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Physico-chemical quality of Bactrian camel milk

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Present study was carried out to investigate the quality of camel milk. A wide variation was observed in the quality of raw camel milk. Specific gravity ranged between 1.014 and 1.017 (1.015±0.001), pH 6.53 and 6.77. Total solids, fat, protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals contents ranged between 14.23 and 12.13, 5.56 and 8.29, 1.8 and 5.0, 1.8 and 3.2, 0.78 and 2.76, 2.9 and 4.12, 0.85 to 1.00 0.20 and 0.28 g per 100 g, respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.171 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 50-52
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Physico -chemical quality of Bactrian camel milk
O.GANSAIKHAN
1
, TS.BATSUKH, Z.ICHINHORLOO
2
1
School of Food Engineering Biotechnology, Mongolian University of
Science Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
2
School of Biomedicine, Chemistry and Biochemistry department, Health Science
University of Mongolia Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Abstract: Present study was carried out to investigate the quality of camel milk. A wide variation
was observed in the quality of raw camel milk. Specific gravity ranged between 1.014 and 1.017
(1.015±0.001), pH 6.53 and 6.77. Total solids, fat, protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals
contents ranged between 14.23 and 12.13, 5.56 and 8.29, 1.8 and 5.0, 1.8 and 3.2, 0.78 and 2.76, 2.9
and 4.12, 0.85 to 1.00 0.20 and 0.28 g per 100 g, respectively.
Keywords; camel milk, Bactrian, chemical quality
Introduction
he Mongols have been closely linked
with the camel herd and they provided
their food, clothes, housing, labor
utensils, transport and fuel needs with what
camel yielded. 9.6% of the entire camel herds
in the world are Bactrian camels. Over 30%
of this kind well the Gobi aria which holds
42% of the entine Mongolia.
The lactation period of camel is 17
months. Depending on the natural,
environmental and feeding conditions a camel
can produce 0.5 liter of milk a day on the
average and it’s possible to use 500-550 liter
of milk a year. If milk about 80% of the entire
she-camel herd of Mongolia and obtain 0.5
liter from a camel it is possible to use a
million liters of milk a year.
The Mongols have a specific
technology of processing camel milk, that had
come down generation to generation. As we
know by now they make over 50 types of
dairy products through the traditional method.
The camel milk and dairy products not only
meet the Gobi dwellers’ needs in food and
drinks. They also widely used for folk
medicine. 2
According to the FAO (Food and Agriculture
Organization) certain antibodies in camel's
milk can help fight diseases like cancer,
HIV/Aids, Alzheimer's and hepatitis C. 4
Composition of camel milk depends on its
feed and species: Bactrian milk has a higher
fat content than Dromedary milk. Well-
documented properties of camel's milk
include: ten times more iron than cow's milk,
three to five times more vitamin C than cow's
milk, rich in B vitamins, high in
imunoglobins, high in protein, minerals, low
in fat - 1.8-2% fat compared to 3.5-4% in
cow's milk, low in cholesterol, anti-bacterial,
anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, six types of
fatty acid including lanolin acid.
Experimental
Milk samples from camels at various
stages of lactation were collected at random
from camel-rearing areas around Umnugovi
and Dundgovi aimag. Milk samples (500 ml
each) were collected in clean and sterilized
sample bottles and brought to the laboratory
T
50
p 50-52
of Dairy Technology, School of Food
Engineering Biotechnology, MUST for
analysis. Specific gravity, total solids, fat
protein, casein and ash contents were
determined according to the method of
Standards (MNS402-84, 399-83, 2153-83).
pH values were determined using pH meter
(Model HI, Hanna Instruments, Italy).
Results and Discussion
We have defined the composition and
quality of the Bactrian camel milk with that of
the dromedary and showed in Table. When
compared the milk of Mongolian camel to
that of dromedary camel, the contents of fat,
protein and total dry substance were high. It is
related to the natural and the animal pedigree.
The amount of albumin and globulin
in the camel milk is 1.5-2 times more than the
cow milk. The camel milk preserves its
freshness longer than of other livestock. In
other words, the sourness of camel milk
progresses comparatively slowly.
Specific gravity of camel milk in between
1.014 and 1.017 with an average of
1.015±0.001. pH values of fresh camel milk
(Table I) was observed in bactrain 6.53 and
dromedary 6.77.
Table 1. Physical-chemical characterizations
of camel milk
Component, %
Bactrian
Dromedary
Specific gravity
1.014
1.017
pH values
6.43
6.77
Total solids
14.23
12.74
Fat
5.39
4.47
Protein
3.5
3.2
Casein
2.7
2.5
Lactose
5.1
4.95
Ash
0.8
0.7
These results were relatively similar to
that of reported values (6.5-6.7) by FAO
(1982), while higher than those of reported by
Ahmed (1990) and Sawaya et al. (1984) (i.e.
6.53 & 6.49, respectively). It was observed
that this variation was greater in between
herds as compared to within a herd.
Results presented in Table I showed a
wide variation in the total solids content of
camel milk. The values varied between 12.74
to 14.23 g per 100 g. These results were lower
than buffalo milk (14.73 g per 100 g), but in
line with the values reported by different
workers (Farag & Kebary, 1992; Al-Kanhal,
1993). Ahmed (1990) and FAO (1982) also
reported similar fluctuations (84 to 93 g per
100 g) in the moisture content of camel milk
which is inversely proportional to TS content.
One of the reasons they reported was hot
summer, during which the cow camel secretes
highly diluted milk with low fat. This could
be the natural phenomena by which the camel
young ones are supplied with sufficient
nutritional value and water for a superb
adaptation in a desert environment. Secondly,
water content of fodder would also affect
water content of milk.
Fat content of camel milk ranged
between 5.39 to 4.47 g per 100 g. Variation in
fat content was observed to be directly related
to the total solids content of camel milk, i.e.
as the total solids increased, the fat content
also increased and vice versa. These results
were very similar to those of reported by
(FAO, 1982) according to which, the
hydration status of the animal as well as the
type of forage eaten would also affect the fat
content of the milk.
The total Protein content of camel
milk within the range of 3.5 and 3.20 g per
100 g. It could be stressed that protein content
of the feed as well as water intake had
directly affected the protein quality of milk
(FAO, 1982).
The concentration of casein analyzed
in the present study revealed the range in
between 2.7 and 2.5 g per 100 g. Lactose
content of camel milk varied bactrain 5.91 to
dromedary 4.12 g per 100 g. The highest
lactose content observed in present study was
quite similar to that of reported by Ahmed
(1990) and Knoess (1982). This wide
variation could be due to the fact that camel
usually grazed on halophillic plants for
example Atriplex, Acacia etc. (FAO, 1982).
Ash content of camel milk was observed to
vary in between 0.85 to 1.0 g per 100 g.
These results were higher than those reported
by different workers i.e. in between 0.75 to
0.83 g per 100 g (Knoess, 1982; Ahmed,
1990; Elamin & Wilcox, 1992). The reason
for higher ash content observed could be due
51
to free grazing of camel on bushes or plants
grown at saline soil.
In general the present study showed a
wide variation in the gross composition of
camel milk. The results obtained were in
agreement with studies of Ahmed (1990) and
Lapsson (1990). This variation was concluded
to be partly due to the inherited capabilities of
the animals and/or attributed due to various
seasonal and environmental factors as well as
stage of lactation, age and number of calving.
In addition, the feed and water quality and
quantity available to the animals also play an
important role (FAO, 1982).
We relate this feature of camel milk to
its mineral contents. Accordind to some
research materials this quality of camel milk
was explained in a link with the contents of
its bactericide content.
Conclusions
The result of the research and
experiment has shown that the selection of the
technology of using the biologically active
substance of the camel milk for the health
treatment and children’s nutrition would give
an impetus for solving some social and
economic problems of the Gobi inhabitants.
In view of the observed results of the
physicochemical properties of the camel milk,
it could be concluded that camel cow
produces nutritious milk for human
consumption.
The result could contribute to the overall
knowledge of camel as food source, but much
still needs to be learned if efficient
improvement programmes are to be initiated.
For example, if camels are reared under same
environment as buffalo, there is no doubt it
will produce milk of high quality.
References
1. Ahmed, M.M., 1990. The analysis and
quality of camel milk. Index of the thesis
accepted for higher degrees by the
Universities of Great Britain and Ireland
and the councils for National Academic
Awards. 38: 1356
2. Ts.Batsukh, “Mongolian tradional
culture”, pp 230- 233, 2009.
3. Diabetes research and clinical practice,
2005 Elsevier 2005-01-01
4. FAO, 1982. FAO Animal Production and
Health Papers. Camels andCamel Milk.
Food Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations,
5. Farag, S.I. and K.M.K. Kebary, 1992.
Chemical composition and physical
properties of camels milk and milk fat.
Proceed. 5th Egyptian Conference for
Dairy Science and Technology. pp. 57
67.
52
... Meanwhile, this study mentioned about the natural phenomena by which the young she-camel are provided with sufficient nutritional value and water for an excellent adaptation in a desert environment, in addition, a water content of forage would also affect water constituent of milk. These values are higher than previous values reported by (7) and (13), which also affected by animal food and water supply. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk has proved as the closer to human milk than other livestock milk. This study intended to examine the physicochemical properties of dromedary camel’s milk. Thirty milk samples collected from 2 dromedary camel herds in Badiat Alsamawah/ Al Muthanna governorate/ Iraq. The physical and chemical analysis was done on each milk sample and data were reported and analyzed. The variations were seen in the physical and chemical properties of fresh camel milk. The pH, specific gravity and freezing point were ranged between 6.1 and 6.5 (6.3133± 0.154), 1.0123 - 1.0615 (1.0282±0.0098), and (-) 0.439 – (-)1.361 (-0.6132±0.1928) respectively. The percentages of total fat, SNF (Solid Not Fat), Protein and lactose were ranged between 1.59 - 13.9 (4.1343±2.88), 1.59 - 20.36 (9.428±2.8833), 7.15 – 2.74 (3.576±1.1087) and 11.74 - 4.15 (5.3406±1.6513) respectively. In conclusion, some physical and biochemical values of fresh dromedary milk were determined in this study. Moreover, the effect of food and environment on the milk quality was also approved. The authors recommend another future study that correlates between the nature of food and the quality of camel milk during the different lactation period.
The analysis and quality of camel milk. Index of the thesis accepted for higher degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the councils for National Academic Awards
  • M M Ahmed
Ahmed, M.M., 1990. The analysis and quality of camel milk. Index of the thesis accepted for higher degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the councils for National Academic Awards. 38: 1356
Mongolian tradional culture
  • Ts
  • Batsukh
Ts.Batsukh, "Mongolian tradional culture", pp 230-233, 2009.
FAO Animal Production and Health Papers. Camels andCamel Milk. Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Fao
FAO, 1982. FAO Animal Production and Health Papers. Camels andCamel Milk. Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Chemical composition and physical properties of camels milk and milk fat. Proceed. 5th Egyptian Conference for Dairy Science and Technology
  • S I Farag
  • K M K Kebary
Farag, S.I. and K.M.K. Kebary, 1992. Chemical composition and physical properties of camels milk and milk fat. Proceed. 5th Egyptian Conference for Dairy Science and Technology. pp. 57-67.