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Conversational and academic language proficiency in bilingual contexts

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... To dismantle the persistent deficit views of language development, in this article we explore selective literature in three topics-the word gap, academic language, and translanguaging-and offer our perspectives as researchers in education and developmental psychology regarding their role in both the construction of deficit discourses and the potential to dismantle such discourses. To be clear, the purpose of this paper is not to provide comprehensive reviews of each topic, which are available elsewhere (e.g., Cummins, 2000;DiCerbo et al., 2014;Poza, 2017), but to connect these three topics to elucidate why the deficit views have remained so powerful and to offer suggestions on how to move past this limiting framework. The cited work was chosen to highlight some gaps in the deficit views and to illustrate how the three topics may converge to support the alternative assets-based views. ...
... Another idea that has had considerable purchase, particularly in educational research and practice, is the notion that elementary and secondary students from certain linguistic backgrounds are in need of special instruction in "academic language" because their current language practices deviate from those that some consider essential for academic success. This argument, using different terms (e.g., academic English and the language of schooling) and different constructs, has been advanced by psychologists, linguists, literacy scholars, and educational researchers (see Cummins, 2000;DiCerbo et al., 2014;Jensen and Thompson, 2020). Tellingly, dosages of "academic language" instruction are most often prescribed for (a) speakers of languages other than the main language of instruction in schools (e.g., "English Learners" in United States schools) and (b) speakers of non-dominant varieties of that same language of instruction (e.g., speakers of what linguists and educators have referred to as African American Vernacular English, Black English, or Black Language). ...
... To be clear, the concept of academic language has been championed by scholars committed to addressing educational inequity. For example, Cummins (1981Cummins ( , 2000, an educational psychologist whose commitment to improving education for linguistically minoritized populations is undisputed, proposed the controversial but still-influential distinction between "basic interpersonal communication skills" (BICS) and "cognitive academic language proficiency" (CALP) out of concern that students from minority language backgrounds were being transitioned out of bilingual support programs too quickly or identified as having learning disabilities. Cummins (2000) argued that students' relatively rapid development of BICS in English masked their lack of competence in the more cognitively demanding and "decontextualized" CALP. ...
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Despite decades of efforts, deficit narratives regarding language development and use by children and students from historically marginalized backgrounds remain persistent in the United States. Examining selective literature, we discuss the ideologies that undergird two deficit narratives: the notion that some children have a “word gap” when compared to their White middle-class peers, and students must develop “academic language” to engage in rigorous content learning. The “word gap” concept came from a study wherein a group of young children in low-income families heard fewer words than those in middle-class families. It assumes that language can only be acquired in one way—vocabulary exchange from one parent to one child—and ignores decades of research on diverse pathways for language development. We highlight an alternative perspective that language development builds on children’s experience with cultural practices and the harm on minoritized children by privileging a specific form of vocabulary acquisition. The second deficit narrative concerns “academic language,” a concept championed by scholars aiming to address educational inequity. The construct runs the risk of undervaluing the potential of students from historically marginalized backgrounds to engage in learning using language that is “informal,” nonconventional, or “non-native like.” It also is sometimes used as a rationale to relegate students to special programs isolated from more rigorous academic discourse, thus ironically removing them from opportunities to develop the academic registers they are deemed to be missing. We explore alternative frameworks that shift the focus from linguistic features of academic talk and texts as prerequisites for academic work to the broad range of linguistic resources that students employ for academic purposes in the classroom. Finally, we turn to a positive approach to youths’ language development and use: translanguaging by multilingual learners and their teachers. Translanguaging demonstrates the power of a resource-oriented perspective that values students’ rich communicative repertoires and actively seeks to disrupt language hierarchies. We argue that this approach, however, must be considered in relation to the broader social context to meet its transformative aims. Together, our analysis suggests counter-possibilities to dismantle deficit-oriented narratives and points to promising directions for research and practices to reduce inequity in education.
... Über die mit der Beschulung in einem sprachlich anderen Schulsystem als der Erstsprache(n) eines Kindes verbundenen Herausforderungen sowie deren Wechselwirkungen auf die sprachliche und kognitive Entwicklung aus pädagogischer Sicht liegen zahlreiche Erkenntnisse v. a. aus dem angloamerikanischen Raum vor (Baker 2011;Cummins 1977Cummins , 1984Cummins , 1991Cummins , 2000. Die Sprachen eines mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindes entwickeln sich nicht isoliert oder unabhängig voneinander -sie bedingen und beeinflussen einander. ...
... Gesunde mehrsprachige Personen können die mittels einer Sprache erworbenen Kompetenzen in eine andere Sprache übertragen. (Cummins 1991(Cummins , 2000: Die in einer Sprache erworbenen Kompetenzen sind auch in der anderen Sprache zugänglich. ...
... Dazu erleichtern u. a. Gestik, Mimik und Suprasegmentalia (Tab. 1) das Verständnis der in einem konkreten Kontext gehörten, mündlich ausgedrückten Sprache. Diese im zwischenmenschlichen Kontakt erworbenen Kommunikationsfähigkeiten bezeichnet Cummins (1984Cummins ( , 1991 als Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS). Diese weniger anspruchsvolle Form von Sprache unterscheidet sich selbst bei Erwachsenen sehr stark von dem sprachlichen Ausdruck, der in der Schule gefordert ist. ...
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2., überarbeitete Auflage! Mit Sprache entdecken, beschreiben und gestalten Kinder ihre Umgebung. Wie die Sprache ein- und mehrsprachiger Kinder von der Geburt bis zu 9 Jahren gefördert werden kann, zeigt dieser praxiserprobte Leitfaden. Der kompetenzorientierte und kultursensible Sprachförderansatz „MehrSprachInterAktion“ beinhaltet nicht nur grammatische Förderbereiche, sondern auch Sprachverständnis, Wortbedeutung, Kommunikation u. a. Das Buch enthält: fundierte Informationen über die Meilensteine der ein- und besonders der mehrsprachigen Entwicklung; zu den jeweiligen Entwicklungsschritten passende Strategien; praktische Ansätze und Spielideen für die Sprachförderung; Hinweise für geeignete Materialien. Ein hilfreicher Begleiter für ErzieherInnen und LehrerInnen, die mit ein- und mehrsprachigen Kindern arbeiten!
... Namely, the fact that the majority of the monolingual speakers of English were able to translate a number of words from an unknown language correctly suggests that speakers of two or more languages, including English, should be able to obtain similar if not superior results with respect to translation accuracy based on similarity relations. This assumption was based on findings in SLA and TLA research, indicating that foreign language learning experience provides bilingual and multilingual learners with the cognitive flexibility that is needed to perform a perpetual search across their languages in order to meet the demands of the given linguistic environment (Cook, 2002; Cummins, 1991; Jessner, 2006). We extracted a number of word pairs displaying roughly the same characteristics as those extracted from the cognate list in as far as they were closely related and thus resembled their English counterparts both orthographically and phonologically. ...
... In short, learners get used to focusing their attention on structural features of language in general. In line with the above discussed notions of common underlying proficiency (CUP) (Cummins, 1991Cummins, , 2005), multicompetence (Cook, 1992Cook, , 2002Cook, , 2007) as well as multilingual proficiency (Herdina & Jessner, 2002; Jessner, 2006 Jessner, , 2008a), our observations suggest that this capacity develops with the multiplication and complexification of the learning events learners engage in. Moreover, our interpretation of the reciprocal relationship between the two dimensions of MLA is consistent with findings on literacy development (Durgunoğlu, 2002; Rauch et al., 2012; Schwartz et al., 2007), which suggest that the positive impact of literacy skills in a given source language (L1, L2, Lx…) on a variety of literacy-based activities in an additional language can best be explained in terms of strategy transfer. ...
Thesis
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Doctoral dissertation Thèse présentée à la Faculté des études supérieures et postdoctorales en vue de l'obtention du grade de Philosophiae doctor (Ph.D) en linguistique/didactique des langues DEPARTEMENT DE LANGUES, ABSTRACT It has been posited that experienced language learners develop higher levels of metalinguistic awareness (MLA), which, in turn, appears to facilitate the acquisition of subsequent languages (e.g., Singleton & Aronin, 2007). Moreover, researchers in the field of Third Language Acquisition (TLA) emphasize the positive influences of previously acquired languages in foreign language classrooms (e.g., Cenoz & Gorter, 2015), in contrast to the traditional focus on interference-based learner errors in the study of language transfer. Typological similarity and source language proficiency are known to influence transfer processes of any kind (e.g., Ringbom, 1987, 2007). However, it remains a methodological challenge both to identify the felicitous use of a target language feature as an effect of cross-linguistic influence (e.g., Falk & Bardel, 2010) and to clearly determine the role of MLA for the conscious activation of related words or constructions across languages. The present study aimed at meeting this double challenge by using think-aloud protocols (TAPs) to investigate positive lexical transfer from English (L2) to German (L3) by French-speaking Quebeckers (N = 66) after five weeks of formal L3 instruction. Participants completed a translation task consisting of 42 items selected on the basis of similarity and imageability ratings as well as word frequencies (Friel & Kennison, 2001). Participants were asked to think aloud while attempting to translate these largely unknown words from German (L3) into French (L1). Positive transfer was operationalized by correct translations that were related to an English cognate. Levels of MLA were measured by means of the THAM (Test d'habiletés métalinguistiques) (Pinto & El Euch, 2015) and complemented by the analysis of the TAPs. Proficiency levels in English were established by means of the Michigan Test (Corrigan et al., 1979), whereas exposure to the different languages as well as interest in the German language and culture were addressed in a background questionnaire.
... I n the 1980s, researchers, looking at L2 immersion classes where English-speaking students learned school subjects in French first noticed that even after years of schooling in the L2, learners' skills in French in certain areas (e.g., subject-specific writing or speaking) were still lower than those of their L1 French-speaking classmates (Swain & Johnson, 1997). To explain this phenomenon and find ways to help learners develop their content-related skills in the L2, Cummins (1991) suggested two key dimensions of language proficiency, independently of whether it is in the L2 or L1. The first dimension, Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS), usually comes into play in highly contextualised, everyday informal interactions which give participants many contextual clues to interpret what is being done and said. ...
... CALP, however, might take students many years to understand and use. According to Cummins (1991), this process can take a span of up to seven-eight years and therefore requires teachers' explicit and continuous support and guidance. ...
Article
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This article provides a comprehensive overview of the key aspects of classroom interaction in L2 and CLIL contexts and its effects on students’ academic and language development in such educational settings. It also aims to raise awareness of the role of language and discourse in teaching content and language in CLIL classrooms. More specifically, it discusses how teachers can efficiently enact Classroom Interactional Competence (CIC) which is a range of interactional strategies adjusted to the classroom micro-context and which are essential for the correct development of the teaching-learning process. The article presents how teachers can use classroom interaction to guide students in better understanding of subject-specific content, foster the development of students’ communicative competence in a foreign language and the integrated learning of content and language as well as promote a more active students’ participation in content-rich contexts. Last but not the least, the article discusses the role of the teacher in providing emotional support in the classroom and creating a safe environment where students can develop a positive self-image through their interactions both with the teacher and the peers. Full text available at: https://revistes.uab.cat/clil/article/view/v1-n1-evnitskaya/pdf_10
... Research on immersion programmes in Canada in which Englishspeaking learners studied school subjects in French has shown that despite a considerable amount of years of schooling in such programmes, learners' gains in L2 French in certain areas (e.g., grammatical accuracy, subject-specific academic writing and speaking) were still notably lower than those of their L1 French-speaking classmates (e.g., Swain & Lapkin, 2005). Cummins (1991) explained this phenomenon with a twodimensional conceptualisation of language proficiency, applicable to both learners' L2 and L1. His model has subsequently been used to help teachers develop learners' subject-specific academic skills in the L2. ...
... We can therefore say that CALP forms an essential part of students' literacy skills in school contexts. Cummins (1991) also argues that in immersion and content-based contexts, learners acquire BICS in the target language rather quickly and can become fluent in using everyday L2 within a year or two, or even earlier. However, achieving the level of CALP necessary for the understanding and production of school academic texts might take L2 learners up to seven or eight years. ...
Chapter
In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) contexts, the quality of learning academic content through the L2 and the effect it might have on the development of students’ academic language competence (both in the L2 and L1) are among the key concerns of the different stakeholders involved. To address this issue, this study adopts Dalton-Puffer’s (A construct of cognitive discourse functions for conceptualising content-language integration in CLIL and multilingual education. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 216–253, 2013) theoretical construct of cognitive discourse functions (CDFs) to examine teachers’ use of subject-specific academic language, and more specifically teachers’ classification practices, in CLIL classrooms in Spain. The construct of CDFs combines linguistic and educational approaches to academic language and ‘links subject-specific cognitive learning goals with the linguistic representations they receive in classroom interaction’ (Dalton-Puffer, Cognitive discourse functions: Specifying and integrative interdisciplinary construct. In T. Nikula, E. Dafouz, P. Moore, & U. Smit (Eds.), Conceptualising Integration in CLIL and Multilingual Education (pp. 29–54). Bristol and Buffalo and Toronto: Multilingual Matters, 2016, p. 30). Classifying is essential for knowledge construction in any school discipline as they help learners move from specific to abstract (Mohan, Language and Content. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1986). However, empirical research on how CDFs are realised in CLIL classroom interaction is still in its beginnings. This chapter contributes to the on-going research by examining in detail one CLIL science teacher’s classifying practices when constructing scientific knowledge, from a multimodal conversation-analytic perspective (Jefferson, Glossary of Transcript Symbols with an Introduction. Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Retrieved from http://www.liso.ucsb.edu/liso_archives/Jefferson/Transcript.pdf, 2004; Mondada, Conventions for Multimodal Transcription. Basel: Romanisches Seminar der Universität, 2014).
... Everyday language elements are sometimes necessary for pupils to build upon to create more professional meaning (Cummins 1991;Rincke 2010). School language is a didactically shaped register that includes demands and expectation of language performances by teachers. ...
Article
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The current migration and refugee flows and increasing linguistic heterogeneity change geography teaching not only in German classrooms. It is a change towards language-aware geography teaching that supports language learners and native speakers alike. We assessed the question how teaching strategies in bilingual geography classes could help developing language-aware geography education. We interviewed 16 bilingual geography teachers in secondary schools over the course of six months about their teaching strategies. These strategies are supposed to support students linguistically in geography and are reflected regarding their use for (monolingual) classrooms. In this article we present four practical areas with specific suggestions of how to teach with language awareness in geography.
... This spatial distribution of people and resources discourages more pluralist forms of education (Cummins, 1991;Hébert, 1990). Though well-funded French immersion programs are fairly common in Canada, immersion programs for EAP students are often missing, even though experts recommend cognitive, academic, and strategic language teaching and learning that build multilingual and intercultural skills (Guo & Hébert, 2014, pp.181-182). ...
Article
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This paper outlines the learning opportunities that emerged when international students acquiring English for Academic Purposes joined Canadian undergraduates fluent in English for an Introduction to Women’s and Gender Studies. Critical reflections provided by students, course facilitators, and the graduate student researcher were gathered through surveys, interviews, and focus groups that examined experiences of academic internationalization in feminist and language acquisition classrooms, co-designed to engage difference as a valuable resource in community and knowledge-building. Results included development of mutual mentoring relationships across a wide range of educational and cultural backgrounds; honing of international students’ English-language skills through structured, intentional learning opportunities with others fluent in English; deepening awareness of non-western and Indigenous contexts as sites of critical knowledge production; and evidence that international and local newcomers to university campuses have much to offer one another. For everyone involved, there were opportunities to reflect critically on both subject matter and pedagogies of community building; use accessible language to build connections; interrogate knowledge claims emerging from the many contexts that instructors and students brought with them into learning conversations; and practice collaborative knowledge-building by probing the effects of local and global power systems in the learning pathways of students, instructors and institutions.
... Content-specific language (concepts) is necessary for content learning (CALP, Cummins, 1991). Scaffolding (Bruner, 1990) is used to add support (context) to conceptual, context-free objects of learning. ...
... Lungo il percorso lo studente costruisce per gradi la competenza linguistica necessaria. Lo stesso principio di gradualità si trova nella distinzione di Cummins (1991) in riferimento ad attività di apprendimento, ponendo le attività di apprendimento linguistico su un continuum da meno complesso a più complesso in base alla presenza di certe caratteristiche (cfr. figura 1). ...
... How? The linguistic threshold hypothesis proposed by Cummins (1991) and Bossers (1991), and refined by Yamashita (2002) indicates L1 reading ability transfers to L2 reading ability when a certain L2 threshold is satisfied. The linguistic threshold hypothesis seems to empirically work. ...
Conference Paper
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On the L1 transfer to L2, Cummins (1991) proposed two hypotheses regarding linguistic interdependence and threshold. These hypotheses focus on learners' linguistic abilities at a certain point of time; however, not on the development of those abilities during language learning. To address the question, Ikematsu (2016) reported that students' L1 (Japanese) reading ability improved through an essay writing training exercise, and their L2 (English) reading ability concurrently showed more improved when they had both L1 and L2 classes in the same (first) semester than that of the students who had only L2 classes. These results could be interpreted as evidence of the transfer of L1 reading ability to L2 reading ability. However, how such a transfer from L1 to L2 happened was not necessarily clear, but the objective of the class, enhancing logicality through essay writing, might have contributed to the improved L2 reading ability. Here we address the issue by comparing the above results with those from subjects who learned L1 and L2 successively: studying L1 after L2 learning. The L1 class in the present study was aiming to enhance sympathism, not logicality. As a result, L1 reading ability improved regardless of the objectives of the L1 classes. On the contrary, L2 ability also improved after L1 and L2 parallel learning vanished during the second semester, in which the students had neither L1 nor L2 classes. In conclusion, L1 reading ability was shown to improve through L1 training in adults, and this improvement was maintained without subsequent L1 training. On the other hand, L2 was also shown to improve, but only through L1 and L2 parallel learning, and the extra improvement may not be long lasting, thus a "priming" effect of L1 on L2 may be occurring and working as a "seed" on which later L2 learning becomes successful.
... Schüler/innen werden selten aufgefordert, bestimmte Texte in leichtere Texte umzuwandeln oder fachsprachliche Zusammenhänge in der Alltagssprache zu beschreiben. Wygotski (1979) und Rincke (2010) bemerken, dass Fachsprache nicht nur als weiterentwickelte Alltagssprache, wie Cummins (1991) in seiner Th eorie auslegt, anzusehen ist, sondern selbst stückweise unabhängig weiterentwickelt werden kann. Beide Standpunkte betonen, dass die refl ektierte Auseinandersetzung mit Alltagssprache im Bezug zu fachsprachlichen Komponenten Vorteile für das Verständnis der Lernenden bringt. ...
Article
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Aufgrund zunehmender sprachlicher Heterogenität der Schüler/innen wird ein sprachbewusster Geographieunterricht immer notwendiger. Der bilinguale Geographieunterricht könnte dafür Förderstrategien bereithalten. Im Rahmen einer Untersuchung aktueller bilingualer Erdkundeschulbücher soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche sprachlichen Teilkompetenzen bei den Schüler/innen wie gefördert werden. Due to increasing linguistic heterogeneity in geography classrooms, language-aware geography education becomes crucial. An analysis of recently published bilingual geography school books shall assess the question, which language competences are actually supported and how.
... According to research carried out elsewhere (e.g. Collier 1987), full integration into mainstream education typically takes much more than two years because it entails the development of proficiency in academic language (Cummins 1991). Against this tendency, the experience of Scoil Bhríde shows that it is possible to harness pupils' plurilingual capacities and repertoires in order to provide an enriched educational experience for all and -as the examples in section 5 testify -secure high levels of literacy development and language awareness. ...
... But "limited control over the language 'short circuits' the good reader's system, causing him/her to revert to poor reader strategies when confronted with a difficult or confusing task in the second language" (Clarke, 1980: 206) as there are common underlying principles that govern both L1 and L2. The effective use and transfer of L1 skills require a reader to have a certain amount of linguistic competence in L2, which is referred to as the "threshold level of linguistic competence" (Cummins, 1991). This claim prompts researchers to examine the L2 linguistic knowledge of readers; studies confirm that L2 linguistic knowledge helps enhance comprehension and facilitate reading in L2 (Artieda, 2017;Lee & Schallert, 1997). ...
Chapter
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Blending cognitive and socio-constructive pedagogies: building autonomous readers in the ESL classroom Keywords and phrases: reading comprehension, cognitivism, constructivism, socio constructivism, learner autonomy, strategy training Abstract Information age, characterized by ‘large amounts of information… available to many people largely through computer technology’ (Collins English Dictionary); dynamicity of information; and innovations in forms of texts; dictates that success depends on one’s ability to access, comprehend, and make use of information for professional as well as personal success. It is no longer possible for teachers to anticipate skills required to survive the fluidity of information and text forms that we see around us. Educators now realise that autonomy, adaptability, and self-reliance in developing reading competence need to be the focus of the 21 century pedagogy. Working within the cognitive-constructivist domain, this research aimed to investigate the effects of a strategy training programme on developing reading competence in ESL readers. Research in strategy training argues that developing awareness of one’s strategies develops language competence. However, awareness of strategies one uses does not lead to use of alternative strategies to solve comprehension blocks. This researcher, working within the reading domain, argues that a reader has to be also made aware of a wide variety of reading strategies to allow individual choice of additional or alternative strategies to solve comprehension deficits. The extended view of reading as a social process regards the power of distributed cognition available in group interactions as capable of empowering a learner to reach beyond his potential. Drawing support from the socio-constructive learning paradigm, it was hypothesised that interpersonal strategy development opportunities might facilitate intrapersonal strategy development. However, it was also deliberated that for collaboration to have a learning effect, one needs to nurture individual cognitive awareness before collaborative construction. Therefore, basing on the cognitive-socio-constructive learning paradigm, the research from which the paper draws its evidence hypothesises that co-construction of knowledge should be preceded by awareness raising of cognitive processes. Social interaction can yield individual benefits, only if one first allows opportunities for individual construction of knowledge. A strategy training programme was envisaged to test the efficacy of the hypothesis that providing exposure to alternative strategies through a programme that precedes collaborative learning activities with personal cognitive development activities, might encourage learners to achieve independence in reading by giving them opportunities to develop a larger repertoire of individually chosen strategies. Ten adult ESL learners at varying levels of proficiency participated in the study. Texts for reading accompanied by comprehension tasks, think alouds, strategy questionnaires, aids for prompting metacognition, retrospective and introspective interviews, and group think alouds were used to gain access to reader strategies and allow exposure to peer strategies. The study revealed that all learners developed fluency in demonstration and discussion of strategies. The results of the study showed increase in the comprehension performance of all participants and that all of them either adapted or adopted strategies from peers. The two most prominent strategy categories adopted/adapted by all were word meaning decoding strategies and metacognitive strategies. Delayed assessment revealed that translation strategies for understanding word meaning and metacognitive strategies of self-evaluation were the most effectively retained strategies.
... Upon entry into the education system, the conditions for vocabulary development change: For school-aged children, during at least the morning, input in the majority language is predominant, literacy oriented and academic, i.e., Bildungssprache (Cummins, 1991;Gogolin, 2013). It is reasonable to assume that the language use of the medium of instruction positively influences the extension of vocabulary in the school language, and may have positive transfer effects on the other language(s). ...
Chapter
The UN Convention on the Rights of a Child underlines that education should aim to develop the respect of a child for her or his parents, as well as her or his cultural identity, language and values (Art. 29, d). Children who belong to minority groups shall not be denied the use of his or her own language (Art. 30) (UNCRC, 1989). However, which opportunities arise for the acquisition and use of source languages in migration? Is the use of Turkish in Germany still the exception, or has it become normality? As far as the situation in Germany is concerned, linguistic diversity has become a normality and the use of heritage languages for many purposes, in public as well as in private areas, can be observed in numerous situations (Siemund, Gogolin, Schulz, & Davydova, 2013). Nonetheless, educational institutions continue to focus on monolingualism, especially in the classroom. The question that we will address in this chapter regards, to which extend multilingual children use and develop their languages. Do the children use their languages as freely as the UNCR expresses? In this chapter, we will focus on vocabulary, and we will discuss the development in situations of Turkish-German language contact. International research on vocabulary has been conducted in different multilingual contexts (Bialystok, Luk, Peets, & Yang, 2010; Hoff et al., 2012; Pearson, Fernández, & Oller, 1993). With a focus on the first years of life, it has been shown that bilingual children’s vocabulary in bilingual first language acquisition in total is equivalent to monolinguals’ vocabulary (Allman, 2005; Aukrust, 2007; Annick De Houwer, Bornstein, & Putnick, 2014). Studies on different age groups show that multilingual speakers have a lower vocabulary range than monolingual speakers of their languages, in the heritage language as well as in the surrounding language, and that they perform particularly in naming tasks with lower values, although they have an overall equivalent vocabulary (Ben-Zeev, 1977; Rosenblum, & Pinker, 1983; Doyle, Champagne, & Segalowitz, 1978; Umbel, Fernández, & Oller, 1992; Bialystok, Luk, Peets, & Yang, 2010). Socio-economic status, age of onset, input and the environment’s attitudes towards multilingualism have been found to influence vocabulary acquisition. Provided that all these factors represented favourable conditions, bilinguals achieve vocabulary test scores that are equivalent to monolingual’s scores (Hoff et al., 2012; Paradis, Nicoladis, Crago, & Genesee, 2011). However, the studies available to date show very heterogeneous sample compositions. Bilingual children of monolingual parents with different first languages (Ancik De Houwer, 2009) or from parents with a shared language, that is not the majority language, have been tested (Jeuk, 2006); children with different input patterns, tri-lingual probands and bilingual children from families with high SES and bilingual children from families with low SES have been examined (Erfurt & Amelina, 2008; Romaine, 1999). Consequently, it is difficult to compare the results.
... How? The linguistic threshold hypothesis proposed by Cummins (1991) and Bossers (1991), and refined by Yamashita (2002) indicates L1 reading ability transfers to L2 reading ability when a certain L2 threshold is satisfied. The linguistic threshold hypothesis seems to empirically work. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper examines the relationship between significant, memorable events and learning behavior. Five events are introduced and analyzed, and their theoretical relationship to drives, beliefs, and motivation explored. Significant events are shown to play two important functions in regulating learning behavior. The first is to cause an immediate change in learning-related beliefs and behavior; the second is to underlie beliefs and behavior ‘from a distance’ as a key constituent of learning-related memories and narratives. It is argued that significant events are a fundamental cause of behavioral change, while drives and beliefs provide a convincing explanation of more routine behavior. Motivation is understood as a force that makes sporadic appearances on the stage of consciousness, either in response to significant events, or to protect habitual behavior from disruption. The findings suggest that a successful learner will likely have experienced a number of memorable episodes whose effects may be profound in the long-term, but unknowable in the short term. The theoretical and practical implications of a wider recognition of the importance of the concept of the significant event are considered.
... Cummins (1991), BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills) im Gegensatz zu CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) © Waxmann Verlag GmbH. Nur für den privaten Gebrauch. ...
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Dieser Band bietet einen Überblick über aktuelle Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte zur Rolle von Aufgaben in Schule und Unterricht und weitet am Schluss den Blick auf Aufgaben in Hochschule und Lehrerbildung. Einerseits wird diskutiert, welche Rolle Lernaufgaben beim Aufbau fachlicher Kompetenzen spielen können und wie die Fachdidaktiken auf spezifische Herausforderungen in ihrem Feld reagieren. Andererseits wird bei Testaufgaben untersucht, wo die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen unterschiedlicher Formate von Kompetenzmessung liegen und wie mit den Resultaten adäquat umgegangen werden kann. Dabei werden alle Stufen des Bildungssystems sowie unterschiedlichste Fächer- und Länderperspektiven einbezogen.
... The beauty of working with a CLIL-oriented curriculum is that language, content, and cognition can all be linked together. But to address the challenges that teachers and administrators may have in transforming the theory into practice, tools such as a CLIL planning matrix (Figure 1), based on Cummins' quadrant model (Cummins, 1989(Cummins, , 2000Halbach, 2012;Khatib & Taie, 2016), can help distribute focuses on Basic Interpersonal Communication skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic language Proficiency (CALP) more evenly throughout the curriculum. Such a matrix can help practitioners consider how to include both higher-and lower-order thinking skills (HOTS and LOTS) into their lessons. ...
... Zum einen ist die Erstsprache für das eingeforderte Erlernen der Zweitsprache behil ich, "sie kann das Erschließen von Bedeutungen erleichtern, sie kann helfen, die syntaktische Struktur der Zweitsprache zu durchdringen, sie kann dazu beitragen, die pragmatische Funktion von Äußerungen zu erhellen" (Gogolin 1988, S. 72). Ihre Unterdrückung oder Nicht-Beachtung kann dagegen zu Blockaden einer damit unvollständigen sprachlichen Sozialisation führen, die das Erreichen bildungssprachlichen Standards in der Zweitsprache und damit auch den Bildungsverlauf erschweren (bahnbrechend Cummins 1979Cummins , 1991Cummins , vgl. auch 2006vgl. ...
... The influence and effects of a learner's L1 knowledge on their target language use and knowledge is referred to as transfer or interference (Lightbown & Spada, 2013). However, what is transferred is primarily conceptual knowledge rather than specific linguistic elements (Cummins, 1991). According to Kellerman (1986), over time, learners can develop intuitions about which language features they can transfer from their L1 to the target language and which are less likely to be transferable. ...
Chapter
Background: Several studies have identified the existence of gender differences in immigrants’ living conditions. Gender inequalities affect the way male and female immigrants confront the various obstacles and barriers in processes of migration and integration. Objective: To analyze gender differences in labor conditions and health, such as access to paid work and health services, disparities in salaries and work sectors and comparative morbidity patterns between male and female immigrants, through a literature review. Results: Several studies carried out by official organisms and independent researchers have pointed out the existence of gender inequalities in immigration patterns and in work and health conditions, all of which impact different spheres of immigrants’ lives. Conclusions: As shown in the literature review, gender is an important variable in explaining and understanding the phenomenon of immigration. Living and working conditions as well as health are highly influenced by the gender factor. Public institutions should pay attention to all those aspects that link immigration and gender, and consider the numerous practical implications.
... Perquè independentment de si la llengua meta dels programes CLIL/ TILC és una segona llengua o una llengua estrangera, una llengua majoritària o una llengua minoritària, el que s'oblida, sovint, és que la llengua que s'aprèn en contextos d'instrucció no pot equiparar-se a aquella que s'aprèn al carrer o amb la família. D'acord amb la terminologia encunyada per Jim Cummins (1991), el tipus de llengua en què el CLIL/TILC hauria de centrar-se no seria tan sols la llengua per a la socialització o BICS (i.e. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills), sinó també i sobretot la llengua acadèmica o CALP (i.e. ...
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Aquest article té dos objectius. D’una banda, provar de resoldre la indefinició pedagògica i terminològica del Tractament Integrat de Llengua i Contingut. De l’altra, avaluar aquest enfocament des d’una perspectiva plurilingüe. Quant al primer objectiu, aclarirem la diferència entre conceptes com TILC i AICLE que, sovint, de manera errònia, es presenten com equivalents. Pel que fa al segon objectiu, revisarem una de les qüestions més recurrents en la majoria dels debats sobre educació plurilingüe com és la possibilitat d’adquirir la llengua meta sense posar en perill ni l’aprenentatge de continguts ni el de les llengües primeres. La inclusió de pedagogies basades en els gèneres textuals, el desenvolupament de la consciència metalingüstica de l’estudiantat o l’adopció de pràctiques translinguals semblen claus per a fer realitat tot el potencial didàctic d’un TILC de qualitat.
... This entails the support for all students to develop a more subject-related language, often called cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) alongside their basic interpersonal conversation skills (BICS), a distinction originally proposed by Cummins (e.g. [5]). On a more hands-on level, LAC often concerns crucial issues such as the overall contextualization of educational content to support students' understanding, developing and supporting strategies for reading comprehension, e.g. through structured text discussions, and developing writing strategies for different purposes and genres of texts required in specific school-subjects (see e.g. ...
... Gogolin et al. 2011a, S. 15 f.;Gogolin und Lange 2011, S. 108 ff.). Neben Cummins' Arbeiten zur Bedeutung von basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) und cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) 6 für den schulischen Erfolg von Zweitsprachenlernenden (Cummins 1979(Cummins , 1991(Cummins , 2000 wurde das Verständnis von Bildungssprache in FÖRMIG wesentlich geprägt durch die systemisch-funktionale Grammatik Hallidays (u. a. Halliday und Hasan 1985;Halliday und Matthiessen 2014), die Überlegungen Bernsteins zu schichtspezifischen Unterschieden in der Sprachverwendung (vgl. ...
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Eine sprachförderliche Gestaltung des Fachunterrichts gilt als wichtiges Mittel, um die Bildungserfolgschancen von mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund sowie einsprachig deutschen Lernenden aus sprachanregungsarmen bildungsfernen Familien zu verbessern. In den Rahmen- und Bildungsplänen vieler Bundesländer ist die Förderung bildungssprachlicher Fähigkeiten als gemeinsame Aufgabe aller Fächer mittlerweile festgeschrieben. Doch wie wird diese bildungspolitische Vorgabe im Unterricht umgesetzt? Insbesondere zur Sprachbildungspraxis in der gesellschaftswissenschaftlichen Fächergruppe, die aufgrund ihrer starken Textgebundenheit gemeinhin als besonders „sprachlastig“ gilt, ist bislang wenig bekannt. Die quantitative Untersuchung basiert auf einer Befragung von Hamburger Gesellschaftslehrkräften der Sekundarstufe I, die in sprachlich heterogenen Lerngruppen unterrichten. Die Studie geht der Frage nach, wie Lehrkräfte der migrationsbedingten Mehrsprachigkeit von Lernenden gegenüberstehen und dieser in ihrem Fachunterricht begegnen. Außerdem werden professionelle und persönliche Lehrkraftmerkmale identifiziert, die einen Einfluss auf Lehrkraftüberzeugungen zu Sprachförderung im Fach bzw. zur Nutzung mehrsprachiger Ressourcen im Fachunterricht und die (selbstberichtete) Unterrichtspraxis haben können. Fühlen sich Lehrkräfte durch ihre Ausbildung ausreichend dafür vorbereitet, ihren Fachunterricht sprachförderlich zu gestalten? Erachten sie die Verbindung sprachlichen und fachlichen Lernens für sinnvoll? Auf welche Strategien greifen sie im Gesellschaftsunterricht zurück, um der sprachlichen Heterogenität der Schülerschaft gerecht zu werden? Welche Faktoren können begünstigen oder verhindern, dass Lehrkräfte sprachförderlich handeln?
... Perquè independentment de si la llengua meta dels programes CLIL/ TILC és una segona llengua o una llengua estrangera, una llengua majoritària o una llengua minoritària, el que s'oblida, sovint, és que la llengua que s'aprèn en contextos d'instrucció no pot equiparar-se a aquella que s'aprèn al carrer o amb la família. D'acord amb la terminologia encunyada per Jim Cummins (1991), el tipus de llengua en què el CLIL/TILC hauria de centrar-se no seria tan sols la llengua per a la socialització o BICS (i.e. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills), sinó també i sobretot la llengua acadèmica o CALP (i.e. ...
Article
Aquest article té dos objectius. D’una banda, provar de resoldre la indefinició pedagògica i terminològica del Tractament Integrat de Llengua i Contingut. De l’altra, avaluar aquest enfocament des d’una perspectiva plurilingüe. Quant al primer objectiu, aclarirem la diferència entre conceptes com TILC i AICLE que, sovint, de manera errònia, es presenten com equivalents. Pel que fa al segon objectiu, revisarem una de les qüestions més recurrents en la majoria dels debats sobre educació plurilingüe com és la possibilitat d’adquirir la llengua meta sense posar en perill ni l’aprenentatge de continguts ni el de les llengües primeres. La inclusió de pedagogies basades en els gèneres textuals, el desenvolupament de la consciència metalingüstica de l’estudiantat o l’adopció de pràctiques translinguals semblen claus per a fer realitat tot el potencial didàctic d’un TILC de qualitat.
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Language is related to self-determination and demands for self-determination at several different levels and in a number of inter-connected ways. Language has been an important means of control and domination and its importance is rapidly growing. Language has been seen as an essential homogenizing element in the nation-building of states since the age of enlightenment. Language has played an important role in maintaining colonial structures. Education through the medium of majority languages or colonial languages has been the most powerful assimilating force for minority children, thus also having a homogenizing function. But language has also become an important means for counter-hegemonies, and for seeking self-determination at several levels: psychologically, educationally, politically. Language is central for seeing, interpreting, understanding, and changing the world, and indeed in creating the world.
Article
This article examines secondary school textbooks used in one province of Pakistan to explore how particular political and religious beliefs are embedded in the texts used to teach the English language. The article shows how the authors of these textbooks change the discursive practices of global English to suit their own purposes. In particular, the article discusses how the authors appropriate the genre structure of biographical texts and adapt lexico-grammatical resources for identity management. An appropriation of the language in the textbooks, the article argues, curtails students’ access to the linguistic or semiotic tools that are needed to read and engage with other globally oriented texts. This may impact students’ views of the world as well as limit their ability to understand and appreciate alternative perspectives.
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Sprache ist ein wesentliches Medium jedes Unterrichts. Fachliches Lernen kann nur durch und mit Sprache gelingen. Der Zusammenhang von Sprache und Bildungserfolg bzw. -misserfolg ist schon seit Längerem bekannt. Daher muss sprachliche Förderung nicht nur im Deutschunterricht erfolgen, sondern ist auch Aufgabe des Faches Geographie. Sprachliches Lernen bedeutet aber nicht, zusätzlich zum fachlichen Lernen ein weiteres Spektrum zu fördern, sondern sprachliches und fachliches Lernen sollten miteinander einhergehen. Im Regelunterricht begegnet uns eine sprachlich heterogene Schülerschaft, auf die differenziert eingegangen werden sollte. Im bilingualen Geographieunterricht werden Fachinhalte in einer anderen Sprache vermittelt, sodass auch hier sprachliche Hilfestellungen nötig sind. Aktuell wird auch in den Sprachlern-/Willkommensklassen angepasstes geographiedidaktisches Rüstzeug benötigt. In diesem Band werden didaktische Methoden, Medien und Materialien zu unterschiedlichen Unterrichtsthemen verschiedener Klassenstufen für einen sprachsensiblen Geographieunterricht, für den bilingualen Unterricht oder für den Geographieunterricht in Willkommensklassen vorgestellt.
Article
If maximal exposure were the key to success in language learning, then adult learners at the university level would be doomed to fail. Not only are they presumably too old to learn additional languages effectively, but target language (TL) input appears to be insufficient, especially when other languages are allowed in class. Nevertheless, learners were shown to build on knowledge of previously acquired languages, to rely on language learning experience and to develop metalinguistic awareness. This study explores the perceived usefulness of a plurilingual consciousness-raising task that aims at helping learners make and strengthen connections between the TL and other previously acquired languages. Two university-level language courses were targeted: Spanish in Quebec and French in Mexico. Two customized tasks were implemented and recorded in each course throughout the semester. Each task included an input-based (discovery) phase, a reflective (metalinguistic) phase during which participants were asked to make assumptions on underlying patterns and correspondences across languages, and a validation phase where they presented their assumptions until reaching a consensus as a group. While tasks were generally perceived as useful, analyses of post-task questionnaires also revealed mixed feelings regarding its inductive stance. However, the verbal data collected demonstrated that the collaborative and metalinguistic reflective nature of the task permitted learners to find correspondences between languages and to engage in knowledge construction. Moreover, the various reflections collected indicate that learners benefitted from the task as groups engaged in metalinguistic reflections, activated their plurilingual repertoire and were able to create accurate assumptions regarding the targeted structure.
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The current migration and refugee flows and increasing linguistic heterogeneity in German social science classes have changed teaching. It is a change towards language-aware teaching. The article assesses the question of how bilingual geography teachers' language perception could help to develop language-aware geography education. The hypothesis is that bilingual teachers, due to the simultaneous teaching of content and language, develop and use detailed language awareness in geography. A model of the language in geography classrooms, which defines requirements of language actions there, is presented. 16 bilingual geography teachers in secondary schools in Germany were interviewed over six months to assess their language awareness by a qualitative analysis referring to the model. The results show that bilingual geography teachers assume key values related to language-awareness in geographic language. These results strongly allow discussion of language-aware implications, particularly in terms of structuring, visualization and transparency of discourse functions.
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Learning through another language is a multilingual (Catalan, Spanish and English) compendium of valuable contributions from leading investigators to further the understanding and practice of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The book offers an ample range of perspectives regarding CLIL learning and teaching. This review takes a look at how the collection deals with the following topics: the challenges involved in plurilinguistic education (chapters 1-4); the integration of content and language in the discourse of CLIL classrooms (chapters 5-7); and the need for in-service and pre-service teacher education and the role of collaboration among subject and linguistic specialists on the one hand, and investigators and practitioners on the other, in the successful implementation of CLIL programmes in the educational system (chapters 8-10). (Review by Jill Simon)
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Die zentrale These des Artikels ist, dass Kompetenz in Fremdsprachen, Femdsprachenlernwissen und Transferwissen zwischen Sprachen als drei Formen des transnationalen Humankapitals eine ausschlaggebende Rolle für eine erfolgreiche Partizipation in der gegenwärtigen Welt spielen. Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese These empirisch und theoretisch begründet vorzustellen. Thematisiert wird, worin die veränderten Rahmenbedingungen der gegenwärtigen Welt und der Europäischen Union bestehen, die die nachhaltige Vermittlung von transnationalem Humankapital in der Fremdsprachenlehrpraxis und der universitären Fremdsprachenlehrerausbildung nötig machen. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Deutung von Globalisierungs- und Transnationalisierungsprozessen. Weiterhin wird die zentrale These des Artikels anhand einer sprachbiographischen Analyse illustriert. Abschließend werden konkrete Vorschläge für die schulische Sprachlehrpraxis und für die universitäre Fremdsprachenlehrerausbildungspraxis formuliert, die zu einer effektiven Vermittlung von transnationalem Humankapital beitragen können.
Article
Zur Lernwirksamkeit von Online-Diskussionsforen liegen seit der Popularisierung des Inter- nets zahlreiche Fallstudien vor, aber nicht viele empirische Daten, die darüber hinausgehen. Als gesichert gilt, dass die Transaktivität, also das Ausmass, in dem die Diskussionspart- ner beim asynchronen schriftlichen Austausch gegenseitig auf ihre Argumente eingehen, mit dem Lernzuwachs korreliert. Das gilt nicht nur für die Empfänger von Feedback, sondern vor allem auch für die Personen, die Feedback geben. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht deshalb unter Rückgriff auf soziokognitive Theorien im Anschluss an Piaget und Wygotski, auf die kognitive Linguistik und auf Modelle aus der Schreibprozessforschung nach Erklärungen dafür, weshalb Studierende in schriftlichen Rückmeldungen an Mitstudierende unterschiedlich intensiv auf die Texte ihrer Gegenüber eingehen. Zu diesem Zweck wird ein Kategorienraster weiterentwickelt, das zur Erfassung der Transaktivität von schriftlichen Rückmeldungen dient. Für eine genauere Bestimmung der textuellen Qualitäten der untersuchten Rückmeldungstexte werden zudem ausgewählte Kategorien des Zürcher Textanalyserasters herangezogen. Die anhand dieser beiden Analyseraster vorwiegend durch qualitative Inhaltsanalyse er- mittelten Rückmeldungseigenschaften werden in Beziehung gesetzt zu möglichen Einfluss- grössen der Transaktivität. Dazu gehören lernpsychologische Aspekte wie Lernmotivation, Lernstrategien und schreibbezogenes Selbstkonzept, die subjektive Einschätzung der Lehr- veranstaltung und der Online-Diskussionen, aber auch der Einfluss der Schreibaufträge. Die verschiedenen Konstrukte werden durch Verfahren der quantitativen Datenanalyse miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt, wobei neben traditionell in den Sozialwissenschaften ver- wendeten statistischen Verfahren wie der Korrelationsanalyse oder der multiplen linearen Regression vor allem die nonmetrische multidimensionale Skalierung (NMDS) zum Einsatz kommt – ein Verfahren, das die Ähnlichkeit von Daten graphisch sichtbar macht. Die Resultate zeigen, dass vor allem schreibbezogene Aspekte einen Einfluss auf die Trans- aktivität von schriftlichen Rückmeldungen haben: Auf der individuellen Seite führen Inter- esse am Schreiben und schreibbezogenes Selbstvertrauen zu transaktiveren Rückmeldungen; auf der Ebene der Schreibdidaktik konnte zudem nachgewiesen werden, dass Schreibaufträ- ge für Online-Foren deutlich beeinflussen, wie intensiv Studierende in ihren Rückmeldun- gen aufeinander eingehen. Diese und weitere Ergebnisse legen nahe, der Schreibdidaktik im Rahmen der Hochschuldidaktik künftig eine grössere Rolle zuzuweisen, als dies im deutschen Sprachraum gegenwärtig der Fall ist. Alongside the increasingly common use of the internet, many case studies have been conduc- ted in order to document the learning effectiveness of online discussion platforms. Although empirical data in a more systematic shape is scant all the same, it is widely agreed that transactivity — i.e. the extent to which discussion partners in asynchronous written com- munication respond to each other’s arguments — correlates with learning progress. This holds true not only for the recipients of feedback, but also and particularly for those persons giving it. Against this background, the general objective of this thesis was to identify possible reasons explaining why written student feedback varies so remarkably in the intensity with which it makes reference to peer texts. Drawing on socio-cognitive theories in the tradition of Vygotsky and Piaget, cognitive linguistics and writing process models, an already existing framework of categories was first refined according to the purposes of this study and then utilized to establish the transactivity of written student feedback. Additionally, selected categories of the «Zürcher Textanalyseraster» («Zurich Text Analysis Framework») were included so as to be able to assess the textual qualities of the feedback texts. These two frameworks prepared the ground for the identification of specific characteri- stics of the feedback texts, which was foremost done by way of qualitative content analysis. Thereafter, these characteristics were correlated with potential determining factors of trans- activity. Among them are aspects of learning psychology like learning motivation, learning strategies and the students’ self-concept with respect to writing competence, as well as the subjective evaluation of the course attended and the online discussions, or the impact of writing assignments. In a further step, these constructs were related to each other by employing methods of quantitative data analysis. In doing so, not only traditional procedures of Social Statistics such as correlation analysis or multiple linear regression were applied, but also — and most prominently — nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), which is a handy means for visualizing the level of data similarity via distance matrices. As the results show, transactivity of written feedback is primarily influenced by aspects which pertain to writing. At the level of the individual, both interest in writing and writing- related self-efficacy proved to foster transactivity of written feedback. As far as the level of instruction is concerned, writing assignments were found to impact considerably on how intensely students respond to each other’s texts. These findings, among others, clearly suggest that the methodology of teaching students how to write should be attached more weight within the domain of higher education teaching than it is presently the case in the German- speaking area.
Article
This study examines relations between the first language (L1) and second language (L2) in reading and writing for 211 upper middle school Korean students learning English as a foreign language. Results using path analysis suggest that L1 ability is a significant independent predictor of L2 ability in both reading and writing, providing evidence of interdependent relations between L1 and L2 operations in receptive and productive skills. Results also indicate that L1 reading predicted L2 writing, but L1 writing did not predict L2 reading. L2 proficiency was also shown to be important. L2 proficiency made a greater contribution to L2 reading and writing operations than L1 ability did. Also, the relation between L1 and L2 writing skills but not reading skills was significantly moderated by L2 proficiency. The author discusses results in the context of existing theories about L1-L2 relations and highlights important implications for pedagogy and future research.
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Dieser Aufsatz befasst sich mit einem Bachelor‐Studiengang, der darauf gerichtet ist, Bildungspersonal auszubilden, das in den frühkindlichen Bildungseinrichtungen eingesetzt werden soll. Hier werden die Besonderheiten und die betreffenden gesetzlichen Regelungen sowie Vorschläge zu den verschiedenen Bereichen des geplanten Bachelor‐Studiengangs vorgestellt, der durch die deutschen und türkischen Hochschuleinrichtungen gemeinsam entwickelt und durchgeführt werden soll. Neben der Bedeutung und den Prinzipien der Bildung und Erziehung in einem multikulturellen und mehrsprachigen Umfeld werden hier auch das Curriculum, der Veranstaltungskatalog und die Verteilung der Fächer auf die einzelnen Semester behandelt.
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A necessidade de promover a consciencialização da importância da língua portuguesa no mundo está na ordem do dia, contrariando a globalização e a unificação de culturas, ultimamente potencializadas pelo rápido desenvolvimento das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC), cada vez mais presentes e influentes em todas as áreas da nossa vida. Além disso, considerada estatisticamente a quinta língua mais utilizada na Internet, a língua portuguesa difunde-se virtualmente muito para além do mundo exclusivamente lusófono. Neste sentido, torna-se necessário traçar o perfil da língua portuguesa, na perspetiva de futuros profissionais da Educação de dois países selecionados para o estudo que aqui se relata: Portugal e Brasil. Deste modo, disponibilizou-se um inquérito por questionário a estudantes de uma universidade portuguesa e de uma universidade brasileira, nos respetivos países, com o objetivo de identificar as suas representações sobre a língua portuguesa. Neste artigo, destacaremos a difusão da língua portuguesa no mundo, o seu crescimento e os seus valores, em particular na sua dimensão ciberespacial. Na análise dos resultados, foi possível verificar que, nas três perspetivas abordadas, o Ciberespaço e os Média, redes sociais e eventos foram sempre mencionados pelos inquiridos, ainda que com pouca expressividade. Por esse motivo, tratando-se a língua portuguesa de uma das línguas mais faladas no Ciberespaço e de esta realidade estar pouco refletida no discurso dos participantes no estudo, os resultados obtidos apontam para a necessidade de promover a consciencialização da importância e do lugar da língua portuguesa nesses espaços e, genericamente, no mundo.
Thesis
p>This experimental research investigates the effects of strategy instruction on the English reading proficiency and strategy use of Thai students. The subjects were 74 first year science students at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (KMITNB), Thailand from June to September 1999. A programme of strategy instruction was introduced to an experimental class of 37 students, while the same number of students were taught as a control group through traditional English reading instruction. A mixed research approach using both quantitative and qualitative techniques was adopted to investigate the impact of the introduced programme on students'reading achievement and strategy use. A test of reading achievement and a strategy questionnaire were administered to all subjects before and after the course. Six students from each group were also selected for a think-aloud and diary study. These twelve subjects were asked to verbalise their thoughts while reading English texts, and to keep diaries about their reading activities at home for ten weeks. The results indicated that while both groups improved their reading test scores and strategy use in the course of the study, the experimental group showed a significantly higher gain in reading ability and reported more frequent strategy use than the control group. The findings also indicated a significant correlation between strategy use and reading proficiency. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of the impact of activating metacognitive awareness, and suggest that explicit instruction in reading strategy use can override the effect of language proficiency limitations on readers' use of effective reading strategies.</p
Article
This study highlights a complementary partnership between physical education and foreign language learning, endorsing the potential of an applied learning context as an alternative pedagogical platform. A pedagogic model of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) within physical education was adopted to explore the capacity for improving students’ spontaneous speaking in French. The study’s motivation was the 2016 changes to England’s General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) French specifications, which placed an increased emphasis on responding spontaneously in spoken French and sustaining communication in different situations. Students ( n = 42) aged 13–14, soon to embark on General Certificate of Secondary Education French, were introduced to a 10-week handball scheme of work that included learning associated key French vocabulary and students communicating with each other and the teacher in French. Adopting case study methodology, data collection included student questionnaires, individual teacher interviews and student focus groups, analysed using inductive analysis and constant comparison. The physical education Content and Language Integrated Learning platform provided a learning context that appeared to support student perceptions of increased motivation and reduced anxiety, with 60% of students reporting that speaking French during physical education increased their confidence in speaking French aloud. Findings suggest the importance of an applied learning environment that emphasises working as a group, encouraging a willingness to take risks in spontaneous speaking, and decreasing sensitivity to negative judgement. A physical education-located Content and Language Integrated Learning model appears to offer learning experiences within the skill-based traditions of physical education beyond ‘learning to move’, providing a context for ‘moving to learn’ as an investment towards embodied learning.
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Das Thema dieses Beitrags ist ein zusammenfassender Überblick über die Vorträge und Ergebnisse des ProjektWorkshops „Ein Kind ‐ Zwei Sprachen: Curriculare Überlegungen zur Ausbildung von Erziehern für deutsch‐türkische Kitas“. Der Beitrag gliedert sich in drei Abschnitte: der Projekt‐Workshop in Antalya, die Zusammenfassung der Vorträge und Ergebnisse sowie das Resümee samt Ausblick. Aus dem Projekt‐Workshop konnten wichtige Erkenntnisse und interessante Impulse hinsichtlich der Ausarbeitung eines transnationalen Studiengangs für bilinguale frühkindliche Bildung und Erziehung abgeleitet werden.
Chapter
Im Beitrag gehen wir der Frage nach, welche spezifischen Kompetenzen der Inter komprehension zu Grunde liegen. Die Basis für unsere Überlegungen bildet ein Korpus, das wir aus der Befragung von Spezialistinnen und Spezialisten im Bereich Interkomprehension sowie aus der Analyse von insgesamt 112 zwischen 1993 und 2012 publizierten Definitionen gewonnen haben. Wir analysieren die Antworten im Hinblick auf Unterschiede zwischen der rezeptiven und der interaktionalen Interkomprehension und vergleichen die Ergebnisse mit bestehenden plurilingualen Kompetenzmodellen. Abschließend gehen wir der Frage nach Konsequenzen für den Sprachunterricht nach.
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This study examines how the acquisition of school and functional literacy takes place in Papiamentu and in Dutch. Also the cross linguistic influence is determined during the bilingual literacy acquisition process. Subsequently, it is examined which personal characteristics of the students, characteristics of the family and school influence the development of literacy in both languages. Finally, it examines how linguistic factors, such as decoding and reading comprehension in combination with pupil and family characteristics, determine the educational success of the children. These developments and relationships are reflected in causal (LISREL) models.
Thesis
Bei dieser Arbeit handelt es sich um eine qualitative Untersuchung des bilingualen deutsch-englischen Geschichtsunterrichts, welcher in seiner Wirksamkeit mit dem monolingualen Geschichtsunterrichts verglichen wird. Im Mittelunkt des Erkenntnisinteresses stehen die mündlichen Schüleräußerungen, deren beobachtbaren Formen die Möglichkeiten der Lerner zur Teilnahme am historischen Diskurs untersuchen. Es werden jeweils zwei Kohorten untersucht, welche in derselben Schule, Klassenstufe, von derselben Lehrkraft und mit denselben Materialen unterrichtet werden. Die Materialen unterschieden sich nur durch die Verwendung der Sprachen Deutsch oder Englisch. Als Forschungsinstrumente dienen Videografien, Interviews und Fragebögen.
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While metalinguistic awareness (MLA) has been shown to play a crucial role in second and third language acquisition, a variety of methodolog-ical approaches point to the difficulty of operationalising the concept. The present study provides a critical analysis of MLA in relation to its measurement by means of a French-language test of metalinguistic ability. In this article, the results on the Test d'Habiletés Métalinguistiques (THAM-3) completed by 66 francophone college students in Québec are interpreted with reference to the notions of noticing and understanding. Nearly a third of the participants reached the highest level of met-alinguistic analysis in the metasemantic section of the test, as opposed to only 5% in the metagrammatical part. An analysis of the coding procedures suggests that this tendency may be related to the fact that explicit reference to grammatical categories was required to attain maximal scores in the metagrammatical section, whereas metalinguistic terminology was not necessary to perform at this level in the metase-mantic section. This critical view of the coding procedures used on the THAM-3 points to the need to re-evaluate the role of explicit knowledge of grammatical concepts and metalanguage in the measurement of MLA.
Technical Report
This working paper provides an overview of Indigenous languages learning in Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia and Canada. It is part of an OECD initiative 'Promising Practices in Supporting Success for Indigenous Students', designed to help education systems to improve the experiences and outcomes of Indigenous students in education. The paper describes the significance of Indigenous languages which the Indigenous peoples in these three countries all hold in common. But different historical and contemporary language contexts within and between the countries require diverse pathways for Indigenous language program designs.The paper describes current language ecologies (including traditional Indigenous languages, newer contact languages and Indigenised varieties of national languages) and a variety of L1/mothertongue and L2/additional language educational responses. The paper also provides current legal and policy frameworks at national and state/territory levels.
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