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The post-industrial landscape in relation to local self-government in the Czech Republic

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The relation between local government and the post-industrial landscape is discussed in this article for a case study area in the Czech Republic, the Tanvald region (area with the spatial concentration of glass and textile industries before 1989). The situation significantly changed with the return of the market economy, when many industries were closed and it was necessary to find new modes of development for them. This research is based not only on the results of semi-structured interviews with representatives of local government (mayors) in the study area, but also uses selected statistical data and information collected during field research. The article concludes with a new typology of roles played by local government in the redevelopment process and with recommendations on how to improve decision-making processes associated with brownfield redevelopment.
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MORAVIAN
GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
Vol. 19/2011 No. 4
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
1
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
EDITORIAL BOARD
Bryn GREER-WOOTTEN, York University, Toronto
Andrzej T. JANKOWSKI, Silesian University, Sosnowiec
Karel KIRCHNER, Institute of Geonics, Brno
Petr KONEÈNÝ, Institute of Geonics, Ostrava
Ivan KUPÈÍK, University of Munich
Sebastian LENTZ, Leibniz Institute for Regional
Geography, Leipzig
Petr MARTINEC, Institute of Geonics, Ostrava
Walter MATZNETTER, University of Vienna
Jozef MLÁDEK, Comenius University, Bratislava
Jan MUNZAR, Institute of Geonics, Brno
Philip OGDEN, Queen Mary University, London
Metka ŠPES, University of Ljubljana
Milan TRIZNA, Comenius University, Bratislava
Antonín VAISHAR, Institute of Geonics, Brno
Miroslav VYSOUDIL, Palacký University, Olomouc
Arnošt WAHLA, University of Ostrava
Jana ZAPLETALOVÁ (editor-in chief), Institute of
Geonics, Brno
Georgette ZRINSCAK, University Sorbonne, Paris
EDITORIAL STAFF
Bohumil FRANTÁL
Tomáš KREJÈÍ, technical editor
Zdenìk NOVOTNÝ, technical arrangement
Martina Z. SVOBODOVÁ, linguistic editor
PRICE
280 CZK (excluding VAT) per copy plus the postage
800 CZK (excluding VAT)
per volume (four numbers per year) plus the postage
PUBLISHER
The Academy of Science of the Czech Republic
Institute of Geonics, v. v. i., Branch Brno
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Identification number: 68145535
MAILING ADDRESS
MGR, Institute of Geonics ASCR, v. v. i.
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(home page) http://www.geonika.cz
Brno, December, 2011
PRINT
NOVPRESS s.r.o., nám. Republiky 15, 614 00 Brno
© INSTITUTE OF GEONICS ASCR, v.v.i. 2010
ISSN 1210-8812
Articles:
Foreword…………………………………………………….…... 2
Jaromír KOLEJKA, Martin KLIMÁNEK, Benjamin FRAGNER
POST-INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE: THE CASE
OF THE LIBEREC REGION, CZECH REPUBLIC
…….
3
(Post-industriální krajina: Pøíklad Libereckého kraje,
Èeská republika)
Petr KLUSÁÈEK, Tomáš KREJÈÍ, Josef KUNC,
Stanislav MARTINÁT, Eva NOVÁKOVÁ
THE POST-INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE
IN RELATION TO LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
………………………………
.. 18
(Vztah lokální samosprávy k post-industriální krajinì
na území Èeské republiky)
Pavel RAŠKA, Karel KIRCHNER
ASSESSING LANDSCAPE CHANGES
IN A REGION AFFECTED BY MILITARY
ACTIVITY AND URANIUM MINING
(PRAMENY MUNICIPALITY AREA,
WESTERN BOHEMIA, CZECH REPUBLIC):
A MULTI-SCALE APPROACH ………………………….. 29
!"#$"%&$'()*+$(,(-./01$+(,(.&21"$3(4"5617&$8*(,"0&$5-"3(
/-61,16"3(/(6+79"3(3./$3( :./*&$;<()=4/#$'(>&%?;<(>&5-=(
Republika): víceúrovòový pøístup)
Zdeòka LIPOVSKÁ
OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE CHANGE
OF A POST-MINING REGION – CASE STUDY
OF THE SOKOLOV–EAST MICROREGION
(CZECH REPUBLIC) ……………………………………… 38
:@'A&716"561(4."(4@&*+$3(?".$1%-8?"(.&21"$3(B(4@'4/#",=(
studie Mikroregion Sokolov-východ, Èeská republika)
C/.9/./(DEFDEGHIEDJ<(K1%?/A(:ELMNOHI<(
Radka BÜRGERMEISTEROVÁ
THE DATABASE ON BROWNFIELDS IN OSTRAVA
(CZECH REPUBLIC): SOME APPROACHES
TO CATEGORIZATION
…………………………………….
50
(Databáze brownfieldù v Ostravì (Èeská republika): pøístup
ke kategorizaci)
£ukasz GAWOR, Andrzej T. JANKOWSKI, Marek RUMAN
POST-MINING DUMPING GROUNDS AS GEOTOURIST
ATTRACTIONS IN THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL
BASIN AND THE RUHR DISTRICT.………………….. 61
:"566+7&9$'(5-A=#-;(0/-"(2&"63.1561%-8(/6./-%&(,(!".$"5A&)5-8(
uhelné pánvi a v Porùøí)
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS 4/2011, Vol. 19
18
THE POST-INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE
IN RELATION TO LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Petr KLUSÁÈEK, Tomáš KREJÈÍ, Josef KUNC, Stanislav MARTINÁT, Eva NOVÁKOVÁ
Abstract
The relation between local government and the post-industrial landscape is discussed in this article for
a case study area in the Czech Republic, the Tanvald region (area with the spatial concentration of glass
and textile industries before 1989). The situation significantly changed with the return of the market
economy, when many industries were closed and it was necessary to find new modes of development for
them. This research is based not only on the results of semi-structured interviews with representatives
of local government (mayors) in the study area, but also uses selected statistical data and information
collected during field research. The article concludes with a new typology of roles played by local
government in the redevelopment process and with recommendations on how to improve decision-making
processes associated with brownfield redevelopment.
Shrnutí
Vztah lokální samosprávy kpost-industriální krajině naúzemí České republiky
Èlánek se zabývá problematikou vztahu lokální samosprávy k objektùm tzv. post-industriální krajiny
na území Èeské republiky a to na pøíkladu Tanvaldska (území s vysokou prostorovou koncentrací
skláøského a textilního prùmyslu pøed rokem 1989). Situace v tomto regionu se samozøejmì zásadnì
)*+$1A/( ,( "9#"9'( 4"( $=,./63( 6.7$'( &-"$"*1-;<( -#;( #"PA"( -( 3)/,@&$'( *$"?/( 4.Q*;5A",R%?( "90&-6Q(
/(/.&=AQ<(4."(-6&.8(9;A"($36$8(?A&#/6($",8(/A6&.$/61,;(,;3716'S(:@'54+,&-(,;%?=)'($&0&$()(,R5A&#-Q(@')&$R%?(
.")?",".Q<(-6&.8(5&(35-36&T$1A;(5&(56/."56;("9%'(,(.=*%1(563#",/$8?"(.&21"$3<(/A&(0&(#=A&()/A"7&$($/(/$/AR)&(
vybraných statických dat a na poznatcích získaných pøímo v prùbìhu terénního šetøení. V závìru èlánek
4@1$=P'(,A/56$'(6;4"A"211(."A'<(-6&."3(*'56$'(5/*"54.=,;(5&?.=,/0'(,(4."%&53("4+6",$8?"(,;3716'(9."U$V1&A#5(
a pøináší doporuèení, jakým zpùsobem zlepšit rozhodovací procesy.
Key words: brownfields, redevelopment, municipalities, mayors, Tanvald region, Czech Republic
1. Introduction
Issues of the post-industrial landscape and brownfield
redevelopment in the Czech Republic have become very
common after the collapse of the planned economy in
the two decades after 1989. In the 1990s, the return
of the market economy caused a decline or even
collapse of many economic activities and, after 2000,
the trends connected with increasing globalisation
and Europeanisation had a huge impact on the
further modification of traditional economic activities
(especially with respect to the deindustrialisation
process). One of the results of the afore-mentioned
processes is the occurrence of derelict, abandoned,
neglected and unused areas and buildings, which
are known as brownfields. The issues connected
with brownfields are given attention not only by
scientists but also among political representatives
at different hierarchical levels (local, regional,
national, EU), private entrepreneurs and citizens,
because areas with brownfields often have huge
impacts on their surroundings (especially economic,
environmental and aesthetic impacts). On the one
hand, the existence of brownfields usually brings not
only risks (e.g., contamination of underground or
surface waters, contamination of soils, increase in air
pollution, spatial concentration of the social problems
associated with homeless people, drug addicts, etc.),
but also opportunities for future redevelopment.
The brownfields are perceived as zones and locations
suitable for future development projects, which
is why the research on brownfields is popular not
only among experts from different disciplines (e.g.
economy, architecture, geography, sociology, urban
planning, law, etc.) but also among other groups
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
19
of stakeholders (e.g. political representatives,
entrepreneurs) actively participating in the decision-
making processes related to redevelopment planning.
In this context it is necessary to emphasize that the
concrete redevelopment plans have usually both
their supporters and their opponents, and the final
way of brownfield redevelopment is influenced by
decisions made by political representatives at different
hierarchical levels (the mayors play the key role at
municipal levels).
International research regarding brownfields has
a longer tradition than the research activities in the
Czech Republic, where the number of brownfields
started to increase significantly in the period 1990–
2011. The developed countries with market economies
(e.g. USA, UK, Canada) already have long-term
experiences with the redevelopment of brownfields – for
example the situation in Canada was analysed in detail
by De Sousa (2001, 2003). Naturally, for the situation
in the Czech Republic, it is useful to understand
the broader context within the European Union,
focussing on the experiences from other countries in
Central Europe (e.g., Banzhaf, Netzband, 2004; Keil,
Berg, 2003; Wiegandt, Reißing, 2000). Moreover, there
could be very important experiences from the former
Eastern Germany, where the economic shift from
a centrally planned economy to a market economy
occurred earlier than in the Czech Republic, and its
impacts on spatial structures (especially large-scale
deindustrialisation) were more significant than in the
Czech Republic (for details, see Mehnert et al., 2005;
Steinführer, 2006; Kabisch, 2004).
The huge variety of issues associated with the
redevelopment of brownfields is also discussed in
the Czech Republic. There are significant differences
among Czech scientists, especially in how they deal
with studying the issue of brownfields: one group of
authors emphasizes the environmental dimensions
of the problem (e.g., redevelopment of brownfields as
a good alternative to urban sprawl see for example
Kirschner, 2006 or Srb, 2002); another group of
authors perceives industrial brownfields as an
important architectural heritage, which should be
preserved for future generations (e.g., Fragner, 2005;
Karásek, 2007). Other researchers deal with
special kinds of brownfields (e.g., Komár, 1998 or
Šilhánková, 2006 paid attention to the regeneration
of military brownfields); analysis of the situation
in specific sites or zones in which brownfields occur
(Daøílková, 1998; Kuta, Kuda, Sedlecký, 2005; Kuta,
Kuda, 2004); or on the relation between redevelopment
and spatial planning (Vojvodíková, 2005). Other
authors address the impacts on post-industrial society,
!"#"$%&&'#()*+$,'$-."&!$/'&)'0'+)/,$12$3'4*5$678879:$
more than 50% of the labour force is working in the
tertiary sector (services) and the importance of both
the primary and secondary sectors (including all kinds
of industries) is permanently decreasing.
In Czech geography, brownfields have been subject to
research by geographers who were dealing with the
transformation of industrial activities in the period
after 1989: in this context the most important studies
were published by I. Sýkorová (2007), J. Temelová and
J. Novák (2007), V. Toušek and P. Tonev (2003), and
J. Kunc (1999). Other groups of Czech geographers
paid attention to brownfields together with the
concept of so-called urban sprawl – for example O.
Mulíèek and I. Olšová (2002) or A. Létal, I. Smolová,
Z. Szczyrba (2001). It is necessary to emphasize that
the research focused on the relation between the
use of brownfields and greenfields is popular not
only among geographers, but a similar approach was
used for example by Czech architect J. Jackson (see
Jackson 2002, or Jackson and Garb, 2002), who is
one of the co-founders of the non-profit organisation
‘Institute for sustainable spatial development of the
settlements’ (details available on the web page: http://
www.brownfields.cz/), which aims to facilitate and to
improve the redevelopment process by increasing the
knowledge of selected groups of stakeholders.
2. Objectives and methods
Generally, it can be assumed that brownfield
redevelopment in the Czech Republic is influenced
by the interactions between different groups of
stakeholders from the public, private and non-
profit sectors (Fig. 1). The bodies and offices of
public administration at different hierarchical levels
(municipal, regional, national, and EU), however,
often play a key role in the processes of brownfield
redevelopment because they influence future
spatial development by means of master plans,
negotiations with owners and NGOs, investments
of public money for preparation of brownfields for
future commercial and non-commercial investments
(especially decontamination and demolition of the
abandoned buildings), and legislation, etc. At the
national level, there is the ‘National Strategy of the
Czech Republic for Regeneration of Brownfields’
(Národní strategie regenerace brownfieldù, 2008).
This national strategy, which includes both short-
term and long-term objectives and economic, legal and
environmental educational frameworks for brownfield
regeneration, is based on the research study of the
agency of CzechInvest (see www.czechinvest.org).
This study identified all kinds of brownfields (with the
exemption of mining brownfields) in the territory of
the Czech Republic with a size larger than 1 hectare
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS 4/2011, Vol. 19
20
(in total 10,326 hectares). At the regional level, the
problems associated with brownfield redevelopment
are resolved by regional authorities and the regional
development agencies. One disadvantage of the
national and regional strategies for municipalities is
that they pay attention only to the most important
and largest brownfields – e.g., while the ‘National
Strategy of the Czech Republic for Regeneration
of Brownfields’ (Národní strategie regenerace
brownfieldù, 2008) identified only 2,355 brownfields
in the Czech Republic, it estimated that the total
number of all brownfields was significantly higher,
ranging from 8,500 to 11,700 brownfields (in total
between 27,000–38,000 hectares). The Czech
political representatives at national and regional
levels pay attention especially to the redevelopment
of brownfields with a large area or with heavily
contaminated brownfields and the brownfields of
smaller size are neglected – therefore the successful
redevelopment of the majority of small brownfields
sites in the Czech Republic depends on decisions made
at the municipal level.
This research project pays attention to issues connected
with brownfield redevelopment at the municipal level
in two (in the conditions of the Czech Republic:
“typical”) post-industrial case study areas, which were
industrialised in different ways:
a) the Tanvald region, with abandoned textile and
glass industrial brownfields sites; and
b) the former mining region of Rosicko-Oslavansko.
Several kinds of research were carried out in both case
study areas (e.g., interviews with mayors, personal
meetings with local entrepreneurs, questionnaire
surveys with local inhabitants, field research, etc.).
Naturally, this article does not recount all the results
of the research project (the final synthesis of all results
will be prepared and published), but pays attention
only to the results associated with local government in
the Tanvald region. The main objective of the article
is to identify the strategies and problems which have
to be resolved by representatives of local government
in terms of brownfield redevelopment. We used semi-
structured interviews with the mayors of the selected
case study area – Tanvald region (these interviews
were conducted in August 2010), and the most
important results of the interviews are combined with
selected information from field research, statistical
analyses (population and economic data), and with
interpretations from the literature.
3. Tanvald Region – The case study and its
previous development
The case study area of Tanvald region is located in
northern Bohemia – about 15 kilometres to the east
of the regional “capital”, Liberec (Fig. 2), and it
consists of eight municipalities according to present
administrative divisions. The study area of Tanvald
region is not identical to the administrative division
of the Czech Republic and it is different from the
administrative borders (e.g. municipalities with
extended competences); the case study area was
named after the largest municipality of the studied
region. The spatial delimitation of the study region
was based on the objectives of the research project
“The Fate of Czech Post-industrial Landscape” – to be
more specific, especially with attention to the spatial
concentration of post-industrial structures associated
in particular with former textile and glass industries
(former industrial structures and zones: more details
are available in Fig. 2).
The region was already intensively industrialised in
the 19
th
century and it was an example of a traditional
industrial area associated especially with the glass and
textile industries. The natural centre of the region
Fig. 1: Interactions between the Major Groups of Stakeholders Influencing Brownfield Redevelopment in the Czech
Republic (see Acknowledgement). Source: Authors’ proposal
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
21
is the largest town – Tanvald (6,954 inhabitants in
2010), and settlements and industries were developed
in the valley of the Kamenice River. From a long-term
perspective, the development of the region can be
divided into two important periods. The first period,
before World War II (WWII: Tab. 1), was influenced
by industrialisation processes, in which the size of the
population in the Tanvald region was increasing (with
the single exception of the first census after World
War I). The Great Economic Depression (1929–1933),
however, caused not only the first significant decline
in local industrial production but also the political
radicalisation of the local German population (in the
form of a huge increase in support of the Nazi policy
and movements of local German separatists supporting
reunification with Hitler’s state).
Development in the period after the Second World
War (Tab. 2) was influenced by the outcomes of the
war - especially the forced displacement of the German
population and replacement of the original German
local inhabitants by Czech “new-comers” - and caused
not only a significant decrease in population (compare
the figures from Tab. 2 with Tab. 1), but it had several
Fig. 2: Spatial distribution of post-industrial structures in Tanvald region in 2010 and location of the case study area
in the Czech Republic. Source: Authors’ proposal
L/9S(WX(:"43A/61"$(%?/$2&5(1$(6?&(L/$,/A#(.&21"$(1$(6?&(:&.1"#(9&V".&(6?&(Y&%"$#(Z".A#(Z/.( W[\]BW]^_`
Y"3.%&X(!156".1%-R(A&a1-"$("9%'(>&5-8(.&439A1-;(W[\]Bb__c( b__d`<(>Ye
Municipality 1869 1880 1890 1900 1910 1921 1930
Albrechtice v Jizerských horách 2,292 2,042 2,209 2,266 2,351 1,890 1,890
Desná 1,270 1,807 2,123 2,447 2,347 1,681 1,740
Jiøetín pod Bukovou 317 366 358 403 540 537 550
Josefùv Dùl 3,600 4,126 5,032 5,386 5,431 4,423 4,320
Luèany nad Nisou 3,644 4,056 4,413 4,725 5,038 4,323 5,119
;<#4'=>% 4,551 4,979 5,919 6,539 7,602 6,614 7,296
Tanvald 4,349 4,911 6,174 6,829 8,133 6,902 7,985
Velké Hamry 2,602 3,218 3,263 4,050 4,564 4,033 4,114
Total 22,625 25,505 29,491 32,645 36,006 30,403 33,014
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS 4/2011, Vol. 19
22
very important impacts on the settlement structure,
economic situation, land use, etc. In spite of these
changes, industrial activities continued to develop quite
successfully during the period of the centrally planned
economy (1948–1989) because the extensive industrial
development was heavily supported by economic
policies implemented within the Czechoslovak state.
In the period after the political changes in 1989 (with
the return of the market economy) it is necessary
to emphasize the importance of privatisation,
restitutions of the formerly nationalised property,
and later globalisation and Europeanisation. Many
industrial companies were not able to compete with
other competitors in global markets and had to
decrease their production, or even declare bankruptcy.
First, the textile companies were already negatively
influenced in the 1990s as result of the loss of eastern
markets, the operation of obsolete technologies and
by being in competition with products from countries
with a cheaper labour force. The deindustrialisation
process did not stop in the 1990s, however, as it
continued into the last decade and even the traditional
glass industries declined or stopped production. The
decreasing industrial production, accelerating before
the latest economic depression, caused the collapse of
the traditional “strong” industrial producers such as
the glass industry. There were 7.565 jobs in industries
in Tanvald region in 1989, while in 2008 there
were only 2,491 jobs in industries on the same
territory (Tab. 3). Moreover, the deepening of the
deindustrialisation process worsened the situation
of many problems in the Tanvald region: an increase
in the unemployment rate in all study municipalities
between 2009 and 2010 was particularly important
(Tab. 4), with the creation of further abandoned,
neglected, unused and “deprived” areas and the
occurrence of “new” brownfields.
Municipality 1950 1961 1970 1980 1991 2001 2011*
Albrechtice v Jizerských horách 827 684 494 390 332 329 344
Desná 3,516 3,697 3,436 3,372 3,811 3,549 3,367
Jiøetín pod Bukovou 279 403 470 575 612 656 581
Josefùv Dùl 1,956 1,590 1,437 1,319 1,071 990 944
Luèany nad Nisou 2,386 1,967 1,893 1,754 1,438 1,573 1,808
!"#$%&' 4,161 4,272 3,747 3,526 3,418 3,430 3,707
Tanvald 5,240 5,114 6,168 7,592 7,055 7,001 6,950
Velké Hamry 2,582 2,531 2,273 2,118 2,063 2,721 2,881
Total 20,947 20,258 19,918 20,646 19,800 20,249 20,582
!"#$%&$'(!)*+,$-)$./.01!2-/)$-)$2(+$ !)3!14$5+*-/)$-)$2(+$.+5-/4$!62+5$2(+$7+8/)4$9/514$9!5$:;<=>?%>;;@
7/058+&$ '+),0,$ 4!2!&$ A-,2/5-8BC$ 1+D-B/)$ /"8E$ F+,BG$ 5+.0"1-BH$ ;IJ<?%>>=$ :%>>K@L$ MN/.01!2-/)$ O!2!$ ?$ ,2!2+$
1st
P!)0!5H$%>;;$?$N/Q+2$/"H3!2+1$3$/"8E8($:%>;;@R$F7S
Municipality Year 1989 Year 2008 Decrease
2008/1989
Albrechtice v Jizerských horách 529 0 -100,0%
Desná 1,344 931 -30,7%
Jiøetín pod Bukovou 356 228 -36,0%
Josefùv Dùl 309 0 -100,0%
Luèany nad Nisou 665 228 -65,7%
!"#$%&' 1,813 509 -71,9%
Tanvald 2,058 543 -73,6%
Velké Hamry 491 52 -89,4%
Total 7,565 2,491 -67,1%
!"#$T&$O+85+!,+$/6$U/",$-)$-)40,25-+,$:-)$V@$-)$2(+$ !)3!14$W+*-/)$405-)*$.+5-/4$;<I<?%>>I$:!,$/6$T;st December)
Source: Data from Výzkumné centrum regionálního rozvoje MU (http://vcrr.muni.cz/)
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
23
4.Tanvald region: selected results of the semi-
structured interviews with mayors
The interviews, which were conducted during
August 2010, with all eight mayors in the Tanvald
region, were structured into several thematic parts:
a) current state of brownfields in the municipality,
b) perceptions of the brownfields among local citizens,
c) future plans of the local government for
redevelopment,
d) participation of non-profit organisations in the
redevelopment process,
e) cooperation with other governmental bodies,
f) the role of private investors,
g) impacts of brownfields on the environment,
h) conflicts usually connected with brownfields and,
i) the master plan in relation to brownfield
regeneration.
The majority of brownfields in the case study area have
industrial origins – e.g., the brownfields used in the past
for the glass industry are located in five municipalities:
Desná, Josefùv Dùl, Luèany, and Albrechtice
v Jizerských Horách, Jiøetín pod Bukovou (Fig. 3).
!"#$X&$'(!)*+,$-)$2(+$0)+Y.1/HY+)2$5!2+$:-)$V@$-)$2(+$ !)3!14$5+*-/)$-)$2(+$.+5-/4$%>>;?%>;;$:!,$/6$T;st December)
Source: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic (http://portal.mpsv.cz/)
Z/2-8+&$M$[+2(/4$6/5$8!1801!2-/)$/6$0)+Y.1/HY+)2$5!2+$:V@$\!,$8(!)*+4$!2$2(+$+)4$/6$%>>X#$]+6/5+$O+8+Y"+5$T;st 2004,
unemployment rate was calculated as share of all unemployed population and economically active population, after
January 1st 2005, unemployment rate started to be calculated as share of unemployed population available for work
and economically actives population.
Fig. 3: The former glass factory in Josefùv Dùl in the Tanvald region (Photo: J. Kolejka)
Municipality 2001* 2002* 2003* 2004* 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Albrechtice v Jiz. horách 8.3 8.3 8.0 10.6 7.9 7.9 8.6 6.6 6.0 11.3 13.2
Desná 5.4 8.4 8.8 8.0 8.0 6.7 7.2 7.0 8.6 12.1 9.9
Jiøetín pod Bukovou 9.1 9.9 9.5 8.9 6.0 6.5 5.7 6.8 6.0 12.2 9.2
Josefùv Dùl 6.9 10.0 8.7 8.9 7.8 5.9 4.7 4.4 5.1 7.4 10.6
Luèany nad Nisou 4.7 7.2 7.5 7.0 5.5 5.3 3.8 3.3 5.7 11.1 9.9
!"#$%&' 8.8 11.2 11.1 10.0 9.0 8.2 7.1 8.0 10.2 15.1 13.3
Tanvald 8.0 10.0 11.1 10.5 9.5 9.2 8.4 7.6 10.2 14.7 13.1
Velké Hamry 5.4 7.7 8.8 9.8 8.7 7.4 9.4 8.2 9.2 15.7 12.2
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS 4/2011, Vol. 19
24
The brownfields formerly used for the textile industry
were identified in three municipalities: Tanvald, Velké
('!")*+ !"#$%&'+ ,-./0+ 120+345.645+ 78454+ 5.745*+ 784"4+
is one brownfield from the electrotechnics industry
in Desná, and one brownfield used in the past for the
machinery industry in Tanvald (former company:
Litmas). The brownfields are usually perceived among
local citizens as aesthetic problems according to the
respondents, the neglected and abandoned buildings
damage the image of the municipality, especially in
945:;*+ <$54=>%+ 9>?*+ @':%'?6+ ':6+ !"#$%&'*+ A84"4+
the worsening image could be a serious obstacle to the
development of tourism.
The most interesting information provided by the
participants was the issue of future redevelopment
plans, and very significant differences were identified
among the study municipalities. The situation is
strongly influenced by the individual skills, experiences
and the contacts of local representatives. Several
municipalities actively implement the redevelopment
policy and try to influence the redevelopment process.
For example, there were negotiations between the
mayor of Desná and the managers of the Czech National
Gallery about a possible alternative use of a brownfield
as a local gallery. Also, there is a plan for multifunctional
redevelopment of brownfields for housing and services
in Tanvald, and there is a project with support from
the Czech-Poland trans-boundary fund for the use of
industrial heritage for the development of tourism
in Albrechtice v Jizerských Horách. In this context,
it is interesting that the mayor of Albrechtice is also
the Director of DETOA Albrechtice, s.r.o. (Fig. 5),
and he successfully achieved development of both his
municipality and his company. DETOA Albrechtice,
s.r.o. (see http://www.detoa.cz/), which is one of the
few industrial companies still operating in Tanvald
region, survived the last economic depression because
of the implementation of new strategies: traditional
production activities (production of wooden toys and
piano keyboards) were combined with new marketing
tools, such as an excursion path for tourists showing
the methods of production in the factory (Fig. 6),
a shop for tourists and organized creative workshops
for children in which they can design and create toys
following their own fantasies. On the other hand,
there are other municipalities which implement
rather passive policies in relation to brownfield issues
and redevelopment, and their mayors emphasized
the limited competencies, powers and financial
opportunities of their municipalities (e.g., Jiøetín pod
Bukovou, Velké Hamry). In this context, it is necessary
to add that the majority of brownfields in the Tanvald
region is owned by private entities and the mayors
have only limited options in terms of how to influence
the redevelopment projects.
Surprisingly, the cooperation of the study municipalities
with other governmental bodies is not regular and
systematic, as the mayors were only occasionally asked
by the agency CzechInvest and the regional authority
in Liberec, to provide the information for national and
regional brownfield databases. In this context, the
mayors particularly criticised the fact that they have to
provide information to the governmental bodies at higher
hierarchical levels of public administration (regional
and national), without receiving any feedback or being
allowed to use the information from these databases.
The municipalities do try to persuade large private
investors to invest money in their brownfields. For
example, there were negotiations with a German
company in Josefùv Dùl, and with a company from
Israel in Desná. Naturally, there is often an effort to
increase the participation of local entrepreneurs in
the process of brownfield redevelopment, but the
problem is that small companies are not usually
interested in large abandoned industrial structures.
According to the majority of mayors, the brownfields
do not have any serious impacts on the environment
because all environmental issues have already been
resolved over the two decades since 1989. Conflicts
and clashes of interest connected with brownfields are
usually influenced by different expectations among the
various groups of actors. For example, in Desná the
Fig. 4: The Former Textile Factory in Velké Hamry in the
Tanvald region (Photo: J. Kolejka)
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
25
local representatives planned to buy a brownfield from
a private investor and re-build it as apartments, but the
private owner, who bought the building in 1990s during
the privatisation process, had financial requirements
that were too high and a suitable compromise was not
found. The majority of the study municipalities actively
use their master plans as tools for modification of future
brownfield redevelopment. Only one municipality,
Luèany, does not use the master plan because it does
not want to create any “artificial obstacles and barriers
for potential investors”. Other municipalities tend to
change their master plans to make the development
Fig. 5: DETOA Albrechtice, s.r.o., a Factory that is still operating in the Tanvald region, producing wooden toys and
piano keyboards since 1908 (Photo: J. Kolejka)
Fig. 6: DETOA Albrechtice, s.r.o.: The excursion path for tourists where visitors can observe the production of wooden
toys and piano keyboards (Photo: J. Kolejka)
MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS 4/2011, Vol. 19
26
of new industries, services, housing and tourist
activities, possible. Concerning other marketing
tools (e.g. strategic plans, marketing tools providing
information about brownfields for potential investors,
etc.), the mayors were usually informed about their
importance, but they emphasized that opportunities
for the relatively small municipalities are limited. As an
example, they do not have their own GIS departments
and they are not able to create their own brownfield
maps compared to larger urban municipalities (e.g.
for Brno: see Mapa brownfields 2009). Naturally, the
majority of mayors in the studied region expect help,
at least in such technical terms, from regional and
national levels of public government.
5. Conclusions
This research of the case study of Tanvald region
has identified many interesting issues. Generally, the
role of the municipality is very important because
representatives of local government usually have the
most detailed information about the potential of the
area, problems in the surroundings and about the
needs of different groups of citizens and other actors.
The local representatives try to initiate redevelopment
projects in brownfield zones and they usually support
the redevelopment activities, which bring new job
opportunities (especially revitalisation projects
focused on the development of tourism, new industries
and services) or new buildings for housing. Moreover,
the support for the construction of new apartments
is influenced by the fact that the sum of money being
given by the state to local governments depends on
the number of permanent inhabitants. The mayor of
Jiøetín pod Bukovou expressed the above-mentioned
strategy in the following statement: “The municipality
develops successfully, if the number of inhabitants
(citizens) is increasing, and therefore we support the
construction of new housing and creation of new jobs”.
The mayors in the Tanvald region have to find
alternative solutions to the conflicts and clashes of
interests among different groups of stakeholders and
usually they are able to find balanced and compromised
methods for development by including entrepreneurs
and local inhabitants. The research showed that it is
very important to use both public and private financial
sources for effective and successful redevelopment of
brownfields, hence the crucial role of public-private
partnerships. Representatives of local government try
to use not only public sources from the Czech national
and regional subsidies programmes (Ministry of Local
Development of the Czech Republic, Ministry of
Environment of the Czech Republic, Ministry of Industry
of the Czech Republic), but there is also an effort to
use the EU’s financial resources (e.g. structural funds
for trans-boundary cooperation, rural development or
environment). In addition, it is important to mention
that representatives of municipalities play diverse
and important roles in the process of brownfield
redevelopment. The following roles were particularly
prominent in the case study area:
a) Initiative role – representatives of local government
often initiate redevelopment of brownfields in their
own territory,
b) Marketing role some municipalities try to
influence potential investors by means of tools for
territorial marketing,
c) Information role local representatives inform
their citizens about the planned activities focused
on redevelopment of brownfields (information
leaflets, brochures),
d) Negotiation role – local governments try to find
a balanced solution between the interests of private
entrepreneurs, local citizens and NGOs,
e) Decision-making role – the local representatives
are responsible for successful spatial development
and therefore their political decisions influence
brownfield redevelopment (especially decisions
connected with the master plan), and
f) Other roles – all other activities which facilitate the
process of brownfield redevelopment.
From the perspective of the implementation of practical
policies, it is necessary to emphasize that more regular
and systematic cooperation between municipalities
and bodies of public government at higher hierarchical
levels is still missing. Municipalities have to provide
the information for national and regional brownfield
databases, but they receive almost no feedback and
they are not allowed to use the information in these
databases. In our opinion, this information should
be openly published on the Internet, for example by
means of so- called “prioritization tools”, which are
already operating in some other countries (e.g., see
the web pages http://www.smarte.org/smarte/tools/
index.xml; http://www.retinasee.eu/). The information
should be available to all stakeholders who are
actively participating in the decision-making process
associated with brownfield redevelopment, because
it could facilitate future brownfield redevelopment
in the Czech Republic. Naturally, the creation of the
site-oriented prioritization tool is connected with the
use of GIS (e.g., see Thomas, 2002) and it could be
a strong challenge for future geographical research in
the Czech Republic.
Acknowledgement
This paper was elaborated within the framework of
the research project No. IAA300860903: “The Fate
of the Czech Post-industrial Landscape”.
Vol. 19, 4/2011 MORAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS
27
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Authors´ addresses:
Mgr. Petr KLUSÁÈEK, Ph.D, . e-mail: klusacek@geonika.cz
Mgr. Tomáš KREJÈÍ, e-mail: krejci@geonika.cz
RNDr. Josef KUNC, Ph.D., e-mail: kunc@econ.muni.cz
Mgr. Stanislav MARTINÁT, e-mail: martinat@geonika.cz
Mgr. Eva NOVÁKOVÁ, e-mail: novakova@geonika.cz
Institute of Geonics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Department of Environmental Geography
Drobného 28, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
... Models that involve all actors should be guided by the public sector and encounter all important stakeholders (Haksever & Çitak, 2019,). Klusacek et al. emphasise the role of the municipality as very important in brownfield regeneration because the local level has detailed data on the strengths and weaknesses of the area and the requirements of inhabitants (Klusacek et al., 2011). ...
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Function urban area Ostrava (FUA), is situated in the northern east part of the Czech Republic consisting of more than 1 million of inhabitants. Project Implementation of Sustainable Land Use in Integrated Environmental Management of Functional Urban Areas – LUMAT-CE89 supported from Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE Programme identifies environmental threats in sustainable development in this region. Important examples of them are brownfields sites and loss of agricultural soil. Brownfields pose an opportunity for new utilization instead of building up farmland. But brownfields as such cannot fully compensate for greenfield construction. The main reason is various limitations that these sites bring with them. The paper focuses on the results of the analysis and the subsequent evaluation of the major brownfields in the area of Functional urban area Ostrava. In this region there are brownfields of industrial, mining, agricultural, transport or social nature. The analysis focused on the realistic use of the selected groups of areas. The reality of the use or temporary use was assessed both from the point of view of legislative constraints and from the point of view of ownership structures, and also from the perspective of their physical state and location. An expert estimate of the time needed for temporary or permanent based on similar examples was performed within the assessment. The evaluation respected the future use option that was the most realistic for each particular site. The assessment is supplemented by the information on the change of the built-up area in FUA Ostrava in the last decade, which documents the gradually increasing share of the built-up area. The objective of the evaluation provided in this article is to demonstrate the realistic use of brownfields as an equivalent of newly built up territories and to identify those brownfields that can be revived in the short term horizon. The approach and type of interventions is described for these site, that would accelerate the regeneration process. Suggested intervention options are implemented in the Brownfield Management Strategy Action Plan, which was also developed within the LUMAT project.
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The cycle of development and regeneration of brownfields reflects economic and social development in the given area with an interdependent link to sustainable regional development and urban and environmental responsibility of stakeholders. Regeneration of these abandoned sites provides us with an opportunity to generate new benefits for the whole society that extend beyond its material form. In this regard, the intervention of the public sector is well-grounded, not only by its participating in the brownfield regeneration process but also by supporting and helping the private sector. On the one hand, the uniqueness of each brownfield may limit general approaches to its regeneration, on the other hand, identification of similar and common features of brownfield sets enables to boost the regeneration potential in its initial stage. The objective of our research was to define a set of indicators of brownfield regeneration potential by means of factor analysis including their significance in the regions of the Czech Republic on the NUTS 3 level. The research was based on a set of 572 existing sites recorded in the official brownfield database administered by CzechInvest on 1st March 2020. By applying the factor analysis on a selected data set, it was determined that the most frequent factor distinctive for brownfields is to be their size. The least significant factor proved to be the indicator of former utilization. While the common dominant factor in the regions of Moravia and Silesia was contamination, in the regions of Bohemia it was ownership (67%). The results of our analyses may contribute to setting more effective supporting schemes for brownfield regeneration in individual regions, and also assist in focusing the activities of the public sector more efficiently.
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Brownfieldy, opuštěné a nevyužívané plochy, jsou fenoménem, který se dostává v České republice do popředí v posledních dvaceti letech. Vznik těchto lokalit je důsledkem změny ve struktuře průmyslové výroby (průmyslové brownfieldy), způsobu a možnostech obživy (často zemědělské brownfieldy) nebo ve změně technologií (například dopravní brownfieldy). Někdy, především v postkomunistických zemí, se jedná taky o pozůstatky projektů, pro které není v současnosti dostatečná poptávka (například kulturní domy, stadiony tzv. soci- ální brownfieldy). Nebo jsou důsledkem změn ve společnosti, migrací za prací a podobně (opuštěné části obytných celků). Důvody, které vedou k zájmu o tyto lokality je jejich celospolečenský náklad. Jedná se o problémy v koordinaci inženýrských nebo dopravních sítí. Přítomnost těchto ploch vede k poklesu cen nemovitostí v okolí lokality, nebo vytváří zdravotní, hygienická, bezpečností nebo ekologická rizika. Brownfieldy tak nelze vnímat pouze jako jednu plochu, lokalitu, ohraničený areál, ale jako místo se svým okolím, městkou částí, čtvrtí nebo celou obcí, která je touto lokalitou ovlivněna. Tato publikace se týká problematiky brownfieldů jako jednoho z faktorů územního rozvoje, s tím, že důraz je kladen na brownfieldy po důlní činnosti v kontextu různých souvislostí. A je zaměřena na území bývalého Dolu Alexander, který je situován v katastrálním území Ostravy - Kunčiček a je velmi ilustrativním příkladem vlivu průmyslového podniku a ná- sledného brownfieldu na své i širší okolí. Nastavuje tak zrcadlo minulosti a zároveň může být příležitostí pro znovuoživení území.
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