Due to rapid urbanization and uncontrolled growth rate of population, municipal solid waste management (MSWM) has become acute in India. MSWM, though an essential service, is given low priority. Lack of financial resources, institutional weaknesses, improper choice of technology and public apathy towards MSW have made this service far from satisfaction. The current practices of the uncontrolled ... [Show full abstract] dumping of waste on the outskirts of towns/cities have created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of the present paper is to evaluate the present situation of MSWM in India based on published information and NEERI's expertise towards MSWM. An approach to design a sustainable MSWM system to meet the future challenge is presented. The expertise of NEERI towards MSWM has provided extensive services to various municipal bodies in improving their MSWM system. Some of the best practices are also detailed. The efforts by a community-based organization to promote a sustainable integrated waste management in mega cities and lessons learnt from EXNORA's Zero Waste Management Scheme in South Indian cities has also been outlined.