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Biochemical Study of Mumijo in Uvs province, Mongolia

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The authors cleared mumijo by extractive and distil methods, defined pure output of natural mumijo and compared difference between these two methods. We defined the amount of dry and extractive substances, raw oil, antioxidant-rutin, vitamin C, fulvic acid, common nitrogen and total protein, content of protein amino acids, and mineral elements in natural mumijo. We exposed 13 protein amino acids in sample of natural mumijo. The content of total irreplaceable amino acids (5) were 26.2%. The authors defined macro and microelements (42) in ash of natural mumijo. In sample of mumijo exposed 10 elements are oxide form, W, Y, Cs, La-rare metal of the earth, and actinoids- Nd, Th, U; lantanoids-Pr, Sm. The same exposed non-ferrous metal-Cu, Mo; light metal-Al, mixed metal-Pb, Zn. However, the valuable metals-Au, Ag and white gold are not exposed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.173 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 56-59
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Biochemical Study of Mumijo in Uvs province, Mongolia
J. Sukhdolgor
1
, D. Orkhonselenge
2
1
Department of Biochemistry and Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Biology and Biotechnology, National University of
Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
2
Biotechnology production, Research and Training Center, Public Health Institute,
Ulaanbaatar 458645, Mongolia
Abstract: The authors cleared mumijo by extractive and distil methods, defined pure output of
natural mumijo and compared difference between these two methods. We defined the amount of dry
and extractive substances, raw oil, antioxidant-rutin, vitamin C, fulvic acid, common nitrogen and
total protein, content of protein amino acids, and mineral elements in natural mumijo. We exposed
13 protein amino acids in sample of natural mumijo. The content of total irreplaceable amino acids
(5) were 26.2%. The authors defined macro and microelements (42) in ash of natural mumijo. In
sample of mumijo exposed 10 elements are oxide form, W, Y, Cs, La-rare metal of the earth, and
actinoids- Nd, Th, U; lantanoids-Pr, Sm. The same exposed non-ferrous metal-Cu, Mo; light metal-
Al, mixed metal-Pb, Zn. However, the valuable metals-Au, Ag and white gold are not exposed.
Keywords: Mumijo, protein amino acids, fulvic acid, mineral elements
Introduction
umijo, also known as momia and
shilajit is a thick, sticky tar-like
substance with a colour ranging
from white to dark brown, which sometimes
found in Caucasus, Altai mountains and Tibet
mountain chains. Mumijo is a word of Greece
origin. The substance is mentioned in the
works of Aristotle and Avicenna as a remedy
with antiseptic and general stimulant
properties used people in Caucasus. Most
scientists agree that people observed wounded
animals frequenting caves with mumijo and
discovered the substance, similar substances
are used for medicinal purposes throughout
Tibet (Berun, 10
th
century; Jambaldorj, 1978).
Some scientific research on mumijo has
been done in the former USSR, including full-
scale clinical trials. Most information on
mumijo is known from Russian literature
sources.
Mumijo is still unclear whether it has
geological or biological origin as it has
numerous traces of vitamins and amino acids.
Mumijo is not toxic, at least in reasonable
quantities. A mumijo-like substance from
Antarctica was found to contain glycerol
derivatives and was also believed to have
medicinal properties. Mumijo has a wide
spectrum of pharmacological activity. A
unique plant extract in combination with
dozens of minerals: six amino acids, vitamins,
A, B, C and P, natural steroids, terpenoids,
phospholipids and polyphenol complexes.
Mumijo contains trace and micro-elements
(cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, manganese,
chromium, iron, sodium, potassium,
magnesium, and others) (Shakirov, 1963).
Mongolian researchers were studied
about Mumijo at an ancient time.
Agvaandondov (1991) translated it as “Khar
magic”, “Brown method” and “Historical
M
56
p 56-59
ensemble of Mongol khar magic”, our high
writer of 18
th
century Lunggregdandar wrote
“Jud-shiin habit work, scientist
Ishdanzanvanjil (1868) composed Jiru-dosil
in Tibetian language. He wrote that mumijo
need in prescription of gastric disease.
Khaidav (1982) and Ambaga et al., (1989)
were had similar explanation. Famous doctor
Choijamts (1920) composed about mumijo in
his work Very wonderfully wedding
foundation”. Later, Danzan (1995) translated
this work, Enkh-Oyun (2008) composed
thesis “Mumijo preparation influence on bone
callus and some indices of patience for cattle
and animals”.
Fulvic acid, one of two classes of natural
acidic organic polymer that can be extracted
from humus found in soil, sediment or aquatic
environments. This name derives from latin
fulvus, indicating its yellow colour.
Fulvic acid (not to be confused with folic
acid) is rapidly being recognized as one of the
key elements in many outstanding health and
scientific breakthroughs of the 21
st
century.
Scientists and doctors throughout the word
are beginning to discover fulvic acid and
starting to recognize its extraordinary
potential. Fulvic acid has always occurred
naturally in organic plants and soils. It
increases energy, it is a ferocious antioxidant
and free radical scavenger, chelates heavy
metals and body toxins, removing them from
the system (Ponomareva et al.,1969).
Experimental
Material and methods. Mumijo material
was collected from Yoliin shil” of the
Umnogovi sum of the Uvs province in
September, 17. 2009. Mumijo sample was
purified by extraction and distillation methods
(MNS 5725:2007). Dry substance was
determined by method of weight stability, the
raw oil by method soxhlet, extractive
substance by method of Pleshkov, total
protein by Kjeldahl method, protein amino
acid by paper chromatography, vitamin C by
titration method 2,6-
dichlorinephenolindophenol sodium, rutin
was determined by method of Murri, fulvic
acid by vacuum evaporate method.
Results and Discussion
We cleared natural mumijo by
extractive and distil methods (Table 1).
Table 1. Purely output compared by two methods.
Sample of
mumijo
Purified
method
Extract
of
mumijo
Weigh
t of
extract
(g)
Weigh
t of
after
clear
(g)
“Yoliin
shil”
Umnugov
i district
of the
Uvs
province
Extracti
on
natural
5
2.742
distillati
on
natural
5
1.02
Purely output compared in between two
methods: by extractive method was-54.8%,
by distil method was-20.4%. An extractive
method was more effective (34.4%) than
distilling method. Dry substances of natural
mumijo was 95.23%, water 4.77%.
We have determined biochemical components
of natural and pure mumijo.
Table 2. Some results of biochemical characteristics
of natural and pure mumijo.
Mumijo
Dry substance
(%)
Extractive
substance (%)
Raw oil (%)
Rutin (mg%)
Vitamin C
(mg%)
Commonnitroge
n (%)
Total protein
(%)
Fulvic acid (%)
Natural
95.23
38.73
3.02
0.53
130
2.24
14.0
23
Pure
89.74
21.05
2.53
0.41
121
1.72
10.8
nd
nd-not determined
Dry substance of natural mumijo was 95.23%
and of pure mumijo was 89.73%, extractive
substance of natural mumijo was 38.73%, but
of pure mumijo was 21.05%; raw oil of
natural mumijo was 3.02%, of pure mumijo
was 2.53%; rutin of natural mumijo was
0.53mg% of pure mumijo was 0.41mg%;
antioxidant vitamin C of natural mumijo was
130mg%, of pure mumijo was 121mg%; total
protein of natural mumijo was 14%, and total
protein was more (3.2%) than pure mumijo.
The fulvic acid in sample of natural mumijo
was 23%.
57
Standard Uvs province Standard
Fig. 1. Chromatogram of experimental and standard
amino acids.
Amino acids in natural mumijo have been
determined by paper chromatography. (Fig 2).
Fig 2. Content of protein amino acids in natural
mumijo (%).
We exposed 13 protein amino acids in sample
of dry natural mumijo. The content of
essential amino acids (methionine, valine,
phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine) were
26.2%. The content of replaceable amino
acids (cysteine, serine, arginine, threonine,
histidine, alanine, glutamic acid, and aspartic
acid) were 47.01%. The content of leucine
was high (10.5%) more than other essential
amino acids. Aspartic acid was high in
content (15.76%) than other replaceable
amino acids. Content of cysteine was very
little (0.27%) than other amino acids.
We have defined content of mineral
elements in ash of natural mumijo, where
exposed 42 mineral elements. Most elements
measured in ppm. But, we calculated it in
percentage. In sample of natural mumijo
exposed 10 elements were oxide form.
Table 3. Amount of mineral elements in ash of natural
mumijo (%).
Elements
(oxide form)
SiO
TiO
2
Al
2
O
3
Fe
2
O
3
MnO
2
MgO
CaO
Na
2
O
K
2
O
P
2
O
5
Amount
39.1
0.37
9.53
3.42
0.11
3.98
15.2
2.35
11.4
1.8
Elements
As
Ba
Bi
Ce
Co
Cr
Cs
Cu
Ga
amount
0.0011
0.0276
0.0005
0.0101
0.0005
0.0018
0.0025
0.0037
0.0009
Elements
Hf
La
Mo
Nb
Nd
Ni
Pb
Pr
Rb
amount
0.00015
0.0056
0.0005
0.0023
0.0075
0.0016
0.0016
0.003
0.0115
Elements
Sb
Sc
Sm
Sn
Sr
Ta
Th
U
Y
amount
0.004
0.001
0.003
0.002
0.0356
0.0006
0.0021
0.0005
0.0017
Elements
W
Y
Zn
Zr
F
amount
0.0027
0.0061
0.0126
0.0312
0.00005
The amount of silicon oxide was very high
(39.1%) than other mineral oxide form. The
calcium oxide was 15.2% etc. The non-
ferrous metals, Cu 0.0037%, Mo 0.0005%;
light metal Al 9.53%; mixed metal, Pb
0.0016%, Zn 0.0126%. The rare metal W was
0.0027%, Y-0.0061%, Cs-0.0025%, La-
0.0056%.
Conclusions
Purely output of natural mumijo, as
compared between two used methods
revealed that the extractive method was
more effective than distil method.
2.24
3.12
4.85
5.43
10.5
0.27
1.05
1.09
2.23
6.98
8.6
11.03
15.76
0
5
10
15
20
Met
Val
Phe
Tyr
Leu
Cys
Ser
Arg
Thr
His
Ala
Glu
Asp
58
Dry substances of natural mumijo was
95.23%. The extractive substance of
natural mumijo was 38.73%, and in pure
mumijo it was 21.05%. The raw oil of
natural mumijo was 3.02%, and in sample
of pure mumijo it was 2.53%. Antioxidant
vitamin C and rutin of natural mumijo
were 130mg%, 0.53mg%. The contents of
latter were equal in sample of pure mumijo
121mg%, 0.41mg%. In the sample of
natural and pure mumijo we defined total
protein. The fulvic acid in sample of
natural mumijo was 23%.
The content of essential amino acids were
5, replaceable amino acids were 8.
In ash of natural mumijo, we defined 42
mineral elements, of which 10 elements
were in oxide form. In ash of natural
mumijo exposed some rare metals, non-
ferrous metals, light metals, mixed metals,
actinoids and lantanoids.
Acknowledgement
We performed this research with support
of the Mongolian Foundation for Science and
Technology at the Spectrum laboratory of the
Central Geological Laboratory.
References
1. Agvaandondov Sh. 1991. Historical
Ensemble of Mongol Khar magic”
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. p.10
2. Ambaga M, Tuya B. 1989. Some
study of medicinal plant used for
public medicine. Ulaanbaatar,
Mongolia. p.10-13
3. Enkh-Oyun T. 2008. “Mumijo
preparation influence on bone callus
and some indices of patience for
cattle and animals”. Thesis.
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. p.6-14
4. Jambaldorj A. 1978. A study of
Mongol medicine. Ulaanbaatar p.54-
56
5. Khaidav Ts. 1982. Animal origin drug
used for public medicine. Ulaanbaatar,
Mongolia. p.104-105
6. Ponomareva, V.V., & Ragim-Zade,
A.I. 1969. Comparative study of fulvic
and humic acids as agents of silicate
mineral decomposition. Society Soil
Science, 1, 157-165. (Trans. From
Pochvovedenic. (1969), 3, 26-36)
7. Shakirov A.Sh. 1963. Mumijo and its
significance in public medicine.
Tashkent. p.56-58
59
... Common EO extracts of cinnamon, clove, tea tree, eucalyptus, peppermint, sea buckthorn and a few others have been reported to show antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial effects against as dermatology related disorders (Miguel, 2010;Tsai et al., 2011). Mumio, also known as mumijo or shilajit is a widely used traditional medicine, especially in Russia, Mongolia, Iran, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (Aiello et al., 2011;Sukhdolgor and Orkhonselenge, 2011;Zandraa et al., 2011). Generally, Mumio contains about 14-20% moisture, 18-20% minerals; 13-17% proteins; 4-4.5% lipids; 3.3-6.5% steroids, 18-20% nitrogen-free compounds, 1.5-2% carbohydrates, and 0.05-0.08% ...
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Historical Ensemble of Mongol Khar magic
  • Agvaandondov Sh
Agvaandondov Sh. 1991. "Historical Ensemble of Mongol Khar magic" Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. p.10
Some study of medicinal plant used for public medicine
  • M Ambaga
  • B Tuya
Ambaga M, Tuya B. 1989. Some study of medicinal plant used for public medicine. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. p.10-13
Mumijo preparation influence on bone callus and some indices of patience for cattle and animals
  • T Enkh-Oyun
Enkh-Oyun T. 2008. "Mumijo preparation influence on bone callus and some indices of patience for cattle and animals". Thesis.
A study of Mongol medicine
  • A Jambaldorj
Jambaldorj A. 1978. A study of Mongol medicine. Ulaanbaatar p.54-56
Animal origin drug used for public medicine
  • Khaidav Ts
Khaidav Ts. 1982. Animal origin drug used for public medicine. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. p.104-105
Mumijo and its significance in public medicine
  • A Shakirov
  • Sh
Shakirov A.Sh. 1963. Mumijo and its significance in public medicine. Tashkent. p.56-58