Article

Effect of hydration state on heart rate-based estimates of VO 2max

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Abstract

Submaximal tests of aerobic fitness typically extrapolate oxygen consumption from heart rate. Because heart rate is influenced by hydration level, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of hydration status on the VO2max scores predicted by a submaximal cycle ergometry assessment. Fifteen male cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy took the heart rate-based USAF submaximal cycle ergometry fitness test twice over a 3-day period, once following a 12-hour fluidrestriction period (the dehydrated trial) and once following a hydration protocol in which the subjects drank a volume of water equivalent to 2% body weight 10 hours before the test and an additional volume equivalent to 1% body weight at least 30 minutes before the test (the hydrated trial). Prior to testing, subjects were weighed and a urine sample was collected. The urine specific gravity (USG) was measured using a refractometer. Our results indicated that, during the dehydrated trial, subjects' USG was significantly higher and their weight and VO2max scores were significantly lower than during the hydrated trial. The change in the VO 2max score was significantly correlated to the change in percent body weight between the two trials. These data suggest that hydration status affects heart rate-based, submaximal estimates of VO2max.

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... According to Heyward (2006) norms, our athlete belongs to the Superior category (VO2max> 55ml/kg/min). Southard and Pugh (2004) emphasize the importance of monitoring the athlete's hydration status whenever pulse data are used to assess aerobic capacity, while Rexhepi & Brestovci (2014) suggest that variables of age, body weight, and resting heart rate may slightly predict athlete endurance. According to Joyner and Coyle (2008) the aerobic component of the energy system becomes a key element for good performance in long-distance racing. ...
... According to the valid norms of B&H, the athlete belongs to the Superior category because VO2max is>55ml/kg/min, which was confirmed in an earlier research (Pavlović, Mihajlović, Radulović, & Gutić, 2021). The importance of monitoring the state of hydration of the organism and the replenishment of essential electrolytes also contributes to the distribution of the results of current measurements, especially body composition, which is in line with the findings of the study by Southard and Pugh (2004). According to Joyner and Coyle (2008) the aerobic component of the energy system with body composition and appropriate morphological profile is a key element for good performance in long distance races. ...
... It is also to be considered that the change in heart rate depends on a number of influencing factors. Besides the purely motor activity, the hydration status [36], music [37] or mental load [38] for example, have an effect on the heart rate. Since such parameters were not explicitly recorded, the heart rate as the sole parameter is at least to be interpreted with caution when assessing cardiovascular load, as already worded by Wyon (2009) [39]. ...
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... Oxygen consumption has also been estimated using heart rate, where lower resting heart rate values among well-trained athletes is generally treated as an indicator of higher aerobic performance, thereby signifying higher oxygen consumption rates, higher efficiency in sport, and the ability to perform more physical activity before reaching exhaustion. Southard and Pugh [15] stressed the importance of monitoring hydration status whenever heart rate data are used in an assessment of aerobic fitness. Additionally, even though a decline in VO 2 max has been found with age in an endurancetrained population, Fitzgerald et al. [16] did not establish a significant relationship between a decline in aerobic performances and a decline of maximal heart rate. ...
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... The most commonly used approach of submaximal workload testing has been based on predicting VO 2 max by the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption [11,16]. According to the American College of Sports Medicine [17], the physiological rationale for this type of predictive method is due to the linear relationship between workload, oxygen consumption and submaximal exercise heart rates [18]. ...
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... Oxygen consumption has also been estimated using heart rate, where lower resting heart rate values among well-trained athletes is generally treated as an indicator of higher aerobic performance, thereby signifying higher oxygen consumption rates, higher efficiency in sport, and the ability to perform more physical activity before reaching exhaustion. Southard and Pugh [15] stressed the importance of monitoring hydration status whenever heart rate data are used in an assessment of aerobic fitness. Additionally, even though a decline in VO 2 max has been found with age in an endurancetrained population, Fitzgerald et al. [16] did not establish a significant relationship between a decline in aerobic performances and a decline of maximal heart rate. ...
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Full-text available
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... As individuals become dehydrated this puts further strain on the cardiovascular system due to an increase in heart rate, diminished plasma volume, stroke volume and cardiac *Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Health and Science, Medical and Sports Sciences, University of Cumbria Bowerharm Road, Lancaster, LA1, UK; Tel: +44 1524 590839; Fax: +44 1524 384385; E-mail: susan.dewhurst@cumbria.ac.uk output, reducing venous return and cardiac filling during both exercise and rest [7][8][9]. Furthermore, dehydration inhibits thermoregulatory control due to alterations in sweat rate and blood flow. As both are critical to heat dissipation, a consequential rise in core body temperature occurs. ...
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