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Urban forestry for improvement of environment

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... Green belts in petroleum refining industries have been found to reduce air pollution (Rao et al., 2004). Plants remove air pollutants by three means: absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over leaf surfaces, and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of the vegetation (Tewari, 1994; Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Leaf petioles are more efficient particulate impactors than either twigs (stems) or leaf lamina (Ingold, 1971). ...
... Natural processes that minimize the level of air pollution include precipitation , chemical reactions, sedimentation and absorption (Chamberlian, 1967; Rasmuseen et al., 1974). Plants act as a sink and filter air pollution by absorption, adsorption, detoxification, accumulation and/or metabolization (Hill, 1971; Robert, 1971; Bennett and Hill, 1975; Smith and Dochinger, 1976; Rao, 1980; Sharma et al., 1994; Rawat and Banerjee, 1996; Beckett et al., 1998). Singh and Rao (1983) have developed the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), which is based on four biochemical properties of leaves: ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH. ...
Article
It is well established that trees help to reduce air pollution, and there is a growing impetus for green belt expansion in urban areas. Identification of suitable plant species for green belts is very important. In the present study, the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of many plant species has been evaluated by analyzing important biochemical parameters. The Anticipated Performance Index (API) of these plant species was also calculated by considering their APTI values together with other socio-economic and biological parameters. Based on these two indices, the most suitable plant species for green belt development in urban areas were identified and recommended for long-term air pollution management.
... Dust capturing capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy and characteristics such as hair, cuticle, height and canopy of tree. Removal of pollutants by plants from air is by three means namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over leaf surface (Rawat and Banerjee 1996) [9] . As leaf is the most sensitive part to the air pollutants thus plants experience physiological changes before exhibiting visible damage on leaves. ...
... Dust capturing capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy and characteristics such as hair, cuticle, height and canopy of tree. Removal of pollutants by plants from air is by three means namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over leaf surface (Rawat and Banerjee 1996) [9] . As leaf is the most sensitive part to the air pollutants thus plants experience physiological changes before exhibiting visible damage on leaves. ...
... A given concentration of a pollutant may attain different ambient concentrations after a lapse of time under different meteorological conditions. Therefore, the emission rate being the same, ambient concentration of pollutants may differ from area to area because of varying climatic conditions (Rao 1983(Rao , 1992Rawat & Banerjee, 1996;Abbasi, 1998). ...
... The effectiveness of a greenbelt depends on the selection of the right type of tree species tolerant to the particular pollutants of that area. An ideal tree for planting in the greenbelt should have the following characteristics (Rawat & Banerjee, 1996;Roy & Sharma, 1997): ...
Article
The three aspects of accidents in chemical process industries which cause most serious damage—explosions, fires, and toxic releases—can all be controlled to some extent if greenbelts are present around the affected industry. We have recently developed and validated a system of methodologies for greenbelt design. In this paper we present the application of these models in designing greenbelts and forecasting their role in cushioning the impact of accidental release of toxic gases. With properly located and designed greenbelts as much as 33% of the accidental release of SO2, 43% of H2S, and 51% of NH3 under stable atmospheric conditions (in which the dispersion is very slow and the release thus has maximum toxic impact) can be absorbed.
... Trees act as a sink for air pollutants and thus reduce their concentration in the air especially in urban environments (Woo and Je, 2006;Tewari, 1994;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Dust interception capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy, and leaf external characteristics such as hairs, cuticle, leaf shape and size, texture, length of petioles, and canopy of trees etc., weather conditions and direction and speed of wind and anthropogenic activities (El-Khatib, 2007;2011;Santosh and Tripathi, 2008). ...
... Trees act as a sink for air thus reduce their concentration in the air, especially in urban environments (Woo and Je 2006;Tewari, 1994;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Dust interception capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy, and leaf external ch such as hairs, cuticle, leaf shape and size, texture, length of petioles, and canopy of trees etc., weather conditions, direction and speed of wind and anthropogenic activities (El-Khatib, 2007;El-Khatib 2012;Santosh and Tripathi 2008). ...
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Comparisons were made between the anatomical and morphological changes in olive tree leaves from a site with relatively clean air (Al-Khadra area), and two sites (al-Khums and Zelatin) near to cement factories in the area east to Tripoli, Libya. Olive tree leaves exhibited marked variations in their morphological and anatomical characteristics, in relations to variations in the site cement dust air pollution load. Under high pollution load, leaf visible injuries were recorded. In addition, stomata appeared in higher density and smaller size than those of control. The anatomical characteristics of olive leaf including cuticle, epidermis, palisade tissue, mesophyll tissue, and elements of vascular cylinder (xylem and phloem) reflected the deteriorate effects of cement dust air pollutants, the subject which recommend their using as bio indicators.
... The adverse effects of air pollution have been associated with three major sources: Sulphur dioxide and solid particulates from fossil fuels; photochemical oxidants and carbon monoxide from motor vehicles; and miscellaneous pollutants such as hydrogen sulphide, lead and cadmium emitted by refineries, automobiles and industries (Birley & Lock 1999). The impact of such anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere is responsible for a variety of chronic and acute diseases at the local, regional and global scale (Rawat & Banerjee 1996). ...
... (Katsouyanni et al. 2001, Kunzli et al. 2000, Pope et al. 2002, Peng et al. 2005and Prajapati et al. 2006). Removal of pollutants by plants from the air is done by three means, namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over the leaf surface, and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of vegetation which ultimately is decided by air movement (Rawat & Banerjee 1996). Mineral dusts in general are less soluble and less reactive as compared to the anthropogenic acid-forming sulphate and nitrate particles (Flower et al. 1989, Grantz et al. 2003. ...
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Industrialization has provided humanity with materials and social benefits. It has also brought in its wake up many unwanted substances and social problems. One of these problems is the degradation of the environment. The environment, upon which our life is most dependent, has fallen victim of pollution brought by the man himself through unplanned and unscientific development and mineral exploitation. Air pollution is an inevitable harmful by-product of rapid industrialization and urbanization that is responsible for a variety of deleterious effects on both human and plant communities. It has been a major environmental concern since the beginning of industrialization, resulting in a release of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere. A relationship between traffic density and photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance, total chlorophyll content and leaf senescence has been reported. Exposure of evergreen plants to air pollutants create many changes in physiological and biochemical parameters. Each plant species has a different ability to absorb and adsorb pollutants by their foliar surfaces, which is influenced by several biochemical, physiological and morphological characteristics. Rampant and uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of the gaseous pollutants. Indian cities are facing serious problems of airborne particulate matter. Atmospheric particulate matter, which is a mixture of diverse elements, is of most concern in context of public health. Particulates may also cause a reduction in yield, change in photosynthesis and transpiration along with foliar injuries. The plant species which accumulate more dust onto their surfaces can act as buffer around industries and along roadsides. The present study deals with the plant-pollutant interactions and how the physical and chemical characteristics of plants vary with air pollution. It also throws light on how dust affects various plant species and what is the role of plants in dust accumulation. Nat. Env. & Poll. Tech. Website: www.neptjournal.com
... The plant species which had shown more variability or plasticity of biochemical characteristic response adapted and survived well in adverse conditions. Tree species resisting air pollution by absorbing, adsorbing, accumulating or integrating and metabolising potentially toxic pollutants (Rawat and Banerjee 1996;Beckett et al. 1998) into their body maximally by specialised biochemical or morphological characters are known as tolerant plants, and some other types of plant species which could not process the atmospheric pollutants effectively in vivo are sensitive plants (Ninave et al. 2001;Agbaire and Esiefarienrhe 2009). In both types of plants, biochemical alterations have arrived earlier than any morphological abnormality in stressful atmospheric situations (Mandal and Mukherji 2000;Tripathi et al. 2009). ...
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The present work was undertaken in order to detect some pollution responsive variables such as ascorbic acid, pH, total chlorophyll, relative water content, total soluble sugar, amino acid and protein of four selected plant species, namely Ficus religiosa, Anthocephalus cadamba, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Cassia siamea, at nine different sites of Durgapur, West Bengal, India. The spatial variability analyses of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) along with Anticipated Performance Index (API) were also examined on each plant species. In this study, the highest APTI was recorded in L. speciosa (183.54 mg/g) during 2015 at site S5 (CCR), whereas the lowest APTI was reported in C. siamea (11.25 mg/g) during 2014 at site S3 (DGC). The API gradation revealed that L. speciosa was categorised as a best performer followed by A. cadamba and F. religiosa; in contrast, C. siamea showed poor performance among all the sites. One-way ANOVA (at p < 0.05, with Dunnett’s post hoc) was conducted for spatial variability analysis both on biochemical parameters and air pollutants (SO2, NOx and SPM) with respect to control site, while two-way ANOVA also operated for the detection of spatio-temporal interaction on concerned biochemical parameters of each tree species. A significant positive correlation was observed both in ascorbic acid and APTI of A. cadamba and L. speciosa with the air pollutants. So it would be said that, for varied environmental situations, different biochemical responses have been reflected by vegetation of the same species. Thus, the present study has tremendous potentiality to screening out tree species on the basis of APTI with pooling their API assessment category and spatial variability detection of biochemical parameters. Biochemical plasticity and adaptability were better revealed on L. speciosa, F. religiosa and A. cadamba which will be suitable for green belt development in air pollution–affected areas.
... As a general rule, plant species which show the less resistance to the specific pollutant being studied are used as biological indicators as there is a synergistic action between plants and the air pollutant (Lakshmi et al. 2009). Many authors have worked on the impacts of pollutants on plants (Agbaire and Esiefarienrhe 2009; Agrawal and Tiwari 1997; Babu et al. 2013; Bakiyaraj and Ayyappan 2014; Belardi et al. 2013; Deepalakshmi et al. 2013; Grover et al. 2001; Joshi et al. 2011; Jyothi and Jaya 2010; Kabas et al. 2012; Klumpp et al. 2000; Kuddus et al. 2011; Kumar 2013; Lakshmi et al. 2009; Lima et al. 2000; Liu and Ding 2008; Loganathan and Ilyas 2012; Mahecha et al. 2013; Martos et al. 2000; Ninave et al. 2001; Nwadinigwe 2014; Overstreet et al. 2011; Pandey and Agrawal 1994; Prajapati 2012; Prajapati and Tripathi 2008; Radhapriya et al. 2012; Rai and Panda 2014; Raina et al. 2008; Randhi and Reddy 2012; Rawat and Banerjee 1996; Raza and Murthy 1988; Saini et al. 2011; Salami et al. 2004; Saxena and Ghosh 2013; Singh 2005; Singh and Rao 1983; Sudhalakhsmi et al. 2007; Thakar and Mishra 2010; Tripathi et al. 2009; Tripathi and Gautam 2007; Tsega and Prasad 2014; Yavuz C ¸ elik and Sabah 2008). One means to assess the response of plants to these pollutants is the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI). ...
Article
Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.
... Various atmospheric gasses produce different types of visible symptoms which give rise to reduced plant growth and productivity. On global scale, plant environment interactions has also been studied when air pollution and plant health issues taken into consideration [14]. The symptoms or effects in physiology and biochemistry indicates the state of environment. ...
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-Air quality in most of the mega-cities has been resulted from natural as well as anthropogenic environmental conditions. As compared to developed countries, the issue of air pollution is more serious and complicated in developing countries. Air pollution can be governed by two ways such as emission and transboundary movement of air pollutants. Each factor has different paths and sources through which they enter into atmosphere and affect the surroundings. The problem which needs to be addressed is to find out the paths and causes of emissions. Though there are several air pollutants which comes into focus while taking air pollution issue into consideration, but to explore and solve the behaviour, pattern and chemistry of primary air pollutants (NOx, SOx, CO, VOCs and PM) is a big task. Identification of sources of primary air pollutants is important because they are the only one which is responsible for the production of secondary air pollutants. In this review the focus is given on discussion about general concepts of air pollution by highlighting more specifically primary air pollutants, nature of primary air pollutants, emission budgets and their impact on environmental health by taking plant and human health into consideration. The review ends up with some of the control policies and regulations to curb the concentration of primary air pollutants. Index Terms-Air quality, primary air pollutants, plant health, human health, sources.
... Urban canopies improve air quality in cities through absorption of gaseous pollutants and interception of atmospheric dust particulates (McPherson et al., 1994). Removal of pollutants by plants from air is by three means, namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulate matters over leaf surfaces and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of the vegetation because of the slowing of air movement (Tewari, 1994;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). ...
Article
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AbstractAir pollution has become a major environmental risk as far as public health is concerned. It has been proposed that reduction in levels of air pollution may result in lessening of the global burden of disease. Monitoring and management of air pollution is being carried out since long. However, the causes of air pollution and effects of air pollution humans, animals and plants are yet to be fully unraveled. Moreover, management of air pollution is facing challenges due to lack of availability of suitable tools and techniques. The latter half of the 19th century was dominated with research on the recognition and description of different pollutants and to some extent towards the search for tools and techniques to control and reduce air pollution. One of the major air pollutants is atmospheric particulate matter. Re-suspended roadside dust is one of the sources of these particulate matters. Re-suspended dust is composed of several elements from different sources. The elemental composition of these
... THE WORK OF THE PRESENT GROUP IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART Attempts to model the process of greenbelt design have been few and far between. After the initial efforts of [7,8], which had focused on suspended particulate matter, significant advancements were made by [9][10][11][12][13]. These authors have developed a body of knowledge considering the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the manner of their interception in the greenbelt. ...
... In urban areas trees can be used as buffers which are able to reduce noise with up to 5-10 dB (Huddart, 1990). There are three mechanisms by which plants remove pollutants, namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosol over leaf surfaces (Tewari, 1994;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Plants leaves absorb acoustic energy by transferring the kinetic energy vibrating air molecule in a sound field to the vibration pattern of the leaves. ...
Article
Green belts are effective tools for mitigation of traffic generated noise. For green belt development it is necessary that plants used for green belts must be tolerant to air pollution. In this study, the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants commonly used for green belt establishment in Varanasi city, Uttar Pradesh, India was evaluated with the help of analysis of some biochemical parameters. On the basis of APTI and some biological and socioeconomic parameters of plants, the Anticipated Performance Index (API) of these plants was calculated. Among all the plants taken under consideration Ficus infectoria L. ranks first and is a keystone species. Mangifera indica L. and Ficus religiosa L. were classified into the ‘excellent’ category. The most suitable plant species for green belt development in urban areas were identified and recommended.
... Plants, the main green belt (GB) component, act as a sink and as living filters to minimize air pollution by absorption, adsorption, detoxification, accumulation and/or metabolization without sustaining serious foliar damage or decline in growth, thus improving air quality by providing oxygen to the atmosphere (Sharma et al., 1994;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996;Beckett et al., 1998). Plants differ markedly in their responses to pollutants, some being highly sensitive and others hardy and tolerant (Singh and Rao, 1983;Shannigrahi et al.,2003). ...
Article
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In the present study, the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of ten plant species collected from an urban area has been evaluated by analyzing important biochemical parameters. High values of APTI were recorded in Psidium guajava (31.75%); Swietenia mahoganii(28.08%); Mangifera indica (27.97%); Polyanthia longifolia (25.58%) and Ficus benghalensis (25.02%). The Anticipated Performance Index (API) of these plant species was also calculated by considering their APTI values together with other socio-economic and biological parameters. According to API most tolerant plant species for green belt development were Ficus benghalensis (87%); Mangifera indica (87%); Swietenia mahoganii (87%) and Saraca indica (81%).
... Natural processes include precipitation, chemical reaction, sedimentation and absorption [22,23]. Plants, the main GB component, act as a sink and as living filters to minimize air pollution by absorption, adsorption, detoxification, accumulation and/or metabolization without sustaining serious foliar damage or decline in growth, thus improving air quality by providing oxygen to the atmosphere [4,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
Article
Vegetation naturally cleanses the atmosphere by absorbing gases and some particulate matter through leaves. Plants have a very large surface area and their leaves function as an efficient pollutant‐trapping device. Some plants have been classified according to their degree of sensitivity and tolerance towards various air pollutants. Sensitive plant species are suggested to act as bio‐indicators. Levels of air pollution tolerance vary from species to species, depending on the capacity of plants to withstand the effect of pollutants without showing any external damage. In this study, the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of 30 plant species has been evaluated. High values of APTI were recorded in Mangifera indica, Moringa pterydosperma, Cassia renigera and Ailanthus excelsa. The anticipated performance index (API) of 30 plant species has also been evaluated for green belt (GB) development in and around an industrial urban area in India. Using APTI and this performance rating, the most tolerant plants have been identified.
... Most of the areas in India and other countries, the environment has reached its carrying capacity in terms of air pollutants like nitrous oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), suspended particles and the toxic heavy metals like lead. The impact of such anthropogenic emission into the atmosphere and their movement into the biosphere by transformation, reaction and modification is responsible for variety of chronic and acute diseases at the local, regional and global scale (Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Impact on the plant community has also been studied worldwide in terms of plant – environment interactions, since the plants are much more sensitive in comparison to other organisms (Abbasi et al. 2004). ...
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Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.
... It is well documented that plants can effectively adsorb and reduce particulates in the air by capturing the airborne particulate matter such as foliar dust, hydrogen fluoride, SO 2 , some compounds of photochemical reactions, and heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) from the air on their leaves (Lin 1976;Freer-Smith et al. 1997;Brack 2002;. Plants remove air pollutants by three means: absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over leaf surfaces, and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of the vegetation (Rawat and Banerjee 1996;Chai et al. 2002). The dust-retention abilities of vegetation depend on several factors, such as the type of tree canopy, leaf and branch density and leaf morphology (roughness, trichomes and concave/convex, etc.), as well as prevailing meteorological conditions (Prusty et al. 2005;Qiu et al. 2009;Rai et al. 2010;Wang et al. 2010). ...
Article
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Air pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. The mass artificial plantation is very helpful to absorb dust and reduce pollution for conservation of the urban environment. The foliar surface of plants is an important receptor of atmospheric pollutants. Therefore, selection of suitable plant species for urban environment is very important. The dust-retaining capability of urban trees in Guangzhou was determined at four different types of urban area, and the morphological traits of their leaves such as wax, cuticle, stomata, and trichomes were observed under a scanning electron microscope. It was determined that the dust-retaining capability of any given tree species is significantly different in the same place. Of the four studied tree species in the industrial area (IA) and commercial/traffic areas (CTA) type urban areas, the highest amounts of dust removed by Mangifera indica Linn was 12.723 and 1.482 g/m(2), respectively. However, in contrast, the equivalent maxima for Bauhinia blakeana is only 2.682 g/m(2) and 0.720 g/m(2), respectively. Different plant species have different leaf morphology. The leaf of M. indica has deep grooves and high stomata density which are in favor of dust-retained, and thus, their dust-retained capability is stronger, while B. blakeana has the cells and epicuticular wax with its stomata arranging regularly, resulting in poor dust catching capability. Leaf size was also shown to be related to dust capture for the four studied tree species. The dust removal capacity of individual tree species should be taken into account in the management of greening plantation in and around an urban area. It was also shown that temporal variation in dust accumulation occurred over the 28-day observation period and this was discussed. Furthermore, spatial contrasts in dust accumulation were evidenced by the data. This reflected the differing pollution loadings of the four urban-type areas. The highest amount of dust accumulation was associated with the industrial area in which shipyard and steelworks occurred whilst the lowest dust accumulation was associated with the grounds of the University which was the control area.
... Plants filter out pollutants from the air in three ways, viz. absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulate and aerosols on leaf surface, and fallout of particulate on the leeward (down wind) side of the vegetation because of the slowing of the air movement (Spitsyna and Skripal´shchikovaSkripal´shchikova, 1991; Varshney and Mitra, 1993; Singh et al., 1995; Rawat and Banerjee, 1996; Pal et al., 2000; Tomaševí c et al., 2005; Turner et al., 2005). The concept of green areas, green belt and urban forest can affect local and regional air quality by removing atmospheric pollutants and altering urban microclimates by lowering temperatures through shading and evapo-transpiration and may also lead to people spending a greater amount of time outdoors and being more healthy and physically active (Whitford et al., 2001; Tzoulas et al., 2007; Escobedo and Nowak, 2009). ...
Article
Fly ash (FA) disposal creates problems in the form of land use, health hazards and hazards to entire ecosystems in the form of heavy metal pollution. These hazards are more pronounced in the vicinity of disposal sites where FA particles become airborne and are inhalable. Since plants can play an important role in reducing air pollution, the concept of green belt development in and around industrial areas has gained much attention in the recent past. In the present study certain traits of plant that have to be taken into account while planning a green belt for fly ash exposed area has been investigated. Ten plant species growing in the vicinity of FA handling area were selected. FA load on leaf surfaces and leaf surface morphology as a measure of FA trapping ability, and trace metal content of leaves as an indicator of trace element accumulating capacity was analyzed. Dust trapping capacity was found to be in order of Mussaenda frondosa > Haldina cordifolia > Pedilanthus tithymaloides cv. variegates > P. tithymaloides > Duranta erecta > Delonix regia > Anthocephalus cadamba > Mangifera indica > Polyalthia longifolia > Mimusops elengi. Metal accumulation index was found to be highest for H. cordifolia followed by M. frondosa. Results indicate that leaf surface morphology greatly determines dust trapping capacity of a particular species. Based on our observations we recommend certain factors that have to be considered while planning green belts around fly ash-handling areas at coal based thermal power plants.
... Attempts to model the process of greenbelt design have been few and far between. After the initial efforts which had focussed on suspended particulate matter (Semel [24], Singh and Rao [26]), significant advancements were made by Gupta, Kapoor, and co-workers [3,7,8]), Smith [28], and Rawat and Banerjee [22]. These authors have developed a body of knowledge considering the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the manner of their interception in the greenbelt. ...
Article
Trees, shrubs, and other vegetation can absorb and assimilate certain air pollutants if the pollutants are present within tolerable levels. This concept is being increasingly used in developing strips of vegetation, often called 'greenbelts' around sources of pollution. But several intricacies are associated with the exercise of effective and optimal designing of greenbelts. The pattern of dispersion of air pollutants, as effected by the density of the gaseous plume and the meteorology of the area, must be studied with great precision because these aspects would determine the location and the geometry of the greenbelt. The species composition in the greenbelt should confirm to the pollutants to be attenuated as to the geoclimatic conditions of the region. Decisions on the tree heights, and the sequence of plantation of trees and other vegetation also similarly require complex inputs. In this paper, the authors have addressed these issues and have presented a set of mathematical models, which may help in the rational and optimal design of greenbelts.
... Environmental stress is increasing day by day because of air pollutants (Sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide) and particulate matter which are emitted as the smoke from the coal fired power plant and also other industries are also responsible for the increasing level of environmental stress by dint of leaves or soil acidification (Gostin, 2007;Iqbal, 2000;Liu and Ding, 2008). These anthropogenic emissions have a very adverse consequence into the atmosphere and their alteration, reaction and conversion or modification results into an array of chronic and acute diseases at local, regional and global level (Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Air pollution has disastrous effects on the plants. ...
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Plants are only which help in reduce air pollution. In plants leaves play a vital role in absorbing gases and some particulate matter. Therefore, vegetation acts as the natural cleanser of pollution in atmosphere. According to their degree of tolerance and sensitivity towards several air pollutants, plants have been classified in the present study. The entire results obtained from the study concluded that different plant species respond differently to air pollution. Tree species (Ziziphus mauritiana, 5.621), shrub species (Calliandra haematocephala, 4.591) and herb species (Chenopodium album, 8.409) are highly tolerant plant species with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index and which are very important in landscaping of city. According to the Air Pollution Tolerance Index values, shrubs may be sensitive but trees or herbs may be tolerant to a given pollutant. Selection of plant species for urban green belt development, evaluation of Anticipated Performance Index was studied. Tree species (Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the development of “Green belt” in University Campus on the basis of API values. Plant species Hamelia patens, among the shrubs and Chenopodium album among the herbs can effectively be used for the air pollution amelioration purposes in University Campus Rohtak.
... Different plants have different potential to accumulate dust in their leaf surface as it depends upon various factors like the canopy, structure, height and geometry of the tree. Leaves of the plant help in deposition of particulates and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of the vegetation [13] [14]. The efficiency of leaf petioles is found to be more as particulate impactors than twigs or leaf lamina [15]. ...
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ir pollution today is the most important aspect of environmental study as every progress by mankind has deteriorated the air quality. Artificial technologies have proved insufficient to address this problem. So a better and a natural way to combat the air pollution is plantation. However, all plants do not show the same response to a particular type of pollutant. Hence, all plants cannot remediate all kinds of air pollution. There are various parameters on which plant species are selected for plantation viz. APTI, API, dust accumulating potential, carbon sequestering potential etc. Each of these parameters should be well analyzed before selecting any plant species for plantation. The selection should also be done as per the requirement of the area. The present review is an attempt to diagnose Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), Anticipated Performance Index (API), Carbon Sequestration and Dust Collection Potential of Indian tree species and to certify them on the basis of the purpose of plantation.
... Both Debregeasia saeneb and Rubus ellipticus shrubs can be recommended for plantation as they can serve as a buffer by accumulating large amount of dust. done by three means, namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over the leaf surface, and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of vegetation which is mainly influenced by air movement (Rawat and Banerjee 1996). Air particulates affect the overall growth and development of plants according to their physical and chemical nature (Gupta and Ghouse 1987). ...
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Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements which are emitted out of motor vehicles. These affect the overall growth and development of plants according to their physical and chemical nature and are one of the major culprits for stress induced changes in plants. Surface dust deposit may alter the optical properties of leaves, particularly the surface reflectance in the visible and short wave infra-red radiation range. Dust capturing capacity of plants depends on the surface geometry, phyllotaxy and characteristics such as hair, cuticle, height and canopy of plant as well as on the properties of particles. In the present study dust interception efficiency of some selected plant species alongside the National Highway 5 from Solan to Shimla in Himachal Pradesh was assessed. Three commonly grown plant species along the National Highway viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Debregeasia saeneb and Rubus ellipticus were selected for the study. Maximum dust was found to be -2 accumulated in case of Debregeasia saeneb (0.078 gm ) during the summer season while least was observed in case of Quercus -2 leucotrichophora (0.023 gm ) during the monsoon season. Maximum dust accumulation was recorded in case of Debregeasia saeneb at distance (0-5 m) from the National Highway while least was observed in case of Quercus leucotrichophora species at the distance >100 m from the National Highway. Both Debregeasia saeneb and Rubus ellipticus shrubs can be recommended for plantation as they can serve as a buffer by accumulating large amount of dust.
... Suspended particles and the toxic heavy metals like lead .the impact of such emission into the atmosphere and their movement into the biosphere by transformation, reaction and modification is responsible for variety of chronic and acute diseases at the local, regional and global scale (Rawat and banerjee, 1996). ...
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: Air pollution has own peculiarities due to its transboundary dispersion of pollutants over the entire world. In any well planned urban set up, industrial pollution takes a back seat and vehicular emissions take precedence as the major cause of urban air pollution. In the present study, Air pollution tolerance index was calculated for various plant species growing at Government Arts College, Chennai, India. The results showed significant effects of various air pollutants on the vegetation in terms of four biochemical parameters analyzed. Four biochemical parameters, which are leaf relative water content, Ascorbic acid content, total leaf chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used to compute the air pollution tolerance index values. On the basis of air pollution tolerance index values for above mentioned four tree species, Polyalthia longifolia exhibited the highest degree of tolerance at all the sites followed by Peltophorum pterocarpum, Guazuma ulmifolia and Morinda tinctoria.
... During the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the stomata, particulates suspended in the air are simultaneously pulled and get clogged on the surface of the leaf owing to their inability to cross the stomata which resembles a bio-filtering process (Weber et al. 2014). These particles are retained by the leaf surface till they are overloaded and subsequently released as fallouts by the trees (Tewari 1994;Rawat and Banerjee 1996). However, the particulate trapping and collection ability of trees not only varies from species to species (Thakar and Mishra 2010;Sahu and Sahu 2015), but also has morphological variations (Singh 2000;Singh et al. 2002;Mori et al. 2018). ...
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The particulate collection potential of tree species in a control and five experimental sites of an urban area in India were studied. Tree species selection was based on their commonness to all the sites, proximity to each location and their abundance in Indian subcontinent. A total of 45 leaf samples for all species in each site were analysed following standard protocols in three seasons (monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon) during 2015–2016. Out of the twenty one selected trees, eight were deciduous and thirteen evergreen. Particulate collection potential of deciduous trees was 22.6% more than that of evergreen trees. The leaf area showed direct relations, whereas petiole length and internodal distance showed antagonistic relations with particulate accumulation. The average particulate deposit on the leaves of trees of experimental sites (0.500 mg/cm²) was significantly more than that of the control site (0.358 mg/cm²). 80.95% of the species showed higher accumulation in the experimental sites against 19.04% of species in the control site. Distinct seasonality (p < 0.05) was noticed in respect of both parameters. Among the trees, Butea monosperma (1.156 mg/cm²), Tectona grandis (0.995 mg/cm²) and Diospyros melanoxylon (0.766 mg/cm²) had a high particulate deposit capacity with capturing efficiency of 48.44, 41.71 and 32.09%, respectively. On the basis of the study, it is advocated that tree species like B. monosperma, T. grandis and D. melanoxylon should be given top priority to function as barriers of particulate matter.
... Albezia lebbeck, Melia azedarach, Eucaliptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica L., Callistemon viminalis and Leucaena leucocephala are very poor Anticipated Performance Index of Tree Species in Islamabad Dalbergia sissoo was also found to sensitive towards air pollution (Pandit 2016). Rawat and Banerjee (1996) reported that there are tree mechanisms through which plants remove pollutants by absorption through leaves, deposition of pollutants and aerosol over leaf surface. ...
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There is ever increasing problem of air pollution in cities due to urbanization, industrialization, population growth and increased number of vehicles. Plants can play a vital role in mitigation of air pollution in urban areas. The present study was conducted to estimate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) for 21 different plant species used for green belt development along the roadsides in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. For APTI and API estimation, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, relative water content and pH of leaf extract of selected plant species were measured using standard methods. The results showed that Syzygium cumini L. (jaman), Pterospermum acerifolium (kanak champa) and Alstonia scholaris (devil tree) were the excellent performers. According to API and APTI values, these species were found effective in reducing air pollution and could be effective for green belt development in urban areas. Albezia lebbeck, Melia azedarach, Eucliptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica L., Callistemon viminalis and Leucaena leucocephala are very poor performers regarding air and noise abatement. These plants are very poor performers and are very sensitive plants to air pollution. These plants can be used as bio-indicators of poor urban air quality. © 2020, University of the Philippines Los Banos. All rights reserved.
... Moreover, sampling and analysis of these parameters are relatively easy and inexpensive. Trees act as a sink for air pollutants and thus reduce their concentration in the air especially in urban environments [22][23][24]. Dust interception capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy, and leaf external characteristics such as hairs, cuticle, leaf shape and size, texture, length of petioles, and canopy of trees etc., weather conditions and direction and speed of wind and anthropogenic activities [25][26][27]. In Libya, less attention has been given to morphological with chemical composition characteristics parameters of plants as indicators of long-term responses to changing habitat quality. ...
... Plants are the most important determinant of the survival of life on earth. Plants can reduce air pollution through absorption and accumulation of pollutants on the enormous surface of leaves Swami 2009, Rawat andBanerjee 1996). So, plants are the initial receptors of air pollution and serve as collectors of many air-bone particulates and pollutants (Liu and Ding 2008). ...
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Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of the mango (Mangifera indica) leaves growing in the greater Dhaka region, Bangladesh was studied. Leaf samples were collected in winter season from both roadsides and residential locations of different parts of greater Dhaka region. The APTI values of the leaves were calculated from the total chlorophyll content (TCC), ascorbic acid concentration, relative water content (RWC), and pH of the leaf extract. Determined APTI values were compared with Particulate Matter (PM2.5) values in each sampling location. TCC and ascorbic acid concentration were determined with a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. TCC values varied between 0.25 and 1.10 mg/g with an average of 0.66 mg/g. The average concentration of ascorbic acid was 2.21 mg/g (values ranging from 0.33 to 3.24 mg/g) and the RWC varied from 81.5% to 97.4%. Moreover, pH values of the leaf extracts were found acidic (4.48-5.78). The average APTI values varied depending on the locations with a total average of 10.1. However, the average APTI value in the residential area (10.5) was slightly higher compared to roadsides (9.70) indicating the existence of high-level pollutions at the roadsides. The highest APTI value was observed in Dhaka city sampling location (10.6) where the lowest value was found in Narayangonj (9.70). APTI values showed a strong correlation with particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). These results suggest that Mangifera indica is very sensitive to the air pollutants. J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2019, 5(1): 1-12
... In general, trees act as a sink for air pollutants and thereby can reduce the concentration of pollutants in the environment especially in urban regions (Woo and Je, 2006;Tiwari et al., 2006;Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). The deposition of quarries dust on plant surface depends on several factors including tree canopy, phyllotaxy, and leaf external characteristics such as hair density, leaf shape and length of petioles. ...
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To investigate the effects of quarries emissions on the leaf morpho-anatomy of Romi, Nabali and K18 olive cultivars in Taffouh village (Palestine), one set of olive cultivars of two-years old was cultivated close to quarries while the control set was cultivated almost 4 km from quarries. The morphology of six month-old leaves was examined. Leaf segments were fixed in compound fixative of formaldehyde, acetic acid and 70% ethanol (FAA). The segments were then embedded in Paraplast plus and 5 m thick sections were stained with safranin and fast green. A reduction in trichome density was evident for the three cultivars in response to exposure to quarries emission, with high density in the abaxial epidermis. Moreover, the abaxial epidermis of the three cultivars possessed elaborated and well-developed trichomes. The leaves of Romi cultivar exhibit increase in all leaf components except the adaxial epidermis while Nabali cultivar exhibited a reduction in all leaf components. Nevertheless, K18 cultivar exhibited a reduction only in palisade and spongy layers due to exposure to quarries pollutions. In conclusion, quarries emissions led to condensed palisade and spongy cells in all cultivars. In addition, Romi cultivar showed a variegated increase in all morpho-anatomical parameters concomitant with increased sclerophylly of leaves following their exposure to quarries emissions. This cultivar proved to be the most resistant to quarries stress which implies it is well suited for olive production.
... Dust interception capacity of plants depends on their surface geometry, phyllotaxy, and leaf external characteristics such as hairs, cuticle etc., height, and canopy of trees. Removal of pollutants by plants from air is by three means, namely absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols over leaf surfaces, and fallout of particulates on the leeward side of the vegetation because of the slowing of the air movement (Tewari, 1994; Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Leaf petioles are more effi cient particulate impactors than either twigs (stems) or leaf lamina (Ingold, 1971). ...
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To assess the dust interception efficiency of some selected tree species and impact of dust deposition on chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of leaves the present study was undertaken. The plant species selected for the study were Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Psidium guajava, and Dendrocalamus strictus. It was found that all species have maximum dust deposition in the winter season followed by summer and rainy seasons. Chlorophyll content decreased and ascorbic acid content increased with the increase of dust deposition. There was significant negative and positive correlation between dust deposition and chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, respectively. Maximum dust interception was done by Dalbergia sisso and least by Dendrocalamus strictus. Thus plants can be used to intercept dust particles which are of potential health hazards to humans.
... The present issue to combat against more complex air pollution is the development of effective greenbelt which soaks the dust particles, poisonous gases and finally attenuates the pollutant levels (Gupta et al. 2008). An effective greenbelt development minimizes air pollution by absorbing, sequestering, and translocating the different gaseous and particulate air pollutants without maximum foliar damage and provides available respirable O 2 to the environment (Sharma et al. 1994;Rawat and Banerjee 1996;Beckett et al. 1998;Brack 2002;Shannigrahi et al. 2003;Prajapati and Tripathi 2008). ...
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A plant is a living machine which reduces air pollution by absorbing particulate matter, gases, and metals through leaves. The main polluting substances, i.e., sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and heavy metals, cause damage to the surrounding ecosystem. In the present study, the air pollution tolerance index values of 36 plant species have been evaluated by analyzing three important biochemical parameters and one physiological parameter. The other biological and socioeconomic parameters of these plant species were also considered along with air pollution tolerance index values for calculating anticipated performance index under the influence of overall pollution stress. Based on these two indices, the most pollution-tolerant and economically valuable plant species have been identified for green belt development in and around an urban industrial area, Durgapur, West Bengal, India. It was revealed that Lagerstroemia speciosa (Jarul), Schleichera oleosa (Kusum), and Thespesia populnea (Pipal) would be the outstanding performers. There are many types of assessment categories which were estimated with respect to air pollution tolerance index and anticipated performance index.
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Air pollution tolerance index of the native plants were assessed to evaluate their response to tolerance level of pollution by analyzing four biochemical and physiological parameters namely relative water content, pH, total chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of twenty two plant species during the summer and monsoon seasons during 2016. On the basis of high air pollution tolerance indices the plant species Mangifera indica, Albeza lebbeck, Magnolia champaca, Psidium guajava, Bouganvillea spectabilis, Thespesia populnea and Terminalia catappa are grouped as tolerant. The species Bauhinia varigeta, Tecoma stanus, Tabemaemontana divaricate and Muntinga calabura with low air pollution tolerance indices are grouped as more sensitive to air pollution. The species with high air pollution tolerance index are given importance and suggested for plantation to enhance greenery and to minimize air pollution. This may be technically helpful for air pollution management in the industrial area.
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Dust pollution has become one of the major problems that impact unban environment. While urban vegetation plays an important role in improving the urban atmospheric environment. This study conducted a preliminary research on the dust-retention ability of 20 greening tree species, by field sampling investigating and laboratory analyzing. The 20 greening tree species in Tianjin Airport Economic Area, a new industrial zone of Tianjin, were taken as research object. The results of the study show that: (1) the dust-retention ability of shrubs is bigger than arbors; (2) the dust-retention ability per unit area of different tree species varies; (3) Among Arbors, the order of the dust-retention ability is Populus tomentosa> Sophora japonica> Paulownia tomentosa> Firmiana simplex> Platanus orientalis> Robinia pseudoacacia> Koelreuteria paniculata> Salix matsudana > Fraxinus chinensis; (4) Among shrubs, the order is Syzygium aromaticum> Kerria japonica> Sorbaria sorbifolia> Ligustrum obtusifolium> Malus micromalus> Prunus cistena> Hibiscus syriacus> Prunus cerasifera var. pissardi> Prunus cistena> Lonicera maackii (Rupr.)Maxim.> Sambucus racemosa> Cercis chinensis. The research provides a theoretical basis for choosing the tree species in reducing the atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin Airport Economic Area and the new industrial zone of northern China. In addition, the greening activity will be in favor of improving the ecological environment of the region.
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Green vegetation around industrial premises can provide a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique to mitigate air pollution. Sensitive and tolerant plant species can be identified by evaluating their air pollution tolerance index (APTI). APTI is deduced by evaluating the pH, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, and relative water content (RWC) of plant leaves. An APTI score of ≤11, 12-16, and ≥17 classifies the tree species as sensitive, intermediate, and tolerant towards air pollution respectively. The present study was designed to estimate the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of 25 plant species growing at Talkatora Industrial Area, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh, India. The biochemical properties of plant species ranged from; ascorbic acid: 0.6-19.6mg/g, RWC 41.34%-98.62%, pH4.5-8.2 and chlorophyll content 0.59-1.49mg/g. Findings revealed that among 25 plant species, Ficus bengalensis > Ficus religiosa > Eucalyptus globus > Azadirachta indica juss > Heveabra brasiliensis are tolerant towards air pollution; whereas, Polythalia longifolia was found to be most sensitive. In addition, the dust capturing potential of the plant leaves has also been evaluated. Moringa oleifera leaves were found to have the highest dust capturing potential (5.7mg/cm²), whereas, the lowest was noticed in Acacia nilotica (0.10mg/cm²). Pearson correlation of biochemical parameters revealed that ascorbic acid showed significant correlation (R² =0.897) with APTI. The species having <11 APTI values may be used as a bio-indicator of air quality, while those having APTI ≥17 can be used for green belt designing.
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Urban air pollution due to industrial emissions and vehicular emission due to automobiles have aggravated the problem of environmental pollution. Plants are known to act as sink for air pollutants. Planting of trees and shrubs in the form of greenbelt around the industry is an effective way for abatement of pollution and improvement of environment and is well recognized throughout the world. This article provides a brief review of the history and evolution of work on greenbelt development for pollution attenuation in an industry. It also reviews work on different aspects of greenbelt design and selection of plant species, which can be grown around industrial/urban areas in India. A reported case study carried out at petroleum refinery is discussed. At this plant, green belt of 500m width was found to be 36-40% efficient in removal of SO 2, NOx & SPM and 84-94% efficient in removal of THC, VOC & CO. The future line of work is suggested for collecting data on the potential of greenbelts in attenuating the pollutants.
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In this chapter, we discuss the global paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes focusing on their causes and consequences. Two main processes can yield the climatic changes; the earth’s internal processes and the extraterrestrial impacts. Both of them have a strong effect on the earth’s system. The paleoclimatic change is well preserved in the earth’s sedimentary record and can be reviled by using multidisciplinary studies including mineralogy, geochemistry, and the fossil contents. Egypt is a key area of one of the most pronounced climatic changes that occurred in the earth’s geologic history; the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) that used recently as analog for the current warming.
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The article draws attention towards the importance ofgreenbelts in attenuating gaseous pollutants andpresents the meteorological, physico-chemical,biological, and horticultural dimensions associatedwith effective greenbelt design.We have presented the gist of a system ofmethodologies, developed by us, for greenbelt design. A case study demonstrating the applicability of thesystem has been presented.
Chapter
Measures to combat climate change encompass two primary titles: removal of the maximum greenhouse effective gases and decreasing causes of greenhouse gas emissions. The direct greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. Nitrous oxide is approximately 300 and methane around 30 times than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the atmosphere. Climate change affects and is affected by all communities, but its treatment must begin with the actions of individuals. Trees in the urban area strongly reduce pedestrian level heat stress by absorbing and reflecting solar irradiance. Vegetation in gardens is one of the most important components affecting climate change. Urban gardening, mainly consist of trees resource, is a valuable asset. Trees’ benefits to the human being were most pronounced in their contribution to environmental benefits. Thus, plants in gardens were found to provide a particularly important function in mitigating climate change and maintaining environmental quality of communities. Gardeners can help lessen the global warming pollutants associated with waste disposal by turning leaves, grass, woody garden clippings, and dead garden waste into mulch or compost, then using it in the garden. Recycling these wastes will not only reduce methane emissions from landfills but also improve garden’s soil and help it store carbon. One of the innovative methods that reduces greenhouse gases emissions is to make and use biochar. Because nitrous oxides is an important greenhouse gas, better management of nitrogen fertilizers can reduce its emissions. The four main management factors that help reduce nitrous oxide emissions from applied nitrogen fertilizer are commonly known as the 4R’s: right application rate; right formulation (fertilizer type); right timing of application; right placement at the plant’s root zone as possible. So, selecting right plants for urban gardens have a potential to influence Earth’s climate by altering regional and global circulation patterns and changing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Also, it is important to deal with the soil to minimize the harmful impact it could cause to the environment. Planting appropriate tree species near industrial complexes is critical for aesthetic value and gases mitigation.
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The particulate pollution has always been a matter of great concern because of its adverse effect on human and plant population. In the present global environmental scenario, this problem has become increasingly severe. The particulates and gaseous pollutants, alone and in combination, can cause serious setbacks to the overall physiology of plants. Results from numerous investigations of human respiratory and other diseases have shown a consistent statistical association between human exposures to the outdoor levels of particulates or dust and adverse health impacts. These hazards are more pronounced in the vicinity of industries where these particles become air-borne and inhalable. Research has shown that plant leaves being the main receptor of particulate pollution can act as biological filters, removing large quantities of particles from the urban atmosphere. This physical trait can be used to determine the level of particulate pollution in the surroundings, as well as the ability of individual plant species to intercept and mitigate particulate pollutants. In the present study, fifteen plant species (11 trees and 4 shrubs) growing around the Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) area were selected. Particulate or dust load on leaf surfaces and leaf surface morphology as a measure of dust trapping ability of leaves were analysed. The plant species such as Alstonia scholaris, Anthocephalus indicus, Cassia auriculata, Cassia siamea, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mimusops elengi, Peltophorum inerme and Tabebuia aurea were found to have high dust capturing capacity; Albizia lebbeck, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Ficus religiosa, Swietenia mahagoni and Thevetia nerifolia have medium, while species such as Caesalpinea pulcherima and Delonix regia have low dust capturing capacity. Results also indicate that leaf surface morphology greatly determines the dust trapping capacity of a particular plant species.
Chapter
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Urbanization and industrialization processes contribute significant amount of various air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, CO, particulate matter, etc. These pollutants affect plant health and emit various forms of SO2, NOx, and O3 which may act in combination of a variety of ways: additive, synergistic, and antagonistic. These pollutants can have a deleterious effect on a variety of biochemical and physiological processes and on the structural organization within the cells. Certain plant species are very sensitive to these pollutants resulting in well visible and measurable symptoms. Morphological damage is generally visible through lesions on the leaves, flowers, and fruits while biochemical and physiological changes which are invisible can be measured and quantified. In this chapter, biochemical effects on plants have been described. These symptoms can be used as indicators of air pollution stress for its early diagnosis and can be used as markers for a particular physiological disorder.
Chapter
Phytoremediation is an environment friendly and sustainable way of restoration of contaminated land from trace metals, pesticides and other industrial dangerous pollutants. This technique distinguishes a different mechanism for reduction of environmental pollution from industrial waste. The variety of plants grown in contaminated areas has efficiency to develop a metabolism in various parts (leaf, stem, roots) for the phytoremediation of heavy metals and pesticides. The use of transgenic plants promotes the phytoremediation technology for the improvement of remediation in contaminated areas. The concept of using green plants for phytoremediation enhances the potential of soil for restoration and in achieving UN‐SDGs. The traditional methods have various side effects and loopholes. Thus, the chapter provides the techniques used in the application of phytoremediation and sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated areas. In order to increase the phytoremediation potential, further research is needed in contaminated areas where industrial waste is dumped.
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