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Online sexual activities: An exploratory study of problematic and non-problematic usage patterns in a sample of men

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... In PPU, pornography may impact people's lives significantly and dominate their thinking, feelings, and behaviors [23]. Individuals with PPU may use pornography to reduce or eliminate stress or negative feelings [23,24]. They may increase time spent using pornography, consume more extreme pornography and engage in pornography use despite intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts related to their use. ...
... Few studies have directly investigated associations between PPU and sexual functioning problems [12,24]. In a recent survey-based study on males [24], problematic online sexual activities were positively and weakly related to erectile dysfunction and levels of sexual desire, and no significant associations were identified between problematic engagement in online sexual activities and orgasmic dysfunction. ...
... Few studies have directly investigated associations between PPU and sexual functioning problems [12,24]. In a recent survey-based study on males [24], problematic online sexual activities were positively and weakly related to erectile dysfunction and levels of sexual desire, and no significant associations were identified between problematic engagement in online sexual activities and orgasmic dysfunction. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from US males indicated that PPU and erectile functioning have positive associations in cross-sectional studies, while inconclusive results were reported longitudinally [12]. ...
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There is much debate regarding whether pornography use has positive or negative associations with sexuality-related measures such as sexual functioning problems. The present study aimed to examine differential correlates between quantity (frequency of pornography use–FPU) and severity (problematic pornography use–PPU) of pornography use with respect to sexual functioning problems among both males and females. Multi-group structural equation modeling was conducted to investigate hypothesized associations between PPU, FPU, and sexual functioning problems among males and females (N=14,581 participants; females=4,352; 29.8%; Mage=33.6 years, SDage=11.0), controlling for age, sexual orientation, relationship status, and masturbation frequency. The hypothesized model had excellent fit to the data (CFI=.962, TLI=.961, RMSEA=.057 [95% CI=.056-.057]). Similar associations were identified in both genders, with all pathways being statistically significant (p<.001). PPU had positive, moderate associations (βmales=.37, βfemales=.38), while FPU had negative, weak associations with sexual functioning problems (βmales=-.17, βfemales=-.17). Although FPU and PPU had a positive, moderate association, they should be assessed and discussed separately when examining potential associations with sexuality-related outcomes Given that PPU was positively and moderately and FPU negatively and weakly associated with problems in sexual functioning, it is important to consider both PPU and FPU in relation to sexual functioning problems.
... The COVID-19 pandemic and associated social distancing and national lockdown measures have led to adolescents' elevated levels of stress and negative emotions (Duan et al., 2020;Ellis et al., 2020;Fegert et al., 2020;Racine et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020;World Health Organization, 2020). Previous studies showed that using pornography to cope with distressing emotions (e.g., emotional avoidance) was associated with higher levels of PPU (Bőthe et al., 2021a(Bőthe et al., , 2021cWéry & Billieux, 2016). Thus, adolescents might use pornography more frequently to cope with their COVID-19-related negative feelings, which might also be associated with higher levels of PPU (Bőthe et al., 2021a;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). ...
... Previous studies showed that using pornography to cope with distressing emotions (e.g., emotional avoidance) was associated with higher levels of PPU (Bőthe et al., 2021a(Bőthe et al., , 2021cWéry & Billieux, 2016). Thus, adolescents might use pornography more frequently to cope with their COVID-19-related negative feelings, which might also be associated with higher levels of PPU (Bőthe et al., 2021a;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the potential role of the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents' pornography use. ...
... Several motivations may underlie one's pornography use (Bőthe et al., 2019(Bőthe et al., , 2021a(Bőthe et al., , 2021cReid et al., 2011;Romito & Beltramini, 2011;Ševčíková & Daneback, 2014;Wéry & Billieux, 2016), including sexual pleasure (i.e., to increase sexual arousal or help masturbation), sexual curiosity (i.e., to seek information and learn about sexuality), emotional distraction and suppression (i.e., to cope with negative emotions), stress reduction (i.e., to reduce stress), boredom avoidance (i.e., to reduce boredom), fantasy (i.e., to escape from the real world and fantasize about being part of pornography), lack of sexual satisfaction (i.e., as a result of not being satisfied with or missing something from one's sexual life), and self-exploration (i.e., to identify one's sexual needs and preferences). Although sexual pleasure is the most common motivation for pornography use in adults and adolescents as well (Bőthe et al., 2019;Grubbs et al., 2019a, b, c), pornography is also often used to alleviate boredom or cope with negative emotions or stress (Bőthe et al., 2019(Bőthe et al., , 2021aGrubbs et al., 2019a, b, c;Reid et al., 2011;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). ...
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in pornography use has been reported based on cross-sectional findings , raising concerns about associated adverse outcomes, such as problematic pornography use (PPU). The aims of the present study were to document potential changes in adolescents' pornography use frequency, motivations, and PPU before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of an ongoing study on adolescents' sexual health, we used a large sample (N Time 1 = 1771; 47.6% girls, M age = 15.42 years, SD = 0.59) to examine changes from baseline (before the COVID-19 pandemic) to one year later (during the COVID-19 pandemic) in adolescents' self-reported pornography use frequency, motivations, and PPU, using latent change models and examining potential gender differences. No significant changes were observed in adolescents' pornography use frequency and pornography use motivations, and no gender differences were present in these trends. Although statistically significant, slight decrease was observed in boys' PPU levels, and a statistically significant, slight increase was observed in girls' PPU levels, these changes were very small, providing no practical or clinical relevance. In sum, despite previous propositions, concerns, and cross-sectional findings, longitudinal results suggest that adolescents' pornography use characteristics were rather stable between November 2019 and June 2021, and the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns might not have led to general increases in adolescents' pornography use as it was expected.
... Sexual pleasure has arguably been the most frequently reported PUM in prior studies (Bois, 2002;Burns, 2001;Reid et al., 2011;Wéry & Billieux, 2016) and in the present study as well. In line with prior studies (Baltieri et al., 2015;Reid et al., 2011), sexual pleasure motivation had positive, weak-to-moderate associations with all the other motivations and men demonstrated higher scores than women. ...
... However, it also had a positive, but weak association with PPU. Previously, sexual-pleasure motivation demonstrated strong, positive association with the FPU (Brown et al., 2017), while it showed non-significant or weak-to-moderate associations with problematic OSA or hypersexuality (De Souza Aranha E Silva Reid et al., 2011;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). These results are partly in line with previous studies, presumably due to the diverse methodologies applied in the studies above (i.e., bivariate correlations). ...
... When examining sexual-curiosity motivations in relation to FPU and PPU and accounting for other motivations, sexual curiosity was unrelated. These results are in line with previous studies in which sexual curiosity was not a significant correlate of problematic OSA or hypersexuality (De Souza Aranha E Silva & Wéry & Billieux, 2016). As for FPU, despite reports of positive, moderate associations between motivations of sexual curiosity and FPU (Brown et al., 2017), no significant association in the present examination was identified between these variables, possibly as a result of the multivariate analytic approach. ...
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Although pornography viewing is widespread among Internet users, no scales for measuring pornography use motivations (PUM) have been developed and psychometrically tested for use in general populations. The present work aimed to construct a measure that could reliably assess a wide range of PUM in nonspecific populations. Self-report data of 3 separate samples (N1 = 772 [51% women], N2 = 792 [6% women], N3 = 1,082 [50% women]) were collected and analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance testing, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The most common PUM were identified based on a literature review and qualitative analysis (N1): sexual pleasure, sexual curiosity, emotional distraction or suppression, stress reduction, fantasy, boredom avoidance, lack of sexual satisfaction, and self-exploration. Items were constructed, and confirmatory factor analyses (N2 and N3) yielded strong psychometric properties. Further corroborating the structural validity of the Pornography Use Motivations Scale (PUMS), gender-based measurement invariance was tested, and associations of the frequency of pornography use (FPU), problematic pornography use (PPU), and PUM were examined. Men—compared to women—demonstrated higher scores on all motivations except for sexual curiosity and self-exploration. Based on the results of SEM, we found that sexual pleasure, boredom avoidance, and stress reduction motivations showed positive, weak-to-moderate associations with FPU. Motivations relating to stress reduction, emotional distraction or suppression, boredom avoidance, fantasy, and sexual pleasure had positive, weak-to-moderate associations with PPU. The PUMS is a reliable scale to assess the most common PUM in general populations.
... On peut le résumer par le model du « Triple A » : accessibilité (grande diversité de contenu, accessible 24h sur 24, n'importe où), abordable (gratuit ou prix accessibles), anonyme (sentiment d'être anonyme au travers l'usage d'un écran). [2] ...
... [3] [4] [1] Addiction cybersexuelle et facteurs de risque L'addiction cybersexuelle est souvent conceptualisée comme faisant partie des addictions comportementales et présente des caractéristiques similaires : -un investissement excessif ; -une perte de contrôle ; -un désir persistant ou un échec à la tentative d'arrêt, à la diminution ou au contrôle de l'utilisation; -des comportements sexuels utilisés comme stratégie de coping primaire; -un effet de tolérance ; -des symptômes de manque à l'arrêt (irritabilité, frustration,…) -des répercussions sociales, physiques et psychologiques négatives. [2] Différents facteurs de risque y sont associés. ...
... L'hypothèse est que les personnes rencontrant des difficultés sexuelles ont une moins bonne satisfaction sexuelle dans les rapports avec leur partenaire et ont plus de risque de se tourner vers des activités cybersexuelles afin de satisfaire leurs besoins. [2] Concernant le désir sexuel, l'étude de Ben Brahim F. montre que, s'agissant de la poursuite de l'addiction cybersexuelle, la recherche de désir sexuel ne constitue qu'un très faible élément motivant chez les hommes et n'est pas un élément motivant chez les femmes. Le modèle conceptuel est que l'addiction est maintenue par un passage de la recherche de plaisir et de récompense sexuelle à une recherche d'évitement et de soulagement des affects négatifs. ...
Article
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Overview of conceptual background of cybersex addiction and treatment approaches. Impact of Covid-19 on clinical practice is outlined.
... The last category ('non-arousal activities') refers to OSAs that do not increase subjective sexual arousal and are typically conducted alone (e.g., look for sexual information online). This taxonomy of OSAs has been confirmed in later empirical studies (Wéry & Billieux, 2016), highlighting its usefulness when characterizing the wide variety of sexual activities available online. ...
... Different studies have demonstrated that the use of the internet for sexual purposes has become extremely prevalent (Klein & Cooper, 2019;Regnerus, Gordon, & Price, 2016), emerging as one of the most popular sexual outlets among adolescents (Efrati & Gola, 2018), adults (Wéry & Billieux, 2016), and older adults (Ševčíková, Vašek, Blinka, Macháčková, & Ježek, 2020). Preliminary studies suggest that users' age constitutes an important aspect when explaining the engagement in OSAs. ...
... Those who answered positively, were asked about: (1) average time per week spent on OSAs in minutes (1 item); (2) devices employed to access OSAs (2 items); (3) motives to engage in OSAs (8 items); and (4) types of OSAs performed (12 items). Items comprising each scale were generated by the authors or extracted and adapted from previous studies (Castro-Calvo et al., 2018;Kvalem, Traeen, Lewin, & Š tulhofer, 2014;Shaughnessy, Byers, Clowater, & Kalinowski, 2014;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). All the items except those referring to the time spent online for sexual purposes were asked on a dichotomous scale (yes/no). ...
Article
During the last decade, the number of people using the Internet for sexual purposes has increased exponentially. However, most studies conducted so far have analyzed Online Sexual Activity (OSA) of adolescents and young people, meaning that we have few information on how this phenomenon is expressed across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to analyse three aspects of OSA (prevalence of different OSAs, motives to engage in OSA, and excessive and problematic engagement in OSA) in a large sample of individuals in different developmental stages. A self-selected sample of 8,040 individuals between 12-85 years old were recruited and completed an online survey. Participants were distributed into five age groups and compared (<18 years old, between 18-25, between 26-40, between 41-60, and >60). OSA was highly prevalent across all the developmental stages, including people older than 60 years old. Differences according to the age in the use of the Internet for sexual purposes were small-to-moderate, but we identified some age-related trends in different aspects of OSA. Finally, gender was important when it came to understanding these minor age differences. This study provides a preliminary foundation for identifying the unique characteristics of OSA across the lifespan.
... Opisywani przez ekspertów w dziedzinie psychiatrii i urologii pacjenci skarżyli się na pogorszenie funkcjonowania seksualnego na skutek problematycznego korzystania z pornografii internetowej (Doidge, 2007;Fish, 2014 Bancroft, 2007;Maddox, Rhoades i Markman, 2011;Morgan, 2011;Stewart i Szymanski, 2012;Sun, Bridges, Johnason i Ezzell, 2014;Sun, Miezan, Lee i Shim, 2015;Voon i in., 2014;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988). Pomimo, iż trudności w osiągnięciu orgazmu, spadek libido czy zaburzenie erekcji są najczęściej opisywanymi problemami (Carvalheira i in., 2015;Janssen i Bancroft, 2007;Pizzol i in., 2015;Sutton i in., 2015;Voon i in., 2014;Wéry i Billieux, 2016;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988), nie brakuje doniesień o negatywnym związku pomiędzy konsumpcją pornografii a przyjemnością z intymności seksualnej (Poulsen, Busby i Galovan, 2013;Stewart i Szymanski, 2012;Sun i in., 2014), satysfakcją w związku oraz w sytuacjach intymnych (Bridges i Morokoff, 2011;Doran i Price, 2014;Maddox i in., 2011;Morgan, 2011;Perry, 2017;Poulsen i in., 2013;Wéry i Billieux, 2016;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988), a także o preferowaniu korzystania z pornografii internetowej w celu osiągnięcia i utrzymania pobudzenia seksualnego na niekorzyść seksu partnerskiego (Sun i in., 2015). Morgan, 2011;Levin, 2012;Luster, 2013;Peter i Valkenburg, 2006;Samuel, 2008;Tomikawa, 2011;Viegas, 2007;Wilson, 2014;Voon i in., 2014;Yoder i in., 2005;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988). ...
... Opisywani przez ekspertów w dziedzinie psychiatrii i urologii pacjenci skarżyli się na pogorszenie funkcjonowania seksualnego na skutek problematycznego korzystania z pornografii internetowej (Doidge, 2007;Fish, 2014 Bancroft, 2007;Maddox, Rhoades i Markman, 2011;Morgan, 2011;Stewart i Szymanski, 2012;Sun, Bridges, Johnason i Ezzell, 2014;Sun, Miezan, Lee i Shim, 2015;Voon i in., 2014;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988). Pomimo, iż trudności w osiągnięciu orgazmu, spadek libido czy zaburzenie erekcji są najczęściej opisywanymi problemami (Carvalheira i in., 2015;Janssen i Bancroft, 2007;Pizzol i in., 2015;Sutton i in., 2015;Voon i in., 2014;Wéry i Billieux, 2016;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988), nie brakuje doniesień o negatywnym związku pomiędzy konsumpcją pornografii a przyjemnością z intymności seksualnej (Poulsen, Busby i Galovan, 2013;Stewart i Szymanski, 2012;Sun i in., 2014), satysfakcją w związku oraz w sytuacjach intymnych (Bridges i Morokoff, 2011;Doran i Price, 2014;Maddox i in., 2011;Morgan, 2011;Perry, 2017;Poulsen i in., 2013;Wéry i Billieux, 2016;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988), a także o preferowaniu korzystania z pornografii internetowej w celu osiągnięcia i utrzymania pobudzenia seksualnego na niekorzyść seksu partnerskiego (Sun i in., 2015). Morgan, 2011;Levin, 2012;Luster, 2013;Peter i Valkenburg, 2006;Samuel, 2008;Tomikawa, 2011;Viegas, 2007;Wilson, 2014;Voon i in., 2014;Yoder i in., 2005;Zillmann i Bryant, 1988). ...
... Wśród aktywności seksualnych, które nasiliły się w okresie korzystania z pornografii zauważalna była eskalacja w stronę treści bardziej ekstremalnych, a w kontekście zwiększenia tolerancji -oglądania materiałów, które wcześniej były odpychające, początkowo nieinteresujące, a także niezwiązane z preferencjami seksualnymi użytkowników (Rysunek 15). Biorąc po uwagę fakt, iż jedynie u 1% mężczyzn z analizowanej próby wystąpił wzrost częstotliwości podejmowanych stosunków seksualnych można wnioskować, że konsumpcja pornografii eskaluje w zakresie jej oglądania, ale wydaje się nie przekładać na inicjowanie zachowań seksualnych w realnym życiu.Powyższe rezultaty są w zgodzie z badaniami wskazującymi na występowanie u problematycznych użytkowników pornografii eskalacji (np.Blair, 2018;Bőthe i in., 2018;Bronner i Ben-Zion, 2014;Donevan i Mattebo, 2017;Hald i in., 2018; Palazzolo i Bettman, 2020; SeSeigfried-Spellar, 2016; Sevcikova, Blinka i Soukalova, 2017), oglądanie treści pierwotnie odpychających(Wéry i Billieux,, 2016), czy też materiałów niepasujących do orientacji seksualnej użytkowników(Dwulit i Rzymski, 2019).Objawy związane z odstawieniem pornografii Większość wyodrębnionych przeze mnie nieprzyjemnych objawów (14 na 16), wskazywało na pogorszenie funkcjonowania seksualnego i psychospołecznego w czasie odstawiania pornografii u mężczyzn z badanej próby. Najczęstszym symptomem, zgłoszonym przez jedną trzecią mężczyzn, była depresja i apatia. ...
... There is emerging research in this field W� ery;Billieux, 2016;Zheng, 2014), but no study to date has connected the dots between the types of digital device use and sexual activities sought. This is an important aspect to consider as the development of new technologies may give rise to unexplored types of sexual behaviours. ...
... There is emerging research in this field W� ery;Billieux, 2016;Zheng, 2014), but no study to date has connected the dots between the types of digital device use and sexual activities sought. This is an important aspect to consider as the development of new technologies may give rise to unexplored types of sexual behaviours. ...
... Furthermore, women expect sexual activity to begin later in the relationship (Baumeister et al., 2001) suggesting the separation of sexual pleasure and relationships for men, but not for women. Past research has tended to be more focused on OSA among males (Ross, Rosser, McCurdy, & Feldman, 2007;W� ery & Billieux, 2016) and thus less is known about females who use the Internet for OSA. Cooper et al. (1999Cooper et al. ( , 2003 found that while many women do indeed engage in OSA, they were more involved in communicative sexual activities such as chatting about and seeking support in sexual issues. ...
Article
Online sexual activities (OSA) are any sexual behaviours done using the Internet and are divided into non-arousal, partnered-arousal, and solitary-arousal activities. The means of accessing the Internet have extended past the traditional home computer and the rapid evolution of personal digital devices has led to a lag in the measurement of OSA. The current study's aim is to explore a new measurement scale that considers the widespread use of personal digital devices and examines gender differences in OSA. Results show that the suggested scale is a reliable measurement of OSA. Women engaged in more partnered-arousal activities whereas men engaged in more solitary-arousal activities. Computer use was the preferred method for OSA overall but smartphone apps were the preferred method for partnered-arousal activities. Some implications for parents and educators, clinicians, and researchers as well as limitations inviting to further research are provided as OSA is an emerging but rapidly evolving field of investigation.
... Esto deja en evidencia que los comportamientos que refuerzan repetidamente los circuitos de recompensa, motivación y memoria, configuran parte del mecanismo de las adicciones conductuales (Love, Laier, Brand, Hatch y Hajela, 2015). Dentro de la adicción al cibersexo el material consumido más estudiado es la pornografía (Wéry y Billieux, 2016). Ésta generaría patrones de adicción mediante activación de rutas dopaminérgicas mesolímbicas (Love et al., 2015), circuito que comienza en el área tegmental ventral y sus proyecciones al núcleo accumbens, estructura fuertemente relacionada con el placer, la búsqueda de re-compensa e impulsividad. ...
... Sin embargo, los niveles de consumo de riesgo y adictivo parecen ser altos al ser comparados con estudios que utilizaron el ISST realizados en otros países presentando cifras inferiores de consumo de riesgo, en torno al 8,6-13% y adictivo cercano al 1% (Ballester et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2018). En relación con el contenido de consumo, la pornografía resulta la categoría más consumida, resultados concordantes con estudios internacionales, que determinan que es el formato de cibersexo más investigado (Love et al., 2015;Wéry et al., 2016). ...
... Esto podría afectar a los resultados, ya que sujetos con patrón adictivo de consumo de este estudio obtienen la puntuación media más alta entre los grupos según consumo en el ítem mencionado, lo que podría limitar el hallazgo de diferencias significativas en el bienestar sexual general de los participantes. Se propone valorar en el constructo "adicción al cibersexo" una suma de variables diferentes a las utilizadas en la "adicción al internet", como la excitación o desinhibición sexual, relacionadas en mayor grado con características sexuales de los sujetos (Wéry et al., 2016). ...
Article
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El consumo de Cibersexo puede generar adicción en usuarios de internet, pudiendo estar relacionado con el funcionamiento ejecutivo y satisfacción sexual de estos. Se pretende analizar la relación entre consumo de cibersexo, control inhibitorio y satisfacción sexual en 120 hombres entre 20 y 29 años, mediante el Internet Sex Screening Test, la prueba de Stroop y un Cuestionario de Bienestar Sexual. Los resultados, indicaron un alto consumo de riesgo (20,8%) y adictivo (6,7%). Se obtuvo una relación positiva entre control inhibitorio y bienestar sexual (r ho= 2,94; p <,001) y una relación negativa entre bienestar sexual y consumo de cibersexo (r ho=-0,21; p <,019). No existió asociación entre patrones adictivos de consumo de cibersexo y control inhibitorio. Al comparar patrones de consumo de cibersexo, se aprecian diferencias significativas en el bienestar emocional (H=8,15; p <,043) presentando los consumidores recreativos mayor satisfacción. Los resultados permiten informar sobre tópicos poco estudiados en Chile, destacando el alto consumo de cibersexo y la ausencia de relación entre control inhibitorio y el consumo de cibersexo, al menos no en presencia de estímulos relacionados al cibersexo. Resumen Cibersexo; Adicción al sexo; Sexualidad; Función ejecutiva; Bienestar sexual. Palabras Clave
... The above hypothesis has purportedly been supported by circumstantial evidence that notes an increasing prevalence of ED among younger men that is correlated with increasing pornography use, both in society at large and within specific study samples [28,29]. Furthermore, several case studies have drawn attention to the fact that some treatmentseeking men who are frequent pornography users have indeed experienced difficulty with sexual performance within the context of their dyadic relationships [25,26]. ...
... Such studies, however, have typically been fraught with methodological issues, including ones related to small sample sizes or to simple bivariate correlational analyses that do not concomitantly control for possible confounding variables [26][27][28][29][30][31]. In fact, a number of other studies have suggested no role-or even an opposite and beneficial role-for pornography use on sexual arousal and erectile response [32][33][34]. ...
... Within this subgroup, men's inability to get or sustain an erection undoubtedly interferes with their capacity to reach ejaculation-a point that underscores the importance of the clinician's differentiation of DE caused by erectile insufficiency vs. DE caused by insufficient psycho-sexual arousal and/or other etiological factors [39,44]. Indeed, our study, while demonstrating a very limited association between pornography use and DE symptomology in men with pure DE, did not rule out a possible relationship between pornography use and impaired erectile functioning, as suggested by several studies [27][28][29][30]. ...
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The role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on sexual response during partnered sex has been controversial, the result of mixed and inconsistent findings. However, studies investigating this relationship have often suffered from methodological shortcomings. We investigated the role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on both the occurrence and severity of delayed/inhibited ejaculation (DE), an increasingly common sexual problem among men. We did so in a large (nonclinical) multinational sample of cisgender men (N = 2332; mean age = 40.3, SE = 0.31) within a multivariate context that relied on multiple (and, when possible, standardized) assessments of sexual dysfunctions while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results indicated a weak, inconsistent, and sometimes absent association between the frequency of pornography use and DE symptomology and/or severity. In contrast, both poorer erectile functioning and anxiety/depression represented consistent and strong predictors of DE and, to a lesser extent, DE severity. Other factors, including relationship satisfaction, sexual interest, and masturbation frequency, were significantly though moderately to weakly associated with DE. In conclusion, associations (or sometimes lack thereof) between masturbation frequency, pornography use, and delayed ejaculation are more clearly understood when analyzed in a multivariate context that controls for possible confounding effects.
... The motivations unpinning addictive behaviors have been intricately linked to the development of both behavioral and substance addictions [53][54][55]. Griffiths stated that the "motivations of people participating OSAs may further increase our understanding of Internet sex addiction" [56], and there is a growing body of research investigating the motives that fuel problematic and nonproblematic engagement in OSAs [38,48,57,58]. Several studies that have focused on this issue found that participants with higher levels of problematic use tend to have stress reduction and mood regulation motivators for their activities more frequently than participants with less problematic involvement in OSAs [38,46,48,58]. ...
... Griffiths stated that the "motivations of people participating OSAs may further increase our understanding of Internet sex addiction" [56], and there is a growing body of research investigating the motives that fuel problematic and nonproblematic engagement in OSAs [38,48,57,58]. Several studies that have focused on this issue found that participants with higher levels of problematic use tend to have stress reduction and mood regulation motivators for their activities more frequently than participants with less problematic involvement in OSAs [38,46,48,58]. Previous studies found that participants with more problematic OSAs were more likely to be motivated by sexual pleasure [39,48]. ...
... Since both of these motivations have been associated with problematic use, we investigated whether the main motivation associated with PPU had changed at different time periods during the pandemic. In addition, although previous studies found that solitary and partnered OSAs frequently coexist and both can be associated with PPU [38,39], it was still unknown whether there were different motivations behind the varied types of OSAs. Conducting a study that clarified the complexity of these associations between different motives and types of OSAs could thus provide more insight into problematic use. ...
Article
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Many researchers have considered whether online sexual activities (OSAs) increased over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether these have led to an increase in problematic pornography use (PPU). This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on PPU through pornography use motivations (PUMs) and OSAs to develop a better understanding of the mechanism and changes affecting PPU. Two groups of Chinese adults were recruited during the initial months of the pandemic (April 2020, n1 = 496) and the post-pandemic period (October 2021, n2 = 504). A network analysis was conducted to compare the structures of PPU symptoms among the two groups. The results showed that PUMs and OSAs were stronger predictors of PPU during the pandemic than post-pandemic (R2pandemic = 57.6% vs. R2post-pandemic = 28.7%). The motives of fantasy, sexual pleasure, stress reduction, and self-exploration were the prominent motivations during these two periods, but we found distinct PPU-related communities. PPU, sexual pleasure, and viewing sexually explicit materials (a type of OSAs) constituted a community during the pandemic but not in the post-pandemic’s network. The present study indicated that the pandemic may not have been the only factor impacting the higher rate of PPU. Instead, the higher frequency of OSAs during the pandemic may have been a strategy to cope with stress and to safely satisfy sexual desire.
... Moreover, using pornography for sexual pleasure, boredom avoidance, and stress reduction were related to higher pornography use frequency, while motivations linked to problematic pornography use differed. Stress reduction was the strongest predictor of problematic pornography use, followed by emotional avoidance, boredom avoidance, fantasy, and sexual pleasure, suggesting that pornography use motivations may provide more essential information about the development of problematic or nonproblematic pornography use than single personality traits (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Bella, et al., 2021;Reid, Li, Gilliland, Stein, & Fong, 2011;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). ...
... Less is known about the associations between problematic pornography use and sexual outcomes. However, men and women with problematic pornography use have reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Demetrovics, & Orosz, 2017), and higher levels of sexual functioning problems (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Griffiths, et al., 2021;Grubbs & Gola, 2019;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Thus, existing results suggest that pornography use frequency in itself may be associated with little or no adverse sexual outcomes (Kohut, Fisher, & Campbell, 2017), while problematic pornography use has been consistently related to worse sexual outcomes. ...
Chapter
The present chapter addresses the many faces of cybersex and describes the mental health challenges of various sexual activities using new technologies. This includes a range of sexual behaviors, from Internet use to sex with robots. In many cases, cybersex use is not problematic and not associated with personal distress or functional impairment. However, in those cases where people lose control over their cybersexual behavior or harm others we discuss diagnostic criteria as well as differential diagnoses and ways to evaluate the given behavior. The chapter also addresses the current state of research regarding the psychobiology as well as pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment options of cybersexual behaviors that are associated with mental health issues.
... Apart from that, the frequent pornography usage would subject the users to pornography addiction and unsafe sexual activities (Peter & Valkenburg, 2016;Manaf, Tahir, & Sidi, 2014;Awaluddin, Ahmad, & Saleh, 2015). Pornography addiction is a significant problem nowadays as those involved are willing to spend a lot of money to satisfy their craving for pornographic viewing, and in order to achieve this, they may not hesitate to be involved in stealing or gambling (Wéry & Billieux, 2016, Cheney, Kamusiime, & Mekonnen Yimer, 2017. ...
... Most of the pornographic users in this study had access to the pornographic materials through free internet, and only a small proportion of them had spent money on their activity. A similar pattern was seen among university students in Belgium; with only 4% of the online sexual activity users spent money on their activity (Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Previously, there is a barrier in accessing pornographic materials as the user need to purchase it through shops or cinemas, which may expose them to the sellers. ...
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Despite the wide accessibility to internet, pornography activities among youths are not well described in conservative countries like Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, elicit gender differences and identify associated factors of pornographic exposure including perceived realism among college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 18 to 25 years from seven colleges in Penang, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, pornography exposure, pattern of use, sexual exposure and perceived realism. Among 986 participants, the prevalence of lifetime pornography exposure was 74.5%. More males (71.7%) were exposed to pornography, had started at earlier age, were frequent users and using the internet alone at home (p<0.001). Males had higher odds of having exposure (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 20.44, 95% CI: 12.50 – 33.42, p<0.001), whilst those who perceived pornography as real had lower odds of having pornographic exposure (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.94, p=0.02). There is a high prevalence of pornography exposure among Malaysian college students, especially involving males. Easy access to pornographic materials at home facilitates this activity. Gender and perceived realism determined their pornographic exposure. Thus, parental monitoring of online access and planning structured activities to occupy free time are recommended at an early age.
... Next, we conducted measurement invariance testing to examine whether the PPCS-6-A functions the same way in gender-and sexual orientation-based subgroups. Given PPU's theoretically relevant and empirically pre-established positive associations with pornography use and masturbation frequency Kohut & Štulhofer, 2018), age at first pornography use Lewczuk et al., 2017), sexual interest and arousal, and sexual distress Leonhardt et al., 2020;Wéry & Billieux, 2016), we assessed these constructs as correlates to examine the convergent validity of PPCS-6-A. Lastly, similarly to prior work in adults and adolescent boys Štulhofer et al., 2020), latent profile analysis was conducted to identify adolescents potentially at risk of PPU. ...
... ** p < .01. 8 adolescents (Bőthe et al., 2017;Bőthe et al., 2021;Kohut & Štulhofer, 2018). Moreover, higher levels of PPU were related to higher levels of sexual interest and arousal and sexual distress, with small effect sizes, corroborating prior findings among adults Leonhardt et al., 2020;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Higher levels of PPU were associated with younger age at first pornography use, with a small effect size, similarly to prior studies examining treatment seeking and nontreatment seeking adults Lewczuk et al., 2017). ...
Article
Objective: Despite the high prevalence of adolescents’ pornography use and increasing societal concerns about it, the examination of problematic pornography use (PPU) among this population is still scarce, potentially due to the lack of well-validated, reliable measures. The aims of the present study were to validate a short, theory-based measure of PPU in a diverse sample of adolescents and identify a potentially at-risk problematic pornography user group. Method: We used a sample of 802 adolescents (35% girls; 14% sexual minority; Mage = 15.4 years, SD = 0.6) who reported lifetime pornography use, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescents’ sexual health. To examine the psychometric properties of the short, six-item version of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale for adolescents (PPCS-6-A), we conducted confirmatory factor analysis, gender and sexual orientation measurement invariance testing, and assessed theoretically relevant correlates (e.g., masturbation frequency). We conducted latent profile analysis to identify adolescents at risk of PPU. Results: The PPCS-6-A demonstrated strong psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, measurement invariance (i.e., boys vs. girls, and heterosexual vs. sexual minority adolescents), and reliability, and correlated reasonably with the assessed variables. Ten percent of participants were identified as being at-risk of PPU. Conclusions: The PPCS-6-A can be considered a short, reliable, and valid scale to assess PPU in adolescents, and may distinguish between low-risk and at-risk problematic users. Its use in future studies could lead to a better understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of adolescents’ PPU.
... Several studies have shown that problematic use of internet for sexual purposes can be viewed as a dysfunctional coping strategy that reflects an experiential avoidance and/or a mood regulation strategy (Castro-Calvo et al., 2018;Chawla & Ostafin, 2007;Ley et al., 2014;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Briken's (2020) integrative model also refers to the maladaptive coping strategies behind problematic online sexual behaviour, highlighting that it can constitute a coping strategy with negative reinforcement for patients with other psychiatric conditions (Briken, 2020). ...
... The OSAS is based on the transdiagnostic approach of problematic online sexual behaviour, and it incorporates the symptoms of both addiction and compulsivity; however, the scale is not entirely comprehensive. It does not cover the conceptualization of problematic OSA as a maladaptive coping strategy that reflects an experiential avoidance and/or a mood regulation, as suggested by several authors (Castro-Calvo et al., 2018;Chawla & Ostafin, 2007;Ley et al., 2014;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). ...
Article
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There is an ongoing scientific debate about the conceptualization of problematic online sexual activity (OSA). It is challenging to choose the proper instrument for assessing the phenomena. In this context, the newly developed Online Sexual Activity Scale (OSAS) might bring a new insight as it proposes to go beyond the nosological polemics. The OSAS elaborated in this compensatory framework incorporates criteria for conceptualizations of OSA as both addiction and compulsivity. A large sample of N = 5094 adults were recruited via convenience sampling on social networking platforms. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for the one-factor structure of the OSAS with good fit indices and adequate reliability. The utility of the OSAS as a possible screening tool for identifying individuals with an elevated risk of problematic cybersex activity needs elucidation in future studies. The scale is available in English and Hungarian.
... Participants were able to answer from a list of 10 specific types of pornography ("sexual intercourse with opposite-sex partners," "sexual activity involving domination and submission," etc.). These contents were extracted and adapted from studies assessing preferences for different pornographic contents (Hald, 2006;Hald & Štulhofer, 2016;Tripodi et al., 2015;Wéry & Billieux, 2016) and included normophilic and paraphilic sexual materials. Information on scale content and psychometric properties is reported in detail in the "Results" section. ...
... This would explain why factors such as belonging to a sexual minority or sexual dissatisfaction, regardless of having paraphilic sexual attractions or not, have been linked to the problematic cybersex use (Daspe et al., 2018;Studer et al., 2019). Another factor that has been related to a predisposition to problematic cybersex use is gender, specifically being a man Weinstein et al., 2015;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Our results also show this relationship in all age groups; however, in general, the different pornography content does not affect cybersex addiction in a different way. ...
Article
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Introduction Pornography consumption has increased exponentially in recent decades. Most studies conducted so far are focused on adult samples (typically, between 18 and 30 years old), limiting the generalizability of their results. This study aims to create a taxonomy that groups various pornographic contents and thus explore different aspects of its use (e.g., preference for different pornographic content, excessive and problematic use) in people at different life stages. Methods Between 2016 and 2019, 8,040 individuals (71.3% men) between 12 and 85 years old ( M = 33.25, SD = 14.31) completed a battery that explores pathological and non-pathological pornography use. Participants were distributed into five age groups (< 18 years old, between 18–25, 26–40, 41–60, and > 60) to perform the different analyses (ANOVA and chi-square tests for the differences between the groups, EFA for the analyses of categories of pornographic content, and hierarchical linear regressions to identify the factors related to problematic use). Results Pornography use was highly prevalent (> 85%) in all age groups. Using a data-driven approach, we found that the pornographic content explored in this research can be classified within four categories. Using this taxonomy, we found differences according to the age for most of the pornographic content explored (e.g., sexual intercourse with opposite-sex partners [71.6–84.5% in males and 70.2–89.5% in females]). Finally, we found that age conditions the way in which preference for different pornographic content increases the risk of excessive and problematic use. Conclusions Pornography consumption is frequent in different age groups, although it varies depending on age and content. In addition, some particular pornographic contents were identified that increase the risk of developing an addiction in different developmental stages. Policy Implications This study provides a preliminary foundation for identifying the unique characteristics of pornography use in different age groups as well as content related to increased problematic use.
... Poland (4.5%), Australia (4.5%), the UK (4.5%), Germany (4.5%), and Spain (4.5%). One study drew from a multinational sample [36], and one study was conducted in each of the following countries: Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Portugal, South Korea. Regarding sample characteristics, age ...
... Rates of erectile dysfunction increased significantly when pornography use was preferred over partnered sex. Finally, additional research in a multi-national European sample [36] suggests that men's self- FPU frequency of pornography use, PPU self-reported problematic pornography use, OSA online sexual activities Curr Addict Rep reported problematic pornography use 1 (e.g., loss of control, negative impact, cognitive preoccupation) is robustly related to lower levels of erectile functioning cross-sectionally. ...
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Purpose of Review Pornography use is a common recreational activity in most developed nations with unrestricted internet access. As public awareness of pornography’s popularity has grown, so have concerns about potentially deleterious effects of pornography. One domain of particular concern has been the impact of pornography use and online sexual behaviors on sexual wellbeing. Over recent years, a number of studies have examined how pornography use relates to sexual wellbeing. The present work seeks to review such literature, with a particular focus on the effects of pornography on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. To this end, a systematic review of recent research (within the past 5 years) was conducted. Recent Findings A total of 44 articles were included in the systematic review. In some situations, pornography use is associated with greater sexual functioning and greater sexual satisfaction, and in other cases it seems to be associated with lower sexual functioning and lower sexual satisfaction. Specifically, mere pornography use itself was most often not associated with sexual functioning in either direction, but self-reported problematic use of pornography was consistently associated with more sexual functioning problems. Summary Collectively, results suggest a nuanced understanding of the effects of pornography on sexual wellbeing, with the context of and perceptions about pornography use being extremely important in predicting whether or not pornography has negative effects.
... The results suggested that OSAs among older adults are quite widespread, especially S-OSAs (e.g., watching sexually explicit videos or reading erotic material), with 58.1% of the sample reporting having engaged in solitary-arousal activities at least 2 or 3 times during the previous month. This result is in line with previous studies indicating that watching pornography is the most ubiquitous OSA reported (Cooper et al., 2003;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). As previously noted, sexual behaviors that require no interaction with others (e.g., the viewing of pornography) may be preferable because it is the most rapid option to satisfy sexual desire via the Internet (Ballester-Arnal et al., 2017). ...
... This result seems to confirm that some older adults may use the Internet as a source of information and guidance about their sexuality (Fileborn et al., 2016), but also to make social connections and to seek sexual and romantic relationships (Alterovitz & Mendelsohn, 2013;Wion & Loeb, 2015). As regards specifically the search for sexual-related information, the relatively low percentages compared with other studies (Döring & Mohseni, 2019;Wéry & Billieux, 2016) may be due to the fact that the current study, unlike the previous ones, focuses specifically on people aged over 50 years, rather than considering a wide age range and different age cohorts. ...
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Introduction Online sexual activities (OSAs) are sexual behaviors involving online sexual content and stimuli and are categorized into non-arousal (N-OSAs), solitary arousal (S-OSAs), and partnered arousal activities (P-OSAs). As such activities in older age remain largely underexamined, this study aimed to explore OSAs in a sample of Italian older adults, analyzing their associations with gender and sexual orientation, considering sexual permissiveness as a moderator. Methods One hundred and fourteen cisgender participants (85 men and 29 women) aged from 52 to 79 years old ( M = 62.57, SD = 6.19) were recruited between September 2019 and January 2020 to participate in an online cross-sectional survey on OSAs. Results A total of 58.1% of participants had engaged in S-OSAs at least 2–3 times during the previous month, while a lower percentage of participants had engaged in N-OSAs (38.6%) and P-OSAs (29.9%) at least 2–3 times during the previous month. Men were more likely to be engaged in S-OSAs than women. Being non-heterosexual was associated with an increase in engagement in N-OSAs and S-OSAs, but not in P-OSAs. Sexual permissiveness was significantly associated with N-OSAs and S-OSAs, but not with P-OSAs, and did not moderate either the relationship of gender with OSAs or that of sexual orientation with OSAs. Conclusions This study sheds light on the need to include online resources in sexual health educational programs addressed at older people, as well as in training programs addressed at healthcare professionals and social workers working with this population.
... En función del género, el consumo de pornografía era superior en los hombres (Ballester-Arnal, Castro-Calvo, Gil-Llario y Giménez-García, 2014). En cuanto a su evolución durante el ciclo vital, el consumo de pornografía parecía seguir una tendencia en forma de U invertida: era poco frecuente en niños y preadolescentes, aumentaba exponencialmente entre jóvenes y adultos y volvía a decaer en personas mayores (Wéry y Billieux, 2016Wolak, Mitchell y Finkelhor, 2007). Estudios más recientes (Ballester-Arnal, Castro-Calvo, García-Barba, Ruiz-Palomino y Gil-Llario, 2020) demuestran sin embargo que el consumo a día de hoy tanto de pornografía como de cualquier otra ASO es frecuente independientemente del género y la edad. ...
Article
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El cibersexo es una práctica generalizada, sobre todo en población LGTBI. Esta práctica puede suponer beneficios, aunque también conlleva riesgos (como desarrollar una adicción). Dado que el colectivo LGTBI lo consume más frecuentemente, el riesgo de adicción también podría ser mayor. El objetivo del estudio era analizar si la orientación sexual aumentaba el riesgo de consumo adictivo de cibersexo, y si la preferencia por determinadas Actividades Sexuales Online (ASOs) y las motivaciones para su realización explicaban este incremento. A tal fin, 553 personas de entre 18-40 años (54.2% hombres; 36.2% heterosexuales, 36.2% bisexuales, 27.7% homosexuales) completaron una encuesta online sobre consumo de cibersexo. En hombres, los homosexuales presentaban mayor severidad de consumo (pero sólo en ASOs sociales [p<.001]). En mujeres, se documentaron diferencias en función de la orientación sexual en prácticamente todos los indicadores de severidad del consumo (siendo las bisexuales las que presentaban mayor riesgo). La orientación sexual apenas influyó sobre la capacidad predictiva del tipo de ASO y sus motivaciones en el riesgo de consumo adictivo. Estos hallazgos evidencian la importancia de la orientación sexual a la hora entender el uso y el abuso del cibersexo, así como la necesidad de orientar nuestras acciones preventivas hacia colectivos vulnerables.
... Previous researchers have identified motives for pornography consumption which include sexual pleasure or excitement (Hald and Malamuth, 2008;Reid et al., 2011;Tripodi et al., 2015); sexual curiosity or sensation seeking (Kashdan and Roberts, 2004;Litman et al., 2005;Tripodi et al., 2015) and emotional avoidance or regulation Grubbs et al., 2015;Laier and Brand, 2017;Paul and Shim, 2008;Wéry and Billieux, 2016). ...
Article
Objectives: Online pornography use is a common sexual practice and it is relevant to understand the motivations underlying its consumption to better identify the causes of its problematic use. The purpose of this study was to translate the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) into French and to validate the version thus obtained (FR-PCI), on a large heterogeneous sample. Material and methods: The PCI was first submitted to a rigorous four-step back-translation procedure for cross-cultural research performed by six different bilingual individuals (French and English). Then, 651 French-Canadian online pornography users aged 16 to 69 from varied genders, sexual orientations and occupations, completed an online questionnaire on sexual behaviors, including the FR-PCI. Results: Results from factorial analysis indicate a three-factor structure explaining 64.6% of the total variance. Results also reveal good internal consistency for the FR-PCI total score (α = .85), and subscales: Emotional Avoidance (α = .86), Sexual Curiosity (α = .86), and Sexual Pleasure (α = .81). Scores produced by the FR-PCI were able to discriminate high-frequency pornography users from low-frequency pornography users, indicating good discriminant validity. Results also confirm the expected theoretical associations between the concepts measured by the FR-PCI and the Short Internet sex Addiction Test, indicating good convergence validity. Conclusion: Results support the psychometric qualities of the FR-PCI and its use to assess motives for pornography consumption in French-speaking individuals.
... Despite these harmful effects, other studies have suggested some potential positive gains of IPU in that it enhances sexual knowledge [31,32], openness [33], and yields more significant positive effects in men's lives [34]. The act of watching porn is also categorised as an emotional coping mechanism (e.g., stress relief and relaxation) [35]. However, these individuals can end up experiencing more issues related to problematic IPU [36]. ...
Article
Past studies have demonstrated a link between pornography use and addiction to pornography, the underlying mechanism of the association is still unclear. This study intended to examine the mediating role of perceived realism of pornography in the association between pornography use and addiction among emerging adults in Malaysia. This study recruited 222 self-identified pornography users (M age = 21.05; SD Age = 1.68; 75.1% male respondents) via the purposive sampling method. The correlation results indicated positive associations among pornography use, addiction to pornography, and perceived realism of pornography. Further, the perceived realism of pornography significantly mediated the association between pornography use and addiction to pornography after controlling for gender. Thus, this study has provided a fundamental understanding on the perceived realism role of pornography in explaining the association between its use and addiction. Although it is unlikely to stop illegal pornography use, the results pointed out a need to guide emerging adults in pornography use via media literacy programmes.
... They report that approximately three-quarters of participants (76%) masturbated on more than three-quarters of the occasions they viewed pornography. In Wéry and Billieux (2016), 97% of the men sampled reported masturbating while watching pornography. Traeen and Daneback (2013) took a slightly different approach and asked participants how frequently they viewed pornography on the occasions they masturbated. ...
Article
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This review aims to provide information on the prevalence and frequency of adult males’ pornography use. It appears, the majority (> 80%) of adult men have accessed pornography at some point, and in the past year (40–70%). Around half of younger men (25 or under) are weekly consumers. Pornography use tapers-off with age. Relatively few (<10%) younger men have accessed violent pornography in the past year. The Internet is the primary method of access. Pornography use is associated with masturbation; use during partnered sex is less common. Differences in consumption rates between heterosexual and gay and bisexual men are discussed.
... The prior studies suggested that the Internet is widely used by its users for online sexual activities (OSA), e.g., looking for sexual emotional support, finding sexual partners, buying sex materials, watching sex-related movies, and pictures [6][7][8][9][10]. Previous OSA-related studies mainly focused on the characteristics of users with OSA, the purpose of using OSA, and the factors that determine using OSA [11]. However, few studies paid attention to whether the use of the Internet in turn affects people's sexual attitudes, such as homosexuality tolerance, particularly for the developing countries [6]. ...
... As some research suggests that pornography viewing can change a person's sexual tastes, this is a very slippery area. Do we really want a big-porn machine algorithm to reshape our sexual templates [66]? ...
Article
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The Manifesto for a European research network into Problematic Usage of the Internet was published in May 2018. It was written from the perspective of the COST Action Network, a programme of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology CA16207 and is expected to have significant influence on research funding priorities over the next decade. The Manifesto identified nine key research priorities to advance understanding in the field. Our analysis shows that while at the most general level it identified problematic usage of pornography (PUP) as a key research priority, it then barely mentioned it again within the body of the report. This paper uses the Manifesto’s framework to suggest research areas into the problematic usage of pornography which are of particular relevance to clinicians and other professionals working in the field who want to develop approaches to assist individuals and target groups affected by PUP. It also looks at potential research opportunities inspired by the lived-experience of users withdrawing from PUP. A large number of opportunities are identified for new work on PUP across all nine key research areas of the Manifesto.
... 47 A study using a sample of mainly heterosexual men also found 70.8% of the respondents stated to use online sexual activities to manage boredom. 48 Another study with a similar sample, verified higher hypersexuality was linked to lower self-efficacy in avoiding using pornography when experiencing different types of emotional states, including boredom. 49 In fact, in this study, a cluster of "sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity" accounted for 44.9% of the variance in pornography avoidance self-efficacy, substantially more than clusters of "intoxication/locations/easy access" (10.9%), and "negative emotions" (6.7%). ...
Article
Background Some conceptualizations of hypersexuality posit boredom as a possible trigger of hypersexual behavior. Aim This work aims to review published articles addressing the link between boredom and hypersexuality to investigate if this relationship can yet be established based on current empirical data. Methods This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies, published until September 2019, were retrieved from EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. A systematic search was conducted using an exhaustive list of key terms combining “boredom” with “hypersexuality,” “sexual impulsivity,” “sexual compulsivity,” and “sexual addiction.” Only articles presenting empirical results concerning the relationship between boredom and hypersexuality were considered. Results From the initial poll of 76 articles, only 19 articles were included in our final selection. Of the total studies, 16 were quantitative studies and 3 were qualitative studies. 4 studies were validation studies of hypersexuality-related measures, 11 studies concerned online sexual activity, and 3 reported sexual boredom. 7 studies with men used non-heterosexual samples. 5 studies used samples with both women and men, and 1 study used a sample of women only. Most studies indicate a positive association between boredom and hypersexuality, although 4 did not. Implications Further studies with diversified samples are still indispensable, as female samples are not portrayed and research is much focused on online sexual activity. Future research should explore the relationship between boredom and hypersexuality within specific behavioral specifiers including masturbation, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, cybersex, telephone sex, and strip clubs. Strengths and limitations To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first review looking at the possible link between boredom and hypersexuality. Investigation on the topic is scarce, and several of the studies included in this review correspond to anecdotal evidences of the phenomenon, as only few studies used appropriate measures of boredom. Conclusion Although current literature identifies a link between boredom and hypersexuality, further substantive research is still much needed to clarify the associations between the 2 constructs. de Oliveira L, Carvalho J. The Link Between Boredom and Hypersexuality: A Systematic Review. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
... In line with previous studies (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Zsila et al., 2018;Grubbs, Perry, et al., 2018), pornography use frequency and problematic pornography use (measured by PPCS-6) had moderate, positive associations. Moreover, duration of pornography use per occasion, frequency of masturbation, and frequency of pornography use during masturbation demonstrated weak-to-moderate, positive associations with the PPCS-6 (Baćak a & Štulhofer, Bőthe et al., 2017;Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Zsila, et al., 2018;Carvalheira, Traeen, & Stulhofer, 2015;Wéry & Billieux, 2016). In line with previous studies (Bőthe, Koós, et al., 2019;Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Potenza, et al., 2018;Grubbs, Exline, Pargament, Hook, & Carlisle, 2015;Grubbs, Volk, et al., 2015;Kor et al., 2014), the level of hypersexuality showed a moderate-to-strong association with problematic pornography use (both measured by the PPCS-18 and the PPCS-6) supporting the validity of the this new, short scale. ...
Article
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To date, no short scale existed that could assess problematic pornography use (PPU) having a solid theoretical background and strong psychometric properties. Having such a short scale may be advantageous when scarce resources are available and/or when respondents’ attention spans are limited. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a short scale that can be utilized to screen for PPU. The Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS-18) was used as a basis for the development of a short measure of PPU (PPCS-6). A community sample (N1=15,051), a sample of pornography site visitors (N2=760), and a sample of treatment-seeking individuals (N3=266) were recruited to investigate the reliability and validity of the PPCS-6. Also, its association was tested to theoretically-relevant correlates (e.g., hypersexuality, frequency of masturbation), and a cut-off score was determined. The PPCS-6 yielded strong psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, correlated reasonably with the assessed variables, and an optimal cut-off was identified that could reliably distinguish between PPU and non-problematic pornography use. PPCS-6 can be considered as a short, reliable, and valid scale to assess PPU in studies when the length of a questionnaire is essential or when a brief screening for PPU is necessary.
... For instance, compensating social needs by social media use and online gaming have been positively associated with both problematic social media use and online gaming addiction (Kircaburun, Alhabash, Tosuntaş, and Griffiths, 2018;Kuss and Griffiths 2012). Compensating real-life sexual needs in online contexts by having sexual fantasies could also lead to higher addictive use of online sexual activities (Wéry and Billieux 2016). Similarly, those who use social networking sites for entertainment report higher problematic social media use (Kircaburun et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Recent literature has speculated that some individuals spend lots of time watching mukbang (i.e., combination of the South Korean words ‘eating’ [‘meokneun’] and ‘broadcast’ [‘bangsong’] that refers to eating broadcasts where a person eats a large portion of food on camera whilst interacting with viewers) and compensate different needs using this activity. However, compensating unattained offline needs using a specific online activity could lead to the addictive use of that activity. The present study investigated problematic mukbang watching by developing and validating the Mukbang Addiction Scale (MAS). An online survey was administered to 236 university students (Mage = 20.50 years; 62% female) who had watched mukbang at least once. Construct validity, criterion validity, and reliability analyses indicated that the MAS had good psychometric properties. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the unidimensional structure of the scale. The Cronbach’s alpha (α = .95) and composite reliability (CR = .92) suggested that the MAS had excellent internal consistency. Latent class analyses (LCA) revealed two primary profiles, one with high endorsement and one with low endorsement of the items assessed. Item response theory (IRT) findings also indicated a good model fit. IRT findings provisionally supported a cut-off scale raw score of 22 (out of 30). Assessment and clinical-related implications of the findings are illustrated in accordance with other excessive behaviours.
... En France, les recherches sur l'addiction sexuelle portent principalement sur la description des patients se définissant ou consultant pour addiction sexuelle (Wéry et al., 2016b), l'évaluation de comportements précis (masturbation, activités sexuelles en ligne) pouvant relever d'une addiction sexuelle (Wéry et Billieux, 2016) et l'adaptation et la validation d'outils standardisés comme la SAST (Karila et Reynaud, 2008 ;Hegbe et al., 2020), le test d'addiction à internet (Khazaal et al., 2008) adapté aux activités sexuelles en ligne (Wéry et al., 2015 ;Wéry et al., 2016a). En effet, si de nombreuses traductions sont disponibles peu d'outils sont validés en population française et le sont le plus souvent en population hétérosexuelle. ...
Article
Résumé Cette étude explore l’addiction sexuelle en population HSH. Les participants ont été recrutés par des professionnels lors de consultation de dépistage ISTs pour une enquête en ligne consistant en des questions sociodémographiques, une question d’auto-perception et le questionnaire SAST validé en français. Aucun effet de l’âge ou du statut sérologique sur les scores totaux n’est observé, cependant, l’auto-perception est significativement associée aux scores de la SAST. Le sous-groupe présentant un score susceptible d’indiquer une addiction sexuelle (14,6 %, score ≥ 14) est caractérisé par la présence d’antécédents de violence sexuelle subie. Cette étude contribuer à informer la prévention et la prise en charge de l’addiction sexuelle encore peu développée et documentée en population HSH en France à ce jour.
... Although the reviewed publications did not directly discuss or theorize about addictive mukbang watching, in addition to social uses of mukbang, there are several gratifications obtained from mukbang watching (e.g., sexual, entertainment, escapist, and vicarious eating) that could turn normal mukbang watching into problematic mukbang watching. For instance, those individuals who perceive mukbang as a sexual fantasy could become problematic mukbang viewers because fantasizing motives are strong predictors of addictive use of online sexual activities (Wéry and Billieux 2016). Using social media for entertainment has been positively associated with problematic social media use (Kircaburun et al. 2018), which may indicate that those who can entertain themselves via watching mukbang could become problematic mukbang viewers. ...
Article
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Internet technology has facilitated the use of a wide variety of different activities and applications in online contexts. Despite a large amount of research regarding these activities including online social networking, online gaming, online shopping, online sex, and online gambling, very little is known regarding online eating shows called ‘mukbang’ (i.e. a portmanteau of the South Korean words for ‘eating’ [‘meokneun’] and ‘broadcast’ [‘bangsong’] that refers to online broadcasts where individuals eat food and interact with the viewers). The present study carried out a scoping review of the academic and non-academic literature (i.e. peer-reviewed publications, academic theses, and the print media) in order to examine the psychological characteristics of mukbang viewers and consequences of mukbang watching. A total of 11 academic outputs from different disciplinary fields (mainly peer-reviewed papers) and 20 articles from national UK newspapers were identified following an extensive literature search. Results from the scoping review indicated that viewers use mukbang watching for social reasons, sexual reasons, entertainment, eating reasons, and/or as an escapist compensatory strategy. Furthermore, mukbang watching appears to have both beneficial consequences (e.g., diminishing feelings of loneliness and social isolation, constructing a virtual social community,) and non-beneficial consequences (e.g., altering food preferences, eating habits, and table manners, promoting disordered eating, potential excess, and ‘addiction’). Implications of the study and directions for future research are also discussed.
... However, this mood improvement was accompanied by lower levels of sexual arousal (Laier & Brand, 2017), suggesting that men using pornography to reduce their negative emotions may engage in less partnered sexual activities and may experience lower sexual wellbeing. From another perspective, using pornography for emotional avoidance purposes was also linked to higher levels of hypersexuality and problematic pornography use (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Bella et al., 2020;Reid et al., 2011), which in turn, were associated with lower levels of sexual wellbeing (Bőthe et al., 2017Wéry & Billieux, 2016). Thus, using pornography to reduce negative emotions and stress may be an indicator of potential underlying problematic pornography use (Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Bella et al., 2019;Khantzian, 1997), that in turn, may reduce men's sexual wellbeing. ...
Article
Pornography use is prevalent, even among partnered individuals. Although pornography use motivations represent key predictors of sexual behaviors, prior studies only assessed the associations between pornography use frequency and sexual wellbeing, with mixed results. This cross-sectional dyadic study examined the associations between partners’ individual and partnered pornography use frequency, motivations, and sexual wellbeing. Self-report data from 265 couples (Mage_men = 31.49 years, SD = 8.26; Mage_women = 29.36 years, SD = 6.74) were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model. Men’s greater emotional avoidance motivation was related to their own lower sexual function (β = −.24, p = .004) and greater sexual distress (β = .19, p = .012), while their higher sexual curiosity motivation was related to higher partnered sexual frequency (β = .15, p = .031), their own greater sexual satisfaction (β = .13, p = .022), sexual function (β = .16, p = .009), and lower sexual distress (β = −.13, p = .043). Women’s higher partnered pornography use frequency was associated with their own greater sexual function (β = .15, p = .034) and lower sexual distress (β = −.14, p = .012). Additionally, women’s higher individual pornography use frequency (β = .33, p < .001) and lower sexual pleasure motivation (β = −.35, p = .002) were associated with higher partnered sexual frequency. No partner effects were observed. Findings highlight that women’s pornography use frequency and each partner’s motivations might play crucial roles in couples’ sexual wellbeing.
... Despite these harmful effects, other studies have suggested some potential positive gains of IPU in that it enhances sexual knowledge [31,32], openness [33], and yields more significant positive effects in men's lives [34]. The act of watching porn is also categorised as an emotional coping mechanism (e.g., stress relief and relaxation) [35]. However, these individuals can end up experiencing more issues related to problematic IPU [36]. ...
Article
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Internet pornography use (IPU) refers to Internet-based sexually explicit materials that are ultimately used to elicit sexual feelings or thoughts. The accessibility of Internet pornography could lead to excessive exposure to pornographic messages, posing a risk to heavy users’ psychological health. This paper offers a preliminary understanding of the relationship between Internet pornography use and psychological distress among emerging adults and the moderating role of gender in the association. This cross-sectional study has taken a purposive sampling approach to recruit 144 emerging adult pornography users via the online survey method. The results indicated that males reported having more problematic Internet pornography use, and there were no gender differences in psychological distress. Meanwhile, gender is a significant moderator between Internet pornography use and psychological distress. The females were found to be more psychologically affected by their problematic Internet pornography use than the males. Overall, this study has provided a novel finding of the moderating role of gender in problematic Internet pornography use and psychological distress in the Malaysian context. This study also calls for a gender-focused sexual health programme for Malaysian emerging adults. Furthermore, the scores of problematic IPU in this study raise a concern over the effectiveness of current sex education in Malaysia. The scores may highlight the need to provide education targeting Internet pornography use.
... 3 In under 19-year olds alone, in the UK, the National Health Service recorded a threefold increase in referrals for psychosexual therapy between 2015-2018. 4 Studies that have looked beyond the prevalence rates of these problems, have found a correlation between pornography use and erectile dysfunction, low libido, difficulty orgasming (Carvalheira, Traeen, and Stulhofer 2015;Wéry and Billieux 2016), and a preference for pornography over actual sex with a partner (Pizzol, Bertoldo, and Foresta 2016;Sun et al. 2015). Relevant to the question of causation, even though this cannot be claimed to be decisive vis-à-vis etiology, we also have evidence that the cessation of the consumption of online pornography can restore healthy sexual functioning, providing further support for the contention that online pornography most likely plays an important part in sexual dysfunctions (Park et al. 2016). ...
Article
This introduction summarizes the research on the impact of online pornography on sexual health and relationships in young people. I suggest that the difference between pre-Internet and online pornography is not in any straightforward sense only one of degree. I argue that this is because the online medium changes the young person’s relationship to the sexual materials by providing a virtual space within which sexual desire is gratified quickly and non-reflectively, undermining the capacity to mentalize one’s own sexual desire and that of the other.
... A series of items were developed specifically for this study in order to assess the frequency of engagement in online sexual activities (OSAs) in the previous 6 months. The items were created in accordance with themes presented in previous studies [23,[29][30][31][32]. A total of 5 items was used, measuring 2 types of online sexual activities dating back 6 months: Solitary OSAs (2 items; α = 0.939; e.g., "I watched sexually explicit material on the internet") and Partnered OSAs (3 items; α = 0.813; e.g., "I have exchanged intimate photos with another person"). ...
Article
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The online environment has had a profound sociocultural impact, and its implications pose new challenges to modern-day societies. The digital sexual and dating domains have dramatically affected sexual and romantic behavior and norms, and yet, no empirical studies have addressed the role of the sexual self-concept in driving sexual and romantic online behavior. The aim of this study is to identify reliable sexual self-configurations through a cluster analysis approach and determine whether these profiles are informative in relation to app use motives and sexual outcomes. For this purpose, a total of 244 subjects were recruited. Survey questions measured a set of demographic parameters, motives for app use, online sexual activities, attachment orientations, the sexual self-concept and sexual satisfaction. Five clusters were identified, including two with high levels of sexual drive (“Driven” and “Adventurous”), two with low levels of sexual drive (“Unassured” and “Naïve”) and one with an intermediate level of sexual drive (“Competent”). The clusters differed on gender, attachment styles, app use patterns and sexual characteristics. These findings provide insight into how the sexual self-concept relates to the interaction between individuals and the online sexual and dating scenes.
... Focusing on the risks of pornography, the literature has reported on the negative effects on -or the concerns about -young people's emotional and psychological development, including encouraging greater acceptance of sexual permissiveness, sexual activity at an early age, risky sexual behaviour, and acceptance of negative attitudes towards women, promoting a negative body image, and exerting pressure to perform pornographic acts and commit sexual offenses or accept rape myths (Albright, 2008;Dombrowski et al., 2007;National Center on Sexual Exploitation, 2016;Owens et al., 2012;Peter and Valkenburg, 2016;Wéry and Billieux, 2016). ...
Article
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Sexually explicit material (SEM) is easily accessed by adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics of 413 Italian adolescents (aged 17-22, 55% female) who use SEM. We examined the associations of SEM use with relationship status, religiosity, and emotional intelligence. All of the respondents reported accessing SEM while underage, with males using SEM more than females and accessing SEM at an earlier age; earlier exposure to SEM was also found to influence later SEM use. The reasons for watching pornography also differed be-tween the genders. There was a partial connection between the EQ-I:YV, SEM use, and recent sexual activity. The gender differences in terms of the prevalence and reasons for the use of SEM may be connected to a more general gender cultural stereotype.
... Research shows that over 80% of the people seeking treatment for compulsive sexual behaviour disorder have reported an inability to control their use of pornography, despite negative consequences [28,30,[37][38][39][40]. Those include negative effects on relationships, on work and on sexual offending. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Reports of sexual violence, especially towards women and children, are rapidly increasing. At the same time, rates of problematic pornography use (PPU) are accelerating across the world too. The purpose of this review is to consider the recent research on PPU and its contribution to sexual violence. The article offers guidance to governments on possible health policy interventions and legal actions to prevent the development of PPU and to reduce the incidence of sexual violence in society. Recent Findings Working from the consumer’s point of view, we identify PPU and ask how much pornography is needed to cause PPU. We examine how PPU drives sexual offending in children, adolescents and adults. The impact of PPU on some consumers’ behaviour suggests significant links to domestic violence. Sexual strangulation is highlighted as an example. Artificial intelligence algorithms play a key role in the pornography industry and appear to be driving escalation to more violent material, inducing high levels of sexual dysfunction in consumers and creating appetites for viewing child sexual abuse material (CSAM). Summary Easy access to internet pornography has led to an increase in PPU and sexual violence. Diagnoses and treatments for PPU are examined, as are legal transgressions of a civil and criminal nature arising from PPU. Legal remedies and government policy implications are discussed from the point of view of the precautionary principle. Strategies covered include age verification for pornography, public health campaigns and embedded health and legal warnings for users at the start of pornography sessions along with lessons for pupils about pornography’s impact on the brain.
... Despite data indicating an association of CSB symptoms with engaging in sexual behavior to cope with difficult emotions (such as sadness, anger, shame, boredom, loneliness), stress and painful experiences (46)(47)(48), the criteria for the diagnosis of CSBD do not include criterion A2. and A3. as proposed by Kafka (9). Over the past three decades, concepts and theoretical models that highlight the links between CSB symptoms and emotional dysregulation and/or vulnerability to stress have emerged (60)(61)(62). The Goodman's model assumes the existence of 3 elements: impaired ability to regulate affect, impaired behavioral inhibition and abnormalities in functioning of motivational reward systems (7). ...
Preprint
Research has suggested that, in some cases, sexual offending might be a manifestation of an uncontrolled or compulsive online sexual activity, which may be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction. To deal with the lack of validated instruments to assess online sexual addiction, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Online Sexual Addiction Questionnaire (OSA-Q). To this end, a total of 100 men convicted of a sexual offense completed the Spanish version of the OSA-Q, along with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for the assessment of related areas of impairment. Once individuals with social desirability response bias (n = 34) were extracted from the sample, the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure explaining 77.06% of the variance for the OSA-Q. Additionally, internal consistency of the total score was strong (α = .97), and correlations with related clinical scales were significant. Overall, individuals convicted of online sexual offenses showed significantly higher scores on the OSA-Q than contact-exclusive offenders. These results justify the use of the OSA-Q (if accompanied by a valid assessment of social desirability response bias) in the screening of online sexual addiction in Spanish forensic samples, which might, in turn, improve existing risk management plans.
Article
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Excessive problematic sexual behavior in the form of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), hypersexuality (HS), and sex addiction has gained increasing credibility in recent years and has led to the development of various psychometric instruments to assess such behavior. However, there is still considerable controversy over the operational definition of such concepts and whether they can be used interchangeably to describe the behavior. One recently developed tool is the Bergen–Yale Sex Addiction Scale (BYSAS) based on the “components model of addiction.” The present study validated the Italian version of the BYSAS. The BYSAS was administered to a large Italian-speaking sample of Italian adults [ N = 1230, aged 18 to 67 years] along with psychometric instruments assessing the “Big Five” personality traits, self-esteem, depression, and two other measures of addictive sexual behavior (i.e., PATHOS and Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire–Sex Subscale). Confirmatory factorial analysis supported a one-factor solution. Furthermore, the scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.787). The BYSAS was positively associated with extroversion, openness to experience, depression, and problematic sexual behavior, and negatively associated with self-esteem, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and age. Based on the findings, the BYSAS is a brief, psychometrically reliable and valid measure for assessing sex addiction among Italian adults.
Article
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Purpose of the Review This systematic review explores comorbidities related to the problematic use of online sexual activities (OSAs) in the absence of any published synthesis on the subject. These comorbidities are commonly confused with problems associated with offline addictive sexual disorders, even though it is not clear whether they are strictly similar. Recent Findings This is the first systematic review of the literature synthesizing data on the comorbidities of problematic OSA use. The pattern of comorbidities that was evidenced supports the hypothesis that problematic OSA use is part of a spectrum of related (yet distinct) disorders, Internet-related disorders. Summary A total of 23 studies were selected and analyzed. The systematic literature review conducted showed that various comorbidities occur with problematic OSA use as follows: (1) addictive behaviors (internet addiction, online gaming problem, substance use disorders), (2) other psychiatric disorders or psychopathological symptoms (mood disorders and suicidality, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorder, online dissociation), (3) psychological dimensions (insecure peer attachment, specific personality traits), and (4) sexual problems (sexual dysfunction, paraphilia, offline addictive sexual disorders).
Article
Several studies have shown that problematic use of online sexual activities (OSAs) can constitute a dysfunctional coping strategy that reflects a compensatory usage of the Internet. Yet, some specific risk factors—widely investigated in the field of general problematic Internet use—have to date been scarcely studied within the context of OSA. Hence, the goal of this study was to test a theoretical model in which self‐esteem, loneliness, and social anxiety are hypothesized to predict the type of OSAs favored and their potential addictive use. To this end, an online survey was conducted in a sample of self‐selected men who used OSAs on a regular basis (N = 209). Results showed that low self‐esteem is positively associated with loneliness and high social anxiety, which were in turn positively related to involvement in two specific OSAs: use of pornography and the search for online sexual contacts. Higher engagement in these OSA activities was related to symptoms of addictive usage. These findings underline the importance in psychological interventions of taking into account the specific OSA practiced to improve self‐esteem and to reduce loneliness and symptoms of social anxiety.
Article
This study explored the psychometric properties of the Online Sexual Addiction Questionnaire (OSA-Q). In total, 100 sexual offenders completed the OSA-Q Spanish version, along with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for the assessment of related impairment. Thirty-four individuals with social-desirability bias were extracted from the sample. A four-factor structure accounted for 77% of the variance and internal consistency was strong (α = .97). Additionally, correlations with related clinical scales were statistically significant. Overall, online sexual offenders showed higher scores on the OSA-Q than contact-exclusive offenders. According to our results, the OSA-Q shows promise as a screening in forensic samples.
Article
Background Pornography use may become problematic for 1–6% of the people and may be associated with adverse consequences leading to treatment-seeking behavior. Although the identification of the central symptoms of problematic pornography use (PPU) may inform treatment strategies, no prior study has applied the network approach to examine the symptoms of PPU. Aim To explore the network structure of PPU symptoms, identify the topological location of pornography use frequency in this network, and examine whether the structure of this network of symptoms differs between participants who considered and those who did not consider treatment. Methods A large-scale online sample of 4,253 men (Mage = 38.33 years, SD = 12.40) was used to explore the structure of PPU symptoms in 2 distinct groups: considered treatment group (n = 509) and not-considered treatment group (n = 3,684). Outcomes Participants completed a self-report questionnaire about their past-year pornography use frequency and PPU measured by the short version of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale. Results The global structure of symptoms did not differ significantly between the considered treatment and the not-considered treatment groups. 2 clusters of symptoms were identified in both groups, with the first cluster including salience, mood modification, and pornography use frequency and the second cluster including conflict, withdrawal, relapse, and tolerance. In the networks of both groups, salience, tolerance, withdrawal, and conflict appeared as central symptoms, whereas pornography use frequency was the most peripheral symptom. However, mood modification had a more central place in the considered treatment group’s network and a more peripheral position in the not-considered treatment group’s network. Clinical Implications Based on the results of the centrality analysis in the considered treatment group, targeting salience, mood modification, and withdrawal symptoms first in the treatment may be an effective way of reducing PPU. Strengths & Limitations The present study appears to be the first to analyze the symptoms of PPU using a network analytic approach. Self-reported measures of PPU and pornography use frequency might have introduced some biases. Conclusion The network of PPU symptoms was similar in participants who did and those who did not consider treatment because of their pornography use, with the exception of the mood modification symptom. Targeting the central symptoms in the treatments of PPU seems to be more effective than focusing on reducing pornography use. Bőthe B, Lonza A, Štulhofer A, et al. Symptoms of Problematic Pornography Use in a Sample of Treatment Considering and Treatment Non-Considering Men: A Network Approach. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
Article
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Emotion dysregulation and intimacy problems are theoretically underpinned correlates of hypersexuality (i.e., uncontrollable sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors resulting in distress and impairment in different areas of functioning), but the directionality of these associations has not been established, as work in this area has relied on cross-sectional designs. Moreover, although hypersexuality may have significant adverse effects on romantic relationships and approximately half of treatment-seeking individuals are in a relationship, prior studies almost exclusively involved samples of men, regardless of their relationship status. The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of associations between both partners' emotion dysregulation, physical (i.e., partnered sexual frequency) and relationship intimacy, and hypersexuality using a longitudinal, dyadic framework. Self-reported data of 267 mixed-sex couples (Mage_men = 29.9 years, SD = 8.2; Mage_women = 27.7 years, SD = 6.7) at baseline (T1) and six-month follow-up (T2) were analyzed using a crossed-lagged model within an actor-partner interdependence framework. Prior greater emotion dysregulation (T1) in both men and women was associated with their own later greater hypersexuality (T2). Women's prior greater hypersexuality (T1) was associated with their later lower relationship intimacy (T2). Lower levels of intimacy were not significantly associated with later hypersexuality. No partner effects were found in relation to hypersexuality. Findings suggest that men and women may use sexual behaviors to cope with negative emotions, which could, in turn, lead to hypersexuality. Intimacy problems did not precede hypersexuality, although women's hypersexuality may reduce their own relationship intimacy over time.
Thesis
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Die dysfunktionale Nutzung des Internets und spezifischer Internet-Anwendungen scheint ein bedeutendes Phänomen, welches Parallelen zu Suchterkrankungen aufzeigt. Eine eindeutige klinische Klassifizierung steht jedoch noch aus, wenngleich erste Ansätze im neuen DSM-V einen positiven Trend erkennen lassen. Dabei wurden bisher insbesondere eine suchtartige Nutzung des Internets an sich sowie von spezifischen Anwendungen wie Internetsex-Anwendungen, sozialer Netzwerke und Kommunikations-Anwendungen, Online-Shopping und Online-Gaming untersucht. Die Ergebnisse dieser Forschung wurden im I-PACE Modell durch Brand, Young, Laier, Wölfling & Potenza (2016) zusammengefasst, welches einen Forschungsrahmen bietet. Das Forschungsfeld der Cybersex-Anwendungen beschränkt sich meist auf die Nutzung von Pornographie. Diese umfasst zwar eine Vielzahl von verschiedenen Angeboten, es handelt sich jedoch meist um einen passiven Konsum in Form von Betrachten. Doch Cybersex kann auch aktive Formen der sexuellen Nutzung des Internets beschreiben, wie die Nutzung zur Aufnahme sexueller Kontakte oder Chats. Durch die Verbreitung von Smartphones und sozialen Netzwerken entwickelten sich jedoch neue Formen des Online-Datings durch Dating-Apps, welche immer und überall abrufbar sind. Online-Dating kann als Form von Internetsex angesehen werden, da es auch sexuelle Motive bedient und Handlungen ermöglicht. Eine systematische Untersuchung von Dating-Apps vor dem Hintergrund der Erkenntnisse zur Cybersex-Nutzungsstörung unter Einbezug der damit einhergehenden kommunikativen Aspekte erfolgte bisher nicht. Daher nimmt sich die vorliegende Arbeit dieser Fragen an. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht eine mögliche dysfunktionale Nutzung von Dating-Apps. Dabei wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen einer subjektiven Symptomschwere und der Nutzungsintensität aufgezeigt. Die Symptomschwere korreliert darüber hinaus mit der Depressivität sowie sozialer Unsicherheit und hypersexuellem Verhalten. Eine geringere Korrelation der Symptomschwere besteht zur sozialen und emotionalen Einsamkeit. Die Zusammenhänge werden mittels Strukturgleichungsmodell untersucht. Es zeigt sich ein Einfluss der Psychopathologie auf die subjektive Symptomschwere. Insgesamt zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass eine Symptomschwere durch die Nutzung von Dating-Apps dargestellt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund der aktuellen Forschung diskutiert und eingeordnet.
Article
Background Although problematic pornography use (PPU) will soon be diagnosable through the International Classification for Diseases, 11th revision, its clinical profile remains contentious. The current study assessed whether PPU may be characterized by various symptoms sometimes observed among online recovery forums that currently lack empirical assessment, such as heightened cognitive-affective issues following pornography use and sexual dysfunction with partners as a result of escalating use. Method Cross-sectional surveys were completed by male PPUs ( N = 138, mean age = 31.75 years, standard deviation = 10.72) recruited via online recovery communities and Amazon Mechanical Turk. Multiple regression analysis was performed using the Problematic Pornography Use Scale as the dependent variable and variables of interest (Arizona Sexual Experiences Scales modified for partnered sex and pornography use, Brunel Mood Scale, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the Tolerance subscale from the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale) and potential confounders (eg, comorbid psychopathology) as independent variables. Results Current levels of pornography use, indicators of tolerance and escalation, greater sexual functioning with pornography, and psychological distress were uniquely associated with PPU severity, while cognitive-affective issues after pornography use, impulsivity and compulsivity were not. Although sexual dysfunction did not predict PPU severity, nearly half the sample indicated sexual dysfunction with intimate partners. Conclusions The present findings suggest that PPU may be characterized by tolerance and escalation (as per substance addiction models), greater sexual responsivity toward pornography, and psychological distress. Meanwhile, the high rate of partnered sexual dysfunction observed suggests that PPU might be somewhat separable from other forms of compulsive sexual behavior.
Conference Paper
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RESUMEN El consumo de pornografía y sus posibles consecuencias sigue siendo objeto de debate en el ámbito científico. Diversos estudios muestran que puede producir consecuencias perjudiciales en la personas como: facilitar las conductas agresivas en el ámbito sexual, favorecer los estereotipos de género y roles sexuales, tratar a la mujer como un objeto, fomentar la promiscuidad, generar problemas familiares y en el matrimonio y/o producir disfunciones sexuales. En contraposición, existen estudios que indican posibles efectos positivos del consumo de pornografía, como inducir la cercanía en la pareja o aumentar la autoestima sexual. Además, investigaciones recientes, proponen que la pornografía por sí sola no sería suficiente para generar una conducta problemática, sino que serían necesarias otras variables como la presencia de síntomas depresivos o de ansiedad, la baja autoestima, emociones como aburrimiento o susceptibilidad, las necesidades psicológicas básicas no cubiertas, los estilos de apego, las características de personalidad o la incomodidad respecto a la pornografía, lo que explicarían dichas consecuencias. Debido a los resultados inconcluyentes en el ámbito clínico a este respecto se revisan las diversas investigaciones publicadas hasta la fecha y se proponen ámbitos de crecimiento para mejorar el abordaje y comprensión de este fenómeno en la realidad clínica.
Article
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Amaç: Bu çalışmada Sağlık Bilimleri Yüksekokulunda okuyan öğrencilerin cinsel mitler ile ilgili düşüncelerini değerlendirmek amaçlanmıştır.Yöntem: Çalışma bir vakıf üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 325 öğrenci ile yüz yüze görüşerek gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri “Tanıtıcı Bilgi Formu” ve “Cinsel Mitler Ölçeği” kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde tanımlayıcı istatistikler, Mann-Whitney U Testi, Kruskal-Wallis Testi ve Spearman rho korelasyon testi kullanılmıştır.Bulgular: Çalışmaya katılan öğrencilerin %69,5’inin kadın ve %97,5’inin bekâr olduğu, %69,8’inin şehirde yaşadığı belirlenmiştir. Ailesi Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi’nde yaşayan öğrencilerin cinsel yönelim ve mastürbasyon alt boyut puan ortalamaları anlamlı olarak yüksek bulunmuştur. Erkeklerin cinsel yönelim, toplumsal cinsiyet, yaş ve cinsellik, cinsel davranış, cinsel ilişki, cinsel memnuniyet alt boyut puan ortalamaları ve toplam cinsel mitler puanı kadınlara göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Evlilik öncesi cinsel deneyim yaşanmasını uygun bulmayan öğrencilerin cinsel yönelim, mastürbasyon ve cinsel şiddet alt boyut puan ortalamaları ve toplam cinsel mitler puan ortalamaları evlilik öncesi cinsel deneyimi uygun bulan öğrencilere göre anlamlı olarak daha yüksek bulunmuştur.Sonuç: Erkeklerin cinsel mitlere inanma düzeyi kadınlardan fazladır. Bireyin ailesinin yaşadığı coğrafi bölge cinsel mitlere inanma durumunu etkilemektedir. Cinsel bilgilerin topluma doğru aktarılması amacıyla düzenlenen cinsel sağlık eğitimleri planlanırken kültürel ve coğrafi farklılıklar göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır.
Article
Background and Objectives Addictive behaviors are gaining recognition in the clinical community, leading to more attention for the effects of problematic porn use. As many addictive behaviors are characterized by automatically activated approach-tendencies for disorder-relevant stimuli, we tested whether such tendencies are also present for erotic images and whether these are related to problematic porn use. Methods Measuring approach-bias for erotic photographs, sixty-two healthy heterosexual and bisexual men completed both a relevant-feature and an irrelevant-feature approach-avoidance task (AAT). Half of participants operated a joystick as response device, the other half a keyboard. We recorded participants’ number of weekly porn-viewing sessions and symptoms of problematic porn use. Results The irrelevant-feature AAT produced unreliable results and was not analyzed further. In the relevant-feature AAT, participants had an overall approach-bias towards erotic stimuli. Porn use frequency, but not problematic porn use, was associated with with greater erotic approach-bias. This relationship was stronger when measured with a joystick than with a keyboard. Limitations Our design did not allow to test the causal direction of the relationship between porn use and approach-bias, and our results cannot be generalized to women, non-heterosexual men, and clinical populations. Conclusions Similar to other addictive behaviors and substances, we found a positive relation between porn use and approach-bias. Future studies using the relevant-feature AAT will likely benefit from using the joystick rather than the keyboard.
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This study explores online sexual activities and analyzes the relationship between these activities and sexual satisfaction. A total of 236 university students completed self-reported scales. The results indicated that the most frequent online sexual activities were: searching for sexual issues, flirting via chat rooms and viewing erotic or pornographic videos. With regards to the relationship between online sexual activities and sexual satisfaction, it was found that participants, who reported not seeking sexual information as well as not using chatrooms for sexual conversations, obtained a higher score in sexual satisfaction. In conclusion, although engaging in activities online for sexual purposes has a high prevalence, its influence on obtaining greater sexual satisfaction is not sufficiently proven.
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The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a 2-factor model of the s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach’s  coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners.
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Background and aims: Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods: In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results: The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion: The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions: Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction.
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While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience. Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors. The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors.
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Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” behavioral addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved.
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Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters.
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L’objectif du présent article est de proposer une recension des connaissances actuelles sur la dépendance cybersexuelle (définition, épidémiologie, évaluation et traitement). Il existe en effet un manque de consensus concernant la conceptualisation de ce trouble. Ce flou conceptuel est notamment imputable a` l’existence d’une multitude de définitions du trouble, d’une importante variété des conduites sexuelles concernées et des symptomatologies, et de problèmes méthodologiques dans les études existantes (échantillons et outils d’évaluation fortement hétérogènes dans les différentes études). Dans un tel contexte, notre article vise a` clarifier l’état des connaissances sur la cyberdépendance sexuelle. Nous ferons également un état des lieux des modalités de traitements empiriquement validés de la dépendance sexuelle et cybersexuelle, et proposerons des pistes pour les études futures. Une revue narrative non systématique a été réalisée afin d’examiner et de résumer la littérature anglophone et francophone portant sur la dépendance cybersexuelle. Cette revue a été effectuée au moyen de mots-clés désignant la dépendance sexuelle et cybersexuelle dans les bases de données PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science et Francis. Une attention particulière a été portée aux articles évaluant les facteurs de risques impliqués dans la dépendance sexuelle, ainsi qu’a` ceux proposant des pistes de traitement du trouble.
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IntroductionAlthough several theories and treatment plans use unusual sexual fantasies (SF) as a way to identify deviancy, they seldom describe how the fantasies referred to were determined to be unusual.AimThe main goal of this study was to determine which SF are rare, unusual, common, or typical from a statistical point of view among a relatively large sample of adults recruited from the general population. A secondary goal was to provide a statistical comparison of the nature and intensity of sexual fantasies for men and women. This study also aims at demonstrating with both quantitative and qualitative analyses that certain fantasies often considered to be unusual are common.Methods An Internet survey was conducted with 1,516 adults (799 ♀; 717 ♂) who ranked 55 different SF and wrote their own favorite SF. Each SF was rated as statistically rare (2.3% or less), unusual (15.9% or less), common (more than 50%), or typical (more than 84.1% of the sample).Main Outcome MeasuresAn extended version of the Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire with an open question.ResultsOnly two sexual fantasies were found to be rare for women or men, while nine others were unusual. Thirty sexual fantasies were common for one or both genders, and only five were typical. These results were confirmed with qualitative analyses. Submission and domination themes were not only common for both men and women, but they were also significantly related to each other. Moreover, the presence of a single submissive fantasy was a significant predictor of overall scores for all SF in both genders.Conclusion Care should be taken before labeling an SF as unusual, let alone deviant. It suggested that the focus should be on the effect of a sexual fantasy rather than its content. Joyal CC, Cossette A, and Lapierre V. What exactly is an unusual sexual fantasy? J Sex Med **;**:**–**.
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