Article

Sugarbeet as raw material - Advanced storage management to gain good processing quality

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Efficient processing of sugarbeet in the sugar factory requires high concentration of sucrose and low concentrations of nonsucrose substances in the beet. During storage, changes in beet quality should be as low as possible. Storability will gain in importance when the storage period is to be prolonged to reduce fixed costs of the sugar factories. In this study, the storability of sugarbeet as affected by agronomic measures and storage conditions was evaluated. The effect of genotype, N application, topping, Cercospora beticola and Rhizoctonia solani infestation, root injuries and drought stress on changes in root weight, root quality and respiration rate of sugarbeet were investigated at different storage temperature and duration. The beets were grown in the field and stored under controlled conditions in the greenhouse or in climate containers. Genotypic differences in beet storability occurred, whereas N application, C. beticola, topping and bruising did not show a clear effect. Storability was impaired by drought stress and especially by visual root injuries and by R. solani. They increased both sucrose losses and the accumulation of melassogenic substances such as amino-N and invert sugar. These changes were accelerated at higher temperatures and increased with storage duration. From these findings, measures to optimize storage management by implication of agronomic measures are derived.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Preventing sucrose losses in long-term storage is critical to the viability of the sugar beet industry. Loss of sucrose beyond normal respiration can be attributed to the physiological state of the root, dehydration, microbial activity, harvest conditions (mud, frost, high temperatures, and so on), and injuries from harvest and cleaning operations (4,5,(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)26). ...
... Storability was found to be impaired by Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Kühn but not by Cercospora beticola Sacc. (12). ...
... Now the influence of disease problems in the field on the storability of sugar beet is beginning to be studied. In Germany, Rhizoctonia root rot increased storage losses, while Cercospora leaf spot had little influence (12). These data and a lot of previous storage data have been generated under controlled conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To investigate the influence of BNYVV on storability, six sugar beet cultivars varying for resistance to BNYVV were grown in 2005 and 2006 in southern Idaho fields with and without BNYVV-infested soil. At harvest, samples from each cultivar were placed in an outdoor ventilated pile in Twin Falls, ID and were removed at 40-day intervals starting at the end of October. After 144 and 142 days in storage, sugar reduction across cultivars averaged 20 and 13% without and 68 and 21% with BNYVV for the 2005 and 2006 roots, respectively. In the December samplings, frozen root area was 1 and 2% without and 25 and 41% with BNYVV for the 2005 and 2006 roots, respectively. Root rot was always worse with stored roots from BYNVV-infested soil in December, January, and February samplings. Root weight loss was variable in 2005; however, in 2006, an increase in weight reduction always was associated with BNYVV-infested roots. In order to prevent losses in rhizomania-infested areas, cultivars should be selected for storability as well as rhizomania resistance.
... Therefore, it is essential to identify factors affecting the storability in order to reduce storage losses and maintain the processing quality of sugar beet. The extent of storage losses depends on several factors, including harvest as well as storage conditions (Kenter et al., 2006;Campbell and Klotz, 2007;Kenter and Hoffmann, 2009). During harvest, damage of the roots occur as surface injuries of the epidermis, breakage of the root tip and as straight cut when the top is removed. ...
... Injuries during harvest cannot completely be avoided, but they can at least be minimized. In particular the cleaning intensity is in most cases positively related with the extent of damage, and storage losses increase considerably when beet are damaged (Cole, 1977;Steensen et al., 1996;Steensen and Augustinussen, 2002;Kenter et al., 2006). This is partly due to an increased metabolic activity for wound healing (Ibrahim et al., 2001;Rosenkranz et al., 2001). ...
... To study the effect of root injuries, treatments with artifical damage were applied by rotating the roots for 60 s in a cleaning drum (Kenter et al. 2006; Fig. 2). After cleaning, the roots showed the characteristic pink discoloration on the epidermis which results from surface injuries, and they had additional tip breakage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Good storability of sugar beet is of increasing importance, not only to reduce sugar losses, but also with regard to mainting the processing quality. Genotypic differences are found in storage losses. However, it is not clear to which extent damage may contribute to the genotypic response. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of root tip breakage on storage losses of different genotypes. For that purpose, in 2012 and 2013, six sugar beet genotypes were grown in field trials at two locations. After lifting roots were damaged with a cleaning device. They were stored for 8 and 12 weeks, either under controlled conditions in a climate container at constant 8 °C, or under ambient temperature in an outdoor clamp. The close correlation underlines that storage losses under controlled conditions (constant temperature) can well be transferred to conditions in practice with fluctuating temperature. The strongest impact on invert sugar accumulation and sugar loss after storage resulted from storage time, followed by damage and growing environment (year x growing site). Cleaning reduced soil tare but increased root tip breakage, in particular for genotypes with low marc content. During storage, pathogen infestation and invert sugar content of the genotypes increased with root tip breakage, but the level differed between growing envi-ronments. Sugar loss was closely related to invert sugar accumulation for all treatments, genotypes and environments. Hence, it can be concluded that root tip breakage contrib-utes considerably to storage losses of sugar beet genotypes, and evidently genotypes show a different susceptibility to root tip breakage which is related to their marc content. For long-term storage it is therefore of particular importance to avoid damage during the harvest operations and furthermore, to have genotypes with high storability and low susceptibility to damage.
... Damage and loss x temperature The inclusion of temperature sees the on the losstemperature relationship. Kenter et al. (2006) reported the rates of loss in storage for beets stored for 21 days at 5, 12 and 20°C. This corresponds to 105, 252, and 420°Cd, respectively. ...
... In the same experiment, beets stored at 1°C had an average decrease in respiration of 8% over the same period, although only one of the 10 readings was signicant as a point estimate. Kenter et al. (2006) found that at 5°C, respiration rates for damaged beets was 17.5% higher over 7 days, while for beets stored at 20°C for 7 days, rates were 54.5% higher. This suggests a non-linear interaction. ...
... This suggests a non-linear interaction. Uniquely, Kenter et al. (2006) were able to also assess respiration for beets that were only bruised, but had no surface damage. For these beets, damage did not increase the rates of respiration at either 5 or 20°C. ...
Research
Full-text available
What is the role of temperature in the long-term storage of sugar beets, including on the sugar loss mechanisms of respiration and rot. Rates of mechanical damage are also considered.
... In that case, higher expenses for processing aids and energy will result (van der Poel et al., 1998). Losses of sugar during storage cannot be totally avoided, but they can partly be reduced by agronomic measures and storage management (Kenter et al., 2006). According to Kenter et al. (2006), van Swaaij and Huijbregts (2010), in sugar beets genotypic differences in storage losses exist which are enhanced with increasing storage duration (Kenter and Hoffmann, 2009). ...
... Losses of sugar during storage cannot be totally avoided, but they can partly be reduced by agronomic measures and storage management (Kenter et al., 2006). According to Kenter et al. (2006), van Swaaij and Huijbregts (2010), in sugar beets genotypic differences in storage losses exist which are enhanced with increasing storage duration (Kenter and Hoffmann, 2009). Campbell and Klotz (2007) also found a significant genotype effect on storage losses, but it was rather low compared to the effect of the environment (growing site × year) and the interaction (genotype × environment). ...
... If genotypic differences in the storability are based on specific resistances against these pathogens, the ranking of the genotypes at different storage temperatures will change. Even though numerous studies concerning the storability of sugar beet have been conducted (Jaggard et al., 1997;Wiltshire and Cobb, 2000;Campbell and Klotz, 2003;Kenter et al., 2006), quantitative information about the impact of genotype compared to growing site and storage conditions is still lacking. Moreover, the importance of the carbohydrate metabolism and the susceptibility to pathogen infestation for the storability of sugar beet genotypes is not clear. ...
Article
Full-text available
Storage losses of sugar beets are affected by storage conditions, but may also depend on growing site and genotype. The aim of the present study was to quantify the geno-type effect on storage losses and to analyze the reasons for genotypic variability in sugar losses and accumulation of invert sugar. In 2011, 36 sugar beet genotypes and in 2012, 18 genotypes were cultivated at two growing sites. After harvest beets were stored for 8 and 12 weeks at 8 °C and 20 °C in climate containers, respectively. Sugar losses increased with thermal time in store and were closely related to invert sugar accumulation. The growing site strongly affected the storage losses and maximum genotypic differences occurred at growing sites with particularly high level of storage losses. Genotypic differences were primarily caused by differences in the level of infes-tation with microorganisms, but also by differences in the beets' carbohydrate metabo-lism. The infestation with microorganisms after storage was related to the marc con-centration of genotypes before storage pointing to a non-specific resistance. The results underline a marked influence of the genotype on storage losses with a proportion of variance of 12%. Thus, selection of varieties with improved storability seems promising to reduce storage losses of sugar beet. But so far, no criteria are available to select for good storability of sugar beet varieties.
... Recently, the influence of disease problems in the field have been studied using Rhizoctonia root rot (Kenter et al., 2006), Cercospora leaf spot (Kenter et al., 2006;Smith and Ruppel, 1971), Aphanomyces root rot (Campbell and Klotz, 2006), and rhizomania (Campbell et al., 2008;Strausbaugh et al., 2008). Based on these recent publications, it could be argued that some disease problems can rival if not exceed sucrose loss associated with inherent differences in respiration. ...
... Recently, the influence of disease problems in the field have been studied using Rhizoctonia root rot (Kenter et al., 2006), Cercospora leaf spot (Kenter et al., 2006;Smith and Ruppel, 1971), Aphanomyces root rot (Campbell and Klotz, 2006), and rhizomania (Campbell et al., 2008;Strausbaugh et al., 2008). Based on these recent publications, it could be argued that some disease problems can rival if not exceed sucrose loss associated with inherent differences in respiration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sucrose losses during postharvest storage of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) maybe exacerbated by field diseases. This study investigated the influence of curly top (causal agent Beet severe curly top virus and related viruses) on storability of sugarbeet roots during the 2005 and 2006 growing sea sons. Three sugarbeet cultivars varying for resistance to curly top were evaluated both with and without the insec ticide seed treatment Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed). At harvest, 8-beet samples from each cultivar were collected and placed inside an outdoor pile. Samples were removed at 40-day intervals beginning on 31 october in 2005 and 1 in 2006. Sucrose concentration, frozen and discolored root area, and root weight were evaluated. By mid-September plants from Poncho Beta treated seed had curly top ratings that were 37 and 31% lower ( P < 0.01) than plants from the untreated seed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. After 124 and 131 days in storage, roots from Poncho Beta treated seed had 8.5 and 5% more sucrose than roots from untreated seed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Resistant cultivars and insecticide seed treatments not only limit losses to curly top in the field, but also in long term storage.
... Drought reduces the taproot and leaf yields compared with irrigation and also contents of potassium and sodium, but contents of sucrose, a-amino-N and betaine increase [51]. This effect is more pronounced in beets with visible symptoms of drought stress and a high storage temperature [52][53][54]. ...
... Chemical composition of sugar beet is the first parameter affecting its processing [88]. Sugar beets with high sucrose content are required to maximize the amount of extractable sugar [89], as is well known from the sugar industry [54]. ...
Article
This review presents a summary of published papers on the improvement of sugar beet yield and its transformation into bioethanol. After describing the current political and economic context of sugar beet production, the influence of factors during crop growth is considered. The main factor influencing the crop yield and consequently the bioethanol yield is weather variability. Other parameters such as climate change, fertilizer and crop management are noted and explained in further paragraphs. Irrigation is required in semi-arid countries and plays a role in the different results achieved. After the overview of the crop growth conditions, sugar beet transformation into bioethanol is outlined with reference to the most critical steps, the different raw materials derived from sugar beet and the optimal parameters for obtaining the highest possible yield in terms of bioethanol. With regard to the economics on bioenergy production, the goal is to obtain the highest yield possible in terms of sugar beet, sugar and then bioethanol. Some savings can be made via energy reduction during the fermentation or distillation steps. There is no single way to reach this goal because of the variability of the parameters, depending on the location and on the variability of weather.
... Sugar beet genotypes significantly different in storage capacity especially carbohydrates (Schrepel and Hoffmann, 2013). According to Kenter et al., (2006), van Swaaij and Huijbregts (2010), in sugar beets geno-typic differences in storage losses exist which are enhanced with increasing storage duration (Kenter and Hoffmann, 2009). Campbell and Klotz (2007) also found a significant genotype effect on storage losses, but it was rather low compared to the effect of the environment (growing site × year) and the inter-action (genotype × environment). ...
... produced the highest sugar beet root yield and sucrose yield /ha, and these results might be due to the genetic makeup of Farida cv. and it had polygenes contributed in increasing yield components of root length ,root diameter, root weight which reflected in increasing root yield /ha (Hoffmann et al., 2005). Increasing in yield components positively affected the sucrose biosynthesis within the root cells and produced the highest sucrose yield (Kenter et al., 2006 andVan Swaaij andHuijbregts, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted during 2016-2018 at the Agriculture Research Station of King Abdulaziz University at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia. The study aimed to evaluate three sugar beet cultivars (Farida, Dita and Heros) under three nitrogen fertilizer rates (100, 200 and 300 kg N/ha). As nitrogen fertilizer rate increased root yield, yield components, sucrose (%) and yield significantly increased in both seasons. Fresh root yield under 300 kg N/ha was the highest in both seasons. Farida cv. was the highest in root yield (60.62 t/ha and 97.00 t/ha) and sucrose yield (4.15 and 6.95 t/ha) in both seasons, respectively.
... In recent years in Idaho, some roots harvested in October have been held for 150 or more days under ambient conditions until they were processed in late March and early April (Strausbaugh and Eujayl 2018). The roots stored long term under ambient conditions are subject to environmental fluctuations (both temperature and moisture) which can lead to both fungal and bacterial colonization and sucrose losses (Barr et al. 1940;Bugbee 1982Bugbee , 1993Campbell et al. 2011Campbell et al. , 2014Hansen 1949;Huijbregts et al. 2013;Kenter et al. 2006;Mumford and Wyse 1976;Strausbaugh et al. 2008bStrausbaugh et al. , 2011Wyse 1978). Within a period of 1 month, the respiration rate will double when 20% of the sugar beet root surface is infected by Botrytis or Penicillium spp. ...
... (Mumford and Wyse 1976). In addition to losses to respiration, as sugar beet roots deteriorate, the ability to extract sucrose decreases as purity goes down (Bugbee 1993;Huijbregts et al. 2013;Kenter et al. 2006). Thus, millions of dollars can be lost annually when storing sugar beet roots under ambient conditions (Bugbee 1982;Bugbee and Cole 1976;Huff 2013;Van Driessche 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal rots in sugar beet roots held in long-term storage can lead to considerable sucrose loss but the incidence and distribution of fungal rots inside sugar beet piles and pathogenicity for some species is poorly understood. Thus, Idaho sugar beet held in five outdoor and two indoor piles in 2014 and 2015 were investigated. The root surface area covered by fungal growth and discolored and healthy tissue were assessed in nine 1-m2 areas per pile using a stratified random sampling design. Pathogenicity was evaluated indoors via plug inoculation in 2015 and 2016. Botrytis cinerea covered more root surface area inside indoor piles (6 to 22%) than outdoor piles (0 to 3%) (P < 0.0001). No trends were evident for the Athelia-like sp. (0 to 15%) and Penicillium-type spp. (0 to 8%). Penicillium-type isolates comprised the following species: 60% Penicillium expansum, 34% P. cellarum, 3% P. polonicum, and 3% Talaromyces rugulosus. Trace levels (<1% of root surface) of other fungi, including Cladosporium and Fusarium spp., were evident on roots and in isolations. Based on sample location in a pile, there were no trends or differences; however, two outdoor piles (OVP1 and OVP2) had more healthy tissue (90 to 96%) than other piles (28 to 80%) (P < 0.0001). When the pathogenicity tests were analyzed by species, all were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001), except for P. polonicum and P. expansum: B. cinerea (61 mm of rot), P. polonicum (36 mm), P. expansum (35 mm), P. cellarum (28 mm), Athelia-like sp. (21 mm), T. rugulosus (0 mm; not different from check), and noninoculated check (0 mm). The OVP1 and OVP2 piles had negligible fungal growth on roots after more than 120 days of storage under ambient conditions, which indicates that acceptable storage can be achieved over this time period through covering piles with tarps and cooling with ventilation pipe.
... In Idaho, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots may be stored up to 160 days, allowing weather (primarily temperature and moisture) and microbes to negatively influence the sucrose stored in the roots, along with normal respiration and the buildup of impurities (3,5,6,9,34). Other factors can also influence sucrose loss such as scalping, impacts , and wounding during harvest and transport, mud and weeds in piles, and unusually high or low temperatures (2,6,10,13,16,19,33). Disease and drought stress during crop production may also predispose the roots to sucrose loss in storage (8,14,15,27,28). Rhizomania (8,28), curly top (27), Rhizoctonia root rot (15), Aphanomyces root rot (7), and Cercospora leaf spot (24) during crop production have all been shown to lead to increases in sucrose loss in storage. ...
Article
Full-text available
To reduce storage losses and improve resistance to rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), studies were initiated to establish a storage cultivar selection program. In 2006 and 2007, 30 or more commercial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivars were grown in soil naturally infested with BNYVV. At harvest, two root samples from each plot were collected and used to establish percent sugar. Additional samples were placed on top of an indoor pile (set point 1.7°C) and inside an outdoor pile in a randomized complete block design with four replications. After 142 and 159 days in indoor storage, sucrose reduction ranged from 13 to 90% in 2007 and 57 to 100% in 2008. Outdoor storage sucrose reduction ranged from 13 to 32% in 2007 and 28 to 60% in 2008. An average of 31 and 45% of the root surface was covered with fungal growth in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Cultivars that retained the most sucrose had resistance to BNYVV and the least fungal growth and weight loss. Indoor storage with BNYVV-infested roots allowed for the most consistent cultivar separation and will potentially lead to selection of cultivars for improved storability and rhizomania resistance.
... Usually clamps are covered with polypropylene fleece to keep the beets dry, so that soil can be removed easily, and to protect them from frost (Bürcky and Maier 2005). Kenter et al. (2006) studied the effect of several agronomic factors on the storability of sugar beet. They showed that roots with rhizoctonia rot should not be stored at all because the disease spreads rapidly in the clamp, so increasing losses. ...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of the sugar beet root affects the recovery of crystalline sugar in the factory considerably. K, Na and amino N are melassigenic and are, therefore, always considered in the assessment of root quality for variety approval, and in some countries also for payment. The development of root quality during the season and the impact of variety, root rots, drought stress, N fertilizer application, defoliation/topping and storage are discussed. A further increase of the sugar concentration in varieties may be restricted by cell turgor and can probably only be achieved with a simultaneous decrease of the concentration of non-sugars. Future needs of the processing industry could change the criteria for quality assessment. It is observed that the alkalinity reserve (ion balance) of the juices gets lower so that soda has to be added. Moreover, long-term storage and the infestation with root rots result in a marked increase of the invert sugar concentration with detrimental consequences for processing. Therefore, quality assessment would probably be improved by considering alkalinity and invert sugar concentration. For the use of sugar beet for biofuel production, the sugar concentration (ethanol) or the organic dry matter (methane) of the roots are important quality criteria. KeywordsAlkalinity–Biofuels–Drought–Invert sugar–Melassigenic substances–N supply–Quality assessment–Physiological limits–Rhizoctonia root rot–Storage–Sugar concentration–Variety
... Geköpfte Rüben waren alle wie bei Beiß (1979) beschrieben unterhalb der grünen Blattansätze geköpft. Dagegen entsprechen praxisüblich geköpfte Rüben nur zu etwa 30 % den Vorstellungen von optimal geköpften Rüben Agriculture/Landwirtschaft (Hoffmann und Wulkow, 2011, Beizten-Heinecke und Büsching, 2012 (Akeson et al., 1978;Tschernjawskaja und Chelemski, 1997;Kenter et al., 2006). Diese Gegenüberstellung der Zuckerverluste bei Lagerung von praxisüblich und manuell geernteten Rüben unterstreicht die Bedeutung einer schonenden Ernte. ...
Article
Full-text available
Zuckerrüben werden bei der Ernte häufig nur entblättert, um den gewachsenen Ertrag vollständig zu ernten. Es wird erwartet, dass entblätterte Rüben auch bei der Lagerung geringere Verluste als geköpfte Rüben aufweisen. Ziel dieser Untersuchungen war es, die Zuckerverluste und Invertzuckeranreicherung von Rüben mit unterschiedlicher Erntequalität zu quantifizieren und Ursachen für diese Unterschiede aufzuzeigen. Zu diesem Zweck wurden zum einen Rüben von einem Praxisschlag mit verschiedenen Rodesystemen, zum anderen aus Feldversuchen manuell geerntet. Diese Rüben wurden bei Außentemperatur sowie bei konstant 8 °C und 20 °C in Klimacontainern für 5 und 12 Wochen gelagert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass zu tief geköpfte Rüben die höchsten Gewichts- und Zuckerverluste und die stärkste Anreicherung von Invertzucker aufwiesen. Entblätterte Rüben hatten bei allen Lagerungsvarianten signifikant höhere Zuckerverluste als geköpfte Rüben. Das war vermutlich auf den starken Blattaustrieb zurückzuführen, zudem war der Schimmelbefall oftmals höher als bei geköpften Rüben. Unabhängig von den Erntevarianten gab es eine enge Beziehung zwischen dem Invertzuckergehalt der Rüben und dem Befall mit Schimmel und Lagerfäulen. Das lässt darauf schließen, dass Pathogen-eigene Enzyme vermutlich erheblich zur Umsetzung von Zucker beitragen. Der Invertzuckergehalt stand in enger Beziehung zu den Zuckerverlusten. Es ist zu prüfen, ob die Lagerfähigkeit von Zuckerrüben verbessert wird, wenn Sorten weniger anfällig gegenüber Lagerpathogenen und Saprophyten sind.
... Mechanical cleaning already on the sugar beet harvester lowers soil tare significantly (VERMEULEN, 2002), but a compromise has to be made between optimal beet cleaning and a gentle treatment of the beets. The more intense efforts to remove soil tare are, the higher are the root injuries and the storage losses of the beet (STEENSEN, 2002;KENTER et al., 2006). Additionally, self-feeding cleaner loaders clean the beets mechanically on headlands before loading them on transportation units (RIGO, 2005). ...
... dYang et al. 2007;Peluola et al. 2013 Mahmoudi und Ghashghaie 2013;Kenter et al. 2006 f Verlinden et al. 2013 Gilgen und Feller 2013;Gilgen et al. 2010;Martinkova et al. 2009; Jacob 2003; Wollecke et al. 1996) Gut demonstrieren lässt sich das Dilemma fehlender Berücksichtigung von Extremwerten für die Prognose zu erwartender Auswirkungen des Klimawandels bei Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Temperatur. Die meisten der bisherigen Untersuchungen zu den Auswirkungen des Klimawandels zielen auf den Einfluss steigender Durchschnittstemperaturen (z. ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate Change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration and timing of weather and climate extremes and can result in unprecedented extremes. Managed systems like agriculture are not immune to them. Studying the rapidly growing body of climate change literature it has been noted that there are only a few papers concerning the influences of extreme weather on agriculture. Projections of future impacts of extreme weather cannot always be made with a high level of confidence. Pests (weeds, insect pests and plant pathogens) represent a major constraint to crop production. The present paper analyses scientific literature published since 1945 concerning the knowledge about the influences of extreme weather on incidence and of pests in wheat, barley, maize, beet, potato, rape, forage crops and grassland. Only 63 papers were found. Insect pests and plant pathogenic fungi of maize and wheat are most investigated. The most papers describe the influences of drought, dryness heat and heavy down pours. There are enormously knowledge gaps. On the basis of this it is not possible to assess the influences of weather extremes in a changing climate on pests and yield loss current. More research in this field is needed urgently. Der Klimawandel wird voraussichtlich zu einer Zunahme der Häufigkeit, Intensität, räumlichen Verteilung, Dauer und Timing von Extremwetterereignissen sowie dem Auftreten neuartiger Extrema führen. Die Landwirtschaft ist nicht immun. Studien der ständig wachsenden Literatur über den Klimawandel lassen erkennen, dass es vergleichsweise wenig Arbeiten zum Einfluss von Extremwetter auf die Landwirtschaft gibt. Es ist nicht möglich, belastbare Vorhersagen zu den zukünftigen Auswirkungen von Extremwetterereignissen zu machen. Schaderreger (Unkräuter, Schadinsekten und Pflanzenkrankheiten) stellen einen limitierenden Faktor der Pflanzenproduktion dar. Daher wurde in der vorliegenden Arbeit in der seit 1945 erschienenen wissenschaftlichen Literatur recherchiert, was über den Einfluss von Wetterextrema auf das Auftreten der Schaderreger an Weizen, Gerste, Mais, Zuckerrüben, Kartoffeln, Raps, Ackerfutterpflanzen und Grünland sowie durch sie verursachte Ertragsverluste bekannt ist. Nur 63 relevante Arbeiten konnten gefunden werden. Am meisten untersucht sind Schadinsekten und Schadpilze an Weizen und Mais. Untersucht wurde hauptsächlich der Einfluss von Dürre, Trockenheit, Hitze und Starkregen. Es gibt enorme Wissenslücken. Auf dieser Grundlage ist es gegenwärtig nicht möglich, den Einfluss von Extremwetterereignissen auf das Schaderregerauftreten und mögliche Ertragsverluste abzuschätzen und zu bewerten. Forschungen hierzu sind dringend notwendig. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Mechanical cleaning already on the sugar beet harvester lowers soil tare significantly (VERMEULEN, 2002), but a compromise has to be made between optimal beet cleaning and a gentle treatment of the beets. The more intense efforts to remove soil tare are, the higher are the root injuries and the storage losses of the beet (STEENSEN, 2002;KENTER et al., 2006). Additionally, self-feeding cleaner loaders clean the beets mechanically on headlands before loading them on transportation units (RIGO, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The eco-efficiency concept, originally developed as a business model, seems also appropriate to point out options for sustainable development in crop production. Thus, the study aimed to introduce a system of indicators in order to describe the current eco-efficiency of sugar beet cultivation. In addition, the relation between production intensity and yield performance of sugar beet was analyzed. In Germany, sugar beet cultivation of 109 farms with 232 fields in 2004 was surveyed across all growing areas. In our study, the operations tillage, fertilizer application, plant protection and harvest were considered. Energy input of tillage, N fertilizer rate, standardized treatment index of pesticide use and soil tare were used to reflect production intensity and environmental impact. These indicators were related to yield performance, i.e. white sugar yield (WSY) and aggregated to an index. This index reveals the range of eco-efficiency of sugar beet production in Germany in 2004. On the field level, energy input of tillage, N fertilizer rate, standardized treatment index, soil tare and WSY (6-15 t ha-1) were highly variable. Therefore, eco-efficiency varied considerably, too. A positive relation was given between soil tare and WSY. However, energy input of tillage, N fertilizer rate and standardized treatment index did not correlate with WSY. It was thus proved that WSY was independent of production intensity. But the effect of the farm (including crop management, site, weather, soil and their interactions) on WSY was highly significant. In the short run, the most effective way to increase eco-efficiency is to reduce production intensity, which is not necessarily associated with a yield decrease. In the long run, continuously increasing yield will continuously enhance eco-efficiency of sugar beet cultivation.
... Geköpfte Rüben waren alle wie bei Beiß (1979) beschrieben unterhalb der grünen Blattansätze geköpft. Dagegen entsprechen praxisüblich geköpfte Rüben nur zu etwa 30 % den Vorstellungen von optimal geköpften Rüben Agriculture/Landwirtschaft (Hoffmann und Wulkow, 2011, Beizten-Heinecke und Büsching, 2012 (Akeson et al., 1978;Tschernjawskaja und Chelemski, 1997;Kenter et al., 2006). Diese Gegenüberstellung der Zuckerverluste bei Lagerung von praxisüblich und manuell geernteten Rüben unterstreicht die Bedeutung einer schonenden Ernte. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sugar beets are often defoliated in order to harvest the total yield that was grown. It is also expected that defoliated beets have lower losses during storage than topped beets. The aim of this study was to quantify sugar losses and invert sugar accumulation of beets with different harvest quality and to show the underlying causes for these differences. For that purpose beets were on the one hand harvested with different harvest systems, and on the other hand harvested manually. The beets were stored at outdoor temperature and at constant 8 °C and 20 °C in a climate container for 5 and 12 weeks, respectively. Results show that overtopped beets had the highest weight and sugar losses as well as the strongest accumulation of invert sugar. Defoliated beets had higher sugar losses than topped beets in all storage treatments. That was probably due to the marked regrowth of the leaves, furthermore mould infestation was often more severe compared to topped beets. Irrespective of the harvest treatments a close relationship between the invert sugar concentration and the infestation of mould and storage rots occurred. That gives some evidence that pathogen enzymes may contribute considerably to sugar cleavage. The invert sugar concentration was closely related to sugar losses. It has to be tested whether the storability of sugar beet could be improved when varieties are less susceptible against storage pathogens and saprophytes.
... Mechanical damage to sugar beet, Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L., occurs during harvest and handling, and generally leads to increased rates of sugar loss during storage (Kenter et al. 2006;Huijbregts et al. 2013;Kleuker and Hoffmann 2021). The ability of a sugar beet root to withstand mechanical damage varies with its textural properties Hoffmann 2020, 2022). ...
Article
Methodology for analysing textural properties of sugar beet roots in the laboratory has previously been established. It has been shown to be reliable and of value in exploring relationships between textural properties, damage rates, and storability of varieties. In this paper, a methodology for the assessment of textural properties in-field, prior to harvest, using an inexpensive handheld penetrometer is examined. Three sugar beet varieties were grown in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden during 2019. Textural properties were assessed in-field with the handheld penetrometer 2, 1 and 0 months prior to harvest, and with the laboratory penetrometer directly after harvest. Comparison of the results showed generally strong correlations. A power analysis suggests a difference in mean Handheld Pressure of 0.10 MPa could be found significant within a large trial with a block design. The reliability of the handheld penetrometer was further assessed in the Swedish national variety trials over three years (2019-2021). Correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.94 were found between mean Handheld Pressure for 2019 and 2020, and 2020 and 2021 respectively. The handheld penetrometer can be applied as an economic means of quantifying differences in textural properties of sugar beet varieties. Clear operating procedure and training must exist.
... In particular, invert sugar reduces the alkalinity of the factory juices and leads to colour formation, thereby increasing the expenses for processing aids and energy in the factories (van derPoel et al. 1998). Several factors affect storage losses of sugar beet such as injuries at harvest, temperature and length of the storage period, as well as cultivation under stress conditions (Kenter et al. 2006that the genotype effect was low compared to the effect of the environment and their interaction. However, Kenter and Hoffmann (2009) observed that genotypic differences in storage losses were enhanced with increasing storage time. ...
Article
To improve the storability of sugar beets, this study aimed at determining reasons for genotypic variability in sugar losses and invert sugar accumulation during storage, and at identifying indirect criteria to select for varieties with low storage losses prior to storage. In 2011 and 2012, 18 genotypes, and in 2012 and 2013, six genotypes cultivated at two locations were stored for 8 and 12 weeks at 8°C under controlled conditions. The same 18 genotypes were grown under stress conditions in Spain in 2012/2013. Sugar losses were closely correlated with the invert sugar accumulation after storage. Genotypic differences in storage losses were primarily caused by differences in the level of infestation with microorganisms. The invert sugar accumulation was lower for genotypes with high marc concentration before storage, pointing to a non-specific resistance. Additionally, the sugar concentration in dry matter before storage, and the invert sugar concentration after cultivation under stress conditions correlated with the invert sugar concentration after storage. These parameters are therefore suggested as criteria to select for improved storability of sugar beet genotypes.
... It is necessary to optimize the storage conditions so that changes in the quality of the raw beet material might be mini- mized. Good quality of raw material after storage should have a high content of sucrose and low content of nonsucrose sub- stances [1], which affects not only the quantity and quality of the white sugar, but also the quality of by-products, such as molasses and beet pulp, which are valuable materials for the production of feed. Numerous studies have been conducted that focused on changes in sugar beet quality indicators (sucrose, sodium, potassium, betaine, α-amino and raffinose) during storage in clamps on the fields [2][3][4]. ...
Article
Due to the prolongation of the period of the sugar campaign, it is necessary to optimize the storage conditions, so that changes in the quality of the raw material could be minimized. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage duration and temperature on changes in the composition of sugar beet. The study presents the changes in the content of glucose, fructose, raffinose, lactic and acetic acids, nitrates and nitrites as well as in the content of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and spores of denitrifying bacteria during storage under various conditions.
... Mit der Dauer der Verarbeitungskampagne in den Zuckerfabriken hat sich in den letzten Jahren auch der Zeitraum verlängert, über den die Zuckerrüben zwischen Ernte und Verarbeitung gelagert werden (Huijbregts et al., 2013). Die Minimierung von Zuckerverlusten durch ein angepasstes Lagerungsmanagement ist daher entscheidend für die Effizienz der Zuckererzeugung (Kenter et al., 2006) und hat durch das Ende der Zuckermarktordnung 2017 weiter an Bedeutung gewonnen. Zuckerverluste entstehen, weil die lagernden Rüben Zucker abbauen, um ihren Energiestoffwechsel aufrecht zu erhalten. ...
Article
Full-text available
The storability of sugar beet varieties grown in Germany has not been specified to date. In 2016–2018, nine storage trials were carried out in order to test the storability of 13 current varieties. The beet were stored in climate containers for approximately 480 °Cd. Root mass and the contents of sugar, invert sugar and marc were determined before and after storage. During storage, the sugar content decreased in all varieties while the invert sugar content increased. The observed sugar loss was most significant (about 10% of the amount before storage) in an environment where the syndrome „basses richesses“ had occurred. Differences among varieties were significant in six environments, but not for the mean of the eight trials without diseases. Variety recommendations concerning the storability of sugar beet are thus currently not possible.
... A harvesting campaign with low-quality beets includes the loss of reduced harvestable tonnage and white sugar recovery, but also cause post-harvest losses in storage piles. Root rot diseases are a limiting factor to produce beets with demanding quality standards (Hoffmann 2010;Kenter et al. 2006;Märländer et al. 2003). ...
Article
The fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in sugar beet production worldwide. Root and crown rot caused by this fungus are traditionally recognized later in the cropping season by rating the above-ground symptoms like wilting and chlorosis on foliage, and dark brown lesions at the base of petioles. The present study was designed to evaluate noninvasive sensors and machine learning for measuring disease incidence and early detection. Eight-weeks-old plants were inoculated with the pathogen in two different concentrations and under controlled conditions. Hyperspectral images in the visible and near-infrared range from leaf were obtained in time-series. One hundred thirty and fifteen spectral features were selected in two levels by using the recursive feature elimination method (RFE) and a clustering approach. Subsequently, five types of machine-learning methods were employed to train four types of spectral data containing reflectance values, vegetation indices, selected variables of the RFE process and selected variables of an RFE-clustering process. The best classifier was obtained from a partial least squares modeling process and required a number of 15 spectral features, which include first and second derivatives of the wavelength spectrum as well as the Ctr3, EVI and PSSRa vegetation index. This investigation proves that under controlled conditions early detection of indirect symptoms caused by Rhizoctonia root rot in sugar-beet plants is possible. Scoring of disease incidence of Rhizoctonia root rot at 10 dai was 3 to 5 times higher with a machine-learning classifier in comparison with the human visual rating.
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of Al Ghab, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, to evaluate the effect of some chemical application on the sugar losses reduction, and some quality traits in 2014/2015 season. Three slaked lime concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 percent, and three concentrations of calcium chloride of 2, 4, and 6%, and a mix of 5% slaked lime with 2% calcium chloride, beside the check (no treatment) (factor C). The second factor (D) was the storage durations of 6 days, and tow varieties (Factor V) were arranged as factorial experiment in RCBD with four replications. The varieties one of them was monogerm (Vico), while the other was multigerm (Reda), they were drilled in mid November, and storage roots were harvested late August. Weight percent loss and quality of beet samples such as sugar content, total soluble solids (TSS %), and purity% were determined throughout storage period. The results of analysis of variance ANOVA showed that effect of varieties was significant for TSS (brix %), sucrose%, root weight loss (P<0.05). All the studied traits were affected significantly (P<0.05) by storage duration. Chemical treatments had significant effect on all the studied traits (P<0.05), and the best treatment was with calcium chloride 6%. The percentage of variance confirmed that the most effective factor for the all studied traits was the storage period, followed by the varieties, and finally in a very low percent was the chemical treatments, because of that it is very urgent to send the harvested roots immediately to the factories to be processed within 24 hours, or treated with calcium chloride of 6% to preserve the sugar content as possible till manufacturing. Also the study concluded that the mutigerm variety Reda deteriorated less that the monogerm variety Vico, so Reda is recommended to be stored if necessary.International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1) 2016, pp: 96-106
Article
Durch die zunehmende Verlängerung der Verarbeitungskampagne haben sowohl die Bedeutung der Zuckerrüben-lagerung in Feldrandmieten wie auch die dabei auftretenden Zuckerverluste zugenommen. Während der Lagerung wird die Zuckerrübe von Mikroorganismen besiedelt, die Lagerfäulen hervorrufen. Es wird vermutet, dass der dadurch entstehende Zuckerverlust auf die Aktivität von pflanzlichen und mikrobiellen Saccharose abbauenden Enzymen zurückzuführen ist, jedoch fehlte bisher der experimentelle Nachweis. Ziel der Untersuchungen war es daher, die Gen-expression dieser Enzyme in der Interaktion zwischen der Zuckerrübe und dem Lagerfäuleerreger Fusarium graminearum zu analysieren, um Rückschlüsse auf ihre Aktivität zu ziehen. Mit Hilfe des Verfahrens der real-time PCR (qPCR) konnte die Expression der pflanzlichen und mikrobiellen Gene nachgewiesen werden, wobei das Expressionsniveau eine starke Variabilität in Abhängigkeit vom untersuchten Gewebe (nekrotisch, Übergang, gesund) und der Inkubationsdauer (7, 14, 21 und 28 Tage) aufwies. Tendenziell zeigten die mikrobiellen Gene eher eine reduzierte Expression während der Fäulnisausprägung, wohingegen die pflanzlichen Gene zum Teil eine starke Expression aufwiesen. Die Ergebnisse demonstrieren erstmalig, dass die Ausbildung von Lagerfäulen zu einer starken Induktion pflanzlicher und mikrobieller Saccharose abbauender Enzyme führt. Dies verdeutlicht die zentrale Bedeutung mikrobiell induzierter Zuckerverluste für die Zuckerrübenlagerung.
Article
Genetic variation in the tissue strength of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots has been found in recent studies. There are indications that tissue strength influences damage susceptibility and storability. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of storage on tissue strength, to determine causes for differences in tissue strength and to find possible relations between tissue strength, damage susceptibility and storability of sugar beet genotypes. For this purpose, trials with six sugar beet genotypes were conducted in seven environments across Germany in 2018 and 2019, followed by a screening trial with 12 commercial genotypes at one location in 2020. Tissue strength changed during storage depending on the growing environment, but independently of the genotype; puncture resistance increased by 0.35 MPa. The genotypic tissue strength was mainly determined by the cell wall content (r² up to 0.97), less by the cell wall composition. For sugar beet genotypes, the relationship between tissue strength and storability could be explained by the fact that root tip breakage and subsequent storage losses tended to decrease with higher tissue strength, as shown by principal component analysis (PCA). Introducing tissue strength as a variety trait in breeding and official variety trials could thus contribute to reduced harvest and storage losses in the future.
Article
Durch die Verlängerung der Verarbeitungskampagne nach der Zuckermarktreform 2006 verlängerte sich auch die Lagerdauer der Zuckerrüben in Feldrandmieten. Während der Lagerung sinkt die Verarbeitungsqualität durch die Ausbildung von Lagerfäule sowie die Akkumulation von Invertzucker. Ziel der Untersuchungen war, den Einfluss von Genotyp, Rodegeschwindigkeit und Bodenfeuchte auf Erdanhang, Köpfqualität, Verletzungen, Lagerfäule sowie die Entwicklung des Invertzuckergehaltes während der Langzeitlagerung zu bestimmen. In einem zweiten Versuchsansatz wurden Unterschiede in der Lagerfähigkeit von Zuckerrüben evaluiert, die mit aktuell auf dem Markt erhältlichen Rodern geerntet wurden. Hierfür wurde zum einen ein Feldversuch an drei Standorten durchgeführt und zum anderen wurden Zuckerrüben aus einem Roderdemonstrationsversuch beprobt. Im ersten Versuchsansatz übertraf der Einfluss des Genotyps alle anderen Effekte, was vermutlich auf den eingesetzten zweireihigen Versuchsroder zurückzuführen ist. Die Ergebnisse aus dem Roderdemonstrationsversuch deuten dagegen an, dass die Erntetechnik einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Entstehung von Lagerfäule und den Invertzuckergehalt haben kann. Weitere Untersuchungen in einer randomisierten Versuchsanlage mit Feldwiederholungen müssen folgen.
Article
Die zeitliche Ausweitung der Rübenkampagne stellt Anbauer sowie Zuckerfabriken vor neue Herausforderungen hinsichtlich der Langzeitlagerung von Zuckerrüben. Einflussfaktoren, die eine Qualitätsminderung zur Folge haben, nehmen dabei an Bedeutung zu. Infolge einer mikrobiellen Besiedlung kommt es zur Ausprägung von Lagerfäulen, die neben Zuckerverlusten auch die weitere Verarbeitungsqualität durch Anreicherung von unerwünschten Inhaltsstoffen erheblich beeinträchtigen. Die in Frage kommenden Mikro- organismen umfassen bekannte Pflanzenpathogene (z.B. Aphanomyces cochlioides), Wundpathogene (z.B. Fusarium spp.), Saprophyten (z.B. Mucor spp.) sowie Bakterien (z.B. Leuconostoc mesenteroides). Das Auftreten von Lagerfäulen ist charakterisiert durch eine starke Abhängigkeit von der Anbauumwelt. Es wird angenommen, dass neben starken Beschädigungen auch hohe Mengen Erdanhang sowie feuchte und warme Erntebedingungen ihr Auftreten fördern. Die Bekämpfung konzentriert sich in der Praxis bisher auf das Mietenmanagement. Durch Fortschritte im Bereich der Züchtung und Erntetechnik bieten sich auch hier Möglichkeiten einer Reduzierung des Auftretens von Lagerfäulen. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist es, die Ursachen und Folgen von Lagerfäulen zu beschreiben und praxisrelevante Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen zu erläutern.
Article
Long-term storage of sugar beet is an option to extend the processing campaign of the sugar factories in Europe. In the present study, changes in the processing quality of sugar beet were quantified during 110 days of storage at 7 and 20 °C. During storage, the concentration of sucrose decreased whereas K, Na, amino N, betaine, invert sugar and raffinose accumulated in the beets, i.e. quality was impaired markedly. At 7 °C, the changes in sucrose concentration were relatively small but the formation of invert sugar and raffinose caused considerable losses in beet quality. Thus, long-term storage at low temperature is appropriate to prolong the campaign but processing costs will increase. Quality assessment with two formulae showed that measurements of K, Na and amino N are insufficient to evaluate stored sugar beets for recoverable sugar. Due to its increase in storage, the concentration of invert sugar should also be taken into account.
Article
Full-text available
Sucrose loss in sugarbeet storage is a concern for all roots, but particularly those stored under ambient conditions. In order to control or suppress insect pests in sugarbeet pro-duction and consequently improve root storability, two neo-nicotinoid seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. [active ingredient] clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seeds) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8 g a.i. tefluthrin/100,000 seeds), were used to produce roots from four commercial sugarbeet cultivars grown in Declo, ID. At harvest, eight-beet samples from each cultivar x treatment combination were collected and placed inside an outdoor pile. Samples were removed on approximately 30-day intervals beginning on December 6 and 8 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Discolored and frozen root area, weight and percent sucrose reduction, and sucrose recovery were eval-uated. Across six-sampling dates, Poncho Beta was always ranked first for recoverable sucrose and performed well for the other variables assessed. Over the three sampling-dates when Poncho Beta was significantly better (P < 0.10) than the non-treated check, recoverable sucrose was increased by an average of 17% with only insect pest pressure and no disease pressure. Cruiser Tef tended to rank intermediate between Poncho Beta and the non-treated check for recov-erable sucrose and other variables. The insecticide seed treatments not only have the potential to limit yield losses and increase profits in the field, but also to improve sucrose recovery in storage.
Article
Drought stress affects yield formation and quality of sugar beet. The aim of this study was to identify the growing period, in which drought stress has the greatest impact on growth, and furthermore, to analyze the response of different sugar beet genotypes. Causes for a different response should be identified. In pot experiments in the greenhouse, drought stress was simulated by reducing irrigation to 60% of the water holding capacity (WHC) for four weeks at various growth stages followed by re-watering. Growth reduction was greatest when drought stress occurred early in the season: the content of the quality-determining non-sugars was highest, sugar yield and beet diameter were lowest. Responses of the genotypes in sugar yield, but primarily in the accumulation of osmotically active substances differed. Despite re-watering after drought stress the restrictions could not be compensated during growth. The transpiration coefficient of the drought-stressed treatments was only slightly different to the control, because water consumption in the control did not either increase at average air temperatures beyond 23 °C. The strong effect of early drought stress could be attributed to the high growth rates, so that a limited water supply affected yield formation more than at later growth stages. The storage losses of sugar beet genotypes are closely related to damage during harvest and subsequent infestation with mould and rots. Genetic variation for storability seems to be primarily linked to textural properties of the roots such as the resistance against mechanical damage. However, no information is available about the tissue strength, tissue composition and structural organization leading to an enhanced resistance against damage and pathogen attack. Therefore, the aims of the study were the identification of genotypic differences concerning tissue strength of the beet, the relation to damage and pathogen infestation and the underlying physiological basis of tissue strength. Field trials were carried out with 6 genotypes at 2 locations in 2018. The roots were harvested in August and November. After harvest in November, a storage trial was carried out. The root strength increased from August to November. Beets with a high puncture resistance of the periderm also had a firm inner tissue. Genotypic differences in puncture resistance were not affected by the harvest time, indicating that this trait is stable throughout the growing period. A higher puncture resistance of the beet was related to a lower mould growth during storage. Genotypes with varying tissue strength also differed in fiber content (AIR), but the composition of AIR was stable over genotypes. The number of cambium rings seems not to essentially influence the tissue strength of the beet. In the further course of the project, microscopic analyzes will clarify, whether genotypic differences in tissue strength can be attributed to cell size or cell wall thickness.
Article
Sugar losses during sugar beet storage in piles have become increasingly important due to the extension of the processing campaign. During storage, the sugar beet root is exposed to microbial colonization, causing the development of storage rots. It is assumed that sugar losses in diseased root tissue are caused by the activity of both microbial and plant derived sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes. However, experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is missing. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to analyze the gene expression of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes during rot development caused by the dominant storage rot pathogen Fusar- iumgraminearum. Based on real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, it could be shown that genes of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes from both sugar beet and F graminearum are expressed during rot development, but the expression level was influenced by the tissue type (necrotic, intermediate, healthy) and the incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 days). Despite the great variation, the expression of F. graminearum derived genes tended to decrease during root development whereas sugar beet invertase genes remained partly highly up regulated. These results show for the first time that storage rot development is accompanied by an increased gene expression of microbial and plant derived sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes emphasizing the importance of microbial induced sugar losses during storage.
Article
Full-text available
Growers and sugar factories have to face new challenges in terms of sugar beet long time storage due to extension of the sugar beet campaign. Consequently, it is crucial to understand which primary factors are contributing to storage associated sugar losses. Due to a microbial colonization during storage, root rots develop, leading to sugar loss and accumulation of impurities. Besides well known plant pathogens (i.e. Aphanomyces cochlioides), many other storage pathogens have to be taken into account, such as wound pathogens (i.e. Fusarium spp.), saprophytes (i.e. Mucor spp.) and gum producing bacteria (i.e. Leuconostoc mesenteroides). The occurrence of these microorganisms depends heavily on the environment of cultivation. It is supposed that severe wounding, high amount of soil tare as well as warm and wet harvest conditions promote the development of root rots. The current control measures for root rots are focused on pile management. In addition, progress in sugar beet breeding and harvest techniques will give further possibilities to reduce the damage caused by root rots during storage. Therefore, it is the primary concern of this review to describe the major factors promoting the development of root rots and the impact on the storability of sugar beets. Furthermore, current control measures are presented and future prospects will be highlighted.
Article
Extreme weather events are a part of climatic systems, hence will be influenced by climates change, causing some of them to increase. In this review all 33 evaluable globally accessible articles that could be found, regarding the influence of heat, drought, heavy rain, flooding, black frost, early frost, late frost, extreme frost, hail, radiation and wet snow have on plant pests affecting potatoes, sweet beets, rape and grassland are summarized and evaluated. These articles only provided sufficient in-depth information of the effects on fungi, insects, bacteria, viruses, weeds, nematodes, mammals and snails. In this analysis a scientifically unusually high amount of literature were results of evaluations conducted by the plant protection services of the German states, which were broadcasted in professional journals of agricultural practice. This way, important evidence in form of documented influences of plant pests infesting potatoes and sweet beets, but also the influence extreme weather has on plant protection measures, could be obtained. These sources should have a more important role in the future, as they have a background full of harvest-, infection- and weather data. Obtained evidence does show that both plant pests and plant protection measures are affected by extreme weather events, but at this point there are still too many data gaps as to provide generalizations or conclusions. It is important that more intense research is conducted to answer these questions.
Article
In sugarbeet, low water availability causes a substantial impairment of the technical quality as melassigenic substances such as potassium, sodium, amino nitrogen and betaine may accumulate in the beet. During storage, beet quality also decreases. Thus, the question arises how drought stress during the vegetation period affects the storage properties of sugarbeet. Under very dry conditions in 2003, a field trial was conducted in Göttingen with three harvests between late August and late October. Beets with and without visible symptoms of drought stress were stored under controlled conditions for six days at 5°C and 20°C and for 25 days at 10°C and 20°C, respectively. After harvest and at the end of the storage period, the concentrations of dry matter, sucrose, marc, K, Na, amino N, betaine, nitrate, total soluble N, invert sugar and raffinose were measured. The quality of the beets which had experienced severe drought was poor in comparison with the control (beets without any visible symptoms of drought) at each harvest date. During storage, mainly the concentrations of amino N, betaine, total soluble N and invert sugar increased. This effect was more pronounced at high storage temperature and in beets with visible symptoms of drought stress. Thus, water shortage impairs not only the quality but also the storage properties of sugarbeet. For beets with symptoms of drought stress, the storage duration should be kept as short as possible.
Article
Full-text available
The article contains previously known knowledge of selected nitrogen compounds and unresolved problems on this point. It also indicates areas of knowledge that should be subjected to a more detailed examination or upgrade. Free amino acids, betaine, nitrate and nitrite are soluble nitrogen compounds entering the sugar production process with sugar beet. These compounds impede the conduct of the manufacturing process and adversely influence the quantity and quality of produced white sugar, as well as the quality of molasses and pulp, which are valuable feed materials. When evaluating the quality and processing suitability of sugar beet, only the free amino acid content is taken into account, although other soluble nitrogen compounds also significantly affect the sugar production process.
Article
Full-text available
Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan) at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties), and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %), from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r) exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 77-85
Article
Earlier beginning of sugarbeet harvest and processing is an option to prolong the campaign and to reduce fixed costs by a higher extent of utilization of the sugar factories. The aim of the present study was to clarify how sugarbeet quality and storability are affected by early harvest. Two sugarbeet varieties were cultivated in the field, harvested in August and September and stored for three or six days at 5 °C and 20 °C in climatic containers. Additionally, respiration measurements were carried out at four dates from August to October with one of the varieties. Between August and September, quality improved by increasing sucrose percentage and decreasing contents of nonsucrose. In storage, the beets lost water, i.e. the dry matter content increased. The reduced water content caused an increase in the concentrations of sucrose, potassium, sodium and marc. The nitrate concentration remained fairly constant, whereas amino N, betaine, total soluble N, invert sugar and raf(inose accumulated in the beet. Apart from raffinose, this increase was greater at 20 °C than at 5 °C. Differences between the two varieties occurred in beet quality prior to storage, but there was no influence of variety on the short-term storability, The sucrose loss due to respiration changed during the vegetation, but without any convincing pattern. The influence of harvest date on changes in nonsucrose impurities was also small. However, early harvest causes a considerable yield loss.
Article
Full-text available
Extreme weather events are a part of climatic systems, hence will be influenced by climates change, causing some of them to increase. In this review all 33 evaluable globally accessible articles that could be found, regarding the influence of heat, drought, heavy rain, flooding, black frost, early frost, late frost, extreme frost, hail, radiation and wet snow have on plant pests affecting potatoes, sweet beets, rape and grassland are summarized and evaluated. These articles only provided sufficient in-depth information of the effects on fungi, insects, bacteria, viruses, weeds, nematodes, mammals and snails. In this analysis a scientifically unusually high amount of literature were results of evaluations conducted by the plant protection services of the German states, which were broadcasted in professional journals of agricultural practice. This way, important evidence in form of documented influences of plant pests infesting potatoes and sweet beets, but also the influence extreme weather has on plant protection measures, could be obtained. These sources should have a more important role in the future, as they have a background full of harvest-, infection- and weather data. Obtained evidence does show that both plant pests and plant protection measures are affected by extreme weather events, but at this point there are still too many data gaps as to provide generalizations or conclusions. It is important that more intense research is conducted to answer these questions. Extremwetterereignisse sind Bestandteil von Klimasystemen und unterliegen daher auch dem Klimawandel. Einige werden zunehmen. In diesem Review wurden die weltweit verfügbaren Informationen zum Einfluss der Extremwetterereignisse Hitze, Dürre/Trockenheit, Starkregen, Überflutung, Dauerregen, Starkfrost, Kahlfrost, Frühfrost, Spätfrost, Sturm, Hagel, Strahlung, Nassschnee auf wichtige Schaderreger der Kartoffeln, der Zuckerrüben im Raps und im Grünland zusammengestellt und analysiert. Nur 33 Arbeiten konnten zum Einfluss der Extremwetterereignisse Dürre, Trockenheit, Hitze, Starkregen, Dauerregen, Überflutung, Staunässe, Hagel, Strahlung sowie Starkfrost auf Vertreter aus den Schaderregergruppen Pilze, Insekten, Bakterien, Unkräuter, Nematoden, Säugetiere und Schnecken vertiefend ausgewertet werden. In diese Analyse flossen in stärkerem Maße als für wissenschaftliche Reviews üblich Ergebnisse von Erhebungen, die von Pflanzenschutzdiensten der Bundesländer gemacht wurden und in Fachzeitschriften der Praxis verbreitet werden, ein. Damit konnten wichtige Hinweise zur dokumentierten Beeinflussung von Schaderregern, besonders an Kartoffeln, aber auch an Zuckerrüben und zur Beeinflussung von Pflanzenschutzmaßnahmen durch Extremwetterereignisse berücksichtigt werden. Diese Quellen, in deren Hintergrund häufig sowohl Befalls- als auch Ertrags- und Wetterdaten verfügbar sind, sollten zukünftig stärker berücksichtigt werden. Die gefundenen und analysierten Hinweise zeigen, dass sowohl Schaderreger als auch Pflanzenschutzmaßnahmen von Extremwetterereignissen beeinflusst werden. Für Verallgemeinerungen und Schlussfolgerungen sind jedoch die Informationen noch zu lückenhaft. Die Forschung muss sich verstärkt diesen Fragen widmen um ein klareres Bild gewinnen zu können.
Article
In some parts of Germany sugarbeets were defoliated instead of topped with the intention to harvest the complete yield. In order to compare the two ways of harvesting, beet yields and quality were compared in the campaign 2009. For this purpose two randomized field experiments, a paired comparison of harvester machines during operation, as well as storage trails were carried out. The results indicated that defoliated sugarbeets reached a higher root and sugar yield while sugar content and quality were lower compared to topped sugarbeets. The theoretical yield, which was determined with correctly topped beets, could not be achieved in practice as about 50% of the beets were topped too high. During storage no significant differences in mass and sugar losses between defoliated and topped beets were detected. However, overtopped beets showed the highest storage losses because of mould infestation. It is still unknown to which extent operating expenses to gain recoverable sugar will change due to the lower quality of defoliated beets.
Article
In Central Europe the amount of beet to be processed by a factory during a campaign will increase in the long term. Therefore the risk of getting beet that have frozen first and then thawed increases. This paper summarizes the most important aspects to be considered when processing frost deteriorated beet. These aspects are linked to sucrose loss, formation of reducing sugars, formation of polysaccharides and acids. The paper describes how changes in beet composition affect the process steps of juice purification and the quality of thick juice.
Article
In 2008/09 and 2009/10, storage trials with 12 sugarbeet genotypes were carried out under different conditions in six countries. The genotypes were grown in strips and harvested in September/November either by machine (using good agricultural practice) or by hand. Samples were then stored either in nets incorporated in clamps or in separate nets/bags or containers inside a barn or climate room. All samples were weighed and analyzed before and after storage for sugar (by polarimetry), potassium, sodium, amino nitrogen, total soluble nitrogen, sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose, betaine and glutamine content. After storage the samples were also examined visually. Differences between the genotypes were observed for root tip breakage, sprouting, moulds and rot, although these differences were not unambiguous in all experiments and varied between the observations in the different countries. The sugar losses ranged from 0 to 66% of the initial amount and seemed to be related to various biotic and abiotic factors. Root damage by machine harvest and storage temperature were dominant factors in relation to the sugar losses. Genotypes also showed significant differences in sugar losses, but a strong interaction with year and site existed. Correlations could be found between sugar losses and initial sugar content (r = -0.66), initial betaine content (r = -0.62) and root tip breakage (r = +0.66) and after storage, moulds (r = +0.87), rot (r = +0.88) and invert sugars (r = +0.89). Chemical analyses showed differences between the genotypes for the decrease in beet quality after storage, not only by a reduction in sugar content but also by an increase in invert sugar and soluble nitrogen.
Article
Full-text available
A quality decrease of sugar beet roots under silage condition may vary for susceptible and resistant to rhizomania cultivars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of resistant to rhizomania sugar beet pollinators under silage condition in Karaj (non rhizomania infected area) in 2014 and in Zarghan (infected to rhizomania site), Fars, Iran in 2015-16. The experiment was conducted in split plot in time based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Studied factors included 11 sugar beet line comprised of nine genotypes, on susceptible and one resistant cultivars and silage duration including three levels of 20, 40 and 60 days. Different traits such as root dry matter, sucrose, sodium, potassium, alpha amino nitrogen, brix, and extraction coefficient of sugar were measured before and after silage. Roots were scored in terms of rot occurrence after silage. Results showed that rot severity of the roots in Zarghan was higher than Karaj. In Zarghan, the root rot of the sugar beet genotypes 31924, 31927, 31929, 32003, 32814 were lower than other genotypes after 60 days silage. During the three- years experiment, the silage potential of the sugar beet genotype 32003 with 71.86% extraction coefficient of sugar was more than other genotypes which can be used as a genotype with better silage condition in sugar beet breeding programs.
Article
Full-text available
Ajuga reptans is a frost-hardy, perennial labiate that is known for its high content of raffinose family oligosaccharide(s) (RFO). Seasonal variations in soluble nonstructural carbohydrate levels in above-ground parts of Ajuga showed that the RFO were by far the most predominant components throughout the whole year. RFO were lowest in summer (75 mg/g fresh weight) and highest in fall/winter (200 mg/g fresh weight), whereas sucrose and starch were only minor components. Cold treatment (14 d at 10/3[deg]C, day/night) of plants that were precultivated under warm conditions (25[deg]C) lowered the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis from 16[deg] to 8[deg]C, decreased the maximum rate, and increased the total nonstructural carbohydrate content of leaves by a factor of about 10, mainly because of an increase of RFO. The degree of polymerization of the RFO increased sequentially up to at least 15. A novel, galactinol-independent galactosyltransferase enzyme was found, forming from two molecules of RFO, the next higher and lower degree of polymerization of RFO. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 4.5 to 5.0 and may be responsible for RFO chain elongation. RFO were the main carbohydrates translocated in the phloem, with stachyose being by far the most dominant form. Studies of carbon balance during leaf development revealed a transition point between import and export at approximately 25% maximal leaf area. RFO synthesis could be detected even before the commencement of export, suggesting the existence of a nonphloem-linked RFO pool even in very young leaves. Taken together, it seems that Ajuga leaves contain two pools of RFO metabolism, a pronounced long-term storage pool in the mesophyll, possibly also involved in frost resistance, and a transport pool in the phloem.
Article
The authors analyze the process taking place in the stored beet, to indicate the effect of important factors causing losses, and to determine from them the conditions of optimal storage.
Article
A series of investigations were conducted during 1991/92 and 1996-1998 to determine yield, internal quality, and sugar losses during storage by different methods of topping sugarbeet. These included conventional topping with incomplete scalping (general practice) and hand scalping (laboratory and tare house practice), and topping with rubber flails by beating off the leaves and petioles, with light scalping and non-scalping. Flail topping without scalping resulted in 4.6% higher root yield, 0.13% units lower sugar content, and 3.8% higher sugar yield compared with conventional topping with hand scalping (laboratory and tare house practice), and 1.8% higher root yield and 1.9% higher sugar yield compared with conventional topping with incomplete scalping (general practice). These differences were statistically significant. The lowest contents of potassium, sodium and amino-N (K, Na, α-N) and invert sugar were detected by conventional topping with hand scalping, whereas conventional topping with incomplete scalping and flail topping without scalping had the highest contents. During a storage period of approx. 5 weeks, the respiration rate of flail-topped beets and of non-scalped beets was slightly higher than of conventional topped beets and of scalped beets. The contents of potassium, sodium and amino-N on the whole did not change during the storage period. The invert sugar content on the other hand increased considerably, the increase being significantly higher by the flail topped treatments than by the conventional.
Article
In 2002, conditions for the infestation of beets with Rhizoctonia were particularly suitable in the Rhineland area. At the beginning of the campaign many black (rotten) beet had been delivered. Analysis of beet at different stages of decomposition showed serious changes in the constituents: In the last stage of rotting sucrose is converted into dextran. The agricultural procedures for sorting out the rotten beet are described. In two test series, sugarbeet were processed in the laboratory from raw juice to thick juice. In each series about 30 kg of sound and affected beet were processed. The juices from Rhizoctonia-affected beets had worse filtration characteristics, the juice hardness was higher and they needed more soda for alkalization. Additionally the thick juice colors were significantly higher and the estimated sugar losses molasses were also higher. Because the components which are used in the formula for the estimation the amount of "molasses sugar" are nearly equal the amount of molasses is underestimated in affected beet by the Braunschweig formula. The counter measures must be taken on the agricultural side: The occurrence of Rhizoctonia should be minimized and the severely affected beets should be sorted out before delivery.
Article
Freezing and thawing cause considerable changes in the chemical composition and thus processability of sugarbeet. In the present study, the changes during storage of frost damaged beet were quantified. One sugar and one yield type variety were subjected to frost at -20°C and subsequently stored for 16 days at constant temperature (5°C, 20°C) in climatic containers and outdoors (average air temperature 5,4°C), respectively. After 3, 6, 9 and 16 days, samples were removed from storage and the concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose, dextran, amino-N and total soluble N in the fresh matter were determined. Already after three days a decline in the concentration of sucrose and a concomitant increase in all nonsucrose substances analyzed was detectable. The loss in quality increased with storage temperature, irrespective if the beets were stored in climatic containers or outdoors. Differences between the tested varieties occurred in particular with the soluble nitrogen compounds, but due to the extreme impairment of quality none of the two varieties proved as suitable for storage after freezing and thawing. Thus, frost damage of storing sugarbeet has to be avoided. Immediately after freezing, no substantial quality losses are to be expected and the beets should thus be immediately processed.
Article
The yield response of varieties to foliar diseases (tolerance) is of high interest in sugarbeet production, whereas the disease severity on the foliage (resistance) is less important. Resistant varieties were not necessarily tolerant varieties. A sufficient distinction of tolerance among varieties was estimated during three years in two-factorial trials (variety, fungicide) under natural occurrence of foliar diseases. A grouping of environments according to higher attack severity did not lead to a better tolerance distinction among varieties. In a group of environments with low or missing attack severity no significant yield benefit from the use of fungicides was detected.
Article
Root and crown rot (Rhizoctonia solani) is world wide an important disease in sugarbeet. In Germany nearly 10,000 ha are affected. Due to Rhizoctonia root rot, yield and quality of the beet can be heavily reduced. Disease severity depends on time of infection, inoculum potential, environmental conditions and cultural methods. The pathogen of the root rot is the all over the world distributed fungus Rhizoctonia solani (sex. Thanatephorus cucumeris Bas.). Different anastomosis groups divided the genus Rhizoctonia solani according to the possibility of hyphal fusion. One anastomosis group is characteristic for a typical host or range of host plants. For sugarbeet anastomosis groups AG 4 (damping off at seedlings or young plants) and AG 2-2 (late root and crown rot) are of importance. With physiological and molecular methods it is possible to separate isolates below the anastomosis groups to explain their different physiological behavior. Direct control of Rhizoctonia root rot is not possible. However, breeding of resistant varieties is an approach for controlling the disease. Resistance is based on mechanical and physiological infection and disease barriers. Level of resistance can be measured and quantified in pre-breeding with different resistance indicating parameters. First partial resistant varieties are now on the European market. Suggestions for integrated concepts controlling Rhizoctonia root rot are based on resistant varieties, seedling protecting fungicides or antagonists and supporting cultural methods. An international joint project between plant protection authorities, sugar industry, sugarbeet breeders and chemical industry investigates several aspects of the disease and is developing control concepts.
Article
In a collaborative project between British Sugar pic and Sucros Ltd. tour sucrose inverting enzyme activities were identified in sugar beet: soluble acid invertase, insoluble acid invertase, soluble alkaline invertase and soluble sucrose synthetase. The activities of these enzymes were measured in the growing crop, during beet storage and through the extraction process. Crop sample results confirmed many of the previous understandings on the phasing of plant growth and sucrose accumulation. It is likely that the enzymes active in sugar beet before harvest are necessary in their entirety for healthy plant development. During clamping and storage, a relationship between beet invertase and sucrose synthetase activities, and invert sugar content was observed. Two distinct physiological pathways influencing these activities are proposed. Clamping and storage trials were performed both in U.K. and Finland under very different climatological conditions. Typical late autumn and early winter freezing and thawing in Finland caused significant invertase activity increase in beet starting to deteriorate. Microbial invertases analysed showed significantly higher thermostability compared to beet invertases. Results from healthy beet process sampling indicated that only a small fraction of the difference between sugar beet and raw juice invert sugar concentration was due to sugar beet derived invertase enzymes. While processing frozen and thawed beet material, the invert sugar difference was higher, but still only partially explained by elevated invertase enzyme activities in the beet material. The results emphasized the importance of rapid temperature increase in extraction. It is possible to estimate the considerable financial impact of invert sugar formation during clamping and processing. This report provides information useful in the reduction of this cost.
Article
Four sugarbeet genotypes with diverse yield and quality and putative different with regard to drought tolerance were tested in field trials under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Taproot and leaf yield were substantially reduced under drought compared to irrigation, whereas the taproot to leaf ratio was increased. Contents of potassium and sodium in the beet were decreased and contents of sucrose, α-amino N and betaine increased. Drought stress gave rise to very high invert sugar contents, whereas nitrate content in the taproot was higher under irrigation. Both irrigation and geno-type significantly affected almost all parameters under study, whereas an interaction between these factors occurred only for leaf yield. Therefore climatic conditions of a growing region or the (future) weather conditions do not have to be considered for variety choice. As genetic variability is reduced under water deficit, it seems to be reasonable to conduct variety trials at locations with sufficient water supply. Drought-induced changes in non conventional quality parameters may lead to an erroneous evaluation of technical quality.
Article
Artificial inoculation of sugar beet with Ramularia beticola under field conditions can be conducted by the use of in vitro prepared inoculum. The fungus is grown on PDA at 18°C and diffuse daylight. A homogenate of the non sporulating cultures is sprayed at sugar beet growth stage 39 on the beet leaves. First symptoms occurred 14 dpi in 1994 and 16 dpi in 1995, respectively. Disease increased due to secondary infections. The described method might allow the screening of sugar beet for resistance to R. beticola after a controlled inoculation.
Article
Processing sugarbeet for sucrose production begins with an aqueous extraction. Besides sucrose, the extract also contains other water soluble root chemicals, which are viewed as undesirable impurities by the processor. Many impurities are removed or greatly diminished during processing, but some of those that remain reduce sucrose recovery, resulting in a loss of sugar to molasses. We investigated sugarbeet varietal differences in accumulation of several important impurities at harvest and after pile storage at three locations: Sidney MT, Worland WY, and Hereford TX. At each location a group of locally adapted varieties was used. Paired root samples were prepared at harvest. One of each pair immediately was analyzed for sucrose by polarimetry, and a portion of each sucrose filtrate was frozen for subsequent analysis by HPLC for sugars and quality components (Na, K, amino N, betaine). The second sample of each pair, in an air-permeable bag, was placed into the factory storage pile for 110 d at Sidney, 90 d at Worland, or 56 d at Hereford, then recovered and analyzed similarly to unstored samples. Data were analyzed separately for each location. Analyses of the sugar components (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) have been reported previously. Component concentrations were expressed in g per 100 g sucrose (g/100S) as a relevant way to evaluate processing characteristics. Small but significant differences among cultivars for Na and K occurred at all three locations at harvest and at Sidney and Worland after storage. Sodium at harvest ranged from 0.49 to 0.65 g/100S at Sidney, 0.16 to 0.40 at Worland, and 0.34 to 0.59 at Hereford. Ranges for potassium at harvest were 0.87 to 0.99 g/100S at Sidney, 0.54 to 0.79 at Worland, and 1.51 to 1.79 at Hereford. Across cultivars, increases in at-harvest and post-storage concentrations (g/100S) occurred at all locations for K and at Sidney and Hereford for Na. Cultivars differed in amino N and betaine (g/100S) at harvest at Sidney and Worland, in amino N post-storage at Sidney, and in betaine post-storage at all three locations. Across cultivars, amino N concentration as g/100S increased with storage at all locations. Across cultivars, total impurity values incorporating all determined quality components (2.5Na + 3.5K + 9amino N + glucose + fructose + raffinose + betaine) were greatest at Hereford (16.6 and 24.2 g/100 S at harvest and after storage, respectively), least at Worland (6.0 and 9.9), and intermediate at Sidney (9.1 and 14.5).
Chapter
Whether or not to store potatoes and how to store them are commercial decisions which must depend upon the circumstances of the individual case. The technicalities of storage should never be considered in isolation. The influence of many storage variables upon the quality of stored potatoes and upon storage losses can be found in the following pages. On the basis of this information technically optimal methods of storage might be suggested.
Article
The changes in weight and quality of sugarbeet roots stored in 18 clamps, mostly in eastern England during the winters of 1992/93 to 1994/95, were studied on farms using best commercial practice. Storage usually started in early December, at about the last recommended date of harvesting, and continued until the end of the beet-processing campaign at the local sugar factory (usually in February). Random samples of beet, in open-weave nets, were either analysed at the outset or were buried in a predetermined pattern in the clamp for up to 84 days. Periodically, samples were removed from the clamps for analysis. Beet weight hardly changed but sugar was lost as a reduction in sugar concentration: this declined at c. 0·02% per day. The concentration of reducing sugars, which are important impurities, increased fourfold during storage. Most other beet quality parameters remained unchanged. Sugar and adjusted weight was lost at 0·143 and 0·187% per day respectively. This relationship was highly significant, but a relationship between sugar loss and accumulated thermal time (0·0188% per °C day) accounted for more of the variation (73%). Temperature changes within the clamps, and the differences between clamps in accumulated thermal time, were not predictable. Some clamp insulation materials appear to allow more heat to accumulate than is desirable.
Article
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, cv Novadima) was grown from 1980 to 1988 on a luvisol from loess in Northwest-Germany always at the same uniformly cropped site. N-fertilizer levels ranged from 2 to 211 kg N/ha. Root yield, sugar yield and white sugar yield increased with increasing N-supply and reached maximum values at 159, 136 and 129 kg N/ha, respectively. Root yield showed no or only a slight decrease, whereas sugar yield and white sugar yield decreased with N-levels beyond optimum. Sugar concentration and white sugar concentration decreased with increasing N-supply, white sugar concentration showed a greater response. Sugar concentration was highest at 32 kg N/ha and decreased slightly with less N-supply. Concentration of potassium was not altered, the concentration of amino-N showed a great increase and sodium increased slightly with more N, being lowest at 36 kg N/ha with a very small increase with less N. Sugar loss was less affected than concentration of sodium and amino-N and response of sugar gain was lower than response of sugar loss. White sugar yield formed a broad optimum and decreased by only 2% from the maximum value within a range of approx. 100 kg N/ha.
Article
The soluble nitrogen (N) components in sugar beet seriously impair sugar recovery. The only N component determined routinely in the sugar factory is amino N (the sum of amino acids in the beet), which is assumed to reflect all the other N components. Amino N is affected by N supply and variety, but only little is known about the other N components such as total soluble N, betaine and nitrate. This study aimed at investigating the effect of N supply on the N composition of sugar beet varieties with special emphasis on N supply by variety interactions. In 2001 and 2002, field trials with four varieties and four N treatments were carried out at six sites in Germany. Storage root yield and the concentrations of sucrose, sodium, amino N, betaine, nitrate and total soluble N in the beet were determined. With increasing N supply, the concentration of amino N increased considerably and that of nitrate slightly, whereas that of betaine remained rather constant. Thus, the N composition of sugar beet changed with increasing N supply and the percentage of amino N of total soluble N increased. Although amino N has the closest correlation with total soluble N, for quality assessment it may overestimate the effect of N supply on other N components. Varieties clearly differed in root yield and quality as well as in all N components. The variety with the lowest amino N had the highest betaine concentration. However, as related to the concentration of total soluble N in the beet, for all varieties amino N as well as betaine showed the same response pattern. This indicates that the N composition of sugar beet is determined by the level of total soluble N, irrespective of variety or N supply. All varieties required the same N supply for obtaining maximum yield or quality. N supply did not affect the ranking of the varieties for all parameters studied, consequently it need not be considered for variety choice.
Article
Sucrose catabolism during postharvest storage of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root has been the subject of several studies; yet, no consensus exists about the contribution of the major sucrolytic activities to postharvest sucrose loss. Because differences in storage temperature, length of storage, and the presence of storage pathogens may have contributed to the discrepant results from earlier studies, the impact of these three factors on sugarbeet root postharvest sucrose catabolism was determined. Sucrolytic activities and soluble carbohydrate concentrations were measured in roots exhibiting no pathological symptoms during storage at 6, 12, and 21 °C and in roots exhibiting severe rotting symptoms due to infection by Penicillium spp. and Botrytis cinerea during storage at 6 °C. Sucrose synthase was the predominant sucrolytic activity throughout storage, regardless of storage temperature, length of storage, or pathogenesis, and accounted for more than 90% of the total soluble sucrolytic activity present in roots. In disease-free roots, no significant change in sucrose synthase activity, soluble acid invertase activity, or insoluble acid invertase activity occurred in roots stored at 6 or 12 °C, although an increase in sucrose synthase activity was observed in roots stored at 21 °C. Alkaline invertase activity was impacted by the length of storage and exhibited a transient decline in activity at all storage temperatures. Glucose and fructose concentrations generally increased as a function of time in storage at 6, 12, and 21 °C. In roots with severe rot, insoluble acid invertase activity declined, sucrose synthase and alkaline invertase activities were unchanged, and soluble acid invertase increased seven-fold. The increase in soluble acid invertase activity was primarily due to the presence of fungal acid invertase isoforms. These results indicate that sugarbeet sucrolytic activities change little during storage, regardless of storage temperature, length of storage, and pathogenesis, and suggest that sucrose synthase, as the predominant sucrolytic activity in stored roots, is central to postharvest sucrose catabolism in sugarbeet roots.
Article
Rhizoctonia-resistant sugar beet varieties are the key to an integrated control strategy for Rhizoctonia root rot. Because of the unpredictable occurrence of Rhizoctonia solani in the field testing of sugar beet for resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot is difficult. The aim of the study was to develop advanced greenhouse and field techniques which allow a reliable assessment of sugar beet for resistance to R. solani. A highly infectious liquid inoculum was used for the first time in this study. It can be produced in large quantities of a standardized quality, sterile, and exactly quantified according to its carbon content. In a greenhouse trial, sugar beet grown in the same way as field grown beet was inoculated by applying a suspension of Rhizoctonia mycelium (equivalent to 10 mg carbon per plant) to the beet crown. After 3 weeks, inoculation had led to uniform and severe root rot. Disease symptoms were similar to those found under natural conditions in the field. No ‘escapes’, i.e. susceptible plants apparently expressing resistance were observed in the test. A new nine-class disease scale was established and a Rhizoctonia index (RI) was calculated. Reliability of disease assessment was demonstrated on progeny of plants, selected from segregating populations, showing Rhizoctonia resistance more closely related to the resistant parent lines than to the susceptible ones. Sugar beet varieties could be assessed in the greenhouse within only 11 weeks. All varieties were affected by the pathogen but partially resistant varieties could be clearly recognized by a significantly lower Rhizoctonia index. Significant differences in susceptibility were also found within the group of new resistant genotypes. Infection studies performed in the field showed the superiority of the new liquid inoculum compared with a solid form and revealed the influence of inoculation date and inoculum level on the development of Rhizoctonia root rot. In field tests performed at different sites under different environmental conditions, susceptible and partially resistant sugar beet varieties could be reproducibly rated according to their susceptibility to R. solani. On average, susceptible varieties showed a Rhizoctonia index of 8 while resistant genotypes ranged from 5 to 6. The newly developed techniques allow fast and reliable evaluation of sugar beet for resistance to R. solani.
Article
The technical quality of sugar beet is essential for economical sugar manufacturing. In particular, it depends on the chemical composition of the beet. The concentrations of the quality components are influenced by agronomical conditions. Due to progress in breeding and cultivation methods over the past decades, the components and their distribution in different morphological sections may have changed. Therefore, the distribution of sucrose, dry matter, potassium, sodium, α-amino N, soluble N, nitrate, betaine, reducing sugars, glucose and raffinose were analysed and the standard molasses loss was calculated for the current agronomical conditions. Cultivation methods (variety, population density, N and K application) were varied in several field trials at two sites in 1997 to obtain heterogeneous beet material. The beets were segregated into four horizontal sections according to morphological criteria (root with root groove, hypocotyl, lower stem with dead petioles, upper stem with living petioles). On average, the sucrose concentration decreased from the root to the lower stem, and especially by one third to the upper stem. The dry matter concentration did not vary markedly between the four sections. In comparison to this, the concentration of potassium, sodium and α-amino N increased considerably from the lower to the upper stem. Therefore, the standard molasses loss (K, Na, α-amino N), calculated to evaluate the technical quality of sugar beet, increased as well. The concentration of soluble N, reducing sugars and glucose were approximately three times higher in the upper stem than in the root. In contrast to this, the concentration of raffinose, betaine and nitrate did not change markedly. There was a close relationship between soluble N and α-amino N in each section. The range of all components within the single sections differed extremely due to the variation in cultivation methods. But for most components the highest variation was found in the upper stem. Taking all components into account, the technical quality of sugar beet deteriorates the more shoot material (lower and upper stem) is included during harvesting and topping.
Article
Wounding of sugar beet tap‐root causes an induction of invertase activity, which contributes to post‐harvest sucrose losses. In this first comprehensive monitoring of wound‐induced invertase mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities, and tissue hexose concentrations, the VI isoform responsible for wound‐induced hexose accummulation in mature tap‐root could be identified.
  • W R Akeson
  • S D Fox
  • E L Stout
Akeson, W.R.; Fox, S.D.; Stout, E.L. (1974): Effect of Topping Procedure on Beet Quality and Storage Losses. Journal of the ASSBT 18, 125-135
Sugar Beet Bruising -the invisible enemy! Brit
  • S Brown
  • V Spackman
  • M Armstrong
Brown, S.; Spackman, V.; Armstrong, M. (2002): Sugar Beet Bruising -the invisible enemy! Brit. Sugar Beet Review 70, 10-15
Atmung und Saccharosestoffwechsel lagernder Zuckerrüben
  • M Burba
Burba, M. (1976): Atmung und Saccharosestoffwechsel lagernder Zuckerrüben. Zuckerind. 26, 647-658
Deduction of the optimum conditions of storage from studies of the respiration rates of beet
  • J J T Oldfield
  • J V Dutton
  • B J Houghton
Oldfield, J.J.T.; Dutton, J.V.; Houghton, B.J. (1971): Deduction of the optimum conditions of storage from studies of the respiration rates of beet. Internat. Sugar J. 73, 326-330 und 361-365
Sugar Technology. Beet and Cane Sugar Manufacture
  • H Schiweck
  • T Schwartz
Schiweck, H.; Schwartz, T. (1998): Sugar Technology. Beet and Cane Sugar Manufacture. Verlag Dr. A. Bartens, Berlin
Studies on the Respiration of Sugar Beets as Affected by Bruising, by Mechanical Harvesting, Severing Into Top and Bottom Halves, Chemical Treatment, Nutrition and Variety
  • M Stout
  • C H Smith
Stout, M.; Smith, C.H. (1950): Studies on the Respiration of Sugar Beets as Affected by Bruising, by Mechanical Harvesting, Severing Into Top and Bottom Halves, Chemical Treatment, Nutrition and Variety. Journal of the ASSBT 6, 670-679
Zuckerverluste bei der Lagerung und Verarbeitung von Zuckerrüben -Teil 1: Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Rübenmasse-und Zuckerverluste bei der Rübenlagerung
  • L I Tschernjawskaja
  • M S Chelemski
Tschernjawskaja, L.I.; Chelemski, M.S. (1997a): Zuckerverluste bei der Lagerung und Verarbeitung von Zuckerrüben -Teil 1: Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Rübenmasse-und Zuckerverluste bei der Rübenlagerung. Zuckerind. 122, 440-446
Injury and mold growth as determinants of storage life
  • R Wyse
Wyse, R. (1980): Injury and mold growth as determinants of storage life. Ber. 43. IIRB-Winterkongreß, Brüssel, 5-19