinent outreach to their international students and advocate for inclusive campus policies in managing international student engagement remotely during campus closure.
Article
Using ongoing interviews and focus groups, this longitudinal study examines perceptions of eight students entering a state-serving, public university about the role of social class in identifying symbolic boundaries in different layers of the environment (e.g., from small group to school-wide) in the transition from high school to college. Findings reveal that while diverse students from different, public high schools perceived boundaries in high school that fostered bonding capital, in their transition to higher education, they perceived a difference in the (a) permeability, (b) content, and (c) salience of symbolic boundaries in a public institution, which fostered bridging social capital and an environment conducive to cross-class interaction. In addition, classed microsystem boundaries in high school seemed to cloud mesosystem boundaries, leading to perceptions of lower sense of belonging in high school as a whole. Findings provide insight into ways institutions may work to promote interaction across class diversity and student belonging on campus by adapting classed boundaries within environments.
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The role of psychosocial factors in improving students learning is well documented in literature, as well as its prospects and benefits in addressing educational problems. Hence the need to assess the psychosocial learning environment for biology learning. This study revealed biology students’ anxiety level, their sense of belonging and the classroom climate as perceived by the students. The descriptive survey research was conducted with 391 biology students selected randomly from a population of all senior secondary school biology students in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria. A four-sectioned validated questionnaire, with reliability index of 0.72, 0.82, and 0.77, served data collection purpose. Findings revealed that students’ anxiety level is moderate (mean score=1.49). Although, students often get depressed if they don’t perform up to expectation (1.27), they are not anxious whenever test is approaching (1.54), and they are unsure of their anxiety level with respect to failing (1.50). Also, students exhibit a moderately high sense of belongingness in school (mean=1.68) but students feel ignored in most extra-curricular activities (1.31) and believe that their teachers are often too busy to attend to their personal needs (1.28). Students accepts their classroom climate as conducive for learning (1.76), organized (1.74), and not disoriented (1.59). The result also reveals that the classroom atmosphere is moderately positive (mean=1.66). It was recommended that educational stakeholder and curriculum implementers should employ techniques that will further decrease students’ anxiety and boost their sense of belonging. The classroom climate should be supplemented with psychosocial enrichment. Keywords: Psychosocial Learning Environment, Anxiety, Sense of Belonging, Biology
Chapter
Active student engagement in online classes is an important component of retention, pass rates, and student satisfaction. Although online class enrollment has grown steadily over the past several years, student retention is 8% less compared to on-campus courses. Synchronous instructional strategies can encourage online student engagement. In this chapter, the reader will gain an understanding of the benefits of online student engagement as described by three professors using synchronous strategies in their online courses. The increasing global demand for job training, professional development, and affordable education can only be met with online programs. However, asynchronous delivery fails to develop social skills and analytical thinking. The chapter describes innovative, cost effective synchronous approaches, and concludes with suggestions for further research to improve online student success.
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This article presents findings captured during a study with four Non-Indigenous child and adolescent psychiatrists treating American Indian youths at a child and adolescent psychiatry hospital located in a rural northwestern state. The author used a qualitative design to develop a deeper understanding of how the psychiatrists conceptualize the relationships between the components of school connectedness and American Indian youths. The study resulted in categorizing 53 descriptors of protective factors and 31 descriptors of risk factors associated with elements of school connectedness identified as 1) Cultural Connectedness, 2) Community, 3) Caregivers, 4) Teachers, and 5) Peers. The descriptors are illustrated through richly detailed comments from the participants.
Article
During the global health pandemic caused by COVID‐19, most collegians and higher education agents abruptly transitioned to online learning and virtual interactions. Although online education is not a new phenomenon, this was an unforeseen transition for most students in higher education. This study investigated what first‐generation collegians in their 1st year and 1st‐year transfers experienced at a public university in the northeast United States during the 2020–2021 academic year. Findings include increased isolation and mental health issues, connection‐building, a lack of faculty and peer connections, and belongingness via in‐person and virtual community spaces. Recommendations are provided for how higher education agents can best serve these collegians in virtual courses, programming initiatives, and beyond.
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This study investigates how students experienced a sense of place and a sense of belonging in both in-person and virtual learning environments by analyzing student interview data. As educators and university students grapple with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we consider how students experience the presence and absence of sense of place and belonging, and how this could inform faculty and staff practices. We conclude by offering recommendations for university educators, with a particular focus on the benefits of building communities of practice.
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide insights on using the strengths perspective approach to increase self-efficacy and motivation to improve the retention and success of diverse student populations. It will also cover retention and success regarding diverse student populations through the lens of a trauma-informed care approach. It is important to consider the unique challenges that come with the students as they enter the school while learning to be both independent and self-supporting for the first time in their lives. Suppose a student has the challenge of an adverse childhood experience. In that case, it is important for the practitioner to consider this when advising and counseling a student who has come to them with their unique circumstance. Using the strengths approach and positive psychology will be essential to succeed with a student of this background.
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In this paper, we discuss a student–staff partnership project to diversify and decolonise the Higher Education curriculum at the University of Brighton, UK. The Inclusive Practice Partnership Scheme was launched in November 2020, and now in its second year, recruits 64 undergraduate students to co-develop the curriculum within each of the eight Schools across the University. The Scheme is unique in the sector in its focus on undergraduate student experience as the catalyst for a review of curriculum, supporting the development of this work across a wide range of subject areas. It uses the expertise of academic developers to guide and facilitate the work, developing an institutional approach with localised strategies and outcomes, and establishing effective partnership working relationships with academic staff to change perceptions about the relevance and importance of curriculum reparation in all disciplinary areas. The Scheme is a key part of University strategy that aims to address differential outcomes for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic students and is supported through the Access and Participation Plan and Race Equality Charter Action Plan.
Article
Given the substantial lack of racial diversity within the U.S. legal profession, it is important to understand how to improve the representation of racially minoritized students at law schools. This study uses panel data from the 2010s to consider several types of factors that may shape the number and percentage of incoming law school students from several racially minoritized groups: finances (regarding financial aid and cost of attendance), demographic representation (of current students, faculty, and community members), and rankings (from U.S. News). The results of fixed effects analyses revealed that increases in the representation of Latinx and Asian students as well as Faculty of Color predict subsequent decreases in the percentage of incoming racially minoritized students, which suggests that law schools’ efforts to recruit racially minoritized students may depend on recent changes in student and faculty representation. Moreover, increases in the ingroup racial representation within the state (in which the law school is primarily housed) and U.S. News rankings are both associated with greater subsequent numbers of incoming Black and Latinx law students; the provision of conditional scholarships and the combined total of tuition and fees are also significant predictors. These findings have salient implications for policy and practice.
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The current study examined whether college students’ sense of belonging changed following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 252 (66.7% female) first- and second-year college students at a large public university in the United States. It was hypothesized that students would report a decrease in their sense of belonging from before to during the pandemic. It was also hypothesized that female students and racial-ethnic minority students, respectively, would report steeper declines in their sense of belonging compared to their male peers and to their White, non-Hispanic peers. Repeated-measures data were analyzed using a multilevel modeling framework to test for mean differences in students’ levels of belonging from pre-COVID to during-COVID periods. No direct change in students’ sense of belonging was detected. Moderation results indicated that sense of belonging decreased significantly over time for racial-ethnic minority students but not for White, non-Hispanic students. The findings encourage higher education researchers and practitioners to consider the unique experiences of racial-ethnic minority college students during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
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Scholarly definitions of student success have become increasingly transactional and thereby reflect a specific form of modern utilitarianism. In this paper, we use a theological map to explore the terrain of contemporary student success scholarship and practice in an effort to re-imagine how the Christian faith might animate a vision of student success for scholar-practitioners. First, we review the current scholarly landscape, second, we show where it falls short. Third, we use the practical theological method to outline a theological vision of student success. Finally, we propose ways to bridge the gap between current practice and theological vision.
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As costs of higher education increase and the demand for postsecondary skills in the labor market rise, more students will seek employment. Previous research suggests the risks of work demands affecting academic performance and health can often outweigh the potential benefits of working while in school. The purpose of this study was to examine if work demands predict academic performance measures and health outcomes in employed college students. Also, this study investigated if psychosocial factors affected the relationships between work demands and academic performance and health outcomes. In addition, this study examined if themes could be derived in working students' responses to statements about how employment factors interfere with their academics and how dual roles of an employee and student impact their health. The research examined if themes of employment factors interfering with academics could determine differences in academic performance in working students. Finally, it was observed if themes were present describing how dual roles impact students' health related to academic performance. This study did not find support for work demands predicting academic performance but did find support for work demands predicting health outcomes. Perceived injustice had a significant mediating role in the relationship between job satisfaction and sleep quality. In addition, significant differences in academic performance among participants mentioning and not mentioning of work environment, impaired self-regulation, and vitality factors themes existed, and significant relationships of specific health impact themes and academic performance measures were found.
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This study examines factors that impact students' sense of belonging at a Hispanic-serving institution. Findings indicate that various variables measuring academic and social integration as well as experiences with and perceptions of diversity have a positive impact on sense of belonging. Implications support the idea that campus diversity may improve sense of belonging and ultimately improve retention of all students. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
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This article reviews the results from an in-depth multi-site case study of 20 institutions examining approaches to student engagement exploring differences by mission. The research questions pursued were: Is mission related to distinctive approaches for creating an engaging environment for students? If so, in what ways? The results demonstrate a set of relationships between institutional mission and the five benchmarks of effective educational practice identified by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Implications for institutional policy are reviewed.
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To better understand how high and low doctoral completion rates affect the socialization process of doctoral students at one institution, 60 doctoral students in 6 disciplines were interviewed. Findings highlight differential socialization experiences between high and low completion departments and among developmental phases of the student experience.
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Psychological well-being among Latino gay men and lesbians was investigated. This study hypothesized that active coping and social support and identification with the Latino gay and lesbian community (collective self-esteem) are associated with positive mental health status, specifically lower levels of depression and higher levels of personal self-esteem. Surveys were administered to 106 participants (aged 20–53 yrs). About one sixth of the sample was moderately depressed, and only 1 participant was severely depressed. High levels of active coping and social support were significantly related to lower levels of depression and higher levels of self-esteem when controlling for gender and whether the participants were born in the United States. Two aspects of collective self-esteem, private and membership collective self-esteem, were associated with positive mental health status; unexpectedly, importance to identity was related to higher levels of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the relationship between student involvement and racial identity attitudes among African American males. The Student Involvement Survey (SIS) and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS-B) were administered to 117 African American males at 10 predominantly White universities. A significant relationship was found among the 4 subscales of the RIAS-B and the SIS total. The study supported the hypothesis that relationships exist between identity attitudes and student involvement among African American males at predominantly White institutions. It also supported the hypothesis that Greek-letter affiliation would account for difference in racial identity attitudes and student involvement. The findings suggest that African American males who participated in Greek-letter organizations tend to embrace a stronger, more positive sense of self-esteem and racial identity than their non Greek counterparts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using the framework for graduate and professional student socialization developed by Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001), this study addresses socialization of doctoral students to the academic norms of research and scholarship. Data are presented about the perceptions doctoral students in a social science discipline (sociology) and in educational foundations at a major research university have of the scholarly and collegial climates of their departments. Data on students' social relationships with faculty and peers as well as their reported participation in scholarly activities are also reported. A multivariate analysis provides support for the framework, affirming the importance of social interaction among both students and faculty as well as collegiality among faculty for creating a supportive climate for doctoral study that also has the potential to provide a strong foundation for subsequent academic and/or research careers by stimulating students' research and scholarly productivity.
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In this article, the collaboration of both the care recipient and the caregivers to negotiate the social expectations of the appropriateness of family with the economic and situational realities of formal assistance are explored. The data for this project are drawn from intensive interviews (N=39) that were conducted as part of a larger evaluation study of a midwestern state's SRS Income Eligible and Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) programs. The introduction of professional strangers (homecare workers), into a sphere of intimacy is sometimes accomplished by constructing a familial relationship with the client. Thus the familial-type tasks provided by the stranger-caretaker can be reconstructed as appropriate and the realm of privacy and intimacy can be maintained. By “adopting” their homecare workers as fictive kin, the elder is able to maintain a sense of the cultural ideal of family caregiving. This also enables the elder to place kin expectation levels on the homecare worker, which can go well beyond the “assigned” duties of a respite employee. Additionally, the fictive kin relationship appears to provide the homecare worker with a positive feeling and a sense of meaning in her work.
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Les AA. se demandent comment les afro-americains percoivent les stereotypes qui temoignent des prejuges dont ils sont victimes de la part des blancs. Ils soulignent que ces stereotypes concernent la moralite, la violence, l'intelligence, le patriotisme, la toxicomanie, l'alcoolisme, la piete, le dynamisme, l'autodiscipline et les capacites sportives. Ils presentent un certain nombre de donnees collectees aux Etats-Unis en 1991 et mettent en evidence un certain nombre de meta-stereotypes qui permettent de saisir ce type de perception des stereotypes raciaux
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This article explores the academic and social experiences of Chicago and black students at UCLA. The analysis proceeds by examining differences in social backgrounds, high school and college experiences, and explores the relationship between these factors and college adjustment and achievement (GPA). Drawing upon recent theory on class reproduction and schooling we show particular concern with the role of social class in explaining differential outcomes. The findings indicate that blacks are more likely than Chicanos to feel alienated and perform poorly, and that social class makes no difference in these outcomes for blacks. However, middle class Chicanos perform better and are better adjusted than working class Chicanos. We discuss our findings in the light of theories of class reproduction, cultural capital, and racial signaling, suggesting that theories of reproduction must acknowledge the role of race in unequal school outcomes. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/43870/1/11256_2005_Article_BF01141631.pdf
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The research presented in this paper demonstrates some ways in which a group of urban black elementary school students were denied full access to literacy based on teacher assessments of their “attitude” (i.e., social interactions which communicated their alignment with regard to the prevailing ethos of the school). Although all the children observed over the three-year period displayed extensive literacy and language skills in peer and nonschool contexts, only some were admitted to the special academic programs and higher-track classes which maximized opportunities for literacy success. Despite the presence and demonstration of literacy competence, many of these children were not ever seen as possessing such skills due to the fact that performances of their competencies were contextualized and embedded in attitudinal displays that were considered inappropriate. Thus, the underlying process involved seemed not to be the acquisition of literacy, implying a growing set of reading and writing skills. It appeared instead to be an exchange of appropriate attitudes for what can more accurately be described as an admission to literacy, a gatekeeping enterprise. A major concern for the children was not so much the problem of skill acquisition—but a problem of acquiring access to contexts where opportunities for literacy acquisition were maximized.
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This study applied a multinomial HGLM technique to examine the extent to which the institutional climate for diversity influences the different types of college student withdrawal, such as stop out, drop out, and transfer. Based on a reformulation of Tinto's model along with the conceptualization of institutional climate for diversity by Hurtado et al. (1999), this study found that institutional climate for diversity had significant but differential effects on the different types of student withdrawal. This study reminds educators to take institutional climate for diversity more seriously and suggests a more sophisticated method for conducting research on college student withdrawal. Copyright © 2007 Association for the Study of Higher Education. All Rights Reserved.
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This article examines summary data from a recent U.S. Office for Education civil rights survey of American schools in terms of three specific types of school responses to children's misbehaviors: corporal punishment, suspension from school, and placement in Special Education for the Behaviorally Disordered. Extremely large disparities in rates for African American boys versus those for girls and boys of other race/ethnicity groups were often found. The shear magnitude of the differences suggests that selectivity may be operating vis-a-vis punitive/exclusionary measures taken by schools when responding to children's behaviors. Speculations as to these dynamics are offered.
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The educational aspirations of Black males in urban, suburban, and rural high schools were examined in this study, using a nationally-representative sample of respondents to the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between aspirations and SES, academic achievement, and urban city with high-SES, high-achieving, suburban Black males reporting the highest aspirations. Leveled and/or lower aspirations were associated with low-SES, low-achieving, Black males in urban and rural settings. Implications for future practice, theory, and research are discussed, along with recommendations for future policy.
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The present study estimated the influence of academic and social collegiate experiences on Latino students' sense of belonging, controlling for background differences, using hierarchical analysis techniques with a nested design. In addition, results were compared between Latino students and their White counterparts. Findings reveal that grades, time spent studying, and interactions with diverse peers affect sense of belonging, accounting for approximately 11% of Latino students' belonging. Differences were found between Latino and White students. Important implications are discussed.
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Of late, researchers in the area of homosexuality have emphasized the study of homosexual identity formation. Several models have been put forward depicting the process of identity acquisition, but little attempt has been made to test either their accuracy or generality. The study outlined in this paper assesses the validity of several important aspects of my six‐stage model of homosexual identity acquisition. To this end, a questionnaire was constructed to measure a number of factors believed to be critical to homosexual identity development. Responses of subjects at each stage were examined to ascertain the degree to which they corresponded with ideal stage descriptions predicted from the model. Results provided some support for the validity of these descriptions and . for the order of the stages. The data describe a four‐stage, rather than a six‐stage model. To check that these findings were not the result of researcher bias, a discriminant analysis was carried out. This indicated that the postulated six‐stage groups could be distinguished. Ways of revising the scoring keys so as to maximize group differences are discussed. Both similarities and differences were apparent between male and female subjects, but the small sample limited the degree to which conclusions could be drawn about these. Implications of these findings for other models of homosexual identity formation are discussed.
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This chapter draws on recent survey data from a multi-institutional sample to estimate the influence of sense of belonging (SOB) on learning and success outcomes for African-American (AA) students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Additional information highlights differences between men and women. Qualitative data from individual and group interviews are used to make meaning of the statistical findings, yielding insights that can be used to improve educational policies, practices, and conditions for AA students in STEM.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which student involvement experiences impacted educational outcomes for African Americans in college. Overall, the results of the study indicated that in-class and out-of-class experiences positively impacted student development for a nationally representative sample of African American students who completed the College Student Experiences Questionnaire. Implications for student affairs professionals were discussed.
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Used concepts from community psychology literature to elaborate a revised version of Tinto's model of individual student departure. Employed a longitudinal analysis of 718 college students. Results indicate that students' sense of community in their residence halls was a source of social integration and a precursor to student departure decisions. (RJM)
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Despite numerous recent events that have cast collegiate Black Greek-letter organizations (BGOs) in a negative light, many view these and other Greek organizations as important leadership development vehicles. This article reports on a study that examined the impact of BGO membership on Black students' involvement in campus-related activities and their leadership development. BGO members and students unaffiliated with BGOs attending historically Black and predominantly White institutions of higher education were compared. The results indicate that BGO members, regardless of campus type, evidenced greater student involvement and had more confidence in their leadership skills. They further suggest that BGO membership provides an important means by which to enhance student involvement and leadership development for Blacks in college and beyond.
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Determining the extent to which faculty-student mentoring predicts satisfaction in college for Black students was our purpose for this study. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a national sample obtained from the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) Research Program. The CSEQ consists of 191 items designed to measure the quality and quantity of students' involvement in college activities and their use of college facilities. The student sample consisted of 554 Black college students who completed the CSEQ in 2004. Based on the results, establishing a meaningful, research-focused mentoring relationship with a faculty member had a positive relationship with Black students' satisfaction with college, whereas establishing a personal, informal mentoring relationship did not have a significant effect on satisfaction. (Contains 2 tables.)
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Best practices for integrating first-year students into graduate programs include an approach that fosters collegiality and mentoring, based on program structure.
Article
Data from 193 women who attended Smith College in the 1960s show that the women retrospectively represented college quite differently depending on their class background. Themes of both social segregation and academic unpreparedness were evident among the women from working- and middle-class families, while themes of a continuation of family tradition were evident among women from upper-class families. Interview data from seven women who graduated from Radcliffe in 1964 suggested that a sense of who belonged and who did not was keenly felt even by women from middle-class backgrounds, and was also noticed by women from upper-class backgrounds. It is noted that class plays a large role in constructing the markers that define “belongingness” on elite college campuses.
Chapter
Efforts to reduce the stratification of educational opportunity are likely to be met by actions that are designed to maintain class distinctions (Oakes, Rogers, Lipton, and Morrell, 2002). Specifically, middle-and upper-income families will likely respond to initiatives that refocus public resources toward individuals from lower-income families by working to secure additional resources that benefit their children and by identifying additional mechanisms that preserve class stratification (Lucas, 1999; Oakes et al., 2002). Moreover, effectively refocusing public policies in ways that reduce inequalities in postsecondary educational opportunity may require a shift in the current dominant political position, a conservative position that emphasizes self-payment of educational costs and awarding of financial aid based on academic criteria rather than financial need, instead of the structural barriers that limit opportunity for certain groups. Nonetheless, policymakers, educators, researchers, and others who are troubled by the persisting stratification of postsecondary educational opportunity must not be deterred by the political obstacles. Greater progress in equalizing postsecondary opportunity must be made if the United States is to maintain its economic, military, agricultural, and industrial dominance globally and fully realize the range of societal benefits that accrue from higher education. Although eliminating the stratification of postsecondary educational opportunity in the United States will also require attention to the structural barriers that limit persistence to degree attainment, considering the ways in which current public policies may be reconfigured to better ensure college access and choice for all students is essential.
Article
A causal model of student attrition developed by the author (Bean, 1981) was reduced to 10 independent variables. Background variables were excluded from the analysis. The sample was partitioned into high- and low-confidence men and women based on interaction effects. The model was estimated using a sample of 1,574 college freshmen. TheR 2 for dropout ranged from .42 to .50. Based on the effects coefficients, the overall ranking of the independent variables in influencing dropout in descending order of importance was as follows: intent to leave; grades; opportunity to transfer; practical value; certainty of choice; loyalty; family approval; courses; student goals; and major and job certainty.
Article
Prior research on interacting with diverse peers focuses on pooled samples including all racial/ethnic groups or specific subpopulations such as women and White men. Research on sense of belonging has tended to include part-time learners, Asians, and Latinos, but no studies were readily uncovered that focus on Black men. Addressing this gap in the literature, College Student Experiences Questionnaire data were analyzed for 231 Black and 300 White men (N = 531). Results suggest that cross-racial interactions were significant predictors for both groups; however, interactions with peers who have different interests was significant for Black men only. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.
Article
First-generation college students face a number of unique challenges in college. These obstacles may have a disparate effect on educational outcomes such as academic achievement. This study presents findings from an analysis of the Baccalaureate & Beyond Longitudinal Study using hierarchical multiple regression techniques to measure the influence of first-generation status on cumulative grade point average (GPA) in college, controlling for precollege and college variables. Findings suggest that firstgeneration status is a significant predictor of GPA controlling for an extensive array of background and intervening variables. Initially, background variables accounted for a small but significant proportion of college GPA variance. Final results suggest that first-generation status significantly explains differences in cumulative GPA, accounting for nearly 22% (p < .001) of GPA variance. Findings are congruent with college impact theory and support prior conclusions. Still, a number of important relationships and implications for future research are discussed.
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This chapter serves as a guide for quantitative researchers who seek to approach their research questions critically. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56004/1/202_ftp.pdf
Article
Alienation is a contributing factor in adolescents' participation in Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of their needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliation, including a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Emphasizing prevention may minimize deviant subculture involvement, but some adolescents require clinical intervention, ranging from a few outpatient sessions to lengthy inpatient hospitalization. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in the approach to treatment.
Article
Sense of belonging has been proposed to be a basic human need, and deficits in sense of belonging have been linked to problems in social and psychological functioning. Yet, there is little evidence about what early life experiences contribute to sense of belonging. The purpose of this study was to examine potential childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. The sample consisted of 362 community college students ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, with a mean age of 26 years. Measures included the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Deviance Instrument. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate childhood antecedents with adult sense of belonging. The final reduced model included 12 variables, which accounted for 25% of the variance in sense of belonging. Significant positive antecedents with a relationship with sense of belonging were perceived caring by both mother and father while growing up, participation in high school athletic activity, and parental divorce. Significant negative variables with a relationship with sense of belonging included perceived overprotection of father, high school pregnancy, family financial problems while growing up, incest, and homosexuality. Knowledge of these factors should influence interventions with families regarding child-rearing and parenting practices, mediating the effects of crises during childhood such as divorce and teen pregnancy, and the interpersonal growth needs of teenagers.
Article
In response to the high rate of suicide among aging people, this study investigated sense of belonging as a predictor of reasons for living in an aged sample. A community sample of 104 Australians aged 61 to 95 years completed The Reasons for Living Inventory and The Sense of Belonging Instrument. Results indicated that a higher sense of belonging predicted more reasons to live overall, and child-related concerns, responsibility to family, and survival and coping beliefs, specifically. Future research should investigate if the enhancement of a sense of belonging among older adults is associated with an increase in reasons for living.