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To study the inhibitory effect of Malassezia furfur by using the plants Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale.The antidandruff activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Zingiber officinalae and Syzygium aromaticum was studied by agar well diffusion and broth dilution assay. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract of S.aromaticum was studied as 100µg/ml and IC 50 as 850µg/ml. Partial purification through TLC and bio-autography were also studied. Out of the three extracts methanol extract, showed good activity comparatively. MIC activity was good in S.aromaticum when compared to Z.officinale. In S.aromaticum R f value of 0.153 was the active compound which showed good activity against dandruff.Comparing the inhibitory activities of the two plants S.aromaticum showed Minimum inhibitory activity against M.furfur. Please cite this article in press as R. Caroline Jeba Comparative study of anti dandruff activity of syzygium aromaticum and zingiber officinale.
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Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013 ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Journal home page:
S. Mohanapriya, C. Mercy Bastine, R. Caroline Jeba*
*Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, University, Maduravoyal, Chennai-600 095
Corresponding author
R. Caroline Jeba
Department of Industrial Biotechnology
Dr M.G.R Educational & Research Institute University,Maduravoyal,
Chennai-95 , India
Copy right © 2013 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Indo American journal of Pharmaceutical Research, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article history
Received 01/06/2013
Available online
Syzygium aromaticum
To study the inhibitory effect of Malassezia furfur by using the plants Syzygium
aromaticum and Zingiber officinale.The antidandruff activity of hexane, ethyl
acetate and methanol extracts of Zingiber officinalae and Syzygium aromaticum
was studied by agar well diffusion and broth dilution assay. The Minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract of S.aromaticum was
studied as 100µg/ml and IC50 as 850µg/ml. Partial purification through TLC and
bio-autography were also studied. Out of the three extracts methanol extract,
showed good activity comparatively. MIC activity was good in S.aromaticum
when compared to Z.officinale. In S.aromaticum Rf value of 0.153 was the active
compound which showed good activity against dandruff.Comparing the inhibitory
activities of the two plants S.aromaticum showed Minimum inhibitory activity
against M.furfur.
Please cite this article in press as R. Caroline Jeba Comparative study of anti dandruff activity of syzygium aromaticum and
zingiber officinale. Indo American Journal of Pharm Research.2013:3(6).
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries and have become part of complementary medicine worldwide
because of their potential health benefits. In India, earliest references are available in Rigveda which is said to
be written between 3500 1600 B.C. [1]. Plant metabolites are known to have direct positive effects in the
treatment and management of infectious diseases and cancer. In addition, the indirect effects of plant
metabolites through immunomodulation is well studied [2]. The medicinal plants are rich in secondary
metabolites and essential oils of therapeutic importance [3]. Plants as a therapeutic option were achieving
significance due to their safety profile besides being economical, effective and easily available. Plants play an
essential role in the health care needs for the treatment of diseases and to improve the immunological response
against much pathology [4].
Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the pubertal population of any ethnicity and both
genders [5]. It is a chronic scalp condition characterized by visible flakes induced by rapid turnover of scalp
cells. In general, dandruff occurs after puberty and mainly affects males more than the females [6]. The
pathogenesis of dandruff involves hyper proliferation, resulting in deregulation of keratinization. The
corneocytes clump together, manifesting as large flakes of skin. The causative agents of dandruff belong to the
group of scalp commensal lipophilic yeasts of the genus, Malassezia. Malassezia species are normal flora of
skin and cause Pityriasis versicolor and foliculities under suitable conditions [7]. They are saprophytic
lipophilic yeasts characterized morphologically by small cells exhibiting unilateral, enteroblastic and repetitive
budding [8]. At present several species of Malassezia have been isolated which are M. furfur, M. globosa, M.
pachydermatis, M. restricta, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae , M. yamatoensis, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M.
caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi [9].
Several fungistatic compounds have been shown to improve dandruff condition. The main active ingredients
include imidazole derivatives such as ketoconazole and other compounds such as selenium sulphide, zinc
pyrithione (ZnPTO), piroctone olamine, cipropirox olamine, etc [5]. Herbal essential oils are promising sources
for new natural antifungal drugs, which have good effects against pathogenic fungi compared with commercial
synthetic antifungal drugs [8]. Syzygium aromaticum (cloves) contains a high percentage of eugenol, which has
been identified as a compound exhibiting antifungal properties [10]. Previous studies have reported antifungal
activity for clove oil and eugenol against yeasts and filamentous fungi, such as several food-borne fungal specie
and human pathogenic fungi [11]. Zingiber officinale (Ginger), one of the most important spices in the world, is
known for its medicinal and flavoring potentials. The medicinal properties are attributed to its spicy, pungent
constituents, mainly gingerols, which stimulate the thermoregulatory receptors. This stimulation influences
stomach and bile secretions by reflex action. [12].
In view of the above said facts the purpose of the current study is focused on evaluating the antidandruff
activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) and Syzygium aromaticum (Cloves) against Malassezia furfur.
General laboratory techniques recommended by was followed for the preparation of media, inoculation and
maintenance of cultures.
Cleaning of glassware
The glassware were first soaked in chromic acid solution, (10% potassium dichromate in 25% sulphuric acid)
for a few hours to remove tough residues, washed twice in tap water, then they were rinsed in metal distilled
water and dried in an oven at 80ºC.
Sterilization of culture media and glassware were carried out in an autoclave at 121°C, 15 lbs for 20 minutes.
Thermo labile substances are sterilized through millipore filter. All the experiments were conducted under
laminar hood with strict aseptic conditions.
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Analytical grade chemicals supplied by Loba, Hi-media, S.D.Fine chemicals, E-Merck, Qualigens and Sigma
Chemicals (USA) were used.
Potato Dextrose Agar (g/L) Potato 200.0
Dextrose 20.0
Agar 20.0
pH 6.5
Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (g/L)
Dextrose 40.000
Mycological peptone 10.000
Agar 15.000
Final pH (at 25°C) 5.6±0.2
Nitrate Reduction Medium (g/L)
Beef (meat) extract 3.0
Gelatin peptone 5.0
Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 1.0
pH 7.2±0.2
Nutrient Gelatin Medium (g/L)
Peptone 5.0
Beef extract 3.
Gelatin 120.0
pH 6.8±0.2
Urea Broth Base (g/L) Peptone 1.0
Glucose 1.0
Sodium chloride 5.0
Disodium phosphate 1.2
KH2PO4 0.8
Phenol red 0.004
pH 6.8± 0.2
Plant material collection and preparation
The rhizome part of Zingiber officinale and the buds of Syzygium aromaticum were collected from Koyambedu
market, Chennai. The samples were authenticated, and specimens were deposited in Arvind Remedies
LTD.They were carefully washed with tap water, rinsed with distilled water, and air-dried for 1hr after which
they were shade dried for 7days, powdered coarsely and stored at room temperature.
Direct extraction
Direct extraction with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol was done following the method of [13]. In this
method, finely ground plant material was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in the ratio of 1:10
in conical flask in shaking condition for overnight. The extract was filtered through the Whatmann No.1 filter
paper in a separate container. The process was repeated 3times and the same plant material but using fresh
solvent. The combined filtrate was subjected to condensation. The solvent was removed by placing the extracts
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
in distillation unit in the respective temperature. The extracted residues were weighed and re-dissolved in
different solvents to yield 10mg/ml solutions ready for further analysis.
Isolation of dandruff causing agent
Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of patients and stored in sterile containers in refrigerator until
use. Different media formulations (potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud’s dextrose agar) were supplemented with
olive oil and inoculated with the sample. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 3- 5days [6].
Morphological characterization of the isolate
Microscopic examination of the samples was performed after the treatment with KOH (20%) and 5%
lactophenol cotton blue staining [14].
Biochemical tests
The organism was biochemically analysed by the following assays.
Catalase test
Using a sterile inoculating loop a small amount of organism from a 24hr colony was placed onto the
microscopic slide. Using a dropper, 1drop of 3% H2O2 was placed on the microscopic slide and observed for
immediate bubble formation [15].
Nitrate reduction test
The nitrate reduction medium was dispensed in test tubes. They were autoclaved for 15mins at 121°C, 15 psi
and cooled before use [15].
Sulfanilic acid solution (Reagent A)
8g of sulfanilic acid was dissolved in 1L of 5N acetic acid.
α-Naphthylamine solution (Reagent B)
6g of N, N-Dimethyl-1-naphthylamine was dissolved in 1L of 5N acetic acid. Procedure
The tubes were inoculated heavily with a fresh culture of the suspect organism. Another tube was kept
as negative control without organism. The tubes were incubated at 35 to 37°C for 24 to 48hrs in an incubator. 5
drops of Sulfanilic acid solution and 5 drops of α-Naphthylamine solution were added into the tube containing
culture to be tested and the negative control. The tubes were shaken well to mix reagents with medium and
observed for a distinct red or pink color, which should develop within a few minutes, indicates presence of
nitrate reduction.
Gelatin hydrolysis test
About 2 to 3ml of medium was dispensed into test tubes. The medium was autoclaved at 121oC (15 psi)
for 15 minutes. The tubed medium was cooled in an upright position before use. A heavy inoculum of 24hrs old
test culture was stab-inoculated into tubes containing nutrient gelatin. The inoculated tubes and an uninoculated
control tube are incubated at 25°C, for up to 1 week, and checked every day for gelatin liquefaction. The tubes
are immersed in an ice bath for 15 to 30 minutes. Afterwards, tubes were tilted to observe if gelatin has been
hydrolyzed [16].
Urea hydrolysis test
The urea broth base was sterilized by autoclaving at 115°C for 20 minutes and was cooled to 55°C. To
this 5ml of sterile 40% Urea Solution was added and mixed well. The tubes of Urea Broth were inoculated with
1ml of culture broth and incubated for 2 to 6hrs at 35°C and was observed for pink color [17].
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Evaluation of antidandruff potential of the selected extracts
Various concentrations (250-1000µg/ml) of the extracts were prepared in DMSO from the resultant
extract to determine its antidandruff activity. Control experiments were performed by using DMSO with
identical concentration used to test the extract. Isolates from dandruff were inoculated by swabbing on the
surface of gelled PDA plates. Wells of 8mm in diameter were performed in the PDA media, and each well was
filled with 50µl of certain concentration of extract. The plates were kept in laminar air flow for 30 minutes for
proper diffusion of the extract and thereafter incubated at 37ºC for 3-5days. The radius for the zone of inhibition
was in millimeters and recorded against the corresponding concentration [6].
Broth dilution assay
Dilution assays are standard method used to compare the inhibition efficiency of the antimicrobial
agents. 5ml of the potato dextrose broth, 0.1ml of the 24hrs growing culture (M. furfur) and the different
concentration (100µg, 200µg….1000µg) of the crude extract dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide were taken in
test tubes. The tubes were incubated at 37ºC for 24hrs. The optical densities were measured spectrometically at
600 nm . The percentage of viable cells was calculated using the following formula.
% of inhibition
Control O.D - Test O.D
X 100
Control O.D
O.D = Optical density
Qualitative phytochemical screening
The methanol extracts were subjected to the following qualitative phytochemical analysis following standard
Detection of alkaloids
Solvent free extract (50mg) was stirred with few ml of dilute hydrochloric acid and filtered. The filtrate was
tested carefully with various alkaloidal reagents as follows
Mayer’s test
To a few ml of filtrate, a drop or two of Mayer’s regent was added by the sides of the test tube. A white creamy
precipitate indicated the test as positive.
Mayer’s reagent
Mercuric chloride (1.358g) was dissolved in 60ml of water and potassium chloride (5.0g) was dissolved in 10
ml of water. The two solutions were mixed and made up to 100ml with water.
Detection of phenolic compound
Ferric chloride test
The extract (50mg) was dissolved in 5ml of distilled water. To this, few drops of neutral 5% ferric chloride
solution were added. A dark green colour indicated the presence of phenolic compounds.
Detection of glycosides
50mg of extract was hydrolysed with concentrated hydrochloric acid for 2hrs on a water bath, filtered and the
hydrolysate was subjected to the following test.
Borntrager’s test
To 2ml of filtrate hydrolysate, 3mL of chloroform was added and shaken. Chloroform layer was separated and
10% ammonia solution was added to it. Pink color indicated the presence of glycosides.
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Detection of flavonoids
A portion of the extract was heated with 10ml of ethyl acetate over a steam bath for 3 minutes. The mixture was
filtered and 4ml of the filtrate was shaken with 1ml of dilute ammonia solution. A yellow coloration indicates
the presence of flavonoids.
Detection of tannins
About 2ml of the aqueous extract was stirred with 2ml of distilled water and few drops of 0.1%FeCl3 solution
were added. The formation of a green precipitate was an indication for the presence of tannins.
Detection of reducing sugars
The extract (100mg) was dissolved in 50ml of water and filtered. The filtrate was subjected to the following
Fehling’s test
1ml of filtrate was boiled on water bath with 1ml each of Fehling’s solution I and II. A red precipitate indicated
the presence of sugar.
Fehling’s solution
Fehling’s solution I
Copper sulphate (34.66g) was dissolved in distilled water and made upto 500ml with distilled water.
Fehling’s solution II
Potassium sodium tartarate (173g) and sodium hydroxide (50g) was dissolved in water and made up to 500ml.
Detection of saponins
Foam test
The extract (50mg) was diluted with distilled water and made up to 20ml. the suspension was shaken in a
graduated cylinder for 15 minutes. A two cm layer of foam indicated the presence of saponins.
Detection of proteins
The extract (100mg) was dissolved in 10ml of distilled water and filtered through Whatmann No.1 filter paper
and the filtrate was subjected to tests of proteins.
Biuret test
An aliquot of 2ml of filtrate was treated with one drop of2% copper sulphate solution. To this, 1ml of ethanol
(95%) was added, followed by excess of potassium hydroxide pellets. Pink color in the ethanolic layer indicated
the presence of proteins.
Determination of Phenolic compound Folin Ciocaltaeu’s method
The total phenolic content of the plant extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method [18].
Briefly, 200μl of diluted samples were added to 1ml of a 1:10 diluted Folin- Ciocalteau reagent. After 4min,
800μl of a saturated sodium carbonate solution (75g/L) was added. After 2hrs of incubation at room
temperature, the absorbance at 760nm was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. The results were expressed as
gram gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100g DW of the plant material.
Determination of total flavonoids - Aluminium chloride test
The total flavonoid content was established in the reaction with aluminum chloride using a colorimetric method
[18]. Briefly, 1ml of each extract was shaken for 1min and 0.1ml of 10% aluminum nitrate, 0.1ml 1M
potassium acetate and 3.8ml of methanol was added. After 40min at room temperature, the absorbance was
measured on the ultraviolet (UV)/Visible spectrophotometer at 415nm.
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Determination of total tannins
The tannins content was determined using Folin denis reagent as described by [19]. In that method a
standard calibration curve was prepared and the absorbance (A) against concentration of tannins at specific
wavelength was estimated as follows:
Suitable aliquots of the tannin containing extract (1mg/ml) were pipetted in test tubes. The volume was made
upto 1ml with distilled water. Then 2.5ml of sodium carbonate reagent was added. The tubes were shaken and
the absorbance was recorded at 725nm after 40mins. The amount of total tannins was calculated as tannic acid
equivalent form the standard curve.
Determination of carbohydrates
About 25mg of extract was weighed and was hydrolyzed by boiling it with 2.5N HCl for 2hrs and then cooled
to room temperature. This mixture was then neutralized using solid sodium carbonate until the effervescence
ceases. Make up the volume to 100ml with water. Centrifuge at 3500rpm for 10mins. Pipette out 0.5ml of
supernatant with duplicates in two other test tubes. Make up the volume to 1ml with water in all test tubes. A
tube with 1ml of water serves as a blank. 4ml of Anthrone reagent was added and heated for eight minutes in
water bath and cooled. The green colour developed was read at 630nm. A standard graph of glucose was
plotted, from which the carbohydrate content of the extract was determined [20].
Thin layer chromatography
The TLC was performed on pre-coated 5×1.5cm and 0.25mm thick plates. Methanol extract of Syzygium
aromaticum was plotted on TLC plates .The plates were air dried and developed in suitable solvents for rapid
screening methanol / chloroform in varying ratio 1:9, 0.5:9.5 and 0.25:9.75. The plates were run in the above
solvent systems and dried at room temperature. Derivatisation of TLC plates was done by UV light at 254nm
[21]. Different bands were observed and corresponding Rf values are determined. Rf value of each spot was
calculated as:-
Rf = Distance Travelled by the Solute / Distance Travelled by the Solvent
Bioautography was performed to determine the bioactive compound responsible for the antimicrobial activity.
TLC was performed and the silica plates were placed in a sterile petri-plate and overlayed with PDB inoculated
with 17hrs growing culture of M. furfur and the plate was closed and incubated for 24hrs.After incubation the
inhibition bands were visualized [22].
Compound inhibition by TLC
5ml of the potato dextrose broth, 0.1ml of the 24hrs growing culture (M. furfur) for control and another test tube
treated with 850 µg/ml of the crude extract dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide were prepared. The tubes were
incubated at 37ºC for 24hrs. The broths were centrifuged at 5000rpm for 15mins. Then the above mixture was
transferred to the separating funnel. The solvent layer was collected and mixed with ethyl acetate and was
allowed to dry. These samples were subjected to thinlayer chromatography (TLC) by loading on pre-coated
silica gel 60 F254 plates (8cm×6cm;Merck). Ethyl acetate hexane (1:9 v/v) mixture was used as the mobile
phase. TLC chromatograms were scanned under UV light at 254nm. The fluorescent bands and the inhibited
bands were marked [23].
Extraction with different solvents
The extract of Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale were obtained by direct solvent extraction of
Eloff’s method (Fig. 2). In this method, different solvents were used namely hexane, ethyl acetate and
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
a-buds of Syzygium aromaticum b- rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Figure 1: Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiberofficinale
a- S.aromaticum methanol extract b-Z.officinale methanol extract
c- Z.officinale ethyl acetate extract d- S.aromaticum ethyl acetate extract
e- Z.officinale hexane extract f- S.aromaticum hexane extract
Figure 2: Crude extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and zingiber officinale
Isolation and sub-culture of dandruff causing organism
The flakes from different patients (Fig. 3a) were collected and cultured in Potato dextrose broth (PDB) and sub-
cultured in Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Potato Dextrose agar (PDA) by swabbing and streaking
methods. Significant growth was observed in PDA (Fig. 3b).
a-Dandruff flakes b-Pure culture
Figure 3: Isolation and pure culture
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Biochemical identification of the isolate
The various identification tests were performed to confirm the presence of Malassezia furfur.
Catalase test
The catalase enzyme catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide during oxidation. The effervescence
caused by liberation of free oxygen indicates a positive test (Fig. 4).
a- Control (without effervescence) b- Test (with effervescence)
Figure 4: Catalase test
Lactophenol cotton blue test
Grown isolates of Malassezia furfur smeared with lactophenol cotton blue were viewed in the microscope. The
bottle shaped cells of Malassezia furfur were observed (Fig 5).
Figure 5: Microscopic view of Malassezia furfur showing bottle shaped cells
Nitrate reduction test
1ml of sample was inoculated in nitrate broth and 5 drops of Sulfanilic acid and α-Naphthalamine reagent were
added. The solution gave a distinct light red colour which indicates a positive test (Fig. 6).
Figure 6: Nitrate reduction test
a- Control (Nitrate negative)
b- Test (Nitrate positive)
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Urease test
Malassezia furfur culture was inoculated in Christensen’s urea broth. Then, it was incubated for24hrs. Pink
colour appeared which denotes the presence of urease positive organism (Fig. 7).
Figure 7: Urease test
Gelatin hydrolysis test
Pure culture of Malassezia furfur was inoculated into a sterile tube containing nutrient gelatin and incubated for
24hrs at 35-37ºC. The tube was placed on ice for few minutes and it was found that the media failed to solidify
which indicates a positive test (Fig. 8).
Figure 8: Gelatin hydrolysis test
Anti-dandruff assay
From the results it is clear that the methanol extracts of S.aromaticum and Z.officinale had significant inhibitory
effect on M. furfur when compared with ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (Fig. 9). The methanol extract of S.
aromaticum showed maximum inhibition with Zone of Inhibition 23mm. While, that for Z. officinale was
observed to be 22mm. ZOI was observed for the methanol extract of S. aromaticum from 250µg/ml while it was
500µg/ml for the methanol extract of Z. officinale (Table1).The activity was found to be effective in the
methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum hence it was taken for further assay.
a- Test (Urease positive)
b- Control (Urease negative)
a-Test (semi-solid state)
b- Control (solidified state)
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a- Syzygium aromaticum hexane b- Syzygium aromaticum ethyl acetate
c-Syzygium aromaticum methanol d- Zingiber officinale hexane
e-Zingiber officinale ethyl acetate f- Zingiber officinale methanol
1 Standard (Ketaconazzole 100µg/ml)
Figure 9: Effect of extracts of S.aromaticum and Z.officinale on M. furfur
Table 1: Effect of plant extracts on Malassezia furfur
Zone of inhibition(mm)
Syzygium aromaticum
Zingiber officinale
(100 µg/ml)
Values are expressed in mean±SEM
Broth dilution assay
Broth dilution assay was performed to know the minimum inhibitory concentration of Syzygium aromaticum.
The MIC was 100µg/ml and IC50 value was found to be 850µg/ml (Table 2). The inhibitory effect was studied
to be linear with the concentration of the sample (Fig. 10).
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Table 2: Determination of IC50 of methanol extract of S. aromaticum
Inhibition (%)
Inhibition (%)
Concentration (µg/ml)
Figure 10: Determination of IC50 of methanol extract of S. aromaticum
Qualitative Phytochemical analysis
Qualitative phytochemical tests for alkaloids (a), flavonoids (b), phenols (c), tannins (d), glycosides (e),
saponins (f), reducing sugars (g) and proteins (h)
Figure 11: Qualitative phytochemical analysis
In the qualitative analysis of Syzygium aromaticum the presence of flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, reducing
sugars and phenolic compounds were determined. Qualitative analysis of Zingiber officinale showed the
presence of flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars and proteins (Fig. 11).
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
Table 3: Qualitative phytochemical analysis
Zingiber officinale
Reducing sugars
- Not detectable using the assay followed + present in minor amount
++ present in moderate amount +++ present in higher amount
Quantitative estimation of phytochemicals
In the quantitative analysis of Syzygium aromaticum the total concentration of phenol was estimated to be
1052µg of GAE/g of extract, the total concentration of flavonoids was found to be 1299µg of QE/g of extract,
the total concentration of tannins was found to be 1255µg of GAE/g of extract and the amount of reducing
sugars was found to be 1052mg of Glucose/g sample.
Table 4: Quantitative estimation of phytochemicals in S.aromaticum
S .No
Total phenolics
1052.66±1.52µg GAE/g sample
Total flavonoids
1299.33±2.08µg QE/g sample
Total tannins
1254.66±1.52µg GAE/g sample
Reducing sugars
1051.66±1.53mg Glucose/g sample
Values are expressed in mean±SEM
Thin layer chromatography
The ratio 0.25:9.75 showed prominent separation of compounds with 6 distinct bands of Rf value 0.102, 0.153,
0.282, 0.384, 0.538 and 0.897 (Fig. 12).
Short UV Long UV Iodine treated
Figure 12: Thin Layer Chromatogram of methanol extract
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
In the bio-autography, the zone of inhibition was found in the compound possessing the Rf value 0.153.
Figure 13: Bio-autography showing clear zone around compound with Rf value 0.153
Compound inhibition by TLC
In this method the band formed by the compounds in the Malassezia furfur was inhibited when treated with the
extract of Syzygium aromaticum.
Figure 14: Compound inhibition by TLC
Nowadays, more individuals are susceptible to dandruff, which leads to both physiological and psychological
problem. The treatment is essential to control the severity and harmful effects of dandruff. The currently
available commercial agents such as Zinc pyrithione, Ketoconazole, Piroctone olamine, Cipropirox olamine, etc
though are effective lead to certain side effects such as hair loss and irritation. Herbal products help in
preventing dandruff without side effects.
Results of the present investigation reveal the antidandruff activity of the extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and
Zingiber officinale against Malassezia furfur, the dandruff causing organism. Among the three solvents used the
Vol 3, Issue 6, 2013. R. Caroline Jeba et al. ISSN NO: 2231-6876
methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum shows higher antidandruff activity and can be used to formulate a
potential therapeutic agent for dandruff.
The future research of the work could be to purify and isolate the compound that is responsible for the
inhibition of the dandruff causing organism and develop it into a potential herbal product. This work will have
importance in the field of cosmetics since it will be cost effective and there will be no side effects.
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... No form of microbial contaminants presents as can be seen by no visible growth of culturable bacteria. Results of the qualitative phytochemical screening of ginger extract is shown in Table 3. Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and reducing sugar found in Zingiber officinale are at variance with the report of Jeba et al. (2013), who reported that alkaloids and glycosides were not detected in methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale except for flavonoids. This also is in line with the phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale by Shukla and Singh, (2006) and Sivasothy et al. (2011) who researched the chemotherapeutic effect of the phenolic compounds in the Zingiber officinale and showed the bioactive agents in Zingiber officinale to be flavonoids and alkaloids respectively. ...
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This research work was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract on Streptococcus viridans and Candida albicans. The rhizome of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) plant were collected and identified in the Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin. Screening for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycoside and carbohydrate was carried out using standard method. The microbial strains used in the study were obtained from University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and re-identified using conventional methods. Standard microbiological methods were adopted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using different concentrations of ginger extract from 12.5 % to 100 %. Standard antibiotics were used to determine the susceptibility to the bacterial isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was deduced from the antibiogram to evaluate the public health importance of the strain. The results revealed that alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were present in the methanolic extract of ginger. At 100% concentration, S. viridans had 22.00±0.00 mm zone of inhibition. At the same concentration, C. albicans was found to be resistant to the ginger extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ginger extract against S. viridans were at a concentration of 50 %. C. albicans although resistant to ginger extract was found to be susceptible to fluconazole at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The MAR index revealed that the bacterial strains were obtained from sources were antibiotics have been used and they are of public health importance.
... The present study documented Siddha medications prescribed for various skin diseases by the Siddha vaidhyas in the Katpadi taluk. The current work not only documented herbal remedies but also documented various herbo-mineral formulations prescribed by the heal [115] Azadirachta indica Vembu Meliaceae Leaves 0.34 0.95 Eczema and seborrheic dermatitis [116] Centella asiatica Vallarai Apiaceae Whole plant 0.53 0.92 Seborrheic dermatitis [117] Crinum asiaticum Visamumgil Amaryllidaceae Whole plant 0.86 1Eclipta prostrata Karisalaankanni Asteraceae Leaves 0.54 0.95 Hair loss and other skin diseases [118] Euphorbia thymifolia Chinamampatchaiarisi, sittirapaladi Euphorbiaceae Leaves 0.55 0.92 Leprosy, skin eruptions, alopecia and acne vulgaris [119] Heliotropium indicum Thel kodukku Boraginaceae Leaves 0.50 0.93 Seborrheic dermatitis [84] Ocimum americanum Nai thulasi Lamiaceae Leaves 0.82 0.94Phyla nodiflora Podutalai Verbenaceae Leaves juice 0.92 1 Seborrheic dermatitis [116] Piper nigram Melagu Piperaceae Fruit 0.91 0.92Sesamum indicum El Pedaliaceae Seed 0.55 0.90 Athlete's foot [120] Syzygium aromaticum Graambu Myrtaceae Flower buds 0.59 0.83 Seborrheic dermatitis [121] Tectona grandis L. Tekkumaram Lamiaceae Seed 0.82 0.94 ...
Introduction: Traditional Indian system of Siddha medicine practised over thousands of years has recently gained worldwide attention. Siddha medicine is the native medicinal system of Tamil Nadu. The present study aimed to document the various practises and medications followed by Siddha practitioners in treating various skin diseases form Katpadi taluk in the Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: A qualitative and quantitative ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among 22 Siddha practitioners about herbal remedies and sastric (traditional) formulations prescribed by them for various skin diseases. Successive free listing method was utilized for documenting the healers' knowledge on medicinal plants and Siddha formulations. The data were analyzed using Informant Consensus factor (Fic), use value (UV) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR). Results: The healers prescribed a wide range of herbal remedies along with mineral based formulations. The study documented around 102 plant species and 23 sastric formulations for the treatment of 19 skin diseases. Based on the quantitative metrics fungal infections had high Fic value (0.98) followed by Acne vulgaris (0.96). Conclusion: The study emphasizes the usage of numerous plant and mineral based medications for major skin illness by many Siddha healers of the region. Further, in-depth scientific analysis on these herbal and herbo-mineral formulations is required in order to validate their usage. In addition, the validations not only highlight the significance of Siddha medicine in treating the diseases but also highlight its importance and uniqueness.
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This study was performed to investigate the anti-Malassezia activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil against various Malassezia species isolated from dogs and cats with Malassezia dermatitis. The essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The screening of antifungal activity of the essential oil was evaluated using disc diffusion and broth macrodilution methods. From the 20 compounds which are component of the oil, carvacrol (61.3%) and thymol (25.2%) appeared as the main components. In the disc diffusion assay, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa showed the most susceptibility to the oil (inhibition zone: 30 mm). In addition, the results of broth macrodilution assay indicated that all the Malassezia species were very susceptible to Z. multiflora oil, with minimum inhibitory concentrations/minimum fungicidal concentrations (MICs/MFCs) ranging from 0.015 to 0.06% (v/v). Z. multiflora essential oil showed potential as an anti-Malassezia agent for inhibiting the growth of various Malassezia species in vitro. Thus, this oil may be a useful alternative for treating Malassezia-associated diseases.
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Ricinuscommunis L. leaves were extracted with various solvents for its efficacy against Malasseziaspp, causative agent of dandruff in people who have over active sebaceous glands. Dandruff samples were collected and inoculated in various media formulations supplemented with coconut oil, tween 80 and olive oil to determine the optimized conditions for the isolates.Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins and terpenoids as major phytoconstituents. Among the media formulations, potato dextrose agar supplemented with coconut oil has recorded better growth of the isolates. Various degree of inhibition by the leaf extracts was observed throughout the study. Significant inhibitory action with methanol extract was recorded against Malasseziasp which was mainly influenced by flavonoids, saponins and tannins followed by aqueous extract.Moderate activity of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts were observed due to the absence of major phytochemicals revealing the role of these compounds in controlling the growth of Malassezia sp. Utilization of natural products especially plants as medicines is one way to overcome the illness caused by microorganisms and the present study concluded that R.communis could be one among them to control dandruff
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Illicium verum has been widely used in many Asian countries as a spice and pharmaceutical treatment for many diseases. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extracts fractionated by hexane, ethyl ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate, and supercritical CO 2 extracts of the plant were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, the total equivalent antioxidant capacity and a reducing power assay. In addition, the amount of total phenolic content and the flavonoid content were also determined. The ethyl acetate fractions contained substantially higher levels of total phenolics (4.5 g gallic acid / 100 g dry weight) and total flavonoids (6.9 g quercetin/100 g dry weight) than the other extracts, and possessed significant antioxidant activities. The chemical components of the various extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); anisyl acetone and anisyl aldehyde were evidenced to provide the slight antioxidant activities. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extracts of I. verum show a marked antioxidant potential and that they could be developed as a natural source of antioxidants.
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In the present study, tannin content was investigated in three Sudanese sorghum cultivars. In addition, the inhibitory effect of natural tannins isolated from sorghurn grains as well as that of commercial tannins was detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium (bacteria), Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavous (mould) and Saccharumyces cerivisae (yeast). The results indicated that natural tannin from sorghurn has a notable antimicrobial activity against most of the examined microorganisms, the higher antimicrobial activity among all examined organisms was found against Salmonella typhymurium and Saccharomyces cerivisae. The results also indicated that commercial tannins are more effective than natural tannins. This study has shown the importance of commercial tannins and sorghum tannins as antimicrobial and preservative agents.
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Dandruff, a clinical condition caused by Malassezia (Pityrosporum) species is of great cosmetic concern all over the world. Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic ingredients in Anti-dandruff shampoos. A comparative study on the efficacy of chemical and herbal anti-dandruff ingredients on 'as is' basis and their performance in market shampoos was done in vitro against Pityrosporum ovale (MTCC 1374). Zinc pyrithione (ZnPTO), ketoconazole and other azole compounds recorded good anti-Pityrosporum activity among the chemical ingredients. Herbal ingredients like tea tree oil, rosemary oil, coleus oil, clove oil, pepper extract, neem extract, and basil extract also recorded anti-pityrosporum activity, but their MIC values are much higher than the synthetic ingredients. Shampoos containing ZnPTO and ketoconazole recorded higher in vitro activities than the shampoos containing herbal AD ingredients.
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Malassezia is a monophyletic genus of fungi found on the skin of 7 billion humans and associated with a variety of conditions, including dandruff, atopic eczema (AE)/dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and folliculitis ([1], [2]; Figure 1). In immunocompromised hosts Malassezia can also cause systemic infections. There are 14 currently recognized species of Malassezia, eight of which have been associated with humans, four of these commonly [3]. Malassezia spp. are Basidiomycetous fungi, as are most species of fungi readily seen on a walk through the forest. Among the Basidiomycota, only Malassezia and Cryptococcus are frequent human pathogens. However, their adaptations to humans are presumed to be independent: Malassezia's closest relatives are plant pathogens: the smuts and rusts, whereas the closest relatives for Cryptococcus pathogenic species are fungal saprotrophs associated with trees and insects. We summarize here a cellular and molecular description of some interactions of Malassezia with humans and speculate on properties (release of allergen-containing nanovesicles, mating) that may be critical to Malassezia virulence. Figure 1 Malassezia phylogeny, impact on human skin, and mating type (MAT) locus. What Is Known about the Gene Content of Malassezia? A genome sequence of Malassezia globosa reveals as small a genome size as any free-living fungus, with only 4,285 genes and spanning just ∼9 Mb [4]. This small genome size may reflect adaptation to the organisms' limited niche, the skin of warm-blooded vertebrates [5]. While many of the genes for biosynthetic enzymes are present, M. globosa is the only free-living fungus known to lack a fatty acid synthase gene [4]. With a plethora of lipase genes, M. globosa likely satisfies its lipid requirement by hydrolysis of sebum triglycerides. Within the genus, only Malassezia pachydermatis, isolated from dogs and other non-human animals [5], is known to grow in the absence of exogenous lipid [1]. It will be interesting to learn whether this atypical species contains a fatty acid synthase gene similar to that found in the close relative Ustilago maydis and whether the habitat requirements of M. pachydermatis are, as a consequence, less stringent by relieving the requirement for exogenous lipids. While it is possible to culture Malassezia species axenically under laboratory conditions by providing exogenous lipids that mimic those available on human skin, some species are still quite fastidious, suggesting in vitro culture conditions may not be optimized.
Centratherum punctatum, the Brazilian button flower, is very closely related to its counterpart C. anthelmethicum - a plant known for its high medicinal value. To validate if C. punctatum would also be of any such value, the leaf extract of the plant was evaluated for anti-microbial, antioxidant, human cell toxicity properties and analyzed for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Powdered leaf of the plant was extracted with different organic solvents and tested for anti-microbial activity by the agar well-diffusion method. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by Ascorbic acid method. The toxicity of the extract was tested by the MTT assay using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Extracts were then subjected to bioautography and the phyto-chemical constituents isolated and tested for antimicrobial activity. TLC fractions that tested positive for anti-microbial activity were partially characterized for functional group identification by KBr method using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Acetone, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf showed inhibitory activity against four out of five pathogenic bacteria including the multi drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus tested. Anti-fungal activity was exhibited by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides, of which flavonoids showed antibacterial activity. The IC50 value for the acetone extract was found to be 10.63 μg/ml. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of alkene, alkane, aliphatic amine and aromatic functional groups among others. We conclude that the present study adds credence to the ethno-medicinal properties of C. punctatum. Further characterization of phytochemical compounds from this prolific herb may yield potential antimicrobial agents.
 The essential oil composition of dried Nigerian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was determined by means of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The ginger was hydrodistilled; the oil yield was 2.4% and consisted of 64.4% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 6.6% carbonyl compounds, 5.6% alcohols, 2.4% monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1.6% esters. The main compounds were zingiberene (29.5%) and sesquiphellandrene (18.4%). A number of constituents not previously reported in ginger oil were identified. These include 2,6-dimethyl hepten-l-ol, α-gurjunene, linalool oxide, isovaler-aldehyde, 2-pentanone, cadinol, α- and γ-calacorene, eremophyllene, t-muurolol, α-himachallene, α-cubebene acetic acid, pinanol, α-santalene, geranyl propionate, geranoic acid, (E,E)-α-farnesene, n-methyl pyrrole and geranic acid.