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A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance (now NEW, because new technology allows investigation of the hypotheses) (an early MUST READ)

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  • a starting point for Enlightened Behavioral Science/ Human Ethology

Abstract

NOTE: ONLY with recent technological advances have the major hypotheses of this perspective become research-able. So, in a real sense, this is a new perspective (new for research). THIS IS THE MOST CENTRAL PAPER towards a first understanding of my empirical (ethological) research perspective (after this, see the Collected Essays for explication, elaboration, and fuller justification). Written by a "methodological behaviorist" (of a sort), this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of Bandura. Assumptions for conducting research and allowing for interpretation and integration of findings are specified and discussed. These assumptions include the following ideas: (1) that fundamentally important behaviors can be seen in conflict situations; (2) that all behavior must be viewed with the past history of the subject in mind; (3) that important manipulative skills can be noted directly and that covert behavior can be inferred by an observer who has been engaged in an extensive longitudinal study; (4) that only unobtrusive observations used to interpret the behavior of single subjects will be unbiased; (5) that all behavior is directly or indirectly interactive with the environment, is homeostatic, or works toward homeostasis and that all species-typical behavioral developments are adaptive; (6) that all behaviors must be construed "within the subject's perceptual-thought system"; and (7) that interpretation involves comparing present behaviors with similar past behaviors and interpreting them in terms of various possible types of behaviors and in terms of specified mechanisms of change. Any theory that fulfills these assumptions is considered to be an ethological theory of personality development. A bibliography of suggested readings is appended. --> --> The much more recent "Essentially all Recent Essays on Ethogram Theory" ( https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329428629_Essentially_all_Recent_Essays_on_Ethogram_Theory ) (515 pages)(all written in the last 2 yr) is a NECESSARY FOLLOW-UP TO THE "Human Ethogram" paper, contextualizing many things, specifying many (especially noteworthy: specifying hypotheses clearly, so the work can be done and these hypotheses verified (or not)); these essays also provide much more specific critiques and this does much to support or justify AND FLUSH OUT the new perspective and approach (and the many ramifications). This does much to accomplish what was needed to be accomplished in the "missing Chapters" of "A Human Ethgram ..." -- thus doing at least much to complete the original work, begun decades ago. SEE RECENT PROJECT UPDATES (of the associated PROJECT, with a link under this paper's title). (See these updates to get to the later collection of additional essays.) [ Also see: https://www.researchgate.net/post/It_seems_a_major_sort_of_addition_needs_to_be_made_to_cognitive-developmental_ontogeny_theory_Ethogram_Theory ]
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... Both the target micro-Doppler signature, provided by the spectrograms and the target range-map are input to the 2D PCA. It is important to note that the essence of this study contribution is not to devise a new classifier but rather to address the contiguity issue of human motions and exploit the 'ethogram' [27] of human activities which limit the possible contingent motions stemming from the present ones. We use 2D PCA, NN classifier for demonstrating the concepts introduced in our study. ...
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The authors consider radar classifications of activities of daily living, which can prove beneficial in fall detection, analysis of daily routines, and discerning physical and cognitive human conditions. They focus on contiguous motion classifications, which follow and commensurate with the human ethogram of possible motion sequences. Contiguous motions can be closely connected with no clear time gap separations. In the proposed approach, they utilise the Radon transform applied to the radar range‐map to detect the translation motion, whereas an energy detector is used to provide the onset and offset times of in‐place motions, such as sitting down and standing up. It is shown that motion classifications give different results when performed forward and backward in time. The number of classes, thereby classification rates, considered by a classifier, is made varying depending on the current motion state and the possible transitioning activities in and out of the state. Two different examples are given to delineate the performance of the proposed approach under typical sequences of human motions.
... Both the target micro-Doppler signature, provided by the spectrograms and the target range-map are input to the 2-D PCA. It is important to note that the essence of this research contribution is not to devise new classifier but rather to address the contiguity issue of human motions and exploit the "ethogram" [29] of human activities which limit the possible contingent motions stemming from the present ones. ...
Preprint
We consider radar classifications of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) which can prove beneficial in fall detection, analysis of daily routines, and discerning physical and cognitive human conditions. We focus on contiguous motion classifications which follow and commensurate with the human ethogram of possible motion sequences. Contiguous motions can be closely connected with no clear time gap separations. In the proposed motion classification approach, we utilize the Radon transform applied to the radar range-map to detect the translation motion, whereas an energy detector is used to provide the onset and offset times of in-place motions, such as sitting down and standing up. It is shown that motion classifications give different results when performed forward and backward in time. The number of classes, thereby classification rates, considered by a classifier, is made variable depending on the current motion state and the possible transitioning activities in and out of the state. Motion examples are provided to delineate the performance of the proposed approach under typical sequences of human motions.
... RF-based vital sign and gait monitoring has vast medical applications and offers essential diagnostic barometers for many health problems [2], [16]- [19]. In this paper, we focus on the classification of ADL, dealing with motions as contiguous activities which occur in certain norms and sequences consistent with the human ethogram [20]. The latter is a catalog of motion behaviors. ...
Preprint
We perform classification of activities of daily living (ADL) using a Frequency-Modulated Continuous Waveform (FMCW) radar. In particular, we consider contiguous motions that are inseparable in time. Both the micro-Doppler signature and range-map are used to determine transitions from translation (walking) to in-place motions and vice versa, as well as to provide motion onset and the offset times. The possible classes of activities post and prior to the translation motion can be separately handled by forward and background classifiers. The paper describes ADL in terms of states and transitioning actions, and sets a framework to deal with separable and inseparable contiguous motions. It is shown that considering only the physically possible classes of motions stemming from the current motion state improves classification rates compared to incorporating all ADL for any given time.
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