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Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?

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The purpose of this paper is to explore whether Australian universities encourage tacit knowledge transfer. In doing so, the paper also explores the role of managers (academics' supervisor) in promoting or hampering tacit knowledge transfer and the value given to new ideas and innovation. This study collected data by conducting interviews of academics in four universities and a qualitative narrative analysis was carried out. The findings suggest that universities generally encourage and facilitate the transfer of tacit knowledge; however there are some areas that require improvement. Avenues for improving tacit knowledge transfer call for open communication, peer-trust and unrestricted sharing of knowledge by managers. The study was conducted in four universities, hence limits the generalisability of the findings. This paper will contribute to further research in the discipline of tacit knowledge, provide understanding and guide universities in their tacit knowledge transfer efforts and in particular, encourage the transfer of tacit knowledge.
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Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?
Ritesh Chugh
School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia
Keywords: Knowledge, Tacit Knowledge, Tacit Knowledge Transfer, Knowledge Management, Encourage, University,
Academics.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether Australian universities encourage tacit knowledge transfer. In
doing so, the paper also explores the role of managers (academics’ supervisor) in promoting or hampering
tacit knowledge transfer and the value given to new ideas and innovation. This study collected data by
conducting interviews of academics in four universities and a qualitative narrative analysis was carried out.
The findings suggest that universities generally encourage and facilitate the transfer of tacit knowledge;
however there are some areas that require improvement. Avenues for improving tacit knowledge transfer call
for open communication, peer-trust and unrestricted sharing of knowledge by managers. The study was
conducted in four universities, hence limits the generalisability of the findings. This paper will contribute to
further research in the discipline of tacit knowledge, provide understanding and guide universities in their
tacit knowledge transfer efforts and in particular, encourage the transfer of tacit knowledge.
1 INTRODUCTION
Universities are knowledge institutions with
knowledge embedded in people and processes.
Universities are, also, an integral part of society and
play a key role in knowledge transfer. In universities,
knowledge is often tacit in the minds of academics
thus making it difficult to spread through the
university and its internal stakeholders, not limited to
students and other academics, because of time and
resource constraints. Tacit knowledge can be defined
as skills, ideas and experiences that people have in
their minds and are, therefore, difficult to access
because it is often not codified and may not
necessarily be easily expressed e.g. putting together
pieces of a complex jigsaw puzzle, interpreting a
complex statistical equation (Chugh, 2013). The role
of academics is to convey and transfer their tacit
knowledge into more explicit forms so that it is
available for further reuse by the stakeholders.
A report prepared by PhillipsKPA (2006) for the
Department of Education, Science and Training in
2006 showed universities are doing a lot for
knowledge transfer through commercialisation of
research, but less importance is placed on knowledge
transfer efforts made by universities in passing their
tacit knowledge to internal stakeholders who could be
students and academic peers. If knowledge remains
only tacit in the heads of a few individuals in an
organisation, then the organisation is putting itself at
risk and it is not always possible to move those few
individuals around. However once tacit knowledge is
converted into explicit, an organisation has a lower
risk of losing its intellectual capital when employees
leave the organisation (Davenport and Prusak, 1998).
Hence, knowledge management can be seen as a
viable approach to resolve organisational issues such
as competitive pressure (Cepeda, 2006; Prusak, 2006)
and the need for innovation (Parlby and Taylor,
2000). Effective knowledge management (KM) also
leads to reduced time to market, improved innovation,
and improved personal productivity (Miller, 1996).
The message that emerged from Loermans (2002) is
that ‘KM should focus more on the tacit component
of KM rather than on its contemporary emphasis on
explicit knowledge’ (p.293). The focus on tacit
knowledge is an indicator of its importance in modern
organisations who have constantly concentrated their
efforts on explicit knowledge alone. Social and
human factors are seen as key indicators of the
preparedness of individuals to share tacit knowledge
(Goh and Sandhu, 2013).
It is evident that tacit knowledge sharing is
important for universities. In a variety of contexts,
researchers have recognised the role of organisations
in encouraging the transfer of tacit knowledge (Smith,
128
Chugh, R..
Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?.
In Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (IC3K 2015) - Volume 3: KMIS, pages 128-135
ISBN: 978-989-758-158-8
Copyright c
2015 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Chugh R. (2015). Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?. In Proceedings of the 7th International Joint
Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, ISBN 978-989-758-158-8, pages 128-135.
DOI: 10.5220/0005585901280135
Please cite as:
2001), the role senior managers and leadership can
play in promoting tacit knowledge transfer (Lin and
Lee, 2004), and significance provided to innovation
(Foos et al., 2006). However, such research around
academics’ views in universities is still in its infancy.
Accordingly, this paper seeks to contribute to the
existing scant literature and fill the gap by enhancing
our understanding of the extent to which academics’
workplaces (universities) encourage the transfer of
tacit knowledge, specifically in an Australian context,
and identify some of the associated challenges.
Since most organisational knowledge is tacit in
nature, the sharing and communication of tacit
knowledge can be difficult. From both a research and
applied perspective, negligible studies currently exist
that explore academics’ perception about whether
universities (their workplaces) encourage the sharing
of tacit knowledge. This paper will aim to
qualitatively address the research question that aims
to explore the extent to which academics’ workplaces
(universities) encourage the transfer of tacit
knowledge. In order to address the main research
question, three specific questions will be focussed
upon - assessing the role of universities/workplaces in
encouraging tacit knowledge transfer, role of the
manager (academic’s supervisor) in promoting or
hampering tacit knowledge transfer and finally, value
given to new ideas and innovation. For this purpose,
four post 1992 Australian universities were selected.
The remainder of this paper is organised as
follows. The next section presents a review of the
literature. The paper then provides an insight into the
research method adopted for the study and the
characteristics of the participants. Findings and
discussion then follow in section four. Finally, the
key premises of the research have been summarised
in the conclusion section and limitations are explicitly
stated with an outlook for possible further research.
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Tacit knowledge is considered as personal knowledge
that is difficult to express, formalise or share and
exists in an intangible format (Sveiby, 1997). Tacit
knowledge has been defined as ‘what people carry
around with them, what they observe and learn from
experience, and what is internalized and, therefore,
not readily available for transfer to another’
(Muralidhar, 2000, p. 222). Hislop (2009) indicates
tacit knowledge may not only be difficult to
articulate, it may even be subconscious. This
characteristic of tacit knowledge makes it difficult to
disembody from people and further codify it. Tacit
knowledge is reflected in human actions and their
interactions with the social environment (Nonaka,
1994; De Long and Fahey, 2000). Busch (2008) has
defined tacit knowledge as knowledge that cannot be
codified, is implicit in nature and not necessarily
written anywhere and not able to be readily
expressed. This implies that tacit knowledge would
include peoples’ skills, experiences, insight and
judgement. Tacit knowledge could also be termed as
‘sticky’ knowledge as it stays in the minds of people.
It is often known as preconscious knowledge based
on an understanding of the fitness of things,
instinctive actions and so forth. The epistemic value
of tacit knowledge is also a contentious issue and it is
difficult to study. Research suggests that 75 percent
or more of an organisation’s knowledge can be
categorised as tacit knowledge (Frappaolo and
Wilson, 2002; O’Dell, 2002). Often universities
operate in a turbulent and dynamic environment and
hence, it is crucial for universities to cater for tacit
knowledge transfer.
Converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge
becomes really important as Hislop (2009) states that
knowledge is primarily cognitive but is ultimately
codifiable. It is necessary to root out the knowledge
held in peoples’ heads to a tangible form. DeLong
(2004) proposes that ‘humans have been creating and
losing knowledge for thousands of years’ (pg. 20).
Housel and Bell (2001) assert that ‘knowledge resides
primarily within human heads; when ‘head count’ is
reduced, inevitably the sum of knowledge within the
organization is reduced, sometimes critically so’ (pg.
5). This problem of loss of head count could imply
different situations such as downsizing or when aging
employees leave the organisation with a lot of tacit
knowledge in their heads.
A study by Foos et al., (2006) collected data from
various individuals, representing three companies
charged with integrating external technology,
revealed that the subject of tacit knowledge transfer,
content, and process is poorly understood. The critical
factors which influence construction employees’
knowledge sharing behaviour were trust, creativity,
motivation, ability, and learning (Nesan, 2012).
Identifying and overcoming diverse knowledge
transfer barriers is vital in order to assist senior and
middle management in creating a systematically
driven collaborative environment where knowledge
sharing takes place easily (Riege, 2007). Finally,
knowledge management efforts should not be
restricted to one discipline only (Karlsen and
Gottschalk, 2004) thus it is important to assess the
role of universities in encouraging tacit knowledge
transfer.
Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?
129
Universities can be classified as knowledge
intensive organisations because they are coherent
with the definition of knowledge intensive firms
provided by Alvesson (2000, pg. 1101) as ‘companies
where most work can be said to be of an intellectual
nature and where well qualified employees form the
major part of the workforce.’ Other features of a
knowledge intensive firm are their workforce is
typically highly qualified and the knowledge and
skills of their workforce is a source of competitive
advantage (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). Considering
their characteristics, universities can undoubtedly be
considered as knowledge intensive firms and their
workers as knowledge workers. Hislop (2009) has
defined knowledge worker as a person who is
involved in primarily intellectual, creative and non-
routine work, and involves the creation and use of
abstract/theoretical knowledge. Academics, as
knowledge workers, possess and utilise different
types of knowledge to complete their work.
Knowledge transfer activities have not been
institutionalised and attention is required to their
management in universities (Geuna and Muscio,
2008).Various researchers (Baumard, 1999; Blair,
2002; Laupase, 2003) have identified obstacles to
tacit knowledge transfer but with little focus on
university academics or the role workplaces play in
encouraging the transfer of tacit knowledge. It is also
vital to understand how academics react to internal
and external factors when deciding whether to
participate in knowledge sharing activities or not
(Cheng et al., 2009). In similar vogue, Jain et al.,
(2007) have called out for the need to explore
academics’ views to encourage knowledge sharing
amongst them.
Workplaces play an important role in providing
the right environment for tacit knowledge transfer
(Smith, 2001; Chugh, 2013). Employees associate
knowledge with power and this can often make
knowledge sharing difficult (Liebowitz and Chen,
2003) and organisational leadership is also a barrier
to knowledge sharing (Seba et al., 2012). Poor
management practices such as hoarding tacit
knowledge, allocating insufficient time for
knowledge transfer and limiting relationships were
identified as barriers to achieving effective
knowledge transfer (Clayton and Fisher, 2005). The
transfer of tacit knowledge in an organisation can
largely be driven by motivation and encouragement
by senior management (Chugh et al., 2014). Utilising
tacit knowledge also effectively indicates an
organisation’s innovativeness (Subramaniam and
Venkatraman, 2001) and can lead to competitive
advantage. Hence, the role of managers is crucial in
providing the right conditions for tacit knowledge
transfer to take place effectively.
Bartol and Srivastava (2002) have suggested that
knowledge sharing is vital to knowledge creation,
organisational learning, and performance
achievement. The intricate nature of tacit knowledge
is particularly perplexing for researchers and
practitioners, and this adds to the complexity in
readily being able to transfer tacit knowledge. Studies
(Empson, 2001; Bechina and Ndlela, 2007) have
found human, social and cultural factors were
important in determining the impact (success or
failure) of knowledge management initiatives.
Examining the impact of social dynamics in
sharing tacit knowledge processes between
employees is necessary to understand and
recommend improved facilitation measures. Since
most organisational knowledge is tacit in nature, the
sharing and communication of tacit knowledge can be
difficult. Hence it was considered necessary to assess
whether universities encourage the sharing of tacit
knowledge.
3 METHOD
Four post 1992 Australian universities (names
withheld for confidentiality reasons) have been
selected for this study, based on their long history in
the education sector as they evolved from colleges of
advanced education and institutes of technologies.
These four universities are undergoing a lot of
change, both in terms of organisational structure and
introduction of new programs, and are rapidly
strengthening their position towards the provision of
learning and teaching services to national and
international students. It is their uniqueness in the
education sector that makes them ideal for this study.
The study focussed on academics in universities
because academics can be classified as knowledge
workers who deal with tacit knowledge on a daily
basis. Academics produce knowledge, disseminate it
to a variety of stakeholders and utilise knowledge to
carry out their day-to-day tasks. Academics are very
important in the process of knowledge sharing and
reuse. Moreover, the solitary research instrument that
can reveal and build on tacit knowledge is the human
(Lincoln and Guba, 1985), hence academics were
considered to be suitable for data collection.
As qualitative methods, such as interviews, aim
at understanding the rich, complex and idiosyncratic
nature of human phenomena (Cavana et al., 2003), a
qualitative method namely in the form of interviews
was adopted. Qualitative research usually emphasises
KMIS 2015 - 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing
130
the socially constructed nature of reality and
researchers are involved in achieving a rich
understanding of people’s experience and not
necessarily in obtaining information which can be
generalised to larger groups (Flick, 2006). Hence,
interviews were considered relevant to record,
analyse and uncover the meaning of academics’
experiences in tacit knowledge sharing. The views
provided by the respondents paint a picture of the
reality as reported ‘from the ground’.
In this study, interviews were deemed to be
important as they would provide an in-depth
opportunity to ask a series of open-ended questions,
which would reveal whether universities encouraged
tacit knowledge transfer, in an unconstrained
environment providing the opportunity to clarify and
explain information. Various questions were asked as
part of the interview but for the purposes of this paper
only three questions that are within the scope have
been analysed. The three specific questions focussed
upon - assessing the role of universities/workplaces in
encouraging tacit knowledge transfer, role of the
manager (academic’s supervisor) in promoting or
hampering tacit knowledge transfer and finally, value
given to new ideas and innovation.
Sample sizes in qualitative research should not be
too large otherwise it becomes difficult to extract
thick, rich data (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2007).
Since the aim of this study is not to estimate the
prevalence of a phenomenon or to make
generalisations but to provide an understanding, to
develop explanations and to generate ideas, only a
small number of respondents were required. Thus for
the interviews, this study primarily employed a
stratified purposeful sample to identify academics (a
lecturer or senior lecturer and an associate professor
or professor from each university). A total of eight
interviews were conducted, which involved two
academics from each university.
After data collection, the data was open-coded
and analysed. The coding involved transcription of
the digital recordings and then multiple reviews were
carried out to identify and interpret repeating themes
and ideas. The hermeneutic paradigm was adopted for
analysis as it helps to explain relationships based on
a personal interpretative approach (Gummesson,
2000). The analysis of qualitative data in the next
section is based on a structured interpretative
approach drawing illustrative examples from each
interview transcript as required and a narrative has
been woven. Short direct quotes from the participants
have been included to aid in the understanding of
specific points of interpretation and a smaller number
of more extensive passages of quotations to provide a
flavour of the original texts have also added.
4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
It appears universities have gone in a much
mechanised direction in recent times with little
emphasis on rooting out tacit knowledge. In support
of this statement, one of the interviewee revealed that
‘universities are more bent upon bean-counting these
days, which is totally contrary to the philosophy of
transfer of tacit knowledge.’ This respondent’s
feeling also touches on the way universities should
value altruism, and how the current outlook is
incorporated into employment, promotion, rewards
and so forth. Most respondents believe their
university encourages and facilitates the transfer of
tacit knowledge however there are many deterrents
that came to the forefront. A lack of openness in
communication was seen as a deterrent with one
interviewee pointing out that ‘everyone is playing
safe and playing safe leads to disaster.’
Interviewees from one university felt that there
are certain cultural traits which in fact work against
tacit knowledge transfer. An interviewee noted that
‘the culture of the university – both at the faculty level
and at the university level totally undervalued, and it
did not trust, experience gained elsewhere.’ The
whole idea of tacit knowledge transfer is utilising the
skills and experience of people which they have
gained over their lifetime and it is these skills and
experience that can be used to provide value for
universities.
Managers play an important role in facilitating
the transfer of tacit knowledge. Apart from being
facilitators, they are themselves in an important
position of transferring tacit knowledge to others
reporting to them. However, most interviewees saw
their managers as being a deterrent in the transfer of
tacit knowledge. They perceived their managers as
information gatekeepers who were mostly very
reluctant to impart their tacit knowledge to others.
This result is similar to a study by Clayton and Fisher
(2005), which found that locking up tacit knowledge
was a barrier to achieving effective knowledge
transfer. One of the interviewee remarked their
manager lacked skills that would have promoted tacit
knowledge transfer. To this effect, the interviewee
said ‘Managers like these create a very tense work
environment. Which then doesn’t allow us to believe
in tacit knowledge transfer because if you’re going to
be reprimanded for every small thing that you are
trying to do, why would you do it?’ Undoubtedly
different types of leaders make different decisions
Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?
131
that can either hamper or enhance the sharing of
knowledge. Transformational leadership style is
considered a key driver of knowledge management
initiatives in an organisation. Transformational
leadership places greater emphasis on motivating
people and develops long term strategic visions and
further inspires people to work towards achieving that
vision (Vera and Crossan, 2004; Hislop, 2009).
Nonaka et al., (2006) have argued that leaders need to
enable the creation of knowledge. Transformational
leaders can be seen as enablers of knowledge
management initiatives in an organisation. Senior
management can help to create a valuable knowledge
sharing culture by being proactive and driving a
cultural change (Pan and Scarbrough, 1999).
Micromanagement is not seen as conducive to tacit
knowledge sharing efforts. The focus of micro-
management is towards day-to-day activities, short
term goals and operationally focussed rather than
being strategically focussed as in transformational
leadership.
The display of the information gatekeeper
characteristics by a manager led one interviewee to
comment that ‘I just couldn't get anything out from
him (immediate manager) and that frustrated me a lot
and lured me into a few mistakes I made, which I
could have avoided if information was passed on to
me, even just a little bit of it.’ This implies that
frustration and unnecessary mistakes can be reduced
if staff is provided access to information and
managers freely share their knowledge with staff
reporting to them. One of the interviewees
commented that displaying the traits of an
information gatekeeper by a manager as ‘the
antithesis to creativity. When people feel humiliated
there isn't a worse emotion to kill and curb motivation
than humiliation.’
The issue of power was also evident in the
responses provided by the interviewees. Managers
see themselves as the power-holders and are hence
prone to say that ‘don’t come to me, I don’t want to
tell you, you do it on your own’ (Interviewee). This
notion of information gatekeeper could be seen ‘as a
red flag in communication. This could also imply that
tacit skills are not being passed’ (Interviewee).
Knowledge sharing can sometimes be seen as
threatening and managers may be reluctant to share
as it impacts their status, esteem and power in the
university. Baumard and Starbuck (2005) have
argued that senior management are often responsible
for creating an unconducive environment for
employees’ unwillingness to share knowledge. Some
of the conditions in an unconducive environment
could be a culture where employees are reprimanded
for sharing, experimentation and risk taking is not
encouraged and inquiry of existing business practices
is seen as a threat.
In the case of an interviewee who saw their
manager as being a person who was not an
information gatekeeper, it was evident that trust was
an important part in the display of this trait. This
interviewee noted that ‘my manager would pass any
information to others, especially me, provided that I
keep it confidence, which I’ll always do. So I do prefer
this practice because it means I’m a trustworthy
person. More importantly, it certainly helps me to
make decisions and better or do my job more
efficiently and effectively. It especially helps me to
increase the accuracy of the work when information
is clear, is right in front of you.’ One of the
interviewee very aptly put that being an information
gatekeeper ‘depends from person to person’ and
managers need to ‘understand the importance of the
dissemination of information.’
The interviewees displayed a very equally divided
response to the value that their managers’ displayed
towards new ideas and innovation. One on the
interviewee remarked that ‘it is rhetoric in reality and
theory in practice.’ However it is evident that
academics generally prefer an open door policy that
promotes communication. One of the interviewees
noted that ‘We don’t see the managers. We don’t -
there’s no interaction. They take advice from a select
few people, which means that you don’t get the
chance.’ This comment could also imply that
managers need to involve more staff in decision
making rather than a select few and create a more
democratic workplace.
Table 1 summarises the results and conceptual
relationships that arose from the analysis.
As one respondent pointed out that the transfer of
tacit knowledge is a pretty tough gig. It’s a tough,
tough call and it’s easier said than done.’ This
interviewee also commented that ‘I don’t believe
they’ve (the university) got a formal strategy for
transfer of tacit knowledge.’
The findings resonate with previous studies in
Malaysia, Singapore and UK, which have highlighted
that a knowledge sharing culture exists in tertiary
educational institutions however challenges such as
motivation, lack of reward mechanisms, knowledge
hoarding, dearth of open-mindedness and inadequate
support and encouragement from leaders exist (Wah
et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2009; Fullwood et al., 2013;
Goh and Sandhu, 2013). Universities are places
where the transfer of tacit knowledge should be the
primary mission but as the analysis demonstrates
there ar e anecd otes in w hich th e elicitation,
KMIS 2015 - 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing
132
Table 1: Results and conceptual relationships.
Repeating
Ideas
Theme
Recommendations
-General
agreement
that
universities
encourage and
facilitate tacit
knowledge
sharing.
-Lack of open
communicatio
n.
-Untrusting
work
environment.
-Manager’s
reluctance to
share
knowledge
(seen as
information
gatekeepers).
-More
encouragem
ent and
support to
share tacit
knowledge
is required
to
counteract
the
identified
issues.
-Tacit knowledge
should be valued.
-Develop
transformational
leaders.
-Nurture a
trustworthy work
environment.
-Managers to play an
active role in
practicing and
promoting open
communication.
distribution and reuse of tacit knowledge seems to be
difficult (especially those involving university
managers). Moreover, this appears to be a general
perception valid outside Australia too.
Although the respondents were generally very
positive about the universities encouraging and
facilitating the sharing of professional experiences,
skills and knowledge with others however there are
evident areas which require improvement. Some of
the areas identified are: building a tacit knowledge
sharing culture, promoting open communication and
sharing of ideas, developing inspirational
transformational leadership, establishing a team-
working culture, and encouraging ways of promoting
peer-trust. It can be argued from a systemic
perspective that changes need to be made to
encourage the transfer of tacit knowledge in
universities.
Hence, the general notion was that most
universities provide a mixture of facilitating
conditions however there are areas of improvement.
To conclude this section, the words of an interviewee
are quoted who very aptly said ‘The whole purpose of
an educational institution is to spread knowledge -
that is the fundamental purpose of educational
institutions. So the ethos should be exactly the same,
otherwise subconsciously the people you are teaching
will learn as if information is to be hidden.’
5 CONCLUSIONS
The epistemological discourse in the study has found
that it is not all doom and gloom for tacit knowledge
transfer in Australian universities. The findings were
generally upbeat as universities encourage the
transfer of tacit knowledge although some areas for
further improvement have been identified. The
findings will assist universities in further creating a
systematically driven collaborative environment that
encourages the transfer of tacit knowledge and makes
it available for reuse. Given the increased interest in
knowledge management by organisations, such a
study is timely and relevant.
The study has identified a few limitations that
hindered it from obtaining more conclusive results.
As this study was conducted in only four Australian
universities (eight interviews), it is plausible that
larger sample sizes may demonstrate dissimilar
results. Owing to the current small sample size, it
would be deemed inappropriate to generalise the
findings to a larger population. However, like any
exploratory study, this study also provides a picture
of the reality. Despite the limitations, this study is
significant as it further contributes to advancing the
knowledge in a research area by providing researched
evidence and hypothesis, which can be validated later
using other methods. Future studies could validate the
findings and/or carry out quantitative studies that
could be of help to draw more concrete, possibly less
obvious, conclusions. It is also suggested that future
studies look at specific elements such as provision of
adequate time and mentoring programs, which are
seen as enablers of tacit knowledge transfer.
Finally, this paper has made a significant
contribution to tacit knowledge management by
addressing an important question that has largely
been ignored till date. The key contributions of this
study fall into three main areas. Firstly, it has added
to existing research on tacit knowledge transfer.
Secondly, it has used qualitative methods like
interviews to assess whether academics’ workplaces
(universities) encourage the transfer of tacit
knowledge. Thirdly, the findings can be used to make
improvements, develop a culture that promotes
openness and enhance the sharing of tacit knowledge.
Do Australian Universities Encourage Tacit Knowledge Transfer?
133
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... Explicit type is knowledge that is articulated, written down, or published academic one found in books, manuals and papers and therefore codified, and transmittable in formal, systematic language [1,2]. Tacit knowledge on the other hand is knowledge embedded in minds of individuals in form of skills, know-how, expertise, experience, ideas, values, emotions, insight, and mental models that employees obtain as they interact and learn through organizational processes [3,4]. Although explicit knowledge is tangible, visible and often given more regard, tacit knowledge is its bedrock because before knowledge becomes explicit, it first exits as tacit. ...
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... This research took a more experimental and creative approach, principally because some of the participant knowledges I was after were embodied and tacit. Tacit knowledge can be defined as skills, ideas, and experiences that people have, but that are not codified and may not necessarily be easily expressed (Chugh, 2015). De Sousa Santos (2018) describes the challenge of knowledges that are embodied since people are often unaware of the extent of their tacit knowledge and its value to others. ...
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This research work examines the impact of organizational climate on performance and considering affective commitment, knowledge sharing practices (KSPS) and perceived cost of knowledge sharing (KScost) as potential mediators by recognizing the need and importance of knowledge sharing among pharmaceutics to enhance their ability to perform best at workplace. Data collection is carried through convenient sampling from pharmaceutics through survey questionnaire from (Lahore and Karachi) two big cities of Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis is applied to test the reliability and validity of the constructs and the outcomes confirm the establishment of both internal reliability and validity. Sample size consists of 350 pharmaceutics. The outcomes of this paper reveal that organizational climate significantly and positively impact the performance. The results indicate that affective commitment, KScost and KSPS intervene the link between organizational commitment and organizational performance
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... Tacit knowledge can be defined as skills, ideas, and experiences that people have but are not codified and may not necessarily be easily expressed (Chugh, 2015). With tacit knowledge, people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. ...
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... For example, the action advice can be seen as explicit memes which may change the decision of the other agents instantly. -Implicit meme transmission: In contrast to the explicit memes, some abstracted knowledge, such as experiences [6], can be modeled as implicit memes. This kind of memes may not have immediate impacts on others, but it can be fused into the others' knowledge and influence their following actions implicitly. ...
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