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Violence and post traumatic stress disorder in a sample of inner city street prostitutes

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... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively researched with its connection to violence and prostitution (Farley and Barkan, 1998;Valera et al., 2000;Farley et al., 2003;Roxburgh et al., 2006). PTSD is a type of anxiety disorder that is linked to extreme traumatic experiences and/or stressors that are outlined by the American Psychiatric Association as involving actual or perceived death threats or injury, a threat to personal integrity, death or threats to family members or close associates, or witnessing events of threatened death or injury. ...
... Farley and Barkan (1998) interviewed 130 prostitutes with respect to the violence and symptoms of PTSD they experience and reported that 68% of the respondents to have met the PTSD diagnosis criteria, while 66% met the PTSD criteria for partial diagnosis according to DSM III-R. Strictly placed in the Washington, D.C. area in the United States, Valera, Sawyer, and Schiraldi (2000) found 42% of the 140 participants in their study had met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. Farley, Baral, Kiremire, and Sezgin (1998) used questionnaires to interview prostitutes in five countries (South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Zambia) to examine levels of PTSD. ...
... 235). Violence against prostitutes has been extensively researched by numerous authors, who support these claims (Church et al., 2001;Farley and Barkan, 1998;Farley et al., 2003;Farley;Monto, 2004;Monto and Hotaling, 2001;Nixon et al., 2002;Salfati, James, and Ferguson, 2008;Silbert and Pines, 1981;Surratt et al., 2004;Valera, Sawyer, and Schiraldi, 2000). This section will showcase the current research on each type of violence and the relationships the violence is occurring in. ...
... De meeste onderzoeken naar transnegatief geweld baseren zich op zogenaamde 'convenience samples' ('gemakkelijkheidssteekproeven') onder transgender respondenten, die vaak met behulp van de sneeuwbalmethode worden samengesteld. Soms worden transgenders echter ook indirect bereikt in geweldonderzoek binnen bepaalde populaties, zoals in onderzoek onder prostituees (Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000) of sekswerkers (Valera et al., 2000), of in onderzoek onder vrouwen (Paterson, Kielinger, & Fletcher, 2008). Deze laatste groep van onderzoeken laten toe om een vergelijking te maken tussen transgender en cisgender (= niet transgender) respondenten. ...
... De meeste onderzoeken naar transnegatief geweld baseren zich op zogenaamde 'convenience samples' ('gemakkelijkheidssteekproeven') onder transgender respondenten, die vaak met behulp van de sneeuwbalmethode worden samengesteld. Soms worden transgenders echter ook indirect bereikt in geweldonderzoek binnen bepaalde populaties, zoals in onderzoek onder prostituees (Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000) of sekswerkers (Valera et al., 2000), of in onderzoek onder vrouwen (Paterson, Kielinger, & Fletcher, 2008). Deze laatste groep van onderzoeken laten toe om een vergelijking te maken tussen transgender en cisgender (= niet transgender) respondenten. ...
... In de groep van transgender prostituees komt geweld uitermate vaak voor. Valera et al. (2000) melden dat in een groep van sekswerkers (hier transvrouwen) in Washington D.C., reeds 65% te maken kreeg met fysiek geweld. In een onderzoek onder 783 sekswerkers in San Francisco, rapporteerde 53% van de 126 transgender sekswerkers dat ze al geweld meemaakten, wat veel hoger lag dan het geweld meegemaakt door mannelijke of vrouwelijke cisgender sekswerkers (Cohan et al., 2006). ...
Book
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Internationaal onderzoek geeft aan dat een groot aantal transgender personen te maken krijgt met geweldervaringen (psychisch, verbaal, fysiek, seksueel of materieel). Dit onderzoek focust op geweldervaringen van transgender personen, met het doel dit fenomeen voor het eerst in België in kaart te brengen. In 2012 werd een aanvang genomen met het onderzoek d.m.v. een internationale literatuurstudie naar geweldonderzoek in het algemeen, en LGBT-geweld in het bijzonder. Op basis van deze literatuurstudie werd een typologie van geweld ontworpen, en een ontwerpvragenlijst ontwikkeld. Deze vragenlijst focust op onderwerpen als het type van geweld (verbaal, fysisch, seksueel), de context waarbinnen het geweld plaatsvond (privaat, werk/school, publieke plaatsen), profiel van de dader, profiel van het slachtoffer, soort coping mechanismen (vermijdingsgedrag, aangiften, …) enzovoort. We gebruikten een online survey om de onzichtbare doelgroep te bereiken en tevens om het gevoelige onderwerp zo goed mogelijk te meten. We voorzagen tevens gedrukte enquêtes om te verspreiden om die trans personen die geen toegang tot het internet hebben, te bereiken. Respondenten werden geworven met behulp van transgender organisaties en (online) netwerken, en behandelaars, maar tevens via het brede publiek en sociale media. De online dataverzameling vond plaats in 2012, en kende een onverwachte hoge respons. In totaal startten ruim 450 respondenten de survey, waarvan 260 uit België. De data-cleaning en de eerste analyses vonden plaats in het najaar van 2012. In januari 2013 werd het eerste tussentijdse rapport overhandigd aan de opdrachtgever en stuurgroep. Dit eerste rapport bevatte naast de beleids- en wetenschappelijk context, een literatuuroverzicht inzake transfoob geweld, een beschrijving van de algemene respons en achtergrondvariabelen van de respondenten, een overzicht van hun algemene geweldervaringen, een terugkoppeling naar de literatuur en een besluit. In 2013-2014 werden de data verder diepgaand geanalyseerd. Zo werd vooreerst nagegaan wat de specifieke bijdrage is van de verschillende achtergrondvariabelen die leiden tot significante hogere correlaties met geweld. Verder werden de meest ‘ernstige’ voorvallen die de respondenten per type geweld (verbaal en psychisch, fysiek, seksueel en materieel) in de diepte beschreven, nader geanalyseerd. Deze analyse leverde heel wat informatie op over de exacte context waarin transfoob geweld plaatsvindt, alsook over het slachtofferprofiel, het daderprofiel, de relatie met deze daders, de motivatie voor en aanleiding van het geweld, de impact op en beoordelingen van het voorval door het slachtoffer, de meldings- of aangiftebereidheid bij politie en/of anders instanties, alsook de ervaringen met deze instanties. Het eindrapport bundelt de bevindingen in één geheel.
... These convenience samples usually are focused around social service organizations (most often HIV/AIDS clinics or organizations), and bars or other social gathering places for transgender people. However, many studies also targeted specic populations, such as transgender prostitutes doing street work (Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000), or targeting locations, such as sex workers who came in for clinic visits (Cohan et al., 2006). A few others used mixed method designs that employed some mix of faceto-face recruitment, paper surveys and interviews, and/or the use of the internet as a tool for recruiting and surveying (Dang, 2007; FORGE, 2005; Lombardi et al., 2001; Wyss, 2004;). ...
... Additional evidence for this trend comes from, who found that among those who had reported incidents of forced sex, 35% involved a person who lived in the participant's household at the time of the assault. In addition, in a survey of 26 MTF prostitutes in Washington D. C., Valera et al. (2000) found that 35% reported being raped since they entered prostitution. The most common perpetrator of these rapes were customers (60%), someone else (40%), and their pimp (20%). ...
... ransgender people, there is also a heightened risk of being multiply victimized. Of those who reported that they were victims of physical assault, 69% felt that for at least one or more of those incidences, the primary reason for victimization was their gender identity. Physical violence appears particularly problematic for transgender sex workers. Valera et al. (2000) found that among MTF sex workers in Washington D.C., 65% had been physically assaulted, and that the most common perpetrator was a customer (71%). Weinberg, Shaver, and Williams (1999) found that among sex workers in the San Francisco Tenderloin, in the last 12 months the mean number of rapes by a client was 0.013 per person, the mean n ...
Article
Transgender people face many challenges in a society that is unforgiving of any system of gender that is not binary. However, there are three primary sources of data in the United States for discerning the rates and types of violence that transgender people face throughout their lives — self-report surveys and needs assessments, hot-line call and social service records, and police reports. Data from each of these sources are discussed in length, as well as some of the methodological issues for these types of data sources. All three sources indicate that violence against transgender people starts early in life, that transgender people are at risk for multiple types and incidences of violence, and that this threat lasts throughout their lives. In addition, transgender people seem to have particularly high risk for sexual violence. Future research considerations, such as improving data collection efforts, are discussed.
... Most retrospective studies of women in the sex trade suggest that they were in their early teens when introduced to sex industry (Farley & Barkan, 1998; Kramer & Berg, 2003; Raymond et al., 2002; Robinson & Paramo, 2007). Although it is often assumed that children are subject to CSE only in developing countries (reviewed in George & Panko, 2011; Freed, 2003), recent research in developed countries, including the United States, finds children as young as 7–10 years of age being victimized (Boxill & Richardson, 2007; Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000). Unfortunately, there is a tremendous and widespread demand for young children (Hughes, 2004; Joffres et al., 2008; Williamson & Prior, 2009), due in part to the misconceptions that sex with children is safer (i.e., lower likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted illnesses) and may even cure such afflictions (George & Panko, 2011). ...
... Drug and alcohol dependence may be fostered by the trafficker as a means of further control (Smith et al., 2009). Although the violence committed against women involved in street-based prostitution is more likely to be documented (RomeroDaza, Weeks, & Singer, 2003; Valera et al., 2000; Williamson, 2005 ) than that occurring in indoor prostitution, violence is endemic to all forms of prostitution. For example, those working on the street report higher physical violence, and those working indoors report greater sexual violence (Raphael & Shapiro, 2004). ...
... ers/pimps, intimate partners, customers, and strangers (Raj et al., 2006; Valera et al., 2000; Williamson, 2005). The mortality rate for women in prostitution is 40 times the national average (in the U.S.), and observers (e.g., Williamson, 2005) suggest that it is unlikely that any other occupation or lifestyle exposes women to violence as consistently as does the sex trade. ...
Article
Full-text available
International sex trafficking and domestic prostitution are each forms of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), and CSE typically encompasses a gauntlet of victimization and violence for its victims. Girls and women subjected to CSE are not only damaged during their involvement in the sex industry, but they typically suffer maltreatment and related factors before they enter into it and again as they endeavor to leave it. In this article we review the common risk factors associated with entry into the sex trade industry, the traumas commonly experienced while in the industry and their psychological sequelae, and the challenges surrounding, and longer-term impact of, endeavoring to exit the industry. We describe the complex conditions present at each of these three stages (pre-entry, post-entry, and peri-/post-exit) and how they result in challenges in treating this population. As rates of commercial sexual exploitation increase both nationally and worldwide, there is an urgent need to identify effective interventions for victims and to address the conditions that foster and support CSE.
... 1100). Valera, Sawyer and Schiraldi (2000) suggested that the incidence of PTSD might actually be higher than the data reported in the earlier research. They noted that PTSD is typically assessed following a specific traumatic event rather than a series of traumatic experiences as is the case with prostitutes. ...
... Burman (2003) noted that this disorder is one of the most significant issues in maintaining changes for women who have experienced past abuse. It has been repeatedly noted that women who have been involved in prostitution have a high likelihood of past abuse and most often could qualify for a PTSD diagnosis (Farley and Barkan, 1998;Hunter, 1994;Silbert & Pines, 1982;Valera, Sawyer & Schiraldi, 2000). The disorder may manifest itself gradually so the woman may not even be aware of it as she begins her exiting process. ...
... can increase an individual's vulnerability to relapse. It is critical that practitioners consider possible PTSD symptomology when working with this population (Valera, Sawyer & Schiraldi, 2000). ...
... Furthermore, prostitution and substance use are key factors in increasing the likelihood of becoming a victim of physical or sexual abuse (Brents & Housbeck, 2005;Sallman, 2010;Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000;Watts & Zimmerman, 2002). Research has documented that sexual and physical violence is a "normative experience" for women involved in prostitution (Farley & Kelly, 2000, p. 16) as many women involved in streetlevel prostitution are victims of sexual and physical abuse perpetrated by customers. ...
... Early childhood sexual abuse is another well-documented correlate to prostitution (Abramovich, 2005;Dalla, 2001;Shannon & Csete, 2010;Simons & Whitbeck, 1991;Valera et al., 2000). Early childhood sexual abuse includes being raped, being touched sexually, being forced to touch another sexually, being exposed to or forced to participate in pornography, and being forced to have sex with another person (Watts & Zimmerman, 2002). ...
Article
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Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated.
... Ongeveer de helft maakte vier tot acht vormen van geweld mee. Een kwart maakte minder dan vier verschillende vormen mee en 21% meer dan acht vormen van geweld mee (Kloek & Dijkstra, 2018 , 2003;Sander & Campbell, 2007;KLPD, 2008;Wahab, 2005;Crago et al, 2010;Li, 2013;Sanders, 2004a;Valera et al. 2000;Platt et al. 2011;Shannon et al., 2009;Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000), seksueel (zie bijvoorbeeld: Stevens, 2016. Crago et al., 2010Li, 2013;Platt et al., 2011;Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000;Karandika & Próspero, 2010;Sanders & Campbell, 2007;Sanders, 2004;Valera et al., 2000;Shannon et al., 2009;Connell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie 2010), financieel/economisch (zie bijvoorbeeld: Li, 2013;Connell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie, 2010& Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000 en emotioneel geweld (zie bijvoorbeeld: Rijnink & Van Wijk, 2020;Snippe et al, 2018;Wahab, 2005;Li, 2013;Amstrong, 2015;Cornell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie, 2010;Thopson & Harred, 1992;Rosenbloom & Fetner, 2001;Trautner & Collet, 2010;Van Schuylenbergh, 2017). ...
... Een kwart maakte minder dan vier verschillende vormen mee en 21% meer dan acht vormen van geweld mee (Kloek & Dijkstra, 2018 , 2003;Sander & Campbell, 2007;KLPD, 2008;Wahab, 2005;Crago et al, 2010;Li, 2013;Sanders, 2004a;Valera et al. 2000;Platt et al. 2011;Shannon et al., 2009;Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000), seksueel (zie bijvoorbeeld: Stevens, 2016. Crago et al., 2010Li, 2013;Platt et al., 2011;Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000;Karandika & Próspero, 2010;Sanders & Campbell, 2007;Sanders, 2004;Valera et al., 2000;Shannon et al., 2009;Connell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie 2010), financieel/economisch (zie bijvoorbeeld: Li, 2013;Connell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie, 2010& Venicz & Vanwesenbeeck, 2000 en emotioneel geweld (zie bijvoorbeeld: Rijnink & Van Wijk, 2020;Snippe et al, 2018;Wahab, 2005;Li, 2013;Amstrong, 2015;Cornell & Hart, 2003;Bennachie & Marie, 2010;Thopson & Harred, 1992;Rosenbloom & Fetner, 2001;Trautner & Collet, 2010;Van Schuylenbergh, 2017). ...
Technical Report
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Dit is het verslag van een onderzoek naar de ervaringen van sekswerkers in de gemeente Tilburg met geweld bij de uitvoering van sekswerk. Er is literatuuronderzoek verricht en er zijn interviews gedaan met sekswerkers, een exploitant en professionals in de veiligheidszorg.
... Prostitution is not equally dangerous, though. Studies comparing cisgender men, cisgender women, and transgender women find that cisgender men experience the least amount of violence (Cohan et al., 2006;Valera, 2000). Findings have been mixed in terms of whether trans women experience more violence in prostitution than cisgender women (Cohan et al., 2006) or vice versa (Valera, 2000). ...
... Studies comparing cisgender men, cisgender women, and transgender women find that cisgender men experience the least amount of violence (Cohan et al., 2006;Valera, 2000). Findings have been mixed in terms of whether trans women experience more violence in prostitution than cisgender women (Cohan et al., 2006) or vice versa (Valera, 2000). In addition to the general risk for violence prostitution poses, transgender women experience high levels of violence both from clients who intentionally seek out transgender prostitutes and then feel shame about their desires as well as those who thought that the sex worker was a cisgender woman and then feel "deceived" when they realize that the woman is transgender (Lyons et al., 2015;Schilt & Westbrook, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Violence against transgender people is a prevalent but understudied form of gender‐based violence. In recent years, this body of literature has expanded substantially. However, analysis of violence experienced by transgender people has been hampered by a shortage of good data. This article explores those data dilemmas and details what is and is not currently known about violence against transgender people in the United States. National surveys with sample sizes large enough to facilitate comparisons between transgender and cisgender respondents as well as attend to diversity with the category of transgender tend to not ask questions that count transgender respondents. Moreover, when they do, surveys often do not follow established best practices. Additionally, qualitative research on this topic is underfunded, resulting in small sample sizes with similar constraints. Therefore, although there is increased knowledge around rates of violence for transgender versus cisgender people, differences in risk related to gender and race, and intimate partner and sexual violence, this knowledge is flawed and does not cover the range of violence that transgender people experience. To better address this topic, data collection and analysis must be improved and scholars should attend to ways to prevent violence against transgender people.
... Experiences prior to, and outside of the context of selling sex likely contribute to PTSD among women who sell sex. Childhood sexual abuse (Choi et al., 2009;Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000), childhood physical abuse (Valera et al., 2000), childhood emotional abuse (Daalder, Bogaerts, & Bijleveld, 2013), childhood neglect (Roxburgh, Degenhardt, & Copeland, 2006), and adult sexual assault (Roxburgh et al., 2006) have all been associated with PTSD among women who sell sex. As detailed in Chapters 2 and 3, women who sell sex tend to have experienced more abuse and violence in both childhood and adulthood than those in the general population, offering one explanation for the higher prevalence of PTSD among those who sell sex. ...
... Experiences prior to, and outside of the context of selling sex likely contribute to PTSD among women who sell sex. Childhood sexual abuse (Choi et al., 2009;Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000), childhood physical abuse (Valera et al., 2000), childhood emotional abuse (Daalder, Bogaerts, & Bijleveld, 2013), childhood neglect (Roxburgh, Degenhardt, & Copeland, 2006), and adult sexual assault (Roxburgh et al., 2006) have all been associated with PTSD among women who sell sex. As detailed in Chapters 2 and 3, women who sell sex tend to have experienced more abuse and violence in both childhood and adulthood than those in the general population, offering one explanation for the higher prevalence of PTSD among those who sell sex. ...
Chapter
This book reviews empirical literature on a number of psychological concepts related to selling sex. The goals of the book and the boundaries of what is included can be found in Chap. 1. In brief, this book focuses on private, in-person, consensual sex acts exchanged between a cisgender woman and a paying customer. Research on men, minors, and victims of sex trafficking are deliberately excluded, unless otherwise noted. The review favors peer-reviewed sources of research and is most inclusive of comparative studies. Qualitative findings are used illustratively. There tends to be a social perception that selling sex is associated with mental health problems, but is this true or a myth? Does it depend on which mental health characteristics are considered? Does it change based on the setting or context of selling sex? Chapter 4 explores when, how, and to what extent mental health symptoms are associated with selling sex. We start by considering studies that have examined general or combined indicators of mental health, and then explore findings per mental health condition, including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, suicidality, dissociative disorders, somatic symptom disorder, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders.
... 41). Other U.S. based studies assessing for violence in commercial sex recruited more racially diverse samples and found higher rates of violence (Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000;Cohan et al., 2006). Although not a main goal of the study, we aimed to recruit, an ethnically diverse sample of participants to examine if rates of violence were higher and more severe compared to studies that were homogenous in terms of participant race and ethnicity. ...
... Finally, while not a main goal of this study, we obtained a racially diverse sample of men and found higher and more severe reported rates of violence compared to studies that found lower rates of violence between MCS and their clients (Allman & Myers, 1999;Farley and Barkan, 1998;Jamel, 2011;Minichiello et al., 1999;Weinberg et al., 1999;West & de Villiers, 1992). In general, reported rates of violence are higher and more severe when we survey ethnically and racially diverse men about experiences of violence (see Cohan et al., 2006;Valera et al., 2000 for further examples). We believe that the men in this study were at high-risk for experiencing violence from additive marginalizing vulnerabilities like poverty, racial or ethnic minority, sexual minority, or a combination of these dynamics (Farley, 2005). ...
... 41). Other U.S.-based studies assessing for violence in commercial sex recruited more racially diverse samples and found higher rates of violence (Valera, Sawyer, & Schiraldi, 2000;Cohan et al., 2006). Although not a main goal of the study, we aimed to recruit an ethnically diverse sample of participants to examine whether rates of violence were higher and more severe compared with studies that were homogenous in terms of participant race and ethnicity. ...
... Finally, although not a main goal of this study, we obtained a racially diverse sample of men and found higher and more severe reported rates of violence compared to studies that found lower rates of violence between MCS and their clients (Allman et al., 1999;Farley et al., 1998;Jamel, 2011;Minichiello et al., 1999;Weinberg et al., 1999;West et al., 1992). In general, reported rates of violence are higher and more severe when we survey ethnically and racially diverse men about experiences of violence (see Cohan et al., 2006;Valera et al., 2000 for further examples). We believe that the men in this study were at high risk for experiencing violence from additive marginalizing vulnerabilities like poverty, racial or ethnic minority, sexual minority, or a combination of these dynamics (Farley, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on violence against men in commercial sex (MCS) has not used detailed assessments nor recruited from high-risk pools, potentially overlooking the violence that some men may experience from sex clients. Accordingly, we intentionally sought a high-risk sample of MCS to examine the experience of violence using a detailed narrative and self-report questionnaire. To obtain a high-risk pool of men, we recruited 188 participants from an urban harm-reduction center, 76 of whom had engaged in commercial sex with male clients. Data collection was completed in 2011. Narratives of violence were thematically coded to identify the severity of violence and actions to exit violence. A self-report measure was used to identify the type and number of violent actions against MCS and actions following the violent incident, including whether the violence was reported to law enforcement. Almost half of the participants (42%; n = 29) reported a time during commercial sex in which they thought they might be badly hurt, and 26.1% (n = 18) reported a time they thought they might be killed. Participants coped by self-medicating with drugs, alcohol, and continued commercial sex. Despite severe violence, only 1 participant called the police. Implications for methodological challenges such as recruitment location and assessment of violence with this population are discussed.
... Hayat kadınları, sağlıksız koşullarda yaşayarak, sözel ve fiziksel şiddete maruz kalmakta, cinsel saldırıya uğramakta, can güvenliklerinin bile olmadığı ortamda hem yaşamak hem de çalışmak zorunda bırakılmaktadırlar (13)(14)(15)(16)(17) . Yaptıkları iş nedeniyle ayrımcılığa uğrayıp, toplum dışına itilmekte, cinsel yolla bulaşan hastalıkların kaynağı oldukları düşünülerek suçlanmaktadırlar (3,18,19) . ...
... TGSW are highly vulnerable to victimization. The prevalence of physical assault is 65%; the most common perpetrators are their sex work clients [22]. Furthermore, TGW are often rejected by their family members [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the associations between minority stressors, poor mental health, and sexual risk behaviors, and whether there were interactive effects of minority stress and mental health factors in their associations with sexual risk behaviors in a sample of Chinese transgender women sex workers (TGSW). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 204 TGSW in Shenyang, China (mean age 33.4 years and 18.1% self-reported as HIV positive). We found a high prevalence of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with male clients (27.9%) and CAI with male regular partners (49.5%) in the past three months among TGSW. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that discrimination, victimization, and life dissatisfaction were significantly associated with higher odds of CAI with male clients (AOR range: 1.05–1.42, all p < 0.05). Likewise, CAI with male regular partners was more frequently reported by participants who experienced higher levels of victimization, rejection, and anxiety (AOR range: 1.37–2.88, all p < 0.05). No significant interaction effects of gender minority stress and mental health on sexual behaviors were observed. Interventions addressing the multiple psychosocial risks are warranted to prevent behavioral risks of TGSW.
... ]," while another respondent described how women were then mutilated and butchered by clients (Sausa et al., 2007, p. 774). Likewise, Valera, Sawyer, and Schiraldi (2000) reported that among sex workers who were trans women in Washington, DC, the majority (65%) experienced assault, mostly perpetuated by their clients. The brutalization of transgender women who engage in sex work at the hands of clients, as well as the lack of criminal justice intervention on behalf of these women, underscores beliefs that transgender women are "easy game to be sexually exploited" and suggests the disposability of transgender women (Ganju & Saggurti, 2017, p. 910). ...
Article
Full-text available
Specific examples of transgender people misgendered and misidentified in media have been well-documented; however, little work explores how media depicts the murder of transgender people. The current work examines media coverage of the 23 transgender women of color murdered in 2016. Utilizing content analysis, we identified five themes including the brutality of these murders, the trivialization of the murders, misgendering the victims, the emotional toll on significant others, and resiliency among the transgender community. In general, media reports of deaths of transgender women of color in 2016 reveal the saliency of stigmatization. Did these lives matter?
... A number of authors have documented and analyzed the sexual and physical violence which is the normative experience for women in prostitution, including Baldwin (1993Baldwin ( , 1999, Barry (1979Barry ( , 1995, Boyer, Chapman & Marshall (1993), Chesler (1993), Dworkin (1981, Farley, Baral, Kiremire & Sezgin(1998), Giobbe (1991Giobbe ( , 1993, Hoigard & Finstad (1986), Hughes (1999), Hunter (1994), Jeffreys, (1997, Karim, Karim, Soldan & Zondi (1995), Leidholdt (1993), MacKinnon (1993, McKeganey & Barnard (1996), Miller (1995, Raymond (1998), Silbert & Pines (1982a, 1982b, Silbert, Pines & Lynch, 1982), Valera (1999), Vanwesenbeeck (1994),and Weisberg (1985). Silbert & Pines (1981, 1982b reported that 70% of women suffered rape in prostitution, with 65% having been physically assaulted by customers, and 66% assaulted by pimps. ...
Article
Full-text available
The harm of prostitution is socially invisible, and it is also invisible in the law, in public health, and in psychology. This article addresses origins of this invisibility, how words in current usage promote the invisibility of prostitution's harm, and how public health perspectives and psychological theory tend to ignore the harm done by men to women in prostitution. Literature which documents the overwhelming physical and psychological harm to those in prostitution is summarized here. The interconnectedness of racism, colonialism, and child sexual assault with prostitution is discussed.
... Acts of violence may include being threatened or attacked with a weapon, verbal abuse, physical assault, torture, rape (multiple times), gang rape, abduction, being robbed, and even murder (Church et al., 2001;Farley et al., 2003;Gupta et al., 2009;Panchanadeswaran et al., 2010;Raphael & Shapiro, 2004). Perpetrators of violence include traffickers/pimps, intimate partners, customers, and strangers Valera et al., 2000;Williamson, 2005). The mortality rate for women in prostitution is 40 times the national average (in the U.S.), and observers (e.g., Williamson, 2005) suggest that it is unlikely that any other occupation or lifestyle exposes women to violence as consistently as does the sex industry. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research explores how women exit the sex industry across different cultures - US and India, the challenges encountered, needs and services offered by agencies.
Chapter
In this chapter we will address transgenderism and mental health from a non-pathologizing perspective. First of all we will explain the reasons why we understand transphobia as a gender-based violence. Later on we will expose some of the competences that we think that mental health professionals attending trans people should have in the process of change from a diagnosing perspective to providing a non-pathologizing support via acquiring cultural competence in transgenderism and developing an intersectional perspective on their work.
Article
Interpretive phenomenology was used to analyze interviews with 14 women who were recruited from a Midwestern program that provides prostitution-specific services. The participants described day-to-day experiences living with labeling, violence, and discrimination that were directed at them because of their involvement in prostitution and substance use. They also discussed their perceptions of being altered permanently by their activities as well as the ways in which they resist internalizing the negative messages that were directed at them. In this article, the construct of stigma is used to characterize these experiences. This article details the women’s experience of living with stigma and presents implications for direct practice and policy.
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This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority.
Article
This study examines drug use and dependence and associated risks among female street-based sex workers. Cross-sectional data collected from 72 women between April and August 2005 in Sydney, Australia, via face-to-face interviews. The average age was 34 years. Risk factors associated with developing problematic drug use were prevalent. Child sexual abuse, leaving home before the age of 16, and exposure to multiple traumas was common. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were also prevalent. A substantial minority reported cocaine dependence which was associated with engaging in sex and injecting risk behaviors. More targeted interventions for this group are needed. Research on the value of extending existing outreach services to further reduce the harms associated with sex work and drug use is indicated. The study's limitations are noted.
Chapter
Transgender persons are those who live full-time or part-time in the gender role of the opposite biologic sex (Lawrence et al., 1996). Transgender persons share the same health concerns as nontransgender persons; as members of a minority group characterized by complex identities and often by visibly gender-variant social presentations, transgender persons also have special health concerns related to the delivery of health services in a manner that recognizes and takes account of their identities and presentations (see Chapter 26).
Article
This study focuses on sexual assault from a criminal event perspective, using case files to examine why elements of a crime emerge. Beyond how elements of a crime converge, as proposed by routine activities theory, statements extracted from police files shed light on the precursors to the criminal transaction and contextual elements, allowing insight into questions such as: Why are the offenders motivated? Why are the victims vulnerable? And, why are guardians absent? Results show that actors bring with them unique sets of circumstances that influence the progression of the sexual assault event. Alcohol and/or drugs, broken relationships, and anger were common factors.
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Presented results in this article are based on research 94 women involved in prostitution in their lives. They relate specificity and the correlations between moral crisis, adaptation and self-efficacy. The analysis found, that women involved in prostitution in the first year of its activity experiencing the most difficulties associated with moral valuation. Compared to them, being a prostitute any longer than seven years a statistically significant less often experience such difficulties. In addition, it was found interesting correlates about the relationship with a moral crisis, adjustment and a sense of personal self-efficacy. Failed to establish a relationship between the presence of parents in the process of growing up and the fact of experiencing difficulties in moral crisis women involved in prostitution. Prezentowane w tym artykule wyniki opierają się na badaniach 94 kobiet zajmujących się w swoim życiu prostytucją. Ujmują one specyfikę oraz związki kryzysu wartościowania z przystosowaniem osobistym oraz poczuciem własnej skuteczności. W wyniku przeprowadzonych analiz okazało się, że kobiety zajmujące się prostytucją w pierwszym roku swojej działalności doświadczają największych trudności związanych z wartościowaniem. W porównaniu do nich osoby prostytuujące się dłużej niż 7 lat istotnie rzadziej doświadczają tego typu trudności. Dodatkowo stwierdzono ciekawe korelaty dotyczące związków kryzysu wartościowania z poczuciem przystosowania osobistego oraz poczuciem własnej skuteczności. Nie ustalono związków pomiędzy strukturą rodzin pochodzenia, a faktem doznawania trudności w wartościowaniu u kobiet zajmujących się nierządem.
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Transgender people seek social services for a variety of reasons. This literature review highlights needs assessments and social science research articles (N = 30) from the last 16 years that demonstrate the many ways in which social services are further revictimizing transgender people. Studies indicate that transgender people often encounter ignorance, hostility, and transphobic environments while attempting to access social services, and these environments can dissuade transgender people from gaining needed care. Suggestions are made to address these inequalities and include simple measures that social service agencies can begin with to make their services more transinclusive. Future research should address the bias in social services more directly and also develop a clear plan of action and best practices to help agencies remove discrimination from social service settings.
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Objectives: We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods: We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004-2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results: We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions: Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse.
Article
The purpose of this article is to highlight the experiences of transgender people within the criminal justice system as both victims and offenders. We contend that queer criminology is both needed and can assist in exploring the experiences of this unique population who face discrimination within the US criminal justice system and who are often ignored within criminological research. The article will provide an overview of transgender people’s general experiences within the criminal justice system and explore influences of cultural stereotypes about transgender people by examining the cases of three transgender victims of violence—Brandon Teena, Gwen Araujo, and Cece McDonald. This article highlights the importance of concepts such as sex, gender, transpanic, transphobia, victim-blaming, and the responses by key players in the criminal justice system (police, courts, and corrections) to transgender victims and offenders.
Article
Sex workers are recognized to be potentially vulnerable to violence and abuse. However, the extent and nature of violence committed against male sex workers remains under reported. The aim of this evidence scoping review was to identify the prevalence of violence against male sex workers globally. A systematic search was conducted of 8 databases from 1990 to the end of December 2016. In total, quantitative data from 27 studies conducted in 18 countries were included in the review. Evidence indicates that some male sex workers, especially those in non-Western countries, do experience high levels of violence. The largest proportion of studies reported data on sexual violence, whilst the most common type of violence experienced overall by male sex workers was that of ‘verbal or emotional abuse or threats’. The views and experiences of male sex workers should be integrated fully into sex work debates, policy and service provision.
Chapter
Prostitution is defined as the act of engaging in sex for money. But it is hardly that simple. “Sex workers”—a current term for those who sell sex for money—their clients, their managers, and their procurers offer up a microcosm of the human condition imbued with a wide range of sexual behaviors, financial arrangements, criminal behavior, satisfactions, dissatisfactions, abuses, and exploitations. Attempts to eliminate or control sex for pay date back at least 2,000 years. Still, prostitution continues to flourish over much of the world and recent reports suggest that both the number of prostitutes and the number of clients are increasing. This chapter asks the question, “Does looking at prostitution from an evolutionary perspective lead to insights about its causes, its longevity, and the seeming inability to control or eradicate it?”
Article
This article examines factors that relate to psychological health (as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument) as well as suicide attempts among female street sex workers (FSSWs) in Hong Kong. On average, our sampled FSSWs scored significantly lower on the psychological health domain in comparison to the general Hong Kong female population. Factors associated with the working environment in the sex industry were significantly associated with poor psychological health and suicidality. Greater attention is needed to examine the physical and emotional harm intrinsic to certain occupations and the role of financial needs in the experience of psychological stress.
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