ArticlePDF Available
The large and growing burden of chronic
disease worldwide is presenting new
challenges in health assessment. For
example, demand has grown recently for
information concerning the impact that
chronic health problems have on a
population’s ability to work, and its work
productivity. Several survey instruments
are now available, which focus specifically
on employment1. In this article, we present
information on a new self-administered,
self-report survey instrument, the Work
Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ©).
The WLQ
The WLQ is an easy to use questionnaire,
measuring the degree to which employed
individuals are experiencing limitations on-
the-job due to their health problems and
health-related productivity loss. The WLQ
has 25 items that ask respondents to rate
their level of difficulty or ability to perform
specific job demands (Figure 1). The job
demands, which are contained in the
WLQ’s items, have four defining features:
1) they occur among a variety of jobs; 2)
many different physical and emotional
health problems may interfere with their
performance; 3) they are considered
important to the job from the worker’s
perspective; and 4) problems performing
them are frequently related to productivity.
The WLQ’s 25 items are aggregated into
four scales. The Time Management scale
contains five items addressing difficulty
handling time and scheduling demands.
The six-item Physical Demands scale
covers a person’s ability to perform job
tasks that involve bodily strength,
movement, endurance, coordination and
flexibility. The Mental-Interpersonal
Demands Scale has nine items addressing
cognitive job tasks and on-the-job social
interactions. The fourth scale is the Output
Demands scale and it contains five items
concerning diminished work quantity and
quality.
Scale score range from 0 (limited none of
the time) to 100 (limited all of the time)
and represent the reported amount of time
in the prior two weeks respondents were
limited on-the-job. Additionally, using an
algorithm, WLQ scale scores can be
converted into an estimate of productivity
loss.
Development Process
The WLQ development process began in
1994 with a grant from Glaxo-Wellcome,
Inc. WLQ research has also been
supported by Pharmacia, Inc., and the
National Institute of Mental Health. Prior to
the WLQ’s development, there had been a
very limited amount of detailed information
available on the work experience of the
employed, chronically ill population. Much
of the information was gleaned from
global indicators, such as the activity
limitation and disability day items
appearing within the US National Health
Interview Survey, and the role disability
scales of health assessment
questionnaires2.
The WLQ itself evolved from a qualitative
and quantitative research process. Early in
that process, we convened multiple focus
groups consisting of employed patients
with chronic disease. Our interactions with
working patients helped us to better
understand how the work activities,
associated with various jobs, were
influenced by different conditions and their
treatments. For example, we found that
several physical and mental conditions
made it difficult for individuals to perform
their job tasks effectively throughout the
workday according to an established or
expected work schedule. Another
important finding was that work
productivity was a sensitive topic for many
of the chronically ill workers we
interviewed, and we learned how, in a non-
threatening manner, to ask about work
productivity. We also found that the act of
recalling information about work
productivity, and the effects of health
problems on productivity, constituted a
relatively difficult response task. These
general findings helped to shape our
measurement approach.
A period of cognitive testing followed, in
which items and item groupings were
evaluated for content validity (relevance to
work and to illness), clarity, and
respondent burden. Finally, a series of
psychometric tests, conducted on the
NSTRUMENTS
USA
The Work Limitations Questionnaire
Debra Lerner, MS, PhD1,2, William H. Rogers, PhD1, Hong Chang, PhD1
1The Health Institute, Division of Clinical Care Research, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
2Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Biomedical Science, Boston, MA, USA
I
NEWS LETTER
QOL
9
QoL Newsletter, 2002; 28
(continued on p 10)
Figure 1:
Sample items
All of Most of Some of A Slight None of Does
the the the Bit of the Not
Time Time Time the Time Apply
(100%) (About Time (0%) to My
50%) Job
a. do your work without stopping
to take breaks or rests. 123450
b. stick to a routine or schedule. 123450
c. keep your mind on your work. 123450
d. speak with people in person,
in meetings or on the phone. 123450
e. handle the workload. 123450
All of Most of Some of A Slight None of Does
the the the Bit of the Not
Time Time Time the Time Apply
(100%) (About Time (0%) to My
50%) Job
a. walk or move around different
work locations (for example,
go to meetings). 123450
b. use hand-held tools or equipment
(for example, a phone, pen,
keyboard, computer mouse,
drill, hairdryer, or sander). 123450
Note: Items a. and b. are from the Time Management scale. Items c. and d. are from the Mental-Interpersonal
Demands scale. Item e. is from the Output Demands scale.
In the past 2 weeks, how much of the time were you ABLE TO DO the following without difficulty caused by
physical health or emotional problems?
Note: Items a. and b. are from the Physical Demands scale.
Work Limitations Questionnaire, © 1998, The Health Institute; Debra Lerner, Ph.D.; Benjamin Amick III, Ph.D.; and
GlaxoWellcome, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In the past 2 weeks, how much of the time did your physical health or emotional problems make it difficult for you
to do the following?
related in the
hypothesized manner9.
Using results generated
within this study, we
developed an approach
to scoring the WLQ,
which enables the user
to translate scale scores
into a single estimate of
productivity loss. Table
1 demonstrates how the
data can be used to
quantify the difference in
productivity from a
relatively «healthy»
employee (WLQ scale
scores = 0), and to
calibrate the productivity
impact of various chronic
conditions. For example, the average WLQ
Index score for an employee sample with
depressive symptoms was approximately
15.
New Research
In 2002, we will begin a new two-year
project, which is designed to make WLQ
data and other health and work
productivity indicators highly accessible
and easy to interpret. We have been
awarded a grant from Pharmacia, Inc.,
under the auspices of the Aetna Academic
Medicine and Managed Care Initiative, to
collect and disseminate normative data on
health and work productivity from a
representative household sample within
the United States. Data will be collected
by the National Opinion Research Center.
We will publish normative data for
subgroups defined by major
demographics, health status, occupation,
and industry.
WLQ Users
Clinical researchers, the pharmaceutical
industry, employers, managed care
organizations, and public health
professionals are all seeking accurate
information concerning the work impact of
chronic disease. The pharmaceutical
industry requires sensitive and specific
work disability and productivity indicators
for use in its clinical trials. Employers are
requesting data to assess the impact of
changing employee demographics on
resulting questionnaire forms, led to the
current 25-item version3. Within both
patient and employee populations, this
version of the WLQ has demonstrated
excellent scaling properties, as well as
construct and criterion validity.
Scale alpha’s exceed the recommended
level of .70 in both patient and employee
populations. Construct validity tests have
shown that WLQ scale scores vary with
SF-36 measures of physical and mental
health, type of chronic condition, and
severity within condition groups, such as
depression and osteoarthritis3,5. In a study
of depression patients, Swindle and
colleagues4found that the energy level, a
hallmark depression symptom, predicted
WLQ scores. Low energy corresponded to
decreased work productivity both cross-
sectionally and longitudinally.
Criterion validity tests have been
performed in several settings. For
example, within a sample of private short-
term disability claimants with back pain,
baseline WLQ scores obtained within four
weeks of the claim predicted the duration
of the disability until return to work6. In a
study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
and in a second with a fibromyalgia sample,
Wolfe and colleagues found that WLQ
scores predicted patient income level7,8.
We conducted a work-site study involving
repeat measures of approximately 900
employees, to determine whether WLQ
scores were significantly related to
objectively-measured employee-level work
productivity. We found that scores were
health and productivity. Some firms are
evaluating the need for, and effectiveness
of, employee health improvement
strategies, such as disease management
programs. Managed care organizations
are being asked to demonstrate «value» to
customers, including purchasers, who are
interested in improving employee function
and limiting the indirect costs of illness.
Finally, public health officials have widened
their surveillance and prevention efforts to
include disability due to chronic disease.
The WLQ can contribute information to all
of these initiatives.
Availability
The WLQ is available royalty-free for non-
commercial applications; commercial
users are charged a fee. Information
about the WLQ, and copies of the
instrument, are available free by request
from WLQ@Lifespan.org.
For further Information, please contact
Debra Lerner, M.S., PhD, The Health
Institute Division of Clinical Care Research,
New England Medical Center, Box 345,
750 Washington Street, Boston, MA
02111, USA. Tel: +1 617-636-8636
Fax: +1 617-636-8351
Email: WLQ@Lifespan.org
1. Lynch W and Reidel JE.
Measuring Employee
Productivity: A Guide to Self-Assessment Tools
. 2001
edition. Denver, CO: Institute for Health and Productivity
Management.
2. Lerner DJ. and Bungay K.
Measuring Work Outcomes
. In
:
Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome
s
: Applications for
Patient Care. Module 3: Assessment of Humanistic
Outcomes. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical
Pharmacy, 1997.
3. Lerner DJ., Amick BC. III, Rogers WH., et al. The Work
Limitations Questionnaire: a self-administered instrument
for assessing on-the-job work disability.
Medical Care
2001;39(1):72-85.
4. Swindle R, Kroenke K, and Braun LA.
Energy and
Improved Workplace Productivity in Depression
. Investing
in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health
Care Innovation. Sorkin A, Summers K, and Farquar I
(eds.). New York: JAI Press, 2001;14:323-341.
5. Lerner D, Reed J, Massarotti E, et al. The Work Limitation
Questionnaire’s Validity and Reliability among Patients
with Osteoarthritis (OA)».
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Jan, 2002;55(2):197-208.
6. Lerner D, Amick III, B C, and Chang H. Duration of
Disability for Low Back Pain among Employees with
Short-Term Disability Insurance. (
In preparation
).
7. Wolfe F and Sesti AM. The Effect of Health-Related Work
Limitations on the Income of Employed Adults with
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Annual Meeting of the
American College of Rheumatology
,
November, 2001.
8. Wolfe,F and Sesti, AM The Effect of Health-Related Work
Limitations on the Income of Employed Adults with
Fibromyalgia. Annual Meeting of the American College of
Rheumatology, November, 2001.
9. Lerner D and Lee J.
Measuring Health-Related Work
Productivity with Self-Reports.
In
:
Stang P and Kessler
RC. (eds.). Health and Work Productivity: Emerging
Issues in Research and Policy. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press
(In press).
NSTRUMENTS
USA
The Work Limitations Questionnaire
(continued from p 9)
I
QOL
10
QoL Newsletter, 2002; 28
Table 1. The Work Limitations Questionnaire: Estimated
Productivity Impact of Health-Related Work Limitations Based on
WLQ Index Score
WLQ Index Score % decrease in % increase in work
productivity hours to compensate
(compared to healthy) for productivity loss
0----
5 4.9 5.1
10 9.5 10.5
15 14.1 16.2
20 18.1 22.1
25 22.1 28.4
30 25.9 34.9
35 29.5 41.9
40 32.9 49.2
45 36.2 56.8
50 39.4 64.9
Source: ©Lerner, Debra, Rogers, William H., and Chang, Hong, 2001.
... Using these four domains, the WLQ productivity loss score was calculated. The WLQ productivity loss score indicates the percentage of impairment in work output due to health problems ranging from 0 to 24.9%, which was calculated using the original formula [13]. Psychological demand, social support, and decision latitude were measured using 22 items selected from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) [14,15]. ...
... Complete case analysis was used, except for MHI-5, for the domains of WLQ, WLQ productivity loss score, service years, and break time. For MHI-5 and WLQ, we imputed scores for missing values, as indicated by the manuals for each questionnaire [13,18]. Regarding service years and break time, we handled the missing data in two ways. ...
Article
Background Although nursery school teachers may experience depressive symptoms, there have been few studies exploring the associated factors. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and explore its associated factors in nursery school teachers. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed nursery school teachers in Sakyo-ku, Kyoto City to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms as measured by the five-item Mental Health Inventory. We used a logistic regression model to assess the factors. Results Respondents were 148 teachers (36%) out of 410 nursery school teachers in 21 nursery schools, and 65 (44%) indicated that they had depressive symptoms. Using the Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ), productivity loss score (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.34) and psychological demands (ARR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.53) were found to be associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions The associated factors with depressive symptoms were high psychological demands and a high degree of presenteeism. Further prospective cohort studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to confirm these relationships.
... Many such tools have been devised, including the Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) 5) , the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire ( WPAI ) 6) , the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS) 7) , and the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) 8,9) . Studies using these tools have revealed that presenteeism may result from any of several causes, including depression [10][11][12] , stress 13) , burnout 14) , and fatigue 15) . ...
... Third, in terms of hypothesis testing, the results only indicate the direction of the association, and it is difficult to explain the magnitude of difference. Fourth, we used the productivity-NRS, a single item question, to confirm convergent validity in this study because it has been widely used as a component of many existing presenteeism tools 5,8,9,42) . However, the productivity-NRS itself is also ambiguous, and its validity has not been fully confirmed. ...
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Objective: To determine the convergent validity and responsiveness of the work functioning impairment scale (WFun) in workers with musculoskeletal disorder-related pain. Methods: Participants were extracted from an internet user study and prospectively examined using the pain intensity numerical rating scale (pain-NRS), the work ability numerical rating scale (productivity-NRS), and the WFun at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months. The convergent validity and responsiveness of the WFun were examined by multilevel regression analysis. Results: A total of 786 workers participated and 593 completed all surveys. The WFun score gradually increased and decreased as the pain-NRS and the productivity-NRS increased, respectively. Changes in the WFun score steadily increased and decreased as changes in the pain-NRS and the productivity-NRS increased, respectively. Multilevel analyses showed that all linear associations were significant. Conclusions: The convergent validity and responsiveness of the WFun were consistent with the expected direction and magnitude.
... In this study, we used the former definition of presenteeism to include psychological and behavioral science views rather than just labor productivity. There are many scales that measure presenteeism: the Stanford Presenteeism Scale [14], Health and Work Performance Questionnaire [15], Work Limitation Questionnaire [16], Health and Work Questionnaire [17], Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI) [18], and the WFun. The WFun is a seven-item scale that is useful for easily assessing presenteeism in busy clinical settings; it is characterized by its presenteeism-specific assessment and its ability to identify the severity of presenteeism at four levels, compared to the other assessments. ...
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Management of presenteeism in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential for disease management, ensuring the workforce’s availability, and reducing health-related costs. The purpose of this case study was to investigate presenteeism, physical function, and exercise habits in three working patients with CKD and discuss their effects. Case 1 was a 71-year-old male security guard; Case 2 was a 72-year-old male agricultural worker; and Case 3 was an 83-year-old male civil engineering employee. Presenteeism was measured using the work functioning impairment scale (WFun), and physical function was measured using grip strength, skeletal muscle mass index, 10 m walk test, short physical performance battery, and exercise habits. The WFun assessment showed that only Case 3 had moderate presenteeism, and the barrier to employment was fatigue. Each value of physical function was higher than the reference value, but Case 3 had the lowest physical function values. All three patients had no exercise habits and were in the interest stage of behavior change. This case report indicates the existence of workers with CKD who need care for presenteeism, even if they have no problems with physical function or activities of daily living. To ensure work productivity in workers with CKD, clinicians may need to evaluate presenteeism, physical function, and exercise habits in addition to popular treatment and care.
... Screening uses the self-administered nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (28,29) to assess depression symptoms and the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) (30,31) to assess deficits in occupational functioning. Both employee and counselor receive the results. ...
... Screening uses the self-administered nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (28,29) to assess depression symptoms and the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) (30,31) to assess deficits in occupational functioning. Both employee and counselor receive the results. ...
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... Due to the potential impact on an individual's HRQL, measuring absenteeism and presenteeism for both paid employment and household chores simultaneously is imperative and should be included as an evaluation endpoint during clinical product development. Many generic productivity patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires have been developed and used for similar purposes; the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI) [9,10], Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) [11][12][13][14], Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) [15], Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ) [16], Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS) [17], Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ) [18]. However, none of the above measures capture absenteeism and presenteeism for both paid work and household chores with respect to percent of time and hours lost. ...
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Thesis
Le handicap est une notion complexe évolutive et multidimensionnelle. Son évaluation et sa mesure nécessitent des approches multiples portant sur l’ensemble de ses dimensions. Il en est de même pour le handicap professionnel. Les définitions du handicap professionnel sont aussi hétérogènes, décrivent de nombreuses situations, mais s’accordent sur ses aspects multidimensionnels. Le postulat pris est que le handicap professionnel est une situation de handicap dans le contexte particulier du travail, durant la carrière. L’objet de ce travail était de le décrire de façon multidimensionnelle, à l’aide de la classification internationale du fonctionnement, du handicap et de la santé (CIF), dans le cas particulier des douleurs de l’épaule. Cet exemple permet de circonscrire l’analyse. En effet, les douleurs de l’épaule sont fréquentes et leurs répercussions sociales et professionnelles sont importantes. Trois objectifs étaient fixés : 1) réaliser une revue des données disponibles de la littérature afin de décrire la démarche d’évaluation de l’état de santé et du handicap et d’identifier les dimensions du handicap prises en compte ; 2) décrire le handicap dans le contexte du travail en comparant cinq définitions disponibles du handicap ; 3) étudier les facteurs associés au handicap en décrivant les sujets avec et sans limitations dans la vie quotidienne et/ou dans le travail. L’ensemble de ce travail porte sur la population masculine et féminine, de 18 à 65 ans, qui travaillent ou ayant travaillé. Pour les deux derniers objectifs, les données de la dernière étude disponible portant sur le handicap en population générale en France, l’enquête transversale handicap santé auprès des ménages, étaient utilisées. Les résultats montraient que la dimension « travail » était peu prise en compte. Les cinq définitions de handicap ne se recouvraient pas totalement, notamment pour ce qui en concerne deux, les limitations auto-rapportées dans la vie quotidienne et dans le travail. Plusieurs facteurs étaient identifiés comme associés à ces limitations : le besoin d’aménagement, les restrictions d’activité, le mauvais état de santé perçu, les faibles revenus, les conditions de travail et de vie aggravantes. Ce travail souligne les dimensions à compléter dans l’étude du handicap, notamment en distinguant ce qui relève des limitations dans la vie quotidienne, de celles dans le travail.
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Background: Hip and knee replacements are regularly carried out for patients who work. There is little evidence about these patients' needs and the factors influencing their return to work. There is a paucity of guidance to help patients return to work after surgery and a need for structured occupational advice to enable them to return to work safely and effectively. Objectives: To develop an occupational advice intervention to support early recovery to usual activities including work that is tailored to the requirements of patients undergoing hip or knee replacements. To test the acceptability, practicality and feasibility of this intervention within current care frameworks. Design: An intervention mapping approach was used to develop the intervention. The research methods employed were rapid evidence synthesis, qualitative interviews with patients and stakeholders, a prospective cohort study, a survey of clinical practice and a modified Delphi consensus process. The developed intervention was implemented and assessed during the final feasibility stage of the intervention mapping process. Setting: Orthopaedic departments in NHS secondary care. Participants: Patients who were in work and intending to return to work following primary elective hip or knee replacement surgery, health-care professionals and employers. Interventions: Occupational advice intervention. Main outcome measures: Development of an occupational advice intervention, fidelity of the developed intervention when delivered in a clinical setting, patient and clinician perspectives of the intervention and preliminary assessments of intervention effectiveness and cost. Results: A cohort study (154 patients), 110 stakeholder interviews, a survey of practice (152 respondents) and evidence synthesis provided the necessary information to develop the intervention. The intervention included information resources, a personalised return-to-work plan and co-ordination from the health-care team to support the delivery of 13 patient and 20 staff performance objectives. To support delivery, a range of tools (e.g. occupational checklists, patient workbooks and employer information), roles (e.g. return-to-work co-ordinator) and training resources were created. Feasibility was assessed for 21 of the 26 patients recruited from three NHS trusts. Adherence to the defined performance objectives was 75% for patient performance objectives and 74% for staff performance objectives. The intervention was generally well received, although the short time frame available for implementation and concurrent research evaluation led to some confusion among patients and those delivering the intervention regarding its purpose and the roles and responsibilities of key staff. Limitations: Implementation and uptake of the intervention was not standardised and was limited by the study time frame. Evaluation of the intervention involved a small number of patients, which limited the ability to assess it. Conclusions: The developed occupational advice intervention supports best practice. Evaluation demonstrated good rates of adherence against defined performance objectives. However, a number of operational and implementation issues require further attention. Future work: The intervention warrants a randomised controlled trial to assess its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to improve rates and timing of sustained return to work after surgery. This research should include the development of a robust implementation strategy to ensure that adoption is sustained. Study registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27426982 and PROSPERO CRD42016045235. Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 45. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
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Background: Distal radius fractures (DRFs) contribute substantially to overall morbidity in the elderly population. We believe that accurately capturing total productivity losses is vital to understanding the true economic impact of these injuries in working patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective nonrandomized cohort study and enrolled working patients with DRF treated with either casting or operative fixation. We administered the Workplace Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ, Tufts Medical Center) at the first visit following injury and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after definitive treatment. The WLQ measures the degree to which employed individuals are experiencing limitations on-the-job due to their health problems and estimates health-related productivity loss. We also calculated the monetary value of work time lost at market value in US dollars. The treatment groups were analyzed for statistical similarity using Student t tests. Results: A total of 30 patients met our study’s inclusion criteria. The WLQ index score trended downward in both groups across all time points and was lower in the operative cohort compared with the nonoperative cohort at 6 weeks (1.4% vs 12.9% productivity loss, P = .17). The monetary value of work time lost trended downward across all time points and was lower in the operative cohort compared with the nonoperative cohort ($200.21 vs $2846.90, P = .12). Conclusions: In this pilot study, we successfully applied the WLQ to working patients treated for DRF. The WLQ is effective in capturing short-term productivity losses following DRF and may suggest a decreased at-work burden among patients treated with operative fixation compared with casting.
Article
The 25-item Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) was recently developed to measure health-related decrements in ability to perform job roles among employed individuals. Research has demonstrated its validity and reliability in several populations. We assessed the WLQ's performance when administered to patients with osteoarthritis (OA), which is a leading cause of work disability and productivity loss. We recruited a representative sample of 230 employed, confirmed OA patients and a comparison group of 37 healthy employed controls. Subjects completed a mail survey. In tests of the WLQ's scale internal reliability, the questionnaire met all established criteria. Additionally, in construct validity tests, the WLQ correctly detected OA vs. control group differences, and correlated significantly with arthritis pain, stiffness, and functional limitation, and self-reported work productivity. The WLQ is an accurate and reliable source of information for assessing the work impact of OA.
Measuring Employee Productivity: A Guide to Self-Assessment Tools
  • W Lynch
  • J E Reidel
Lynch W and Reidel JE. Measuring Employee Productivity: A Guide to Self-Assessment Tools. 2001 edition. Denver, CO: Institute for Health and Productivity Management.
Measuring Work Outcomes. In: Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes: Applications for Patient Care Module 3: Assessment of Humanistic Outcomes
  • Dj Lerner
  • K Bungay
Lerner DJ. and Bungay K. Measuring Work Outcomes. In: Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes: Applications for Patient Care. Module 3: Assessment of Humanistic Outcomes. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 1997.
Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation
  • R Swindle
  • K Kroenke
  • L A Braun
Swindle R, Kroenke K, and Braun LA. Energy and Improved Workplace Productivity in Depression. Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation. Sorkin A, Summers K, and Farquar I (eds.). New York: JAI Press, 2001;14:323-341.
Duration of Disability for Low Back Pain among Employees with Short-Term Disability Insurance
  • D Lerner
  • Iii Amick
Lerner D, Amick III, B C, and Chang H. Duration of Disability for Low Back Pain among Employees with Short-Term Disability Insurance. (In preparation).
The Effect of Health-Related Work Limitations on the Income of Employed Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Annual Meeting of the
  • F Wolfe
  • Am Sesti
Wolfe F and Sesti AM. The Effect of Health-Related Work Limitations on the Income of Employed Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology, November, 2001.
AM The Effect of Health-Related Work Limitations on the Income of Employed Adults with Fibromyalgia
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