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Antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria

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Abstract

During present study the antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and its mode of action on bacteria were done. The extracts of black pepper were evaluated for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by tube dilution method and mode of action was studied on membrane leakage of UV260 and UV280 absorbing material spectrophotometrically. The diameter of the zone of inhibition against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was measured. The MIC was found to be 50-500ppm. Black pepper altered the membrane permeability resulting the leakage of the UV260 and UV280 absorbing material i.e., nucleic acids and proteins into the extra cellular medium. The results indicate excellent inhibition on the growth of Gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus faecalis. Among the Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible followed by Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli.

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... Aromatic plants have been known for a very long time and owing to their aromatic and antiseptic properties, they are used as spices and natural food preservatives in perfume industry and aromatherapy and for different medical purposes. Herbs of the Lamiaceae family, like rosemary and mint are well known for their essential oil content to which the antimicrobial activity was attributed [1]. ...
... The mints, Mentha species belonging to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae), are widely distributed in Eurasia, Australia, and South and North Africa [1]. Various species of Mentha have been used as folk remedies for treatment of bronchitis, flatulence, anorexia, ulcerative colitis, and liver complaints, due to their anti-inflammatory, carminative, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, analgesic, stimulant, emmenagogue, and anticatharral activities [1,2,3,4,5]. ...
... The mints, Mentha species belonging to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae), are widely distributed in Eurasia, Australia, and South and North Africa [1]. Various species of Mentha have been used as folk remedies for treatment of bronchitis, flatulence, anorexia, ulcerative colitis, and liver complaints, due to their anti-inflammatory, carminative, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, analgesic, stimulant, emmenagogue, and anticatharral activities [1,2,3,4,5]. The Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., has been commonly used as a kitchen and medicinal plant for centuries. ...
... But traditional knowledge report that these plants possess potential to cure infectious diseases. Nowadays, these ethnomdicines have been receiving considerable attention by scientist and pharmaceutical research industries with the aim to investigate for more effective substitute (Dogruoz et al., 2008;Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010;Samee et al., 2009). L. royleana seeds are ethnobotanically well-established worldwide for the treatment of abscesses, inflammation and respiratory problems, particularly Muslim used its seeds in drinks due to sedative effects (Abbas et al., 2012;Abdulrasool et al., *Corresponding author. ...
... It contains carbohydrates, fiber, oil, protein and tannins (Naghibi et al., 2005;Razavi and Karazhiyan, 2009;Razavi and Moghaddam, 2011). Recent trend toward natural remedies support the fact that plant and food medicine are good source of natural and safe healing therapies (Dogruoz et al., 2008;Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010). ...
... It has been noted that the original source of many important pharmaceuticals currently in use have been plants used by indigenous people [1]. Herbal medicine or phyto-medicine refers to the use of any plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes [2][3][4][5][6]. ...
... Similar types of observations have been found in the past researches. In a study [2], antibacterial activity of Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was tested against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated excellent inhibition on the growth of Gram-positive bacteria like S. aureus, followed by B. cereus and Streptococcus faecalis. ...
... Gupta et al. [21] reported that cold petroleum ether extract of black pepper exhibited potent antibacterial activity against E. coli but the extract was found ineffective against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It has to be noted that antibacterial action of black pepper is due to loss of control over cell membrane permeability [22] , inhibition of bacterial efflux pump, their biofilm and interference with the bacterial motilities [13] . Apart from the fruit extracts of black pepper, antibacterial activity is also exhibited by essential oils [23][24][25] , piperine [2,3,22] piperic acid [2] and oleoresins [25] . ...
... It has to be noted that antibacterial action of black pepper is due to loss of control over cell membrane permeability [22] , inhibition of bacterial efflux pump, their biofilm and interference with the bacterial motilities [13] . Apart from the fruit extracts of black pepper, antibacterial activity is also exhibited by essential oils [23][24][25] , piperine [2,3,22] piperic acid [2] and oleoresins [25] . In this regard Zarai et al. [2] stated that the antibacterial activity of the ethanol extracts from P. nigrum could be related to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid components. ...
Conference Paper
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum) the “king of spices” is well known for its pungent aroma and flavour. “Piperine” is a major active constituent which is responsible for pungency and most of the biological activities exhibited by Black pepper. P. nigrum and its active principle piperine exhibit diverse pharmacological activities like antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, anti-thyroid, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, antidepressant, immune-modulatory, anticonvulsant, hepato-protective, etc. Nevertheless, it has got antimicrobial activities against varied bacterial species. The antibacterial activity of black pepper is due to alteration of membrane permeability, efflux pump inhibition, prevention of biofilm formation and interference of bacterial motility. Recently, antineoplastic activities of black pepper have been extensively explored through various experimentations. Piperine has been reported to enhance bioavailability of various drugs and nutrients when co-administrated. Therefore, black pepper and its active constituents have potential to replace or enhance the efficacy of conventional medical therapy which is facing resistance or toxicity issues.
... In its dried form, the fruit is frequently referred to as peppercorns. [16][17][18][19] Peppercorns, and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them, may be described as black pepper and their reported therapeutic activities are listed in Table 2. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] Bioenhancer activity of black pepper. Piperine, the chief plant alkaloid present in Piper nigrum Linn. ...
... In its dried form, the fruit is frequently referred to as peppercorns. [16][17][18][19] Peppercorns, and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them, may be described as black pepper and their reported therapeutic activities are listed in Table 2. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] Bioenhancer activity of black pepper. Piperine, the chief plant alkaloid present in Piper nigrum Linn. ...
Article
Spices are natural plant products enriched with the history of being used as herbal medicine for prevention of diseases. India is also known as "Land of Spices". Out of 109 spices recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) world more than 52-60 spice crops are grown in India. The major spices exported by India are Turmeric, Cumin, Coriander, Fenugreek, Peppers etc. The Indian spices are divided into three era viz. early period, middle age and early modern period. Spices are used in beverages, liquors, and pharmaceutical, cosmetic and Perfumery products. The major issue with spices is their handling and storage. This review article mainly focuses on two aspects: At the outset the handling and storage of the spices is essential factor as spices are available in different forms like raw, processed, fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. So the need of processing, packaging, storage and handling of the spices is important as spices deterioration can leads to the loss of its therapeutic activity. Furthermore many herbal constituents have the capability to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. So an attempt has been made to throw a light on the bio enhancer activity and therapeutic activity along with their mechanism of action of the some Indian Spices which are regularly used for cooking purpose on the daily basis to enhance the taste of food. The spices suggested by ministry of AYUSH which is relevant to its medicinal and biological property in treatment and prevention from COVID-19 are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The studies had showed the presence of carbohydrates, fibre, oil, protein and tannins 6,13,20,21 . Other studies toward natural remedies confirmed the fact that plant and food medicine are good source of natural and safe healing therapies 11,17 . Nowadays, these ethnomdicines have been receiving substantial attention by scientist and ISSN: 2250-1177 ...
... [176] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO pharmaceutical research industries with the aim to investigate for more efficient substitute 10,11,19 . ...
Article
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Lallemantia royleana Benth. is an annual, biennial or perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, commonly known as Balangu. It is cultivated throughout Western Asia, India, Pakistan and Northern of Iraq. In Unani system of medicine it act as a Mudire Baul (Diuretic), Muqawwi Qalb (Cardiotonic), Musakkin (Sedative) etc and used for treatment of Nazla wa Zukam (Common cold) , Humma (Fever), Dard Mafasil (Joint pain), Hudar (Rheumatism), Amraze Gurda (Renal disorder), Zofe Qalb (Weakness of heart) etc. Traditional observation reports that this plant retains potential to cure infectious diseases. Nowadays, it is receiving substantial consideration by scientist and pharmaceutical research industries with the aim to explore for more effective substitute. The seeds contain linoleic, oleic, betasitosterol, palmitic and stearic acids, its gums are composed of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, protein, uronic anhydride and are generally used for the treatment of abscesses, inflammation and respiratory problems, also used in drinks due to its sedative effects. This plant seems to possess many undiscovered pharmacological properties which have to be explored. Keywords: Lallemantia royleana Benth, Unani medicine, Traditionl medicine.
... The alteration of cell membrane of P. aeruginosa and S. flexneri was evaluated by measuring the optical densities at 260 nm and 280 nm of the bacterial suspensions in the presence and absence of MeOH extract and compound 2 using the method described by Karsha and Lakshmi [28]. ...
... These observations suggest the contribution of compound 2 and MeOH extract to the alteration of microbial membrane, and the resulting leakage of intracellular material may lead to microbial death, justifying their microbicidal effect. Similar mechanisms of bacterial death have been reported in earlier studies [28]. The ability of the MeOH extract and compund 2 to alter bacterial cell membrane was further demonstrated by increased reducing sugars in the culture suspension as the concentration of both the tested MeOH extract and compound 2 raised from ½ MIC to 2 MIC through MIC. ...
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Background Antibiotic resistance has contributed to the burden of infectious diseases both in the hospital and community setting, and represents a great threat to public health. Previous studies have revealed the role of reactive oxygen species as intermediate mediators of tissue damage, following antibiotherapies, indicating the need of associating antioxidants to these treatments. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of extracts and compounds from Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. (Polygonaceae), as well as to investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of the most effective agents. Methods The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in organic solvents followed by column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction and purification of different fractions which led to the isolation and characterization of pure compounds. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts/compounds and their combinations with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole were evaluated using the broth microdilution method by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC). The effects of the extracts on the bacterial cell membrane and microbial respiratory chain dehydrogenase enzyme activity were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GAEAC) assays. Results Chrysophanol ( 1 ), physcion ( 2 ), Ergosta-6,22-diene-3,5,8-triol ( 3 ), emodin ( 4 ), 6-hydroxyemodin (citreorosein) ( 5 ), chrysophanein ( 6 ) and physcionin ( 7 ) were isolated from EtOAc fraction of R. abyssinicus and displayed different degrees of antimicrobial activities (MIC = 8–256 μg/mL). The MeOH extract and compounds 2 and 4 exhibited synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Compounds 1 , 2 and the combined mixture of 6 + 7 displayed the highest antioxidant activity (GAEAC = 83.38–106.03 μg/mL). Conclusion R. abyssinicus is a potential source of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant agents. The antibacterial mechanisms of action of the MeOH extract and compound 2 are due to disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane and inhibition of the microbial respiratory chain dehydrogenase enzyme activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of test samples and ciprofloxacin / fluconazole association against MDR strains. The observed activity of the isolated compounds against bacteria and fungi including MDR strains deserves further exploration.
... The cells were then placed in the TEM sample holder and coated with gold using a sputter. The cells were viewed using TEM (JEOL JEM 1010) (Schmid and Sakamoto, 2001;Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010;Bai et al., 2015). ...
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The rise of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and the drying up of the pipeline for the development of new antibiotics demands an urgent search for new antibiotic leads. While the majority of clinically available antibiotics were discovered from terrestrial Streptomyces, related species from marine sediments as a source of antibiotics remain underexplored. Here, we utilized culture-dependent isolation of thirty-five marine sediment-derived actinobacterial isolates followed by a screening of their antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus ATCC BAA-44. Our results revealed that the crude extract of Streptomyces griseorubens strain DSD069 isolated from marine sediments collected in Romblon, Philippines displays the highest antibacterial activity, with 96.4% growth inhibition. The S. aureus ATCC BAA-44 cells treated with crude extract of Streptomyces griseorubens strain DSD069 showed cell membrane damage as demonstrated by (a) leakage and loss of vital cell constituents, including DNA and proteins, (b) irregular shrinkage of cells, and (c) increase membrane permeability. The antibiotic compounds were identified as Bisanhydroaklavinone and 1-Hydroxybisanhydroaklavinone with MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL and 50.00 μg/mL, respectively. Bisanhydroaklavinone and 1-Hydroxybisanhydroaklavinone are shunt metabolites in the biosynthesis of anticancer anthracycline derivatives namely doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and cinerubins. It is rare, however, that shunt metabolites are accumulated during fermentation of marine sediment-derived Streptomyces strain without genetic modification. Thus, our study provides evidence that natural bacterial strain can produce Bisanhydroaklavinone and 1-Hydroxybisanhydroaklavinone as antibiotic leads to combat ABR.
... The results indicated excellent inhibition on the growth of Gram-positive bacteria like S. aureus, followed by B. cereus and Streptococcus faecalis. Among the Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa was more susceptible followed by S. typhi and E. coli [31]. The antibacterial activity of Piper nigrum was measured against various pathogenic bacteria and fungus [32]. ...
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The medicinal plants, Piper nigrum (fruit) and Rauwolfia serpentina (Root) was tested for their synergistic effect as antibacterial agents against six characterized pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus warneri, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysentriae. The aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of fruit of Piper nigrum and Rauwolfia serpentina were Preparation by standard methods. In a ratio of 50:50 (20µ/ml of each), the mix of three solvent extracts of these two plants was prepared. Of three different solvent extracts, total of three treatments (T2a, T2b, T2c) were prepared. The results showed that the first treatment (T2a) i.e. mix of aqueous extract of the two plants gave the largest inhibition zone as compared two other two solvent mix against Staphylococcus warneri (17.2mm), followed by chloroform mix (third treatment/ T2c) which again gave largest inhibition zone against Staphylococcus warneri (17.0mm). The first treatment (T2a) showed very good inhibition effect against Shigella dysentriae (16.2mm) which was seen to be more than individual plant extracts as well as standard antibiotic Norfloxacin (13.9mm). Then treatment two (ethanol extract mix/ T2b) gave largest inhibition zone against Staphylococcus warneri (16.8mm) and all were slightly less than the used standard antibiotic Norfloxacin (17.8mm). The smallest inhibition zone was against Escherichia coli (14.8mm) by treatment three (chloroform extract mix).
... Piper nigrum showed a prominent zone of inhibition of 2.05cm diameter by disk diffusion method against S. aureus. Previous studies reported the excellent inhibitory effect of acetone extract of black pepper on the growth of Gram positive bacteria [23]. Here, we found that P. nigrum can also show an effective inhibition of the growth of S. aureus too. ...
... It is used in folk medicine for treating leprosy, antiseptic diuretic, carminative, aphrodisiac, rheumatoid arthritis, cough, melanoderma and peripheral neuropathy due to the polyphenolic compounds like tannins, volatile compounds and phenols. 26 Furthermore, the pepper spicy tang is due to piperamides, which are the pungent bioactive alkaloids found within the fruit's skin and seeds. It has been studied that, volatile oils from pepper leaves (humulene, limonene, β-,α-pinene) and pepper berries (elemol, bisabolene, α-cubebene, α-bisabolol, α-guaiene) were able to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichoderma spp. ...
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Introduction: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) has received enormous attention, not only due to its negative influences on women’s life but also because of the escalating trend of fungal resistance towards current antifungal drugs. In recent decades, researches have been focusing on the development of natural products as the antifungal agents due to their low side effects compared to standard antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods: The antifungal activity of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey (TH) in single as well as in combinations were evaluated in this study. Agar well diffusion method was used and the zone of inhibitions was compared to the standard drug, fluconazole. Results: The antifungal activity of these natural products alone was low and not all combinations were significant. Moreover, both curcumin and piperine are known to have low bioavailability that might limit its fungicidal efficiency. Hence, nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and honey were then developed in this study. The nanoemulsions of three natural compounds have possessed favorable antifungal activity (more than 80%) against the wide range of Candida spp. Particularly, Candida albicans was more susceptible to these nanoemulsions compared to other species tested and some of them were the most resistant to fluconazole. Conclusions: In concise, this study showed evidence in support of the therapeutic use of nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey in antifungal infections.
... P.V. Karsha et al. in their study revealed that Black pepper EO had a very good inhibitory effect on the growth of of Gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and E.faecalis as the Black pepper altered the membrane permeability. (31) As presented in table no. 3, in case of Coriander EO from the Producer A, we noticed an 28 mm inhibition zone against E. faecalis as well as a better value for the cost-efficiency antibacterial activity index (0,08) than the effect of the same EO (10 mm)and the index (0,12) from the Producer B, due also because of the small price difference between the two producers. ...
Article
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The aim of the study is to evaluate antibacterial properties of commercial essential oils (Oregano, Black pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon) against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis). Nevertheless, we want to asses if the price of the essential oils (EO) which were purchased from 2 different retailers, can influence the quality of essential oil and the antimicrobial effect. Materials and methods: Essential oils from two different Producers (A-high price range, respectively Blow price range) with two opposite price ranges were purchased from local retailers. The inhibitory effect was assessed by disk diffusion. Bacterial inoculums of 0.5 McFarland units (~1.5 x 10 8 CFU/ml) were prepared from Streptococcus mutans Enterococcus faecalis. Muller-Hinton agar plates were inoculated with bacterial inoculums. Sterile paper disks with the diameter of 6 mm (Bioanalyse Ltd, Turkey) were dispensed on the medium surface. Five µl of essential oils were pipetted on corresponding disks. After 10 minutes (time needed for a proper diffusion of active components), the plates were incubated in normal atmosphere at 37°C. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition zone diameters (in millimeters) were read and noted in spreadsheet software, aside the average price in €/ml of essential oil. A cost-efficiency antibacterial activity index was also calculated.Results:With regard to EO from Producer A, the inhibition zone against Enteroccocus ranged from the weakest 14mm(Black pepper), 28mm(Coriander) to the strongest over 40 mm(Oregano and Cinnamon). With regard to volatile essential oils from Producer B, against the Enteroccocus, the smallest inhibition zone was observed for Coriander (10 mm), followed by Black pepper(11 mm); on the opposite side, the strongest inhibition zone presented both Oregano EO and Cinnamon EO (34 mm). Against S. mutans, the weakest inhibition zone showed Black pepper(6 mm), followed by Coriander EO(12 mm) and the strongest inhibition zone had Oregano EO(38 mm) and Cinnamon EO (40 mm). All the EO from the Producer A managed to successfully inhibit S. mutans growth. In both producers, Origanum vulgare EO was the most cost-efficient against E. faecalis (index=0.06 for Producer A and 0.03 for Producer B). In the case of Producer A, against S.mutans the best index was seen at Coriandrum sativum EO (0,05) and the weakest at Cinnamonum zeylanicum (0,14). In the case of Producer B, against E. faecalis, the lowest index was seen at Piper nigrum(0,13). The same pattern was seen against S. mutans, the highest index had Origanum vulgare(0,03) and the lowest Piper nigrum (0,23) Conclusions:Most of essential oils studied from both Producers, had better antibacterial effect against S. mutans compared to E. faecalis.All the EO from the Producer A managed to successfully inhibit S. mutans growth.The high price EO had a better antimicrobial effect compared to the low price EO.The strongest antimicrobial effect against E.faecalis had the high-price Oregano and Cinnamon EO and the weakest antimicrobial effect had low-price Coriander EO. Against S. mutans, the greatest efficacy had all high-price EO, and the lowest had the low-price Black pepper EO.The high price of some EO (Piper nigrum) does not make any difference regarding the antibacterial effect. Lower price EO may be still suitable in regards of antibacterial effect if considering the associated costs, even if the effect does not reach the potency of the higher-price alternatives.
... This study investigated the detailed selective cellular and molecular biocompatibility of black pepper using embryonic zebrafish as in vivo model. The grinded and dried powder parts of medicinally proven (Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010) (Prashant et al., 2017) (Butt et al., 2013) and edible (Uchman et al., 1983) black peppercorn i.e. seed cover (SC) and seed powder (SP) were checked for Patel, et al. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 192 (2020) 110321 their component analysis using GCMS. ...
Article
Day to day consumption of black pepper raise concern about the detailed information about their medicinal, pharmaceutical values and knowledge about the biocompatibility with respect to ecosystem. This study investigates the in vivo selective molecular biocompatibility of its seed cover (SC) and seed core (SP) powder extract using embryonic zebrafish model. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the extract prepared by grinding showed presence of different components with “piperine” as principle component. Biocompatibility analysis showed dose and time dependent selective effect of SC and SP with LC50 of 30.4 μg/ml and 35.6 μg/ml, respectively on survivability, hatching and heartbeat rate in embryonic zebrafish. Mechanistic investigation elucidated it as effect of accumulation and internalization of black pepper leading to their influence on structure and function of cellular proteins hatching enzyme (he1a), superoxide dismutase (sod1) and tumor protein (tp53) responsible for delayed hatching, oxidative stress induction and apoptosis. The study provided insight to selective biocompatibility of black pepper expedient to produce higher quality spices with respect to pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental aspects.
... Black pepper and red pepper are spices that are commonly added to enhance the flavor, taste, and color of food dishes. Black pepper is also used for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes to treat different kinds of diseases, such as indigestion, obesity, vertigo, asthma, sinusitis, and even fever, due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and nutritional properties [1]. Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) have been a popular ingredient in Asian, African, and Middle Eastern countries, with Korean food in particular using sesame seeds and oil in many dishes due to its pleasant flavor and taste. ...
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Controlling microbial problems when processing seeds and powdered foods is difficult due to their low water activity, irregular surfaces, and opaqueness. Moreover, existing thermal processing can readily cause various undesirable changes in sensory properties. Intense pulsed light (IPL) can be effective in nonthermal processing, and so two xenon lamps were attached to the sides of a self-designed cyclone type of pilot-scale IPL device. Each lamp was connected to its own power supply, and the following treatment conditions were applied to four sample types: lamp DC voltage of 1800–4200 V, pulse width of 0.5–1.0 ms, frequency of 2 Hz, and treatment time of 1–5 min. This device achieved reductions of 0.45, 0.66, and 0.88 log CFU/mL for ground black pepper, red pepper, and embryo buds of rice, respectively, under a total energy fluence of 12.31 J/cm2. Meanwhile, >3-log reductions were achieved for sesame seed samples under a total energy fluence of 11.26 J/cm2. In addition, analyses of color changes, water activity, and moisture content revealed no significant differences between the control and IPL-treated samples. These findings indicate that IPL treatment may be considered a feasible sterilization method for seeds and powdered foods.
... Non-pathogenic Gram þ and Gram -bacterial strains and plant pathogenic bacteria were used for measuring minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the test compounds by serial dilution method [14,15]. The test compounds include the essential oils and major components. ...
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Development of bactericides and fungicides in terms of isolation and identification of substances is an important area of research. Presently, under the concept of integrated pest management, all possible plant pest and disease control methods are integrated to minimize the excessive use of synthetic chemicals and also the incidence of disease. The potential of various essential oils against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi is being actively investigated in various laboratories across the world. Rice the most important crop, suffers from huge yield losses due to blast and blight diseases. Most of the labs have focussed to use transgenic approaches, the use of environmentally friendly natural products, as disease control strategies. In this context, we propose to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their ability to control diseases of rice. Seven Essential oils from seven different plants were selected for the study. The antimicrobial activity was assessed in terms of their antibacterial activity towards non-pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic drug resistant bacteria by means of their ability to sensitize the drug resistant bacteria in plasmid curing and, ß-lactamase inhibition and as antifungal agents. In conclusion, out of the seven essential oils used, lemongrass, palm rosa and eucalyptus were found to be good antimicrobial agents.
... In recent decades, Piperine came into the spotlight of pharmaceutical research. It has antibacterial [13], antioxidant [14], anti-inflammatory [15], antiarthritic [15] and other effects. The most interesting point is that Piperine increases the bioavailability of a number of therapeutic drugs as well as phytochemicals [16]. ...
Article
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The present study was aimed to evaluate the purity of the ingredients through the assay of marker compound to ensure the quality of the prepared poly herbal formulation in the course of standardization. It was carried out by isolation of piperine from poly herbal formulation Trikakuchurna besides one of its ingredient namely Piper nigrum; quantitative evaluation of Piperine through densitometry, using HPTLC for poly herbal formulation of in-house prepared and market purchased samples besides ingredients. The isolated compound was identified by UV, H1 NMR, and LC-MS. Thus the presence of marker not only identified in the formulations but also physically found with the isolated marker compound to ensure the quality of the finished product.
... Development of AMR has led the scientist to focus on the discovery of antimicrobial from plant, especially that of ethnopharmacological origin. A report on antibacterial activity of P. nigrum has found the MIC range of 50-500 µg/ml against reference strains of S. aureus, S. faecalis, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, and E. coli (Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010). The variation in MIC values might be due to the methods used for extract preparation and nature of test pathogens as we tested against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. ...
Article
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Piper nigrum is a widely used plant in traditional remedies and known for its numerous biological properties. However, fraction-based antioxidant activity and their antimutagenic potential are not yet fully investigated. Different extracts of the seeds P. nigrum were obtained by sequential extraction in different solvents. All extracts were evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activities using different methods. The most active fraction was analyzed for antimutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella test. The antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found to be more prominent compared to ESβL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The MIC values were found to be lower against MRSA than K. pneumoniae. The extract showing highest antioxidant activity (methanol extract) was further tested for antimutagenic activity both against direct and indirect-acting mutagens. A varying level of antimutagenic activity was shown by methanol extract at highest tested concentration (200 µg/plate). Alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids were detected as major class of compounds in methanol extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed the presence of various phytocompounds. Based on molecular docking of two major active phytocompounds (piperine and copaene), they were found to interact at the minor groove of DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation revealed that both the ligands were quite stable with DNA under physiological conditions. The ability of phytocompounds to interact with DNA might be reducing the interaction of mutagens and could be one of the possible mechanism of anti-mutagenic activity of P. nigrum extract. This study highlights the antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Piper nigrum. The role of phytocompounds present in the bioactive extract is needed to be explored further for herbal drug research.
... Moreover, the essential oil of black pepper can inhibit the growth and germination of Clostridium botulinum (Hariri and Ghiasvand, 2016). Black pepper is also rich in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Karthikeyan and Rani, 2003), and can damage the membrane of bacteria to avoid its growth (Karsha and Lakshmi, 2010). ...
Article
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Fermented tilapia (Tilapia nicoliticus) is one of the famous fermented food in Malaysia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which well known as GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe) are present in most fermented foods and they are well-known non-pathogenic bacteria that play an important role in everyday life. Apart from LAB, spices have also been used for centuries across different regions of the world to improve aroma, flavour and food preservative. This research was aimed to explore a potential natural food preservative using LAB isolated from fermented Tilapia nicoliticus incorporated with various spices (9% turmeric, 6% chilli and 9% black pepper) against foodborne pathogens. The isolation of LAB in different media (MRS, MRS+CaCO3, M17 and Tomato Juice Agar) showed the highest LAB count on day-9 and day-15 during the fermentation period in fermented Tilapia incorporated with black pepper, turmeric and chilli. The highest antimicrobial activity by LAB against Bacillus cereus was observed in fermented tilapia incorporated with black pepper. On the other hand, fermented fish incorporated with chilli showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Higher antimicrobial activity was detected in fermented Tilapia in the presence of LAB together with the spices, in comparison to the presence of LAB alone, suggesting synergistic effects between LAB in fermented fish with spices could enhance stronger antimicrobial activities against food pathogens and therefore, served as a natural food preservative.
... In their study, Piper nigrum exhibited inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of inhibition of 2.5cm. Previous research by Karsha et al. [33] proved that acetone extract of Piper nigrum showed antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria. ...
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Objective: Dental caries is an infectious disease in which S. mutans plays a key role. Haphazard and irrational use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance and fatal diarrhoeal diseases in children. Antimicrobial potency of Terminalia chebula and Piper nigrum extracts against several bacterial strains have been documented. The aims of this study were to assess and compare the antimicrobial activities of T. chebula and P. nigrum extracts against S. mutans with Ciprofloxacin as the positive control. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, S. mutans was isolated from plaque samples of people with active caries lesions. Antimicrobial potency of both T. chebula and P.nigrum were tested using agar well diffusion method. Results: All the tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans bacteria. Regarding the two tested herbs extracts, a higher antimicrobial activity was shown by the methanol extract of Original Research Article Bellamkonda et al.; JPRI, 33(36A): 218-224, 2021; Article no.JPRI.70823 219 T. chebula with a mean diameter of inhibition zone was 26.75mm and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 25mg /ml concentration followed by acetonic extract. Conclusion: These findings confirm the Antimicrobial potency of T. chebula which can be used as an alternative antibiotic and/or in combination with allopathic antibiotics to prevent the antibiotic resistance.
... At the 12th hour, the absorbance was 1.5, and after 24 h, absorbance was recorded as 2.9. A similar antibacterial study of black pepper extract on S. aureus reported the loss of cellular material at 260 and 280 nm [15]. The methanol extract of S. glauca might have caused significant membrane damage to the cell wall of the cocci, which would have resulted in the leakage of cytoplasmic materials such as nucleic acids. ...
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The current study aimed to screen the preliminary phytochemicals in the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Simarouba glauca and to analyze its potential antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. The phytochemical profile of the methanol extract was analyzed, and bioactive compounds were identified using chromatography, FTIR and GCMS. Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined against 14 bacterial and 6 fungal strains. Moreover, the synergistic effect of a plant extract with commercially available antibiotics was also evaluated using the checkerboard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed exclusive activity against S. aureus and profound activity against E. coli and S. marcescens. Upon comparing breakpoints, methanolic extract demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 3.2 mg/mL against the test pathogens. Furthermore, the extracts demonstrated potential antioxidant activity; methanol extract had higher antioxidant potential compared to the ethanol extract. The major proactive bioactive compound with maximum antioxidant capacity was observed to be terpenoids. The methanol extract of S. glauca showed significant cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 16.12 µg/mL. The overall results of our work provide significant evidence for the usage of methanolic extract of S. glauca as an efficient ethnomedicinal agent and a potential candidate for relieving many human ailments.
... Among those compound Cyclohexene, Naphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8aoctahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1methyl), Epiglobulol, Piperidine, 1-(1-oxo-3-phenyl-2-propenyl) and Piperine Posses antimicrobial action. Karsha and Lakshmi [41] and Zou et al. [42] suggested that the extracts of Piper nigrum changes the permeability of the cell membrane of pathogen, as a result causes metabolic dysfunction, inhibited energy synthesis and triggered cell death. ...
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The aim of present study was to exploring antibacterial activity of roots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), fruit pulp of Citrullus colocynthis (Bitter apple fruit) and pepper corn of Piper nigrum (Black pepper) popularly used in the arid and semi arid area of Rajasthan, India for treatment of various ailments. Milk samples were collected aseptically from subclinical mastitis affected cows. Cultural examination of milk samples was carried out for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera, Citrullus colocynthis and Piper nigrum extracts were tested by agar cup method at different concentration viz. 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml, 31.25 mg/ml and 15.62 mg/ml against bacterial isolates of bovine subclinical mastitis. The Withania somnifera and polyherb mixture showed good antibacterial activity in comparison to Citrullus colocynthis and Piper nigrum extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural cases of bovine subclinical mastitis. The alcoholic extracts Citrullus colocynthis and Piper nigrum showed moderate antibacterial activity.
... Natural remedies derived from plants provide new medicinal and extremely efficient antimicrobial compounds (17,18). In medical care, one of the leading recent developments in the fight against resistant pathogens involves antimicrobial combination therapy (19)(20)(21). ...
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Introduction Piperlongumine (PL) is a bioactive alkaloid and medicinal compound of piperamide isolated from the long pepper ( Piper longum Linn). It has demonstrated bactericidal action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the cause of pulmonary tuberculosis; nevertheless, immunomodulatory activity had not been identified for it in MTB-triggered granulomatous inflammation. This study investigated if piperlongumine could inhibit such inflammation. Material and Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv was subjected to a broth microdilution assay. Piperlongumine at 5, 15, and 25 μg/mL, 0.2% dimethyl sulphoxide as control or 4 μM of dexamethasone were tested in vitro on MH-S murine alveolar macrophages. BALB/c mice were orally administered PL at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w. after trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) stimulation. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined in lung supernatants. Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis were performed to determine phosphorylated spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Results Piperlongumine inhibited inflammatory mediators and adherence of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 to MH-S cells following TDM activation. It also improved macrophage clearance of MTB. In TDM-stimulated MH-S cells, PL significantly influenced the macrophage inducible Ca ²⁺ -dependent lectin receptor (Mincle)-Syk-ERK signalling pathway. Oral dosing of PL effectively suppressed the development of pulmonary granulomas and inflammatory reactions in the TDM-elicited mouse granuloma model. Conclusion PL as an inhibitor of MTB-triggered granulomatous inflammation may be an effective complementary treatment for mycobacterial infection.
... Previously, P. nigrum exhibited MIC values within a similar range (0.0625-0.5 mg/mL) against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, B. cereus, E. faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi, S. Typhimurium or E. coli [21,[24][25][26]. Regarding the antibacterial mechanisms of action, black pepper was shown to induce plasmolysis, decrease cell membrane permeability, inhibit the tricarboxylic acid pathway, increase intracellular pyruvic acid and reduce intracellular ATP levels [25]. ...
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Piper spices represent an inexhaustible reservoir of bioactive compounds that may act as drug leads in natural product research. The aim of this study was to investigate a series of meth-anolic fruit extracts obtained from P. nigrum (black, green, white and red), P. longum and P. retro-fractum in comparative phytochemical and multi-directional biological (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-enzymatic and anti-melanogenic) assays. The metabolite profiling revealed the presence of 17 piperamides, with a total content of 247.75-591.42 mg piperine equivalents/g. Among the 22 tested microorganism strains, Piper spices were significantly active (MIC < 0.1 mg/mL) against the anaer-obes Actinomyces israelii and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activities were evidenced in DPPH (10.64-82.44 mg TE/g) and ABTS (14.20-77.60 mg TE/g) radical scaveng-ing, CUPRAC (39.94-140.52 mg TE/g), FRAP (16.05-77.00 mg TE/g), chelating (0-34.80 mg EDTAE/g), anti-acetylcholinesterase (0-2.27 mg GALAE/g), anti-butyrylcholinesterase (0.60-3.11 mg GALAE/g), anti-amylase (0.62-1.11 mmol ACAE/g) and anti-glucosidase (0-1.22 mmol ACAE/g) assays. Several Piper extracts (10 μg/mL) inhibited both melanin synthesis (to 32.05-60.65% of αMSH+ cells) and release (38.06-45.78% of αMSH+ cells) in αMSH-stimulated B16F10 cells, partly explained by their tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Our study uncovers differences between Piper spices and sheds light on their potential use as nutraceuticals or cosmeceuticals for the management of different diseases linked to bacterial infections, Alzheimer's dementia, type 2 diabetes mellitus or hyperpigmentation.
... In P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, PAβN did not decrease the MIC of ciprofloxacin, while the combinations of the extracts with the latter drug decreased it. This observation may indicate that the extracts from M. officinalis may also act by damaging bacterial cell membrane or cell wall, thereby facilitating the penetration of ciprofloxacin into bacterial cell 16,17 . Lack of antagonistic effects of the extracts with ciprofloxacin is another promising advantage to consider the extracts as a candidate for fluoroquinolones potentiation. ...
Article
Background and aims: In bacteria, using inhibitors of efflux pumps (EPIs) is one of several strategies to combat with bacterial resistance. It is well documented that most medicinal plants especially those with antimicrobial properties are composed of elements (EPIs) that disturb the efflux pumps of bacteria. The current work was designed to evaluate antibacterial activities of ethanol and chlorophorm extracts of Melissa officinalis along with the synergistic effects of the extracts with ciprofloxacin against some gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. We also examined the inhibitory effects of the extracts on efflux pumps. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts alone or in association with ciprofloxacin or phenylalanine arginine β- naphtylamide (PAβN) were determined using broth micro dilution method. Effects of the extracts on efflux pumps of the examined bacteria were detected by using ethidium bromide in well diffusion assays. Results The extracts from M. officinalis showed antibacterial activities against all examined bacteria in a range of 3125 to 25000 μg/mL as determined by MIC determination. The extracts from M. officinalis showed synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin on Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, PAβN had no effect on MIC of ciprofloxacin but the association of extracts decreased it. In S. enertidis and E Coli, both extracts of M. officinalis increased the amount of ethidium bromide accumulation (i.e. reduced efflux). Conclusion: The overall results show that associations of fluoroquinolones with extracts of M. officinalis may potentiate the antibacterial effects of fluoroquinolones.
... Therapeutic properties: 9,10 The analgesic activities of both piperine and morphine in the tail flick assay were reversed on pre-treatment of animals with naloxone at dose 5mg/kg (i.p). The results revealed the analgesic activity of piperine which possibly mediated via opioid pathway. ...
... The extracts of Piper nigrum have indicated inhibition on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus cereus and Strep. faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. typhi and E. coli Karsha and Lakashmi, 2010). Kim et al. (2012) stated that Piperine derived from Piper nigrum and Piper longum shows antipyretic, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties. ...
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The recent outbreak of COVID-19 is attributed to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This viral disease is rapidly spreading across the globe, including India. The mainstay in managing the disease is supportive care, nutrition, and preventing further progression in the absence of proven antiviral drugs. Currently two vaccines Covishield and Covaxin are administered in India. Long-term plans of developing most reliable mRNA-based vaccines are also underway for the future method of prophylaxis. The Siddha system of medicine’s holistic approach emphasizes lifestyle modification, prophylactic interventions, and dietary management to boost the host immunity and treatment with herbal medicines and higher-order medicines as the case may be. In this review, a brief outline of the disease COVID-19, Coronavirus, evidence-based traditional Siddha interventions for respiratory ailments, immune boosters highlighting the relevant published research on individual herbs are dealt, which pave way for further research on drug repurposing for COVID-19. Historical evidence on the prevention and treatment of infections in Siddha classics is studied. Web search in databases such as Embase, Biomed Central Articles, Pub med, NLM, Web of Science CrossRef, Google scholar, AYUSH research portal, google search engine related to antiviral properties of herbs used in the preparation of Siddha drugs was also carried out.
... According to Rani et al. [71], piperine had potential antimicrobial as well as antifungal effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, (A) flavus, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum. Phenolic compounds obtained from fresh black pepper seed extracts [44] have the potential to inhibit the growth of Bacillus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, S. faecalis and (B) cereus [72,73]. Zhang et al. [74] showed that 1.0 µl/ml of BPEO was the effective minimum inhibition concentration against meat-borne E. coli, and suggested that black pepper essential oil has potential as a natural antibacterial agent in the meat industry. ...
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Background: Black pepper [Piper nigrum (L.), Family: Piperaceae] is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases including; cough, cold, dyspnea throat diseases, intermittent fever, dysentery, stomachache, worms and piles. The pharmacological potential of black pepper is due to the presence of metabolites like phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, etc. The multipurpose use of black pepper dried seeds has several other beneficial health effects that also received in the light of traditional as well as current medicine perspectives. The review aims to discuss the botany, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties of piperine and black pepper essential oil (BPEO). Results: Phytochemical analyses have described the main chemical constituents of black pepper, including carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids and carotenoids. The volatile oil content ranges from 0.4 to 7 % in dried berries. The major constituents of BPEO are sabinene, 3-carene, D-limonene, α-pinene, caryophyllene, β-phellandrene, α-phellandrene, α-thujene, and β-bisabolene. Additionally, piperine is the naturally occurring and principal bioactive alkaloid constituent of black pepper owing to its potential therapeutic properties, including cerebral brain functioning and increased nutrient absorption. The BPEO has several biological roles, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-obesity, antidepressant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, and insecticidal activities. Conclusions: This review examines and presents the appropriate evidence on black pepper and its traditional uses as well as biological activities of BPEO and piperine. Although several previous reports showed diverse biological effects for piperine and bioactive constitutes of BPEO. Thus, minimal investigations were conducted using animal models, and many of these studies also lacked appropriate experimental setting like doses, control details. Hence, future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism of piperine, BPEO, bioactive constituents and their effects upon their use by animal models and humans with the proper experimental procedure which we can facilitate the protection of human health from several diseases.
... Graph of percentage of maximum contractile response of histamine on abscissa were plotted to record DRC of histamine, in absence and presence of plant extract. 23,24 ...
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Objective: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs affecting large number of population throughout the world. Albeit different treatment approaches are being attempted and numerous promising medications have been developed but due to complexity of inflammatory mediators involved and their etiology, no lasting and permanent cure has been achieved so far. Piper nigrum, a well known folklore medicinal plant of north eastern region of India is routinely used alone or in combination to treat allergy mediated inflammatory conditions of respiratory track. Methods: The potency of ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum seed in preventing the episodes of asthma was evaluated in-vivo via determining hyperactivity of bronchiolar air way by measuring the increase in leukocyte and other cell counts in broncho alveolar lavage fluid and evaluating the histamine content in lung tissue of egg albumin sensitized animals. We have also assessed the protection rendered by the extract of the above plant against smooth muscle contractions by histamine. Results: Ethanolic extract (400mg/kg) showed significant (**p<0.05) activity against histamine induced smooth muscle contraction, reduce the histamine content in the lung tissue. Moreover, it also showed a decrease in elevated total leukocyte count, eosinophil, monocyte and neutrophil count which are generally present in augmented state in allergic and asthmatic conditions. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum seed showed reduction in histamine level and other potential inflammatory mediators in lungs tissue and blood respectively and thereby, may exert beneficiary effect in controlling the risk of asthma episodes.
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The paper comprises of the chemistry and the application of some medicinal plant products which have been used as insecticides and insect repellents also. Plants play an important role in every aspect of human activity even in the conservation of our heritage. Over the past few years, there has been growing worldwide concern about the adverse effects of certain chemical pesticides, natural substances being integral part of biosphere are less disruptive to ecological balance; hence, several plants and their products have been experimented against museum insects. At present there are no dearth of modern chemical pesticides and repellents for the safe upkeep of museum objects. The advent of technology has also given rise to greater concerns of preservation of museum objects by adopting modern technologies. Still the uses of herbal remedies for preservation are in vogue, as these have their own merits. Unfortunately, these recipes are being lost as advertising to use modern chemicals increases. It is not old fashioned to use natural pesticides—rather it is a smart use of the natural resources that are readily available. In this context an attempt has been made to summarize the effectiveness of various Indian herbal pesticides and insect repellents which are being used by different organizations or could be used by the organizations to seize the growth of insect infestation in the different museums. This present investigation deals with the application of leaves, bark, seeds, wood and roots of different medicinal plants having toxic effects on different museum pests. Natural pesticides usually take longer to work than synthetic pesticides. Thus, it is important to apply them as soon as the objects show evidence of pests. Insects are killed either by contact or by ingestion of the insecticides. Some insecticides only repel the insects by a strong odour, they are known as insect repellent. The effectiveness of insecticides and repellents varies with the active ingredient(s), the concentration and the target species. Finally, the paper spells out the preparation processes of pesticides from plants.
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Background and Aims: Microbial biofilms are responsible for 65% of human infections and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, finding appropriate ways to prevent infection and biofilm formation is essential. Medicinal plants are one of the suitable candidates to inhibit the antibiotics resistance particularly in biofilm forms. In this study, antimicrobial effects of T.C.P combined extracts (methanolic and ethanolic) were evaluated for 6 antibiotic resistant bacteria in planktonic and biofilm forms. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of extracts on planktonic and biofilm form of antibiotic resistant bacteria, were evaluated by disk diffusion method, macrobroth dilution technique and microtiter plate method. Results: According to disc diffusion test (MBC and MIC), extracts were efficient for inhibition of planktonic forms of bacteria. Although the ethanolic extract was more effective compared to the methanol extract. The T.C.P combined extracts could inhibit biofilm formation and destruct synthetized biofilms. Inhibitory effects on metabolic activity of bacteria had a direct association with the concentration of extract. The maximum inhibitory effects of T.C.P combined extracts on biofilm formation, destruction of synthetized biofilms and inhibition of metabolic activity were observed for S. aureus, (98.13%), S. aureus, (96.3%) and E. coli (81.16%) respectively. Conclusion: T.C.P combined extracts can be used as an alternative component with inhibitory antibiotic resistant bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form.
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The study assessed the antibacterial and antifungal effect of Moringa oleifera seed marinade on smoked Clarias gariepinus stored at ambient temperature for 15 days. Sixty C. gariepinus (15 kg) were gutted, washed, and randomly assigned in triplicate to five treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 g/kg M. oleifera seedmeal in 3.67 g/kg brine solution for 2 hr and later hot smoked for 24 hr. After smoking, the fishes were allowed to cool and packed separately in a transparent Ziploc polythene bag arranged in a box and kept at room temperature. Microbial load and diversity were conducted in the laboratory at 5 days intervals. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium citrinium, Neurospora crassa, and Rhizopus stolonifer while Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. were the identified bacteria. The optimum effective concentration of moringa seed marinade that acts as anti‐bacteria was found best to be 11.2 g/kg of fish moringa marinade. While 12.08 g/kg exhibited the highest anti‐yeast effect in C. gariepinus and 10.6 g/kg serves as antifungi. Thus, moringa seed marinade is safe to use as a natural edible food preservative that can protect smoked dried catfish from microbial spoilage. The study assessed the antibacterial and antifungal effect of Moringa oleifera seed marinade on smoked Clarias gariepinus stored at ambient temperature for 15 days. The optimum effective concentration of moringa seed marinade that acts as antibacterial was found best to be 11.2 g/kg of fish moringa marinade. While 12.08 g/kg exhibited the highest anti‐yeast effect in Clarias gariepinus and 10.6 g/kg serves as anti‐fungi.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CWSc) and piperine in broiler rations and their effects on performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, ileal microbiota and nutrient digestibility. A randomized block design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds was used, totaling 300 chickens. The treatments consisted of: control ration (CR); CR + avilamycin (10 mg / kg); CR + CWSc (2.0 g / kg); CR + piperine (60 mg / kg); and CR + CWSc (2.0 g / kg) + piperine (60 mg / kg). The use of isolated piperine resulted in greater weight gain from 9 to 40 days of age (2505g). The additives CWSc and piperine conjugates influenced the lower coliform count in the ceca (4.45 CFU / g) and caused significant alterations in the biochemical serum and hepatic renal profile. The treatments had no effect on the nutrient metabolizable coefficients or on the carcass traits. There was no positive synergistic effect of the combined use of CWSc and piperine on broiler performance. The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and piperine are effective at guaranteeing productivity, intestinal microbiota dynamics and hematological parameters; and as zootechnical additives, especially in broiler feeds free of antimicrobial performance enhancers.
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There is evidence of medicinal plants having been used in the treatment of human disease caused by various pathogenic microorganisms in many countries of the world. Plants with known antimicrobial activities were used for therapeutic treatments. They contain various biological compounds which could be used in the development of novel drugs for human well-being. Their phytochemical constituents include alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and glycosides, which serve as defense mechanisms against various microbes including insects. These compounds may include antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. The search for new antimicrobial compounds from medicinal plants from many continents is an important line of research because of the increased number of multidrug resistance pathogenic microorganisms. However, the therapeutic ability of a number of medicinal important plants is still unknown. Considering the importance of medicinal plants as sources for antimicrobial drugs, in this review, we report on progress to date in antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants.
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Now a day the development of traditional medicine systems remains high. About 64% of the total global population depends on traditional medicines. Mayurbhanj, is a hilly district, rich in ethnobotanical plants. Due to poor condition of modern healthcare facilities and poverty, indigenous people of the district fully or partially dependent on local medicinal plants. This paper deals with the study of various medicinal plants belongs to many genera and families are employed ethnomedicinally by the people in rural areas of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. An attempt has been made to document traditional knowledge from that particular area of Mayurbhanj on the treatment of various diseases
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Background Clostridioides difficile is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-acquired diarrhea in hospitalized patients associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The global epidemic of CDI (Clostridioides difficile infection) began in the early 20th century with the emergence of the hypervirulent and resistant ribotype 027 strains, and requires an urgent search for new therapeutic agents. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of the three essential oils isolated from spice herbs (wild oregano, garlic and black pepper) against C. difficile clinical isolates belonging to 6 different PCR ribotypes and their potential inhibitory effect on the biofilm production in in vitro conditions. Results Wild oregano essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity in concentrations 0.02–1.25 mg/mL and bactericidal activity in concentrations from 0.08 to 10 mg/mL. Garlic essential oil was effective in the concentration range of 0.02–40 mg/mL, and 0.16 - > 40 mg/mL. MIC and MBC for black pepper oil ranged from 0.04 to 40 mg/mL, and 0.08 - > 40 mg/mL, respectively. All the tested oils reduced in vitro biofilm production, with the best activity of oregano oil. Conclusion Essential oils of wild oregano, black pepper and garlic are candidates for adjunctive therapeutics in the treatment of CDI. Oregano oil should certainly be preferred due to the lack of selectivity of action in relation to the ribotype, the strength of the produced biofilm and/or antibiotic-susceptibility patterns.
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With the emergence and evolution of bacterial strains, it is now becoming difficult for pharmaceutical industries to provide remedies required for the betterment of mankind. Continuous exposure with available medication leads to the development of new strains with a significant amount of resistance, due to which pharmaceutical industries are facing various challenges. Antimicrobial resistance is the phenomenon causing a challenge in new drug development through conventional methods. Therefore, the requirement of alternative medicine is in high demand. Recently, allopathic medicines have seen a disinterest and people are preferring natural solutions due to their fewer side effects comparable to conventional medicine. Worldwide plants are utilized for various disease treatments such as bacterial infection, skin disorders, cancer, asthma, respiratory problems, etc. The presence of a wide range of phytocompounds in different plants provides an alternative to the pharmaceutical industries to counter the problem of bacterial infections. Different plants contain various phytochemicals that possess numerous therapeutic activities and provide a remedy to suppress various bacterial strains. Therefore, in this review, an overview of various plants and their phytocompounds which are responsible for antibacterial activity has been discussed.
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Background: In addition to creating the desired flavor, spices play an important role in increasing the shelf life of food by inhibiting the growth of a variety of microorganisms. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of boiled and non-boiled water extract of Curcuma longa L., Capsicum annuum L. and Piper nigrum alone or in combination. Methods: The antibacterial effect of the spices was investigated against four major food-born pathogens by agar dilution method in different acidic or salty conditions. Results: The results of this study showed that non-biled water extract of C. annuum had the highest antibacterial activity. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more susceptible to the tested spices. The antibacterial activity of the spiceces was reduced by addition of sodium chloride and in acdic pH. A synergistic effect was observed between C. annuum and P. nigrum water extracts agaist Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion: It seems that by using mixture of spices, suitable antimicrobial preservative systems could be designed for different food products.
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Salmonellosis is a disease of great relevance in terms of public health given the economic and social impact that causes both in developing and highly industrialized countries. Due to its transmission mechanism, it affects hundreds or thousands of people every year and is considered an acute disease of worldwide distribution. Causative agent of salmonellosis is salmonella specie which are small gram-negative bacilli and facultative intracellular pathogen of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Multidrug resistance is reported more frequently in strains of salmonella, raising the necessity of new strategies to combat its spread and to treat the disease. Natural products (NPs) derived from traditional medicine knowledge have become an important resource to this end. In this chapter, we present a summary of information published from 2010 to 2020, as a sample of the potentiality of NPs as agents for Salmonellosis. This search was not exhaustive, rather, we aim to obtain a random sample of information using the simplest terms on the matter of natural products for salmonellosis, hopefully, as a reference source for interested researchers.
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A series of novel piperine derivatives were synthesized with high yield and were evaluated for its antifilarial potential against the bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi . Among 21 ( 3a-3u ) compounds screened, three of them ( 3k , 3l , 3s ) showed significant potential against all the developmental stages (oocytes, microfilariae and adult) of the filarial worm in time and dose dependent manner. 3l showed the highest efficacy among the selected three compounds. These three compounds were further evaluated for both in vitro and in vivo toxicity analyses which further fortified the benign nature of the selected compounds. The antifilarial activities they exhibited were clearly fuelled through disparity of the internal redox homeostasis as evidenced from the alterations in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level which ultimately shifted towards activation of pro-apoptotic signaling cascade eventually leading to the death of the parasites. The ability of the compound 3l to bind thioredoxin reductase and CED-3 protein are the key findings of this study. The present study supported with several biological experiments is therefore a maiden report on the antifilarial effectiveness of these novel piperine derivatives.
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Food wastage and shortage of workforce are some of the major problem militating against crop production. The purpose of this research was to improve the physical and mechanical properties of sweet pepper (cv. Goliath F1) fruits in order to optimize harvesting, handling, and processing machines. Goliath sweet pepper plants were pre-harvest treated with CaCl2 and KCl solutions at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L concentrations, respectively. The treatment was done twice weekly, starting from the fruits' flowering stage, till when they were harvested at the deep green maturity stage. All the fruits harvested subjected to physico-mechanical tests according to ASTM International procedures. Results obtained from the test revealed that the treatment options affected all the parameters (fruit weight, moisture content, spoilage rate and firmness) of the fruits, even during storage period. The study revealed that fruits produced with KCl had better body weight, and experienced lower physiological weight loss, than the fruits produced with CaCl2 and the control. Likewise, the results revealed that the fruits produced with CaCl2had better fruit firmness than the fruits produced with KCl and the control. This study results will be useful to engineers for the design and optimization of equipment for sweet pepper production.
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Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that grow in healthy plants tissues without causing any signs of disease or damage to the host plants. In the present study we isolated endophytic fungi from three different spice plants such as Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and Pepper (Piper nigrum) and cultivated in potato dextrose broth. The extracellular metabolites were extracted using ethyl acetate solvent. Further we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. In total 18 endophytic fungi were isolated from the spice plants and identified morphologically as Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum spp. The thin layer chromatography of the ethyl acetate extract showed 3 prominent bands having a Rf value of 0.31, 0.43 and 0.52, respectively. In conclusion, the Fusarium sp. isolated from clove plant showed significant antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. and Citrobacter sp.
Preprint
Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which are used to curing of various diseases. In this present investigation involves six plants of genus Cucumis L. and Momordica L. were studied for different solvents Viz. Acetone, methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform were used to obtain extracts from produced plant fruits. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard procedure. Phytochemical screening reveals the presences of Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannins, Steroids, Glycosides and Flavonoids etc.
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This booklet covers easily available medicinal plant products that have been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for various indications and have useful properties in respiratory infections and have been also shown to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory ands other properties which can be beneficial in such infections.
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Phenol and its non-halogenated derivatives have been used for over 100 years as antiseptics to control growth of microorganisms. Their importance in controlling microbial growth in foods, however, has been recognized only recently. Phenolic compounds important in foods may be classed conveniently into three categories. First, there are those compounds currently approved for use in foods. This group includes methyl, propyl, and heptyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Naturally occurring phenolic derivatives comprise the second category. Simple alkyl. hydroxy- and methoxy-phenol derivatives to complex polyphenols are included in this diverse group. The third type is food additives which are antimicrobials but are currently approved for other uses. The phenolic antioxidants are the only compounds in this category which have been tested thoroughly for their antimicrobial effectiveness. Each of these classes of phenolic compounds has widely varying inhibitory powers against certain bacteria, fungi and viruses....
Chapter
Publisher Summary This chapter presents elected works involving careful study of individual anti microbial agents from higher plants, whose chemical nature belong to several different chemical classes in order to guide those who are interested in taking up the challenge that these substances represent. If one works only on bioactive fractions, much of this process can be omitted once the path of the active material is uncovered. Final purification to crystalline or otherwise pure material depends upon the chemical nature and number of constituents, such that it is not possible to generalize beyond this point except to indicate that in most cases the extracts can be best further purified at this stage by absorption chromatography on silica gel, using the usual eluotropic series of benzene to ether to chloroform to methanol. Phenols have long been known to have antiseptic activity, but the simple phenols are membrane toxins and have insufficient safety for internal use. As might be expected, because plants are rich in phenolic extractives, phenolic plant products have frequently been found to be anti microbial agents.
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The antibacterial and antifungal activity of fruit latex, alcoholic and chloroform extracts of leaves, stem and roots of the plant Thespesia populnea was studied. The antibacterial activity was studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly the antifungal potency was tested against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Ampicillin and Clotrimazole were used as standard antibacterial and antifungal agents respectively. The results of study revealed that, the fruit latex and both the extracts of afore mentioned plant parts exhibited significant activity against B.subtilis. P.aeruginosa, S.aureus and C.albicans. The other organisms, P.vulgaris, A.niger and A.fumigants exhibited moderate susceptibility. The study thus justifies the folk therapy of the title plant in varieties of skin infections.