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New state record and geographic distribution map of Rhinella inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo & Pombal, 2012 (Anura: Bufonidae)

Authors:
  • Instituto Nacional da Mata Atlântica - INMA

Abstract and Figures

We provide the first record of Rhinella inopina in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, in municipalities of Bonito de Minas and Januária. It is also the species southernmost record, extending its known geographic distribution in about 170 and 210 km respectively southeastward its closest previously record, in municipality of Sítio d ́Abadia, State of Goiás, Central Brazil.
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395
Journal of species lists and distribution
Chec List
No te s o N GeoGraphic DistributioN
Check List 10(2): 395–396, 2014
© 2014 Check List and Authors
ISSN 1809-127X (available at www.checklist.org.br)
The Rhinella crucifer
      
et al.
      
Rhinella abei     
R. crucifer  R. henseli 
R. inopina      R. ornata
   R. pombali   
R. crucifer     
      
      
et al.et
al. 
         

species R. henseli  R inopina   
et al.
Rhinella inopina    
    
   

   
        
         
    R. crucifer    
   
  et al.
  R. inopina
  



        Rhinella
inopina      
      
     
      
      
Abstract:Rhinella inopina



 
 
 larissaf.arruda@gmail.com
*


Rhinella inopina

         


 

     
Rhinella pombali
 R. inopinaet al.
R. crucifer
   

Figure 1.   Rhinella inopina  
 Rhinella pombali         

in R. inopina
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Arruda et al. | Rhinella inopina in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Acknowledgments:
  
     
 
        

Literature Cited
    
Bufo crucifer
 Arquivos do Museu Nacional

Bufo
         
Copeia

História Natural da Serra do Japi:
Ecologia e Preservação de uma Área Florestal no Sudeste do Brasil.

   Rhinella
inopina
      
ca
      

R. inopina

  

Figure 2. Rhinella inopina   

et al.
        
  
 
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

        
BMC Evolutionary Biology
           
 Rhinella crucifer      
Zootaxa




... With an extensive geographical distribution (Thomé et al. 2012;Frost, 2014), the species of Rhinella crucifer group occur in the Atlantic rainforest, Cerrado and transitional areas between these domains (Baldissera et al. 2004;Thomé et al. 2010;Arruda et al. 2014). Rhinella inopina (Fig. 1A) was recently described, occurring in Seasonal Tropical Dry Forests enclaves of the northeastern of Cerrado domain within the limits of the States of Goiás, Tocantins and Bahia in Brazil. ...
... Rhinella inopina (Fig. 1A) was recently described, occurring in Seasonal Tropical Dry Forests enclaves of the northeastern of Cerrado domain within the limits of the States of Goiás, Tocantins and Bahia in Brazil. More recently this species was recorded in the northwest Minas Gerais state, in Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, municipality of Januária and in the Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Pandeiros, municipality of Bonito de Minas, both inside the Cerrado biome (Arruda et al. 2014). Information on advertisement calls is available for R. ornata, R. pombali, and R. crucifer (Heyer et al. 1990, where the call described as Bufo crucifer represents R. ornata; Lourenço et al. 2010;Oliveira et al. 2014). ...
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The Rhinella crucifer species group currently comprises six species of toads: R. abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004); R. crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821); R. henseli (A. Lutz, 1934); R. ornata (Spix, 1824); R. pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004); and, R. inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo & Pombal, 2012. Recent genetic studies suggest five species in the R. crucifer species group and show evidence of hybridization between R. crucifer and R. ornata (Thomé et al. 2012).
... Distribution: These species are distributed mainly along the Atlantic Forest region, except R . inopina, which inhabits the Cerrado region (Baldissera et al., 2004;Thomé et al., 2010;Arruda et al., 2014;Roberto et al., 2014). See map 4 (available at https://doi.org/10.5531/sd. ...
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True toads of the genus Rhinella are among the most common and diverse group of Neotropical anurans. These toads are widely distributed throughout South America, inhabiting a great diversity of environments and ecoregions. Currently, however, the genus is defined solely on the basis of molecular characters, and it lacks a proper diagnosis. Although some phenetic species groups have traditionally been recognized within Rhinella, the monophyly of some of them have been rejected in previous phylogenetic analyses, and many species remain unassigned to these poorly defined groups. Additionally, the identity and taxonomy of several species are problematic and hinder the specific recognition and description of undescribed taxa. In this work, we first perform phylogenetic analyses of separate mitochondrial and nuclear datasets to test the possible occurrence of hybridization and/or genetic introgression in the genus. The comparative analysis of both datasets revealed unidirectional mitochondrial introgressions of an unknown parental species into R. horribilis (“ghost introgression”) and of R. dorbignyi into R. bernardoi; therefore, the mitochondrial and nuclear datasets of these species were considered separately in subsequent analyses. We performed total-evidence phylogenetic analyses that included revised molecular (four mitochondrial and five nuclear genes) and phenotypic (90 characters) datasets for 83 nominal species of Rhinella, plus several undescribed and problematic species and multiple outgroups. Results demonstrate that Rhinella was nonmonophyletic due to the position of R. ceratophrys, which was recovered as the sister taxon of Rhaebo nasicus with strong support. Among our outgroups, the strongly supported Anaxyrus + Incilius is the sister clade of all other species of Rhinella. Once R. ceratophrys is excluded, the genus Rhinella is monophyletic, well supported, and composed of two major clades. One of these is moderately supported and includes species of the former R. spinulosa Group (including R. gallardoi); the monophyletic R. granulosa, R. crucifer, and R. marina Groups; and a clade composed of the mitochondrial sequences of R. horribilis. The other major clade is strongly supported and composed of all the species from the non-monophyletic R. veraguensis and R. margaritifera Groups, the former R. acrolopha Group, and R. sternosignata. Consistent with these results, we define eight species groups of Rhinella that are mostly diagnosed by phenotypic synapomorphies in addition to a combination of morphological character states. Rhinella sternosignata is the only species that remains unassigned to any group. We also synonymize nine species, treat three former subspecies as full species, and suggest that 15 lineages represent putative undescribed species. Lastly, we discuss the apparently frequent occurrence of hybridization, deep mitochondrial divergence, and “ghost introgression”; the incomplete phenotypic evidence (including putative character systems that could be used for future phylogenetic analyses); and the validity of the known fossil record of Rhinella as a source of calibration points for divergence dating analyses.
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The Bufo crucifer species group is revised on the basis of external morphological and morphometrical characteristics, evidencing variation in size, shape of the parotoid gland, width of the head, cranial crests, and presence or absence of yellow spots near the cloaca and hind limbs. Five species are recognized: B. crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1821, B. ornatus Spix, 1824 (revalidated), B. henseli A.Lutz, 1934 (revalidated), B. abei sp.nov., and B. pombali sp.nov. The geographic distribution of the species is associated with the Atlantic Rain Forest and adjacent areas: B. crucifer occurs from the State of Ceará to southern State of Espírito Santo and northeastern State of Minas Gerais; B. ornatus is distributed from southern State of Espírito Santo, through the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to northern State of Paraná, and possibly in northeastern Argentina, in the provinces Misiones and Corrientes; B. henseli is found from southern State of Santa Catarina to the coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul; B. abei sp.nov., described from Córrego Grande, Municipality of Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, is distributed from the State of Paraná to southern State of Santa Catarina and areas of the northern State of Rio Grande do Sul; and B. pombali sp.nov., described from the Reserva Biológica de Peti, Municipality of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, State of Minas Gerais, occurs in transitional areas between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the “cerrados” in the State of Minas Gerais. Additionally, Bufo crucifer var. pfrimeri Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, currently in the synonymy of B. crucifer, is transfered to the synonymy of Bufo guttatus Schneider, 1799. Bufo levicristatus Boettger, 1885 is considered a species inquirenda and removed from the synonymy of any species included in the B. crucifer group. Bufo spixii Fitzinger, 1826 is transfered from the synonymy of Bufo margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768) to the synonymy of Bufo ornatus Spix, 1824.
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Background Delimiting genetic units is useful to enhance taxonomic discovery and is often the first step toward understanding evolutionary mechanisms generating diversification. The six species within the Rhinella crucifer group of toads were defined under morphological criteria alone. Previous data suggest limited correspondence of these species to mitochondrial lineages, and morphological intergradation at transitions between forms suggests hybridization. Here we extensively sampled populations throughout the geographic distribution of the group and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to delimit genetic units using tree–based and allele frequency–based approaches. Results These approaches yielded complementary results, with allele frequency-based methods performing unexpectedly well given the limited number of loci examined. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported a genetic structure of five units within the group, with three of the inferred units distributed within its main range, while two other units occur in separate isolates. The inferred units are mostly discordant with currently described forms: unequivocal association exists for only two of the six species in the group. Genetic evidence for hybridization exists for two pairs of units, with clear cyto–nuclear allele mixing observed in one case. Conclusions Our results confirmed that current taxonomy does not represent evolutionary units in the Rhinella crucifer group. Correspondence between genetically distinguishable units and the currently recognized species is only possible for Rhinella henseli and R. inopina. The recognition of other species relies on the reassessment of the geographic range of R. crucifer, the examination of the type series of R. ornata for hybrids, and on the use of additional markers to verify the genetic distinctiveness of R. abei. We state that R. pombali should not remain a valid species since its description appears to be based on hybrids, and that the name R. pombali should be considered a synonym of both R. crucifer and R. ornata. The fifth inferred but undescribed genetic unit may represent a new species. Our results underscore the potential of the R. crucifer species group to contribute to a better understanding of diversification processes and hybridization patterns in the Neotropics, and provide the basis for future evolutionary and taxonomic studies.
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A new species of Rhinella of Central Brazil from the Rhinella crucifer group is described. Rhinella inopina sp. nov. is restricted to the disjunct Seasonal Tropical Dry Forests enclaves in the western Cerrado biome. The new species is characterized mainly by head wider than long, shape of parotoid gland, and oblique arrangement of the parotoid gland. Data on natural history and distribution are also presented.
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A new species of arboreal toad, Bufo arborescandens, is from the forested slopes of the Cordillera Central in northern Peru. It lacks cranial crests, tympana, and tarsal folds; an adult male has a cluster of keratinous spines on the thumb. This small toad is placed in the Bufo veraguensis group, for which a key to the species and summary of distributions are provided. Of the 51 species of Bufo recognized in South America, 45 are allocated to eight phenetically defined groups. /// Se describe una nueva especie de sapo arbóreo, Bufo arborescandens, de las laderas boscosas de la Cordillera Central en el norte peruano. Esta especie carece de crestas craneales, tímpano, y pliegues tarsales. Un macho adulto tiene un grupo de espinas queratinizadas en el pulgar. Este pequeño sapo se incluye en el grupo Bufo veraguensis, para el cual se provee una clave de identificación y un resumen de las distribuciones de las especies. De las 51 especies de Bufo reconocidas de Suramérica, 45 especies se asignan a ocho grupos que se los define fenéticamente.
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The Plio-Pleistocene refugia hypothesis recently gained support in explaining Brazilian Atlantic Forest megadiversity from combined analyses of species paleodistributions and genetic diversity. Here we examine genetic differentiation and historical distributions in the Rhinella crucifer group of toads, endemic to and widely distributed within this biome. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial (control region, ND1, and ND2) and nuclear (beta-crystallin and rhodopsin) DNA markers from 65 individuals representing five species. We found deep structure across the range at mitochondrial markers; genetic diversity is geographically structured in four main haplotype clades with the oldest divergence, dated to the Pliocene, between the southernmost populations and other regions of the species' range. Remaining populations are distributed in haplotype clades that may have diverged throughout the Pleistocene. Our paleoecological distribution models support a scenario of habitat fragmentation associated with glacial cycling, but we found limited congruence of phylogeographic patterns with the refugia. We found that some genetic breaks geographically coincide with putative barriers associated to neotectonic activity, but finer-scale sampling will be necessary to test the relative importance of distinct isolation mechanisms. Overall, the data refute the recently proposed hypothesis of a southern Holocene colonization of the Atlantic Forest from northern refugia, suggesting instead persistence of forested habitats in the south. Our unexpected results underscore the need to consider distinct organismal histories in planning biome-level conservation. We discuss species correspondence to clades recovered in our phylogenetic analyses.