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Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium

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  • Trivedi Global, Inc

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SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in percent contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively; while 9.49% increase in nitrogen contents of treated sample as compared to the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 7.23% decrease in crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation by 19.61% in treated sample with respect to the control. The control sample showed the 48.63% weight loss during the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) while the treated sample showed only 13.62% weight loss during the Tmax. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 62.58% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated SFRE-M showed the alteration in the wavenumber of C-O, C-N and C-H vibrations in the treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The treated SFRE-M was more thermal stable than the control SFRE-M and can be used as the better culture media for mammalian cell culture.
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Advances in Biochemistry
2015; 3(6): 77-85
Published online November 9, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ab)
doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20150306.13
ISSN: 2329-0870 (Print); ISSN: 2329-0862 (Online)
Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and
Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture
Medium
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Khemraj Bairwa
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Khemraj Bairwa, Snehasis Jana. Effect of Biofield Treatment on
Physical, Thermal, and Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium. Advances in Biochemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 77-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20150306.13
Abstract:
SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary
cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy
treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set
as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the
control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87,
and 5.89% decrease in percent contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively; while 9.49% increase in nitrogen
contents of treated sample as compared to the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 7.23% decrease in crystallite
size of treated sample as compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed the increase in onset
temperature of thermal degradation by 19.61% in treated sample with respect to the control. The control sample showed the
48.63% weight loss during the thermal degradation temperature (T
max
) while the treated sample showed only 13.62% weight
loss during the T
max
. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 62.58% increase in the latent heat of
fusion of treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of
treated SFRE-M showed the alteration in the wavenumber of C-O, C-N and C-H vibrations in the treated sample as compared
to the control. Altogether, the XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment
has the impact on physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The treated SFRE-M was more thermal stable than the
control SFRE-M and can be used as the better culture media for mammalian cell culture.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, SFRE-Medium, Elemental Analysis, X-ray Diffraction,
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
1. Introduction
Medium M-199 is a well-defined nutritional source for cell
culture media, developed in 1950 by Morgan et al. [1, 2]. It is
the combinations of amino acids, vitamins and other factors,
which exhibited the best growth of explanted tissue in the in
vitro studies [3]. It was initially designed for nutritional
studies to promote the growth of primary chick embryo heart
and fibroblast cells in the absence of serum supplement [3,
4]. Although, the M-199 medium is also useful with serum
for growth of a wide range of cell types such as non-
transformed chicken, monkey, and human cells. The SFRE
199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is the modified form of medium
199, and developed for the growth and maintenance of
mammalian cell culture (such as primary baboon kidney
cells) [5]. It is obtained by supplementing the medium M-199
with sodium pyruvate, zinc sulfate, and increasing arginine-
HCl, cystine, cysteine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine,
glycine, tyrosine, histidine, and glucose to maximally active
nontoxic concentrations [6].
Sterilization process plays a significant role on the quality
of culture media. The autoclaving (heat treatment) is the
principle method of culture media sterilization [7]. This heat
Advances in Biochemistry 2015; 3(6): 77-85 78
treatment of complex culture media may result to nutrient
destruction via the direct thermal degradation or by the
chemical reactions between the components [8]. Therefore,
an alternate method is required, which can enhance the
overall stability of the culture media such as SFRE-M [9].
Recently, the energy healing therapies have been reported
for several beneficial effects throughout the word. Biofield
energy treatment is one of the energy therapies that has been
reported to alter the various physicochemical properties of
organic compounds [10] and organic products [11].
The energy medicines have been categorized by National
Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(NCCAM) under the CAM therapies [12]. There are several
proposed mechanism and explanations are offered to support
the biofield energy therapies. Consciousness is one of the
possible mechanisms, which includes healer’s intent to heal,
may interact with the physical realm [13]. Likewise, physical
resonance is another theory that includes subtle energies.
According to this theory, the energy might be exchange
between the energy fields of healer and patient [14]. The
healer or practitioner of energy medicine harness the energy
from universe and transmit it to the object (living or non-
living), which is called biofield energy treatment. Mr. Trivedi
is a renowned practitioner of energy medicine and his unique
biofield energy treatment is known as The Trivedi Effect
®
that has been studied in the field of agricultural science
research [15], biotechnology research [16], and microbiology
research [17], etc.
After conceiving the significant impact of biofield energy
treatment in different field of science, the present study was
attempted to evaluate its impact on the culture media such as
SFRE-M culture media. The biofield energy treated SFRE-M
was analyzed along with the control sample using several
analytical techniques like elemental (CHNO) analysis, X-ray
diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative
thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), DSC, and Fourier transform
infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The data of treated sample
was compared with that of control as well as reported
literature data.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
The SFRE 199-1 media (SFRE-M) was procured from
HiMedia Laboratories, India. It consists with several
inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, etc. (Table 1).
The SFRE-M was divided into two groups; one was kept as
control (without treated) while another was handed over to
Mr. Trivedi to render the biofield energy treatment under
laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield
energy treatment to the treated group via his unique energy
harnessing process through the thought transmission (without
touching the sample). Then, both the control and treated
samples were explored with respect to physicochemical and
spectroscopic properties using various techniques like
elemental (CHNO) analysis, XRD, TGA-DTG, FT-IR and
UV-vis spectroscopy.
Table 1. Chemical composition of SFRE 199-1 medium.
Ingredients mg/L Ingredients mg/L
INORGANIC SALTS
VITAMINS
Sodium chloride 8000.000 Choline chloride 0.500
Potassium chloride 400.000 Retinol Acetate 0.140
Calcium chloride
dihydrate 185.000 Calciferol 0.100
Magnesium sulphate
anhydrous 97.720 L-Ascorbic acid 0.050
Potassium phosphate
monobasic 60.000 i-Inositol 0.050
Sodium acetate 50.000 p-Amino benzoic
acid (PABA) 0.050
Sodium phosphate dibasic
anhydrous 47.860 Niacin +
Niacinamide (1:1) 0.050
Ferric nitrate nonahydrate
0.720 Pyridoxal
hydrochloride 0.025
Zinc sulphate
heptahydrate 0.100 Pyridoxine
hydrochloride 0.025
AMINO ACIDS
Menadione sodium
bisulphite 0.016
L-Glutamine 300.000 Folic acid +
Riboflavin (1:1) 0.020
L-Arginine hydrochloride
150.000 D-Ca-Pantothenate 0.010
L-Tyrosine disodium salt
116.000 D-Biotin 0.010
Glycine 100.000
DL-Tocopherol
phosphate disodium
salt
0.010
L-Glutamic acid 75.000 Thiamine
hydrochloride 0.010
L-Lysine hydrochloride 70.000 OTHERS
L-Leucine 60.000 D-Glucose 2000.000
L-Cystine
dihydrochloride 43.800 D-(+)-Galactose
anhydrous 1000.000
L-Proline 40.000 Sodium pyruvate 150.000
L-Histidine hydrochloride
monohydrate 40.000 Adenine sulphate 10.000
L-Aspartic acid 30.000 Phenol red 10.000
L-Threonine 30.000 Polysorbate 80 4.900
L-Alanine 25.000
Adenosine
triphosphate
disodium
1.000
L-Phenylalanine 25.000 Deoxyribose +
Ribose (1:1) 1.000
L-Serine 25.000 Hypoxanthine 0.354
L-Valine 25.000 Xanthine 0.344
L-Isoleucine 20.000 Guanine
hydrochloride 0.300
L-Methionine 15.000 Thymine +Uracil
(1:1) 0.600
Hydroxy-L-Proline 1 10.000 Adenosine
monophosphate 0.200
L-Tryptophan 10.000 Cholesterol 0.200
L-Cysteine (free base) 4.000 Glutathione reduced 0.050
2.2. Elemental (CHNO) Analysis
The control and treated samples of SFRE-M were
analyzed for their elemental composition, carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and sulfur (S). The
analysis was done using Model Flash EA 1112 Series,
Thermo Finnigan Italy. This analyzer combusts and then
79 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral
Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium
converts the C, H, N and O sample elements to simple
gases, i.e. CO
2
, H
2
O, N
2
, and O
2
, which were determined
quantitatively to deduced the net contents of respective
element in the sample. The percentage change in element of
the treated sample with respect to the control was
determined using the following equation.
% Change in element (C, H, N, or O) = [(E
T
-E
C
)/E
C
] × 100
Here, E
T
and E
C
are the element in control and treated
samples, respectively.
2.3. XRD Study
The XRD analysis of control and treated samples of
SFRE-M was done on Phillips (Holland PW 1710) X-ray
diffractometer with copper anode and nickel filter. The
wavelength of XRD instrument was set to 1.54056Å. The
percent change in crystallite size (G) was calculated using
following equation:
G = [(G
T
-G
C
)/G
C
] ×100
Here, G
T
and G
C
are average crystallite size of treated and
control samples, respectively.
2.4. TGA-DTG Analysis
The TGA-DTG analysis of control and treated sample was
carried out on Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA-DTG
analyzer. The analytes were heated up to 400ºC from room
temperature at the heating rate of 5ºC/min under air
atmosphere. The onset temperature of thermal degradation
and temperature at which maximum weight loss occur (T
max
)
in samples were obtained from TGA-DTG thermogram.
Fig. 1. XRD diffractograms of control and treated SFRE 199-1 medium.
Advances in Biochemistry 2015; 3(6): 77-85 80
2.5. DSC Study
The melting temperature and latent heat of fusion of
control and treated SFRE-M were determined using the
Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer differential scanning calorimeter. The
samples were heated upto 300ºC at the heating rate of
10ºC/min under air atmosphere with air flow rate of 5
mL/min.
2.6. FT-IR Spectroscopic Characterization
The FT-IR spectroscopy was carried out to evaluate the
effect of biofield energy treatment on force constant and
bond strength in chemical structure [18]. The samples for FT-
IR analysis were prepared with spectroscopic grade KBr into
pellets. The spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier
transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) with the frequency
array of 500-4000 cm
-1
.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Elemental (CHNO) Analysis
The elemental analysis is used to quantify the percent
content of elements present in the organic compounds or
products. The impact of biofield energy treatment on C, H,
N, and O is reported in Table 2. The result showed that
content of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen were decreased with
2.16, 4.87, and 5.89%, respectively in the biofield treated
SFRE-M as compared to the control. On the other hand, the
content of nitrogen element was increased significantly by
9.49% in treated sample with respect to the control SFRE-M.
Table 2. CHNO analysis data of control and treated SFRE 199-1 medium.
Element Control Treated % Change
Carbon 13.173 12.889 -2.16
Hydrogen 2.135 2.031 -4.87
Nitrogen 1.054 1.154 9.49
Oxygen 12.40 11.67 -5.89
Although, the mammalian cell culture require numerous
essential components, but the nitrogen content is the
principal requirement for the proper growth and development
of primary mammalian cells [19, 20]. There are several
nitrate salts and amino acids used as the source of nitrogen in
the culture medium [21]. In the present study, the nitrogen
content was increased significantly in the treated sample as
compared to the control. This might be useful for the better
growth of mammalian cells as compared to the control
SFRE-M.
3.2. XRD Analysis
The XRD diffractograms of SFRE-M (control and treated)
samples are shown in Fig. 1. The XRD diffractograms of
both the samples (i.e. control and treated SFRE-M) showed
the sharp and intense peaks, which suggest the crystalline
nature of both samples. The XRD diffractogram of control
SFRE-M showed the peaks at Bragg’s angle (2θ) equal to
27.24º, 28.24º, 29.63º, 30.55º, 31.52º, and 45.26º. Similarly,
the XRD diffractogram of treated SFRE-M exhibited the
XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 27.33º, 28.34º, 31.67º, 32.66º,
40.48º, and 45.41º.
The XRD analysis showed the crystallite size of the
control and treated samples as 51.72 and 61.45 nm,
respectively. The result showed 18.82% increase in the
crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control
(Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Crystallite size of control and treated SFRE 199-1 medium.
It is assumed that biofield energy might induce some
internal strain in the treated molecules and resulted in the re-
orientation of neighboring planes, which is also called as
atomic displacement [22, 23]. This might lead to increase the
crystallite size in the treated sample.
3.3. TGA-DTG Analysis
The TGA-DTG thermogram of SFRE-M samples (control
and treated) are shown in Fig. 3 and data are presented in
Table 3.
The TGA thermogram of control sample exhibited the
initiation (onset) of thermal degradation at about 102°C,
which was ended (endset) at about 221°C. Likewise, the
TGA thermogram of the treated SFRE-M exhibited the initial
(onset) thermal degradation temperature at about 122°C that
was terminated (endset) at about 200°C.
Table 3. Thermal analysis of control and treated samples of SFRE 199-1
medium.
Parameter Control Treated
Onset temperature (ºC) 102.00 122.00
Endset temperature (ºC) 221.00 200.00
T
max
(ºC) 162.00 156.00
Latent heat of fusion (J/g) 44.79 72.82
Melting point (ºC) 145.76 149.83
T
max
: temperature at maximum weight loss occurs
The result indicated about 19.61% increase in the onset
temperature of thermal degradation in biofield energy treated
sample with respect to the control. Moreover, the maximum
thermal degradation temperature (T
max
) of control sample
81 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral
Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium
was observed at about 162ºC with about 48.63% weight loss;
while the treated sample showed the T
max
at 156ºC with only
13.62% weight loss. This indicated that the percentage of
weight loss during the thermal degradation was less in the
treated sample with respect to the control. It suggests the
possible increase in the thermal stability of treated sample as
compared to the control [24,25]. Further, the result showed
about 3.70% decrease in T
max
of treated SFRE-M as
compared to the control. This might be occurred due to the
alteration in internal energy via biofield energy treatment,
which may lead to early phase of evaporation in treated
sample as compared to the control [26].
Fig. 3. TGA-DTG thermograms of control and treated SFRE 199-1 medium.
3.4. DSC Analysis
DSC analysis was performed to determine the melting
temperature and latent heat of fusion (∆H) of control and
treated TPP samples. A substantial amount of interaction
force is present in the atomic bonds of any substance that
hold the atoms at their positions. The energy required to
overcome the interaction force of phase change i.e. solid into
liquid, is called as the ∆H. DSC thermogram (Fig. 4) of
SFRE-M showed the melting temperature at 145ºC in control
and 149.83ºC in treated sample (Table 2).
The result showed about 2.79% increase in the melting
temperature of the treated sample of SFRE-M as compared to
the control. Moreover, the DSC thermogram exhibited the
latent heat of fusion i.e. 44.79 J/g in control and 72.82 J/g in
the treated sample of SFRE-M. The result showed about
62.58% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample
with respect to the control sample. This might be due to
increase in intermolecular force in the treated SFRE-M with
respect to the control. As a result, the treated SFRE-M sample
probably required more energy (∆H) to change the phase from
solid to liquid as compared to the control. Formerly, our group
has reported that biofield energy treatment caused the changes
in ∆H in lead and tin powders [27]. Therefore, it is supposed
that biofield treatment might alter the intermolecular
interaction forces of treated SFRE-M molecules, which may
lead to alteration in latent heat of fusion.
Advances in Biochemistry 2015; 3(6): 77-85 82
Fig. 4. DSC thermograms of control and treated SFRE 199-1 medium.
3.5. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis
FT-IR spectra of the control and treated SFRE 199-1 M are
shown in Fig. 5. The SFRE-M molecule contains O-H, N-H,
C-H, C=C, C=O, C-C, C-Cl groups of vibrations. A broad
peak in the frequency array of 2900 to 3600 cm
-1
in both the
control and treated samples may be due to O-H or N-H
stretching. The vibrational peak appeared in the region of
2817-2893 cm
-1
in the control sample that might be due to the
C-H stretching. This frequency region was shifted in the
treated sample and observed at 2833-2902 cm
-1
, which
indicated a possible increase in the bond strength of C-H group
in the treated sample with respect to the control. The IR peaks
observed at 1629 cm
-1
(control) and 1627 cm
-1
(treated) were
might be attributed to the amide or acidic C=O group of amino
acids present in the SFRE-M. Vibrational peak at 1411 cm
-1
in
control and treated sample might assign to C-H bending.
The peak observed at 1355 cm
-1
in control sample and
1359 cm
-1
in treated sample were possibly due to the N=O
symmetric stretching in amino acid. Likewise, the IR peak at
1326 cm
-1
in control and 1328 cm
-1
in the treated sample was
possibly due to the S=O stretching of sulfate salts, present in
the SFRE-M. Moreover, the peaks at 1247 cm
-1
(control) and
1244 cm
-1
(treated) were might be due to C-C stretching. The
vibrational peak appeared at 1024 and 1149 cm
-1
in control
sample were might be due to C-O stretching. This was
appeared at slightly downstream region i.e. at 1022 and 1141
cm
-1
in the treated sample, which indicated a possible
decrease in the bond strength of C-O bond in the treated
sample with respect to the control. The vibrational peak at
1047 cm
-1
in control sample, which might be due to C-N
stretching that was shifted to upstream region of IR
frequency i.e. at 1060 cm
-1
after the biofield treatment. It
suggested that the force constant of C-N bond in the treated
sample was possibly increased as compared to the control.
Likewise, the peaks at 848 cm
-1
, 769 cm
-1
, and 623 cm
-1
in
control sample were might be attributed to aromatic
breathing, S-N stretching and metal-halide stretching,
respectively. These peaks were correspondingly appeared at
846 cm
-1
, 767 cm
-1
, and 617 cm
-1
in the treated sample.
83 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral
Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium
Fig. 5. FT-IR spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) SFRE 199-1 medium.
Frequency (ν) of stretching vibrational peak is mainly
depends on two factors i.e. force constant (k) and reduced
mass (µ), which can be explained by following equation [18,
28] ν = 1/2πc √(k/µ); here, c is the speed of light.
At the constant µ, the frequency is directly proportional the
force constant [29]. Based on this, it is presumed that force
constant of some bond such as C-H and C-N might increase
in the treated sample, which might lead to increase in the
stability of treated molecules with respect to the control. The
thermal stability data was also support the increased stability
of treated SFRE-M with respect to the control.
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, the present study showed the substantial
alteration in the percent of C, H, N, and O element of treated
sample by 2.16, 4.87, 9.49, and 5.89%, respectively as
compared to the control sample. The XRD study suggested
the crystalline nature of both the control and treated samples.
Moreover, the crystallite size of treated sample was
decreased by 18.82% with respect to the control sample. The
TGA-DTG study showed about 19.61% increase in the
initiation temperature of thermal degradation; while the
Advances in Biochemistry 2015; 3(6): 77-85 84
percent weight loss during the maximum thermal
decomposition temperature was also reduced significantly in
the treated sample with respect to the control. This showed
the increase in the thermal stability of treated SFRE-M as
compared to the control. The DSC analysis showed the
increased in the melting temperature (2.79%) and latent heat
of fusion (62.58%) of treated sample with respect to the
control. The FT-IR data showed the alteration in the
vibrational frequency of some groups like C-H, C-O, and C-
N in treated sample with respect to the control. This might be
due to the increase in force constant and bond strength of
respective groups in treated SFRE-M molecule as compared
to the control.
Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy
treatment exhibited the significant impact on the physical,
thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. Based on this, it
is presumed that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment can
modulate the physicochemical properties of SFRE-M so that
it could be utilized as a better medium for the cell culture of
primary mammalian cell in vitro.
Abbreviations
NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine;
NIH: National Institute of Health;
XRD: X-ray diffraction;
TGA: Thermogravimetric analysis;
DTG: Derivative Thermogravimetry
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Trivedi Master
Wellness, Trivedi Science, and Trivedi Testimonials for their
sturdy support during this study. Authors would also like to
acknowledge the whole team of MGV pharmacy college,
Nashik for the instrumental facility, used in this work.
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... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as CAM health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, Pilates, Rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [21]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Biofield Energy Consciousness Healing Treatment has astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [22][23][24][25], pharmaceuticals [26,27], nutraceuticals [28], metals and ceramic [29,30], culture medium [31,32] and improve the overall productivity of agricultural crops [33,34], skin health [35,36], modulation in the efficacy of various living cells [37][38][39], and alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [40][41][42][43]. Thus, this study was designed to analyses the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of copper chloride by using various analytical techniques such as, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, and FT-IR spectroscopy. ...
... Such energy therapies are included under the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and also recommended by the National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/NCCAM) due to their several advantages [15]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has also been reported for its astonishing ability to affect the characteristic properties of several pharmaceuticals [16,17], nutraceuticals [18], organic compounds [19,20], metals and ceramic [21][22][23], improve the overall productivity of agricultural crops [24,25], impacted the culture medium [26,27], skin health [28,29], and the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [30][31][32]. Thus, the current study was designed to determine the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical, thermal and spectral properties of ashwagandha root extract by using various analytical techniques such as, particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. ...
Article
Ashwagandha root extract is widely used in nutraceutical preparations due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physico- chemical, thermal and spectral properties of ashwagandha root extract by using various analytical techniques. The sample of ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts in which one part was kept untreated and called as control sample; while the other part was provided with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by the Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and termed as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The study reported that the particle size values at d 10 , d 50 , d 90 , and D (4,3) in the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.23%, 9.04%, 11.86%, and 10.59%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.75% compared to the control sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the control as well as the Biofield Energy Treated samples was amorphous in nature. The DSC analysis showed that the onset evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were significantly altered by 2.18% and-10.29%, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis indicated the four step thermal degradation of both the samples. The 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th steps of thermal degradation of the treated sample showed an alteration in the weight loss by -6.59%, 1.97%, -1.80%, and -8.65%, respectively along with 0.81% reduction in the total weight loss, compared with the control sample. Besides, the maximum thermal degradation temperature (T max ) in the control sample was observed at 234.17°C and 365.12°C for the two broad peaks, which was decreased by 1.73% and 0.82%, respectively compared to the control sample. The overall analysis suggests that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might enhance the solubility, absorption, and bioavailability profile of ashwagandha root extract along with altered thermal stability. Such altered properties might help in designing better pharmaceutical and nutraceutical preparations; thereby provide better therapeutic response against various diseases such as amnesia, arthritis, anxiety, cancer, impotence, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases.
... The impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has been published in numerous peer-reviewed scientific journals with the significant outcome on the various object(s). These scientific articles reported that the Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has the amazing capability to transform the physicochemical, structural, and behavioral properties of metals and ceramics [17][18][19], organic compounds [20,21], pharmaceuticals [22,23], nutraceuticals [24,25], improve the overall productivity of crops [26,27], as well as modulate the efficacy of various living cells [28,29]. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal, and behavioural properties of cefazolin sodium using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ Differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). ...
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Cefazolin sodium is a broad-spectrum first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic useful for the treatment of many bacterial infections. The aim of this research work was to estimate the impact of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cefazolin using the modern analytical technique. Cefazolin sample was divided into control and treated parts. No Biofield Energy Treatment was provided to the control part of cefazolin; whereas, the treated part received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a distinguished Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The particle size values in the treated cefazolin were significantly increased by 11.44%(d10), 3.15%(d50), 2.35%(d90), and 2.42%{D(4,3)}; hence, the specific surface area was decreased by 4.54% compared to the control sample. The evaporation and decomposition temperature of the treated cefazolin was increased by 27.56% and 0.12%, respectively; however, the latent heat of evaporation and latent heat of decomposition was significantly altered by 1151.8% and -53.75%, respectively compared to the control cefazolin. The total weight loss was decreased by 6.57%, but the residue amount was significantly increased by 137.5% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperature of the 1st and 2nd peak was significantly altered by 5.58% and -28.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have introduced a new polymorphic form of cefazolin which may offer better powder flowability, smooth surface, and good thermal stability compared with the untreated sample. The treated cefazolin would be a more efficacious pharmaceutical formulation against cellulitis, urinary and respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, joint infection, genital infections, blood infections, etc.
... The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has the significant potential for the transformation of the object(s), and the outcomes were published in numerous scientific journals. The Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has the amazing capability to transform the physicochemical, structural, and behavioural properties of metals and ceramics [22,23], organic compounds [24,25], nutraceuticals [26,27], pharmaceuticals [28,29], microorganisms [30,31], various living cells [32,33], and improve the overall productivity of crops [34,35]. Therefore, the current study was designed and evaluated the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of metronidazole using powder X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis/ differential thermogravimetric analysis. ...
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Metronidazole is an antibiotic and is useful for antibacterial and antiprotozoal medication. In this research work, the impact of the Trivedi Effect® (Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment) on the physicochemical properties of metronidazole was evaluated using the modern analytical technique. Metronidazole sample was divided into two parts, one part of metronidazole was considered as a control sample (no Biofield Energy Treatment was provided); however, the other part of metronidazole, was exposed to the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a well-known Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and termed as a treated sample. The peak intensities, as well as crystallite sizes of the treated metronidazole were significantly altered ranging from -97.25% to 463% and -83.18% to 123.79%, respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 14.91% compared with the control sample. The particle size values in the treated metronidazole were significantly decreased by 14.69%(d10), 10.82%(d50), 19.14%(d90), and 16.88% {D (4,3)}; thus, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 24.7% compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion and latent heat of decomposition were decreased by 2.1% and 9.41%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was increased by 2.56%; however, the residue amount was significantly decreased by 83.86% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperature was decreased by 3.53% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Thus, the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have generated a new polymorphic form of metronidazole which may offer better solubility, dissolution, and good bioavailability compared with the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Treated metronidazole would be very useful to design more efficacious pharmaceutical formulations for the better therapeutic response against bacterial and protozoal infection in the vagina, stomach, liver, skin, joints, brain, and respiratory tract, aspiration pneumonia, rosacea, fungating wounds, intra-abdominal infections, lung abscess, periodontitis, amoebiasis, oral infections, etc.
... In this aspect, the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) has a significant impact for the transformation of various properties of the object(s), and the outcomes were published in numerous peer-reviewed scientific journals. The Biofield Energy Treatment has the unprecedented capability to alter the physicochemical, structural, and behavioural properties of metals and ceramics [20][21][22], organic compounds [23,24], nutraceuticals [25,26], pharmaceuticals [27,28], microorganisms [29,30], various living cells [31,32], and to improve the overall productivity of crops [33,34]. The current study was designed and evaluated the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal, and behavioural properties of cholecalciferol using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). ...
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin, which increases the intestinal absorption of minerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, etc.) and also helps in the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency diseases like rickets, osteoporosis, etc. This research was designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol using the modern analytical technique. The cholecalciferol sample was divided into two parts. One part of the sample was considered as the control sample, while the other portion was subjected to the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and was termed as the treated sample. The powder XRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -71.04% to 85.29% and -58.83% to 712.16% respectively, whereas, the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 6.81% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values were significantly decreased by 76.95% (d10), 40.84% (d50), 17.44% (d90), and 34.30% [D (4,3)], thus, significantly increased the surface area by 152.23% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion and the maximum thermal degradation temperature were increased by 5.60% and 8.5%, respectively in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was increased by 4.76%; however, the residue amount was significantly decreased by 75.1% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment generates a new polymorphic form of cholecalciferol which might offer better solubility, absorption, bioavailability, and thermal stability. The Biofield Energy Treated cholecalciferol would be more efficacious in the nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations for the better therapeutic responses against rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, etc. It can also help to enhance the intestinal absorption of minerals like calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron, and phosphate.
... This process is known as biofield energy treatment [22,23]. Mr. Trivedi is one of the distinguished healing practitioners and has the astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [24][25][26], pharmaceuticals [27,28], nutraceuticals [29], metals and ceramic in materials science [30,31], culture medium [32,33] and improve the overall productivity of crops [34,35] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [36][37][38]. Literature demonstrated that biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [39][40][41][42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Article
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6-Mercaptopurine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on physicochemical and thermal properties of 6-mercaptopurine using the modern analytical technique. The 6-mercaptopurine sample was divided into two parts, one part of mercaptopurine was considered as a control sample, while the other part was subjected to the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and termed as a treated sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -63.38% to 3.85% and -55.26% to 228.26%, respectively, whereas the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 8.16% in the treated mercaptopurine compared with the control sample. The particle size values were significantly decreased by 26.63% (d10), 24.43% (d50), 17.56% (d90), and 21.41% [D (4,3)] and the specific surface area was significantly increased by 38.57% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 49.97% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was decreased by 11.45%; whereas the residue amount was significantly increased by 160.07% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The results indicated that the Trivedi Effect® might lead to the generation of a new polymorphic form of mercaptopurine which would offer better solubility, absorption, and bioavailability compared with the control sample, which would be useful in designing novel pharmaceutical formulations for the better therapeutic responses against leukemia, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, etc.
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The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 µg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 µg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
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The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
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The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
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Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
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I started insect cell culture work in 1962, when T. D. C. Grace reported the first establishment of invertebrate continuous cell lines. He obtained grow­ ing cells from pupal ovaries of the emperor gum moth, Antheraea euca­ lypti. At that time, I was trying to obtain growing cells from leafhoppers. Grace's method could not be applied directly to my culture because of the differences in species, the size of the insects, and the tissue to be cul­ tured. The vertebrate tissue culture methods gave me some ideas for pre­ paring cultures from leafhoppers, but those could not be used directly either. There were no textbooks and no manuals for invertebrate tissue culture, so I had to develop a method by myself. First, I considered what type and what size of vessels are suitable for insect tissue culture. Also, I had to look for suitable materials to construct the culture vessels. Sec­ ond, I had to examine various culture media, especially growth-promot­ ing substances, such as sera. Then I had to improve culture media by trial and error. The procedure to set up a primary culture was also a problem. How could I sterilize materials? How could I remove tissues from a tiny insect? How many tissues should I pool in order to set up one culture? I had to find out the answers. Naturally, it took a lot of time.
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The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50;0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control.It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Article
ilicon, tin and lead powders belong to group IV in periodic table and exhibit decreasing semi conducting nature towards the bottom of the group. These are very useful in producing non ferrous powder metallurgy components. In the present investigation silicon, tin and lead powders are exposed to bio field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder, suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio field after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to bio field even after 179 days. These results indicate that the properties of the metallic powders can be controlled even up to atomic level by exposing to bio field.
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The combination of dwindling oil reserves and growing concerns over carbon dioxide emissions and associated climate change is driving the urgent development of clean, sustainable energy supplies. Biodiesel is non-toxic and biodegradable, with the potential for closed CO2 cycles and thus vastly reduced carbon footprints compared with petroleum fuels. However, current manufacturing routes employing soluble catalysts are very energy inefficient and produce copious amounts of contaminated water waste. This review highlights the significant progress made in recent years towards developing solid acid and base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. Issues to be addressed in the future are also discussed including the introduction of non-edible oil feedstocks, as well as technical advances in catalyst and reactor design to ensure that biodiesel remains a key player in the renewable energy sector for the 21st century.
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Compostable Polymer Materials deals with an environmentally important family of polymers. These compostable polymers are specially designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful lives. They are able to undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make compositing an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers.