A study of physico-chemical characteristics of Ugborikoko/Okere stream as an index of pollution

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A total of 8 samples were collected from strategic points along the Ugborikoko/Okere creek. The levels of the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal pollutants were determined. Results of both physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metals revealed some degree of pollution in the creek. The mean values of pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and chloride were 6.8, 30.3°C, 106.53 NTU, 471.45 ohms/cm, 354.56 mg/l, 123.56 mg/l and 78.11 mg/l respectively. The average value obtained for oil and grease was 14.13 ppm. The average value for the heavy metals were 2.258 ppm for iron, 0.0729 ppm for cadmium, 0.4225 ppm for zinc, 0.0997 ppm for manganese, 0.0236 ppm for copper, 0.2117 ppm for nickel. The results obtained indicated a significant level of pollution of the Ugborikoko/Okere creek. It was observed that the levels of iron, lead, chromium, cadmium, manganese and nickel in the samples were not in compliance with recommended standards set by world health organization for inland (fresh) and potable water.

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... [14]Several other studies around the region have reviewed higher level of hydrocarbon pollution than that of Environmental Guideline and Standard for Petroleum Industry in Nigeria. (EGASPIN) and Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) especially the studies evaluating the impact of hydrocarbon in Bodo community in Gokana LGAs [15]. This study seeks to assess microbial analysis, heavy metal, physicochemical parameters and total petroleum hydrocarbon of water samples in some hydrocarbon-impacted Ogoni communities. ...
... o C observed in our study do not have any negative implication on the obtained result because it is within room temperature. This is similar to the work done [15] which affirmed that the recorded temperature ranges from 15.25-24.75 o C did not poses any threat to the homeostatic balance of the river. ...
... which is 3-times higher than the standard recommended by NSDWQ and the P value for Pb was statistically significant (0.0033) when compare with the control. This agreed with the work done by [15] they observed a higher level of Pb pollution from sediment in Bodo community. The health implication of lead is enormous, high level of lead can damage the kidney in both children and adult, this can pose a great danger to the people that consume these water sources. ...
Aim: This study aimed to assess the quality of drinking water in some hydrocarbon-impacted Ogoni communities. Study Design: The study employ a cross-sectional and analytical design using stratified sampling method. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Science of Rivers State University, Giolee Global Resource Limited and Environmental Consultancy Services between March 2020 and March 2021. Methodology: Water samples were collected from (20 hydrocarbon- impacted communities) in the 4 Local Government Area (LGAs) of Ogoni land. These water samples were analyzed to determine the physicochemical, bacteriological, heavy metal and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) parameters using standard methods and operational procedures. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. The general linearized model (GIG) was used to generate analysis of variance (ANOVA) mean and standard error and arrange, statistically significant was set as p-value of .05 (95% confidence limit). Pearson correlation test was used to calculate the correlation between TPH, Heavy metal, and physicochemical parameters in hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon impacted communities. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism (Version 8). Results: The results obtained for physicochemical parameters were pH 4.3±0.8 mg/l, EC 0.03±0.05 mg/l, DO 5.5±1.6 mg/l, Temp 25.0±0.0 mg/l, Mv 0.32±0.27 mg/l, Nitrite 0.0058±013 mg/l, Nitrate 0.1530±158 mg/l. These results were all below the recommended standard for Nigeria standard of drinking water quality (NSDWQ) and World Health Organization (WHO). The bacteriological analyses were carried out using multiple tubes technique (Most Probable Number), total coliform count, (TC), total heterotrophic count (THBC) and total fungal count (TFC). The results obtained were 0.941±2.397 cfu/ml, 89.3±176.6 cfu/ml, 297.8±144.4 cfu/ml, and 0.32±0.84 cfu/ml respectively. The p-values for TFC (<0.0002) were statistically significant. Heavy metal profiling was: Cr 0.194±0.320 mg/l, Cd 0.469±0.569 mg/l, Cu 0.211±0.348 mg/l, Pb 0.0336±0.20 mg/l, Fe 0.705±1.244 mg/l, Zn 0.258±0.249 mg/l, respectively. Generally, the concentration of heavy metal increased more than the standard recommended by NSDWQ and WHO except for Zn 0.255±0.249 mg/l, and Cu 0.56±0.50 mg/l, that is slightly lower than the acceptable limit recommended by WHO and NSWWQ. The sequences of heavy metal concentration were in Cd > Cr> Pb>Fe> Cu.>Zn. The statistical significance values for Pb p=.003 and for Zn p=.009 were statistically significant. The concentration of TPH were (349.9 ppm/ml) higher than the recommended values for NSDWQ and WHO. Conclusion: The findings in this research reviewed a worrisome level of TPH and Pb, and which could have devastating impact on bacterial biodiversity.
... Despite recognizing the life sustaining importance of water, man's approaches to water usage has always been unsustainable. Studies have shown that most rivers flowing through heavily urbanized and industrialized areas in Nigeria are contaminated with high concentration of some heavy metals of variable and unsuitable physicchemical characteristics (Peretiemo-Clarke et al., 2009). Warri river with a number of creeks (Shanomi, Miller, Ogbe-Ijoh, Okerenkoko, Benikrukru, Deibiri, Kokodiagbene, Okere, Oporoza) is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, including irrigation and livestock activities. ...
... On the other hand, the river also serves as a carrier of major waste load of the industrialized city of Warri in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and finally flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Over these years some work has been done on the physicochemical parameters of some creeks in Warri river (Peretiemo-Clarke et al., 2009;Ogunlaja and Ogunlaja, 2007), but there has been limited study on the microbial and physicochemical parameters as well as heavy/toxic metal contamination of the Shanomi creek of the Warri river, hence the need for this study. ...
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The physicochemical and microbial qualities of Shanomi creeks in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were assessed between January and October 2011. The temperature across sampling stations ranged between 26 and 27.7°C, while pH varied from 7.49 to 8.74. Turbidity ranged from 176.62-189.96 NTU and conductivity varied between 360.45 and 454.88 µS/cm. The concentrations of other physicochemical parameters were as follows: BOD (6.39-7.64 mg/L) COD (84.25-97.27 mg/L); ammonia (26.83-33.98 mg/L); nitrate (37.25-43.89 mg/L); nitrite (37.35-41.75 mg/L); and phosphate (28.83-37.85 mg/L). The relative dominance of metals in the water followed the sequence: Al > Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb > Hg > As. Feacal and total coliform densities ranged from 1.05 × 10 2 to 4.25 × 10 3 (cfu/mL) and 1.56 × 10 2 to 6.40 × 10 4 (cfu/mL) respectively. The study reveals that the water under study was heavily polluted and of serious threat to the aquatic biota and public health.
... All these means of transportation are embedded in the aforesaid phenomenon. This in addition makes some industries and their areas suitable location for studying the extent of heavy metal contamination to the soils and crops within [5,6,14]. ...
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Some heavy metals, consisting of Fe, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using USEPA Method 3050B for total metal concentration. Six composite samples were located from Aladja (ALJ), Ovwian (OVW), Ejevwu (EJW), Ekete Inland (EKI}, Orhuwhorun (ORH), and Otor-Udu (OTU) towns. In addition, chemical speciation was carried out on these samples using method employed by Tessier et al. as modified by Kersten and Forstner to assess their speciation pattern and the fraction of abundance as determinant of environmental pollution. From the results obtained, concentrations of Fe, Cd and Mn were more predominant in the residual fraction (F5) in the form of Fe3+, Cd2+ Mn2+ respectively for both wet and dry seasons. Co was more in the exchangeable fraction (F1) as Co2+ for both seasons. Concentration of Cu in the form of Cu2+ is higher in Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) for wet season and dry season’s organic fraction (F4). Pb and Zn were abundant in Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) for both seasons as divalent ions. Mobility factor calculated for the metals shows pattern in the order: Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Fe > Cd > Cu > Ni for wet season and Co > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Fe for dry season; which is as a result of changes in some physiochemical parameters such as acidity, pH, among others. From this result, there is the need to ensure that future health catastrophe is averted from the accumulation and release of Pb2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ especially into the environment.
... Point source of pollution occur when pollutants are emitted directly into the water body from industrial sewage or municipal waste water pipes. A non-point source delivers pollutants indirectlythrough environmental changes such as pollution from urban run-off (Bamgbose and Arowolo, 2007).Studies by Peretiemo-Clarke et al.,(2009) indicated that many rivers and streams particularly in Nigeria are heavily polluted with high concentration of some heavy metals of variable and unsuitable physicochemical characteristics. ...
The availability and sustainability of the quality of River Ogun, Ogun Stare, Nigeria, is threatened with heavy metal pollution from activities within and around the river. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of Ogun River was carried out to determine the present river quality. Water samples were collected from three sampling points (Berger, Ofada, and Lafenwa) based on accessibility. The data were analysed using Descriptive Statistics, Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The surface water quality samples for both wet and dry seasons showed that the alkalinity is higher in the wet season while heavy metal contamination is higher in the dry season except for cyanide. In the wet season, conductivity ranges from 110-116 µS/cm. Records of other parameters show pH (7.62-7.97), total dissolved solids (55-57mg/l), zinc (0.018-0.02mg/l), copper (0.015-0.02mg/l), iron (1.81-3.00mg/l) and cyanide (1.86-1.88mg/l) with no detection of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel. In the dry season, conductivity ranges from 46-81 µS/cm. Values of other parameters are pH (6.28-6.63), total dissolved solids (23-40mg/l), zinc (0.21-0.22mg/l), copper (0.05-0.06mg/l), iron (2.95-4.87mg/l) and cyanide (0.72-0.79mg/l) with no detection of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel. High concentrations of iron and cyanide at Berger, Ofada, and Lafenwa suggested higher pollution levels in the areas. The observed anthropogenic activities observed on the field included cassava processing, abattoir activities, sand mining, car-wash activities, tie and dye activities, wood processing and agricultural activities. In view of the high human activities along the river, Ogun River appeared to have been polluted. Constant water quality monitoring of Ogun River is recommended. Development of Ogun river safety plans is also advised.
... Examination of physico-chemical characteristics of Ugborikoko/ Okere stream as an index of pollution is another compelling contribution. Pretiemo-Clarke et al. [8] The assessment of water quality of Badagry Creek, which runs through Benin Republic and Nigeria, showed that the physical and chemical parameters of the creek represent optimum conditions that would support many organisms [9]. A study conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal content of water from mangrove swamps of Lagos lagoon [4]. ...
Physico-chemical indices of waters from Ogunpa River were examined for locational differences; seasonal variation; and to know if gradient effect is associated with the pollution dynamics. Data obtained were analyzed and compared with WHO thresholds for those parameters in water. Test results gave the following mean values viz:-Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 226.81mg/L, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 278.14 mg/L, Temperature (TºC) 27.18ºC, pH 7.57, Electrical Conductivity (EC) 191.28 µs/cm, Sulphate (SO42-) 0.03 mg/L, Phosphate (PO42-) 0.03 mg/L, Nitrate (NO3-) 0.02 mg/L, Chloride(Cl-) 0.03 mg/L, Total Hardness (TH) 185.71mg/L, Alkalinity (Alk) 180.14 mg/L, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 8.60 mg/L, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 0.59 mg/L and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 109.89 mg/L. Variation arising from locations and seasonal effects were analyzed using ANOVA at P<0.05 and the outcome presented no seasonal variation in all the parameters except for Cl-, TH, Alk, and COD. Also no significant variation between the test locations except for PO42 and BOD. When compared to WHO recommended limits, values obtained were generally lower except for TH and COD that were above. It is concluded that surface waters from Ogunpa River, at the time of study, is within the recommended WHO values for normal survival and living of aquatic organisms.
... Another study of water quality in Minna, Nigeria, confirmed that effluents from AMVs had contaminated their local water quality [27]. Similarly, the physicochemical assessment of Ugborikoko/Okere stream in Nigeria also suggested that artisan activities of AMVswere responsible for the recorded pollution levels [28]. Furthermore, assessment of River Owo, in Nigeria showed high levels of heavy metals linked to the surrounding AMV industrial areas [29]. ...
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The increasing number of malfunctioning automobiles withsubsequent increase in emission levels and waste handling is an environmental concern in Nigeria. The spills from lubricants, gasoline, diesel and by-products of used and spent engine oil constitute the major pollutants in auto mechanic villages in Nigeria. Its environmental pollution has beenpredominant through soil and groundwater contamination andalso poses a major anthropogenic threat. The studied heavy metals on contaminated soil showed that studies had focused on common metals of Cu, Cd, Pband Zn in the east and west regions, while trace metals were studied in the south and radioactive elements in the north. Statistical evaluation showed high occurrences of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in the four geo-political zones of Nigeria. The detrimental effects of auto-mechanic village activities were on humans and also disrupted growth and flowering of arable plants. The remediation application showed that soil type and contaminant characteristics play a major role in determining the type of remediation procedure to be applied.Hence,Nigeria should provide standard repairs and services to automobiles in-line with emerging technology and best environmental practices.